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Formulas in Solid Mechanics

Tore Dahlberg
Solid Mechanics/IKP, Linkping University
Linkping, Sweden
This collection of formulas is intended for use by foreign students in the course TMHL61,
Damage Mechanics and Life Analysis, as a complement to the textbook Dahlberg and
Ekberg: Failure, Fracture, Fatigue - An Introduction, Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden, 2002.
It may be use at examinations in this course.
Contents Page
1. Definitions and notations 1
2. Stress, Strain, and Material Relations 2
3. Geometric Properties of Cross-Sectional Area 3
4. One-Dimensional Bodies (bars, axles, beams) 5
5. Bending of Beam Elementary Cases 11
6. Material Fatigue 14
7. Multi-Axial Stress States 17
8. Energy Methods the Castigliano Theorem 20
9. Stress Concentration 21
10. Material data 25
Version 03-09-18
1. Definitions and notations
Definition of coordinate system and loadings on beam
Loaded beam, length L, cross section A, and load q(x), with coordinate system (origin at the
geometric centre of cross section) and positive section forces and moments: normal force N,
shear forces T
y
and T
z
, torque M
x
, and bending moments M
y
, M
z
Notations
Quantity Symbol SI Unit
Coordinate directions, with origin at geometric centre of x, y, z m
cross-sectional area A
Normal stress in direction i (= x, y, z)
i
N/m
2
Shear stress in direction j on surface with normal direction i
ij
N/m
2
Normal strain in direction i
i
Shear strain (corresponding to shear stress
ij
)
ij
rad
Moment with respect to axis i M, M
i
Nm
Normal force N, P N (= kg m/s
2
)
Shear force in direction i (= y, z) T, T
i
N
Load q(x) N/m
Cross-sectional area A m
2
Length L, L
0
m
Change of length m
Displacement in direction x u, u(x), u(x,y) m
Displacement in direction y v, v(x), v(x,y) m
Beam deflection w(x) m
Second moment of area (i = y, z) I, I
i
m
4
Modulus of elasticity (Youngs modulus) E N/m
2
Poissons ratio
Shear modulus G N/m
2
Bulk modulus K N/m
2
Temperature coefficient
x
y
z
T
T
M
M
N
y
z
y
z
x
M
T
z
M
z
M
y
N
x
M
T
y
L
A
q x ( )
K
1
1
2. Stress, Strain, and Material Relations
Normal stress
x
N = fraction of normal force N
A = cross-sectional area element
Shear stress
xy
(mean value over area A in the y direction)
Normal strain
x
Linear, at small deformations ( << L
0
)
= change of length
L
0
= original length
u(x) = displacement
Non-linear, at large deformations
L = actual length (L = L
0
+ )
Shear strain
xy
Linear elastic material (Hookes law)
Tension/compression
T = change of temperatur
Lateral strain
Shear strain
Relationships between G, K, E and

x

N
A
or
x
lim
A 0

N
A
_

xy

T
y
A
(
mean
)

x


L
0
or
x

du(x)
dx

x
ln

L
L
0
_

xy

u(x, y)
y
+
v(x, y)
x

x


x
E
+ T

y

x

xy


xy
G
G
E
2 ( 1 + )
K
E
3 ( 1 2 )
2
3. Geometric Properties of Cross-Sectional Area
The origin of the coordinate system Oyz is
at the geometric centre of the cross section
Cross-sectional area A
dA = area element
Geometric centre (centroid)
e =
gc
= distance from axis to geometric
centre
f =
gc
distance from axis to geometric
centre
First moment of area
A = the sheared area (part of area A)
Second moment of area
I
y
= second moment of area with respect to
the y axis
I
z
= second moment of area with respect to
the z axis
I
yz
= second moment of area with respect to
the y and z axes
Parallel-axis theorems
First moment of area
Second moment of area
O
y
z
e
f
dA
A

