The Asian World 400-1500 China Sui Dynasty - The fall of the Han Dynasty had left

a power vacuum filled by small kingdoms - Between 581- 618 the Sui reunified China - Reestablished Confucianism - Improved the Great Wall - Built a 1,100 mile canal linking the Yellow and Yangtze rivers (north – south) Tang Dynasty - in 618 the Li family ended the Sui rule - Buddhism was very strong and clashed with Confucianism - Expanded Chinese influence and power - Overextended itself - Huang Chao Rebellion 879-881 - Ended in 907 and was succeeded by a set of smaller kingdom Tang Dynasty Achievements - combined crossbow and armored infantry with central Asian horsemanship and iron stirrups – most formidable army 750-750 - Chang-an was the hug of econ, culture, and comm. – 1 mill ppl - famous for compass and shipbuilding - influenced by central Asia and Islamic World - first complete book published 868 Wu Zhao - Daughter a Chinese General - Seized control in 690 – declared herself emperor - Conflict between Buddhist and Confucianist helped her gain - Ruled until 705 - Confucian historians describe her as powerful and evil Song Dynasty - ruled from 960- 1279 - period of economic prosperity and cultural achievement - moved imperial court to hang Zhou (south) - 1200’s Mongols fighting in the north - Eventually the Mongols controlled all of China Song dynasty – Technology - Began making steel - Intro of cotton allowed new clothes - Gun powder was invented - Created fire- lance – primitive flamethrower - Long distance trade returned – silk road Yuan Empire – Beginnings - Kublai Khan took control of China in 1279 - Made Beijing the capital - Destroyed all the regional regimes and created a unified China - Organized China into Provinces - Many cities prospered - Trade was revitalized Yuan Empire – Culture - status determined by ancestors - Mongols – central Asians/ middle easterners – N. Chinese – s. Chinese - Merchants prospered - Farmers(90%) of popl did poor - Knowledge was shared- medical, math, astronomical, engineering - China lost 40% of popl - Could have been from fighting before the Mongols won

- Yellow river flooded - Bubonic Plague Yuan Empire – The End - by the 1340’s power contests among Mongol princes had destroyed unity - by the 1360’s local farmers were rising up in rebellion - a charismatic leader named Zhu Younzhang was able to unify China and destroy the Yuan Empire – 1368 Ming Dynasty – Overview - Zhu took the name Ming Hong Wu - Established Nanjing as new capital - Ended the close relationship between China and Central Asia - Closed down the border to Foreigners - Tried to eradicate paper money - Government resembled the Yuan Ming Dynasty – Change - Yongle an imperial prince staged a coup - Ruled from 1403 – 1434 - Capital moved back to Beijing - Opened up trade - Sent a trusted eunuch Zheng He to explore the area – made it to Africa - Took control of Annam Ming Dynasty – Culture - korea, Japan, and Europe began to over come China’s technology - culture of the period was brilliant o literature, painting and other decorative arts o water margin – one of the earliest nobels - best known for porcelain – blue on white Overview - Large federations of nomads dominated the steppes and desert of Central Asia - Nomadism – way of life due to scarce resources - Warfare common – scarce resources - Every man was a herdsman, hunter, and warrior - Slavery occurred because of scarce resources Politics - the khan was always required to have his decisions ratified by council leaders - weak groups could secure land rights and protection by tributes of slaves , livestock, weapons , silk, etc, - powerful groups could live off tributes - federations arose based on increasing number of alliances Warfare - tended to win against superior numbers - superb riders – placed infants on goats - good at shooting from a galloping horse - Mongol bow could shoot further o destroyed enemy marksmen from a distance o then road the horses into the infant - used catapults against cities - city residents faced immediate slaughter If they opened the gates to fight or slow starvation then slaughter if they did not open the gate - the Mongols did offer food, shelter and protection if the city surrendered - the terrible bloodbaths in the earlier battles made surrender seem appealing Trade - iron was the most important trade item o other items important items cotton, silk, vegetables and grains - trade through the Mongol held territories was controlled and protected

- passports to travel were used - trade also brought diseases – bubonic plague, typhus, influenza, and small pox Genghis Khan - took the title of “great khan’ in 1206 - began a war on the kingdoms around him - died in 1227 - his strategy o if you want to retain your possession and conquer your enemies, you must take your subjects submit willingly and united your diverse energies to a single end Great Khans - Genghis’ son Ogodei became Great Khan continued his campaign against China - Genghis’ grandson Batu took control of Moscow, kiev Russia, Poland, Hungry and was ready to attack central Europe - Ogodei died in 1241 (new council meeting) - Genghis’ grandson Guyuk became the Great Khan. - Another of Genghis’ grandson Khublai Khan dedicated himself Great Khan in 1265 - He was not followed so he founded the Yuan Dynasty Golden Horde - 1260 the leader of the Golden declared himself Muslim - He announced his intention of avenging the Caliph murder by Mongols in 1258 - Also claimed that area between the black and caspain seas - The area was also claimed by the II-Khan which lead to war II-Khan - In 1295 the Il khan ruler Ghazan declared himself Muslim - During the next few decades both the Il khan and they golden horde promoted Islam - Sold tax collecting contract in their areas to extract wealth Japan – Consolidating Power - a chain of many islands – concentrated in 4 islands – 146,000 sq.mi. (Montana) - ruled by many clans - eventually the Yamato clan achieved supremacy - had samurai to protect the leaders - Shogun - ate (military leader) took the real power – emperor still ruled the name Japan – Disintegration - the power of local leaders (daimyo) grew and the central power disappeared - by 1500 Japan was close to Chaos - Local leaders ruled as independent lords in lived in constant warfare Korea - Peninsula slightly larger than Minnesota - Controlled by the Chinese in 109 BCE - Drove the Chinese out in the 3rd century - Three kingdoms emerged - The Mongols took power in the 13th century - In the 1392 the Mongols were kicked out and the yi dynasty was created Other Areas - India – controlled by the Mongols - Cietnam (Annam) conquered by china 111 BCE independent in 939 - Thailand became a force in the are in the 15th century - Burma- came into power in the 11th-13th century