A
dA
e A

A
dA
f A

A
dA
S
y

A
zdA and S
z

A
ydA
I
y

A
z
2
dA
I
z

A
y
2
dA
I
yz

A
yzdA
S

A
(z + e) dA eA and S

A
(y + f) dA fA
I

A
(z + e)
2
dA I
y
+ e
2
A , I

A
(y + f)
2
dA I
z
+ f
2
A ,
I

A
(z + e) (y + f) dA I
yz
+ ef A
3
Rotation of axes
Coordinate system has been rotated
the angle with respect to the coordinate
system Oyz
Principal moments of area
I
1
+ I
2
= I
y
+ I
z
Principal axes
A line of symmetry is always a principal
axis
Second moment of area with respect to axes through geometric centre for some
symmetric areas (beam cross sections)
Rectangular area, base B, height H
Solid circular area, diameter D
Thick-walled circular tube, diameters D
and d
y
z
z
y
dA
I

2
dA I
y
cos
2
+ I
z
sin
2
2I
yz
sin cos
I

2
dA I
y
sin
2
+ I
z
cos
2
+ 2I
yz
sin cos
I

A
dA (I
y
I
z
) sin cos + I
yz
(cos
2
sin
2
)
I
y
I
z
2
sin2 + I
yz
cos 2
I
1, 2

I
y
+ I
z
2
t R where R

I
y
I
z
2
_

,
2
+ I
yz
2
sin 2
I
yz
R
or cos 2
I
y
I
z
2R
y
z
H
B
I
y

BH
3
12
and I
z

HB
3
12
y
z
D
I
y
I
z

D
4
64
y
z
D d
I
y
I
z


64
( D
4
d
4
)
4
Thin-walled circular tube, radius R and
wall thickness t (t << R)
Triangular area, base B and height H
Hexagonal area, side length a
Elliptical area, major axis 2a and minor
axis 2b
Half circle, radius a (geometric centre at e)
4. One-Dimensional Bodies (bars, axles, beams)
Tension/compression of bar
Change of length
N, E, and A are constant along bar
L = length of bar
N(x), E(x), and A(x) may vary along bar
Torsion of axle
Maximum shear stress
M
v
= torque = M
x
W
v
= section modulus in torsion (given
below)
Torsion (deformation) angle
M
v
= torque = M
x
K
v
= section factor of torsional stiffness
(given below)
y
z
R
t
I
y
I
z
R
3
t
y
z
H
2 B/ 2 B/
I
y

BH
3
36
and I
z

HB
3
48
y
z
a
a
a
a
a
I
y
I
z

5

3
16
a
4
y
z
2a
b 2
I
y

ab
3
4
and I
z

ba
3
4
y
z
a
e
I
y

8

8
9
_

,
a
4
0, 110 a
4
and e
4a
3

NL
EA
or

0
L
(x)dx

0
L
N(x)
E(x)A(x)
dx

max

M
v
W
v

M
v
L
GK
v
5
Section modulus W
v
and section factor K
v
for some cross sections (at torsion)
Torsion of thin-walled circular tube, radius
R, thickness t, where t << R,
Thin-walled tube of arbitrary cross section
A = area enclosed by the tube
t(s) = wall thickness
s = coordinate around the tube
Thick-walled circular tube, diameters D
and d,
Solid axle with circular cross section,
diameter D,
Solid axle with triangular cross section,
side length a
Solid axle with elliptical cross section,
major axle 2a and minor axle 2b
Solid axle with rectangular cross section b
by a, where b a
for k
Wv
and k
Kv
, see table below
y
z
R
t
W
v
2R
2
t K
v
2R
3
t
t(s)
(s)
A Area
s
W
v
2At
min
K
v

4A
2

s
[t(s)]
1
ds
y
z
D d
W
v


16
D
4
d
4
D
K
v


32
(D
4
d
4
)
y
z
D
W
v

D
3
16
K
v

D
4
32
y
z
a
/ 2 a / 2 a
W
v

a
3
20
K
v

a
4

3
80
y
z
2a
b 2
W
v


2
a b
2
K
v

a
3
b
3
a
2
+ b
2
y
z
a
b
W
v
k
Wv
a
2
b K
v
k
Kv
a
3
b
6
Factors k
Wv
and k
Kv
for some values of ratio b / a (solid rectangular cross section)
b

/

a k
Wv
k
Kv
1.0 0.208 0.1406
1.2 0.219 0.1661
1.5 0.231 0.1958
2.0 0.246 0.229
2.5 0.258 0.249
3.0 0.267 0.263
4.0 0.282 0.281
5.0 0.291 0.291
10.0 0.312 0.312
0.333 0.333
Bending of beam
Relationships between bending moment M
y
= M(x), shear force T
z
= T(x), and load q(x) on
beam
Normal stress
I (here I
y
) = second moment of area (see
Section 12.2)
Maximum bending stress
W
b
= section modulus (in bending)
Shear stress
S
A
= first moment of area A (see Section
12.2)
b = length of line limiting area A

gc
= shear stress at geometric centre
= the Jouravski factor
The Jouravski factor for some cross sections
rectangular 1.5
triangular 1.33
circular 1.33
thin-walled circular 2.0
elliptical 1.33
ideal I profile A

/

A
web

dT(x)
dx
q(x) ,
dM(x)
dx
T(x) , and
d
2
M(x)
dx
2
q(x)

N
A
+
Mz
I

max

M
W
b
where W
b

I
z
max

TS
A
Ib

gc

T
A
7
Skew bending
Axes y and z are not principal axes:
I
y
, I
z
, I
yz
= second moment of area
Axes y and z are principal axes:
I
1
, I
2
= principal second moment of area
Beam deflection w(x)
Differential equations
when EI(x) is function of x
when EI is constant
Homogeneous boundary conditions
Clamped beam end
where * is the coordinate of beam end
(to be entered after differentiation)
Simply supported beam end
Sliding beam end
Free beam end

N
A
+
M
y
(zI
z
yI
yz
) M
z
(yI
y
zI
yz
)
I
y
I
z
I
yz
2

N
A
+
M
1
z
I
1

M
2
y
I
2
d
2
dx
2

'

EI(x)
d
2
dx
2
w(x)

q(x)
EI
d
4
dx
4
w(x) q(x)
x x=L
w(*) 0 and
d
dx
w(*) 0
x x=L
w(*) 0 and EI
d
2
dx
2
w(*) 0
x x=L
d
dx
w(*) 0 and EI
d
3
dx
3
w(*) 0
x x=L
EI
d
2
dx
2
w(*) 0 and EI
d
3
dx
3
w(*) 0
8
Non-homogeneous boundary conditions
(a) Displacement prescribed
(b) Slope prescribed
(c) Moment M
0
prescribed
(d) Force P prescribed
Beam on elastic bed
Differential equation
EI = constant bending stiffness
k = bed modulus (N/m
2
)
Solution
Boundary conditions as given above
Beam vibration
Differential equation
EI = constant bending stiffness
m = beam mass per metre (kg/m)
t = time
Assume solution w(x,t) = X(x)T(t). Then the standing wave solution is
where
4
=
2
m

/EI
Boundary conditions (as given above) give an eigenvalue problem that provides the
eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes (eigenforms) of the vibrating beam
w(*)
x x=L
x
x=L
O
z
O
0 0
M M
x x=L
P P
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
d
dx
w(*)
EI
d
2
dx
2
w(*) M
0
EI
d
3
dx
3
w(*) P
EI
d
4
dx
4
w(x) + kw(x) q(x)
w(x) w
part
(x) + w
hom
(x) where
w
hom
(x) {C
1
cos (x) + C
2
sin (x)} e
x
+ {C
3
cos (x) + C
2
sin (x)} e
x
;
4

k
4EI
EI

4
x
4
w(x, t) + m

2
t
2
w(x, t) q(x, t)
T(t) e
i t
and X(x) C
1
cosh (x) + C
2
cos (x) + C
3
sinh (x) + C
4
sin (x)
9
Axially loaded beam, stability, the Euler cases
Beam axially loaded in tension
Differential equation
N = normal force in tension (N > 0)
Solution
New boundary condition on shear force (other boundary conditions as given above)
Beam axially loaded in compression
Differential equation
P = normal force in compression (P > 0)
Solution
New boundary condition on shear force (other boundary conditions as given above)
Elementary cases: the Euler cases (P
c
is critical load)
Case 1 Case 2a Case 2b Case 3 Case 4
EI
d
4
dx
4
w(x) N
d
2
dx
2
w(x) q(x)
w(x) w
part
(x) + w
hom
(x) where
w
hom
(x) C
1
+ C
2

N
EI
x + C
3
sinh

N
EI
x
_

,
+ C
4
cosh

N
EI
x
_

,
T(*) EI
d
3
dx
3
w(*) + N
d
dx
w(*)
EI
d
4
dx
4
w(x) + P
d
2
dx
2
w(x) q(x)
w(x) w
part
(x) + w
hom
(x) where
w
hom
(x) C
1
+ C
2

P
EI
x + C
3
sin

P
EI
x
_

,
+ C
4
cos

P
EI
x
_

,
T(*) EI
d
3
dx
3
w(*) P
d
dx
w(*)
P
L, EI L, EI
P
L, EI
P
L, EI
P
L, EI
P
P
c


2
EI
4L
2
P
c


2
EI
L
2
P
c


2
EI
L
2
P
c

2.05
2
EI
L
2
P
c

4
2
EI
L
2
10
5. Bending of Beam Elementary Cases
Cantilever beam
x
z w(x)
L, EI
P
w(x)
PL
3
6EI

3
x
2
L
2

x
3
L
3
_

,
w(L)
PL
3
3EI
d
dx
w(L)
PL
2
2EI
x
z w(x)
L, EI
M
w(x)
ML
2
2EI

x
2
L
2
_

,
w(L)
ML
2
2EI
d
dx
w(L)
ML
EI
x
z w(x)
L, EI
q = Q/L
w(x)
qL
4
24EI

x
4
L
4
4
x
3
L
3
+ 6
x
2
L
2
_

,
w(L)
qL
4
8EI
d
dx
w(L)
qL
3
6EI
x
z w(x)
L, EI
q
0
w(x)
q
0
L
4
120EI

x
5
L
5
10
x
3
L
3
+ 20
x
2
L
2
_

,
w(L)
11 q
0
L
4
120EI
d
dx
w(L)
q
0
L
3
8EI
x
z w(x)
L, EI
q
0
w(x)
q
0
L
4
120EI

x
5
L
5
+ 5
x
4
L
4
10
x
3
L
3
+ 10
x
2
L
2
_

,
w(L)
q
0
L
4
30EI
d
dx
w(L)
q
0
L
3
24EI
11
Simply supported beam
Load applied at x = L ( < 1), = 1
w(x)
PL
3
6EI

(1
2
)
x
L

x
3
L
3
_

,
for
x
L

x
z w(x) L, EI
L L
P + = 1
w(L)
PL
3
3EI

2

2
. When > one obtains
w
max
w

1
2
3
_

,
w(L)
1 +
3
1 +
3
d
dx
w(0)
PL
2
6EI
(1 + )
d
dx
w(L)
PL
2
6EI
(1 + )
x
z w(x) L, EI
M
A
M
B
w(x)
L
2
6EI

'

M
A

2
x
L
3
x
2
L
2
+
x
3
L
3
_

,
+ M
B

x
L

x
3
L
3
_

d
dx
w(0)
M
A
L
3 EI
+
M
B
L
6 EI
d
dx
w(L)
M
A
L
6 EI

M
B
L
3 EI
w(x)
ML
2
6EI

(1 3
2
)
x
L

x
3
L
3
_

,
for
x
L

x
z w(x) L, EI
L L
M
d
dx
w(0)
ML
6EI
(1 3
2
)
d
dx
w(L)
ML
6EI
(1 3
2
)
w(x)
QL
3
24EI

x
4
L
4
2
x
3
L
3
+
x
L
_

,
x
z w(x) L, EI
Q
w(L/2)
5 QL
3
384 EI
d
dx
w(0)
d
dx
w(L)
QL
2
24EI
w(x)
QL
3
180EI

3
x
5
L
5
10
x
3
L
3
+ 7
x
L
_

,
d
dx
w(0)
7 QL
2
180EI
d
dx
w(L)
8 QL
2
180EI
x
z w(x) L, EI
Q
w(x)
QL
3
180EI

3
x
5
L
5
+ 15
x
4
L
4
20
x
3
L
3
+ 8
x
L
_

,
d
dx
w(0)
8 QL
2
180EI
d
dx
w(L)
7 QL
2
180EI
x
z w(x) L, EI
Q
12
Clamped simply supported beam and clamped clamped beam
Load applied at x = L ( < 1), = 1
Only redundant reactions are given. For deflections, use superposition of solutions
for simply supported beams.

x
z L, EI
M
A
L L
P + = 1
M
A

PL
2
(1
2
)
x
z L, EI
M
A
M
B
M
A

M
B
2
x
z L, EI
M
A
M
L L
+ = 1
M
A

M
2
(1 3
2
)
x
z
L, EI
M
A
Q
M
A

QL
8
x
z
L, EI
M
A
Q
M
A

2 QL
15
x
z
L, EI
M
A
L L
+ = 1
M
B
P M
A
PL
2
M
B
PL
2

x
z
L, EI
M
A
M
L L
+ = 1
M
B
M
A
M (1 3) M
B
M (1 3 )
x
z
L, EI
M
A
Q
M
B
M
A
M
B

QL
12
x
z
L, EI
M
A
Q
M
B
M
A

QL
10
M
B

QL
15
13
6. Material Fatigue
Fatigue limits (notations)
Load Alternating Pulsating
Tension/compression
Bending
Torsion
The Haigh diagram

a
= stress amplitude

m
= mean stress

Y
= yield limit

U
= ultimate strenght

u
,
up
= fatigue limits
, , = factors reducing fatigue limits
(similar diagrams for
ub
,
ubp
and
uv
,
uvp
)
Factors reducing fatigue limits
Surface finish
Factor reducing the fatigue limit due to
surface irregularities
(a) polished surface ( = 1)
(b) ground
(c) machined
(d) standard notch
(e) rolling skin
(f) corrosion in sweet water
(g) corrosion in salt water
t
u

up
t
up
t
ub

ubp
t
ubp
t
uv

uvp
t
uvp
u
a
m
up
up
up
u
Y U
Y
300 600 900 1200 MPa
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
U
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
14
Volume factor (due to process)
Factor reducing the fatigue limit due to
size of raw material
(a) diameter at circular cross section
(b) thickness at rectangular cross section
Volume factor (due to geometry)
Factor reducing the fatigue limits
ub
and

uv
due to loaded volume.
Steel with ultimate strength
U
=
(a) 1500 MPa
(b) 1000 MPa
(c) 600 MPa
(d) 400 MPa
(e) aluminium
Factor = 1 when fatigue notch factor K
f
>
1 is used.
Fatigue notch factor K
f
(at stress concentration)
K
t
= stress concentration factor (see Section
12.8)
q = fatigue notch sensitivity factor
Fatigue notch sensitivity factor q
Fatigue notch sensitivity factor q for steel
with ultimate strength
U
=
(a) 1600 MPa
(b) 1300 MPa
(c) 1000 MPa
(d) 700 MPa
(e) 400 MPa
20 40 60 80
10 20 30 40
(a)
(b)
100mm
50mm
1.0
0.8
40 80 120 0
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Diameter or thickness in mm
1.0
0.9
0.8
K
f
1 + q (K
t
1)
1 10 2 5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
q
r
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.1 0.5
Fillet radius in mm
15
Whler diagram

ai
= stress amplitude
N
i
= fatigue life (in cycles) at stress
amplitude
ai
Damage accumulation D
n
i
= number of loading cycles at stress
amplitude
ai
N
i
= fatigue life at stress amplitude
ai
Palmgren-Miners rule
Failure when n
i
= number of loading cycles at stress
amplitude
ai
N
i
= fatigue life at stress amplitude
ai
I = number of loading stress levels
Fatigue data (cyclic, constant-amplitude loading)
The following fatigue limits may be used only when solving exercises. For a real
design, data should be taken from latest official standard and not from this table.
1
Material Tension Bending Torsion
alternating pulsating alternating pulsating alternating pulsating
MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa
Carbon steel
141312-00 110 110 110 170 150 150 100 100 100
141450-1 140 130 130 190 170 170 120 120 120
141510-00 230
141550-01 180 160 160 240 210 210 140 140 140
141650-01 200 180 180 270 240 240 150 150 150
141650 460
Stainless steel 2337-02,
Aluminium SS 4120-02, ; SS 4425-06,
1
Data in this table has been collected from B Sundstrm (editor): Handbok och Formelsamling i
Hllfasthetslra, Institutionen fr hllfasthetslra, KTH, Stockholm, 1998.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
a
log N
ai
D
n
i
N
i

i 1
I
n
i
N
i
1
t t t t t t
t t t t t t
t
t t t t t t
t t t t t t
t

u
t 270 MPa

ub
t 110 MPa
u
t 120 MPa
16
7. Multi-Axial Stress States
Stresses in thin-walled circular pressure vessel

t
= circumferential stress

x
= longitudinal stress
p = internal pressure
R = radius of pressure vessel
t = wall thickness (t << R)
Rotational symmetry in structure and load (plane stress, i.e.
z
= 0)
Differential equation for rotating circular plate
u = u(r) = radial displacement
= density
= angular rotation (rad/s)
Solution
Stresses
where
Boundary conditions

r
or u must be known on inner and outer boundary of the circular plate
Shrink fit
= difference of radii
p = contact pressure
u = radial displacement as function of p
Plane stress and plane strain (plane state)
Plane stress (in xy-plane) when
z
= 0,
xz
= 0, and
yz
= 0
Plane strain (in xy-plane) when
xz
= 0,
yz
= 0, and
z
= 0 or constant
Stresses in direction (plane state)
() = normal stress in direction
() = shear stress on surface with normal in direction

t
p
R
t
and
x
p
R
2t
(
z
0)
d
2
u
d r
2
+
1
r
d u
d r

u
r
2

1
2
E

2
r
u(r) u
hom
+ u
part
A
0
r +
B
0
r

1
2
8E

2
r
3

r
(r) A
B
r
2

3 +
8

2
r
2
and

(r) A +
B
r
2

1 + 3
8

2
r
2
A
E A
0
1
and B
E B
0
1 +
u
outer
(p) u
inner
(p)
()
x
cos
2
() +
y
sin
2
() + 2
xy
cos()sin()
y
x
( )
( )
() (
x

y
) sin()cos() +
xy
(cos
2
() sin
2
())
17
Principal stresses and principal directions at plane stress state

1
= angle from x axis (in xy plane) to
direction of principal stress
1
Strain in direction (plane state)
() = normal strain in direction
() = shear strain of element with normal in direction
Principal strains and principal directions (plane state)

1
= angle from x axis (in xy plane) to
direction of principal strain
1
Principal stresses and principal directions at three-dimensional stress state
The determinant
gives three roots (the principal stresses)
(contains the nine stress components
ij
)
Direction of principal stress
i
(i = 1, 2, 3) is given by
n
ix
, n
iy
and n
iz
are the elements of the unit
and vector n
i
in the direction of
i
(
T
means transpose)

1, 2

1, 2

c
t R

x
+
y
2
t

x

y
2
_

,
2
+
xy
2
sin(2
1
)

xy
R
or cos(2
1
)

x

y
2R
()
x
cos
2
() +
y
sin
2
() +
xy
sin()cos()
y
x
() (
y

x
) sin(2) +
xy
cos(2)

1, 2

c
t R

x
+
y
2
t

x

y
2
_

,
2
+

xy
2
_

,
2
sin(2
1
)

xy
2R
or cos(2
1
)

x

y
2R
Stress matrix S

x

xy

xz

yx

y

yz

zx

zy

z
1
1
1
1
]
S I 0
Unit matrix I

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
1
1
1
]
(S
i
I) n
i
0
n
i
T
n
i
1
18
Principal strains and principal directions at three-dimensional stress state
Use shear strain
The determinant
gives three roots (the principal strains)
I = unit matrix
Direction of principal strain
i
(i = 1, 2, 3) is given by
n
ix
, n
iy
and n
iz
are the elements of the unit
and vector n
i
in the direction of
i
(
T
means transpose)
Hookes law, including temperature term (three-dimensional stress state)
= temperature coefficient
T = change of temperature (relative to
temperature giving no stress)
Effective stress
The Huber-von Mises effective stress (the deviatoric stress hypothesis)
The Tresca effective stress (the shear stress hypothesis)

ij

ij
/ 2 for i j
Strain matrix E

x

xy

xz

yx

y

yz

zx

zy

z
1
1
1
1
]
E I 0
(E
i
I) n
i
0
n
i
T
n
i
1

x

1
E
[
x
(
y
+
z
)] + T

y

1
E
[
y
(
z
+
x
)] + T

z

1
E
[
z
(
x
+
y
)] + T

xy


xy
G

yz


yz
G

zx


zx
G

e
vM

x
2
+
y
2
+
z
2

x

y

y

z

z

x
+ 3
xy
2
+ 3
yz
2
+ 3
zx
2

1
2
{(
1

2
)
2
+ (
2

3
)
2
+ (
3

1
)
2
}

e
T
max[
1

2
,
2

3
,
3

1
]
max
pr

min
pr
(pr = principal stress)
19
8. Energy Methods the Castigliano Theorem
Strain energy u per unit of volume
Linear elastic material and uni-axial stress
Total strain energy U in beam loaded in tension/compression, torsion, bending, and
shear
M
t
= torque = M
x
K
v
= section factor of torsional stiffness
M
bend
= bending moment = M
y
= shear factor, see below
Cross section Shear factor
is given for some cross sections in the
table ( is the Jouravski factor, see Section
12.3 One-Dimensional Bodies)
Elementary case: pure bending
Only bending momentet M
bend
is present.
The moment varies linearly along the beam
with moments M
1
and M
2
at the beam ends.
One has
M
bend
(x) = M
1
+ (M
2
M
1
)x

/L, which gives
The second term is negative if M
1
and M
2
have different signs
The Castigliano theorem
= displacement in the direction of force P
of the point where force P is applied
= rotation (change of angle) at moment
M
u

2
U
tot

0
L
'

N(x)
2
2EA(x)
+
M
t
(x)
2
2GK
v
(x)
+
M
bend
(x)
2
2EI(x)
+
T(x)
2
2GA(x)

dx

6/5 3/2
10/9 4/3
2 2
A/A A/A
web web

A
I
2

S
A
b
_

,
2
dA
L, EI
M M
1 2
M
1
M
M
2
x

U
tot

L
6EI
{M
1
2
+ M
1
M
2
+ M
2
2
}

U
P
and
U
M
20
9. Stress Concentration
Tension/compression
Maximum normal stress at a stress concentration is
max
= K
t

nom
, where K
t
and
nom
are given in the diagrams
Tension of flat bar with shoulder fillet Tension of flat bar with notch
Tension of circular bar with shoulder Tension of circular bar with U-shaped
fillet groove
K
t
0
B b
P
nom
=
bh
P
P
r
r/b
B/b
thickness h
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.1
1.05
1.01
0.1 0.2
K
t
0
nom
=
bh
P
r
r/b
B/b
P P
B b
thickness h
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
2.0
1.2
1.1
1.05
1.01
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
K
t
0
nom
=
r
P P
D d
r/d
d
2
D/d
4P
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.1
1.05
1.01
0.1 0.2 0.3
K
t
0
nom
=
r
P P
D d
r/d
d
2
D/d
4 P
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.05
1.01
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
21
Tension of flat bar with hole
Bending
Maximum normal stress at a stress concentration is
max
= K
t

nom
, where K
t
and
nom
are given in the diagrams
Bending of flat bar with hole Bending of circular bar with hole
2
3
5 B/a=
nom
B
=
0
0 0
K
t
r/a
a
B
0
2r
2r
B -
2.5
2.25
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
K
t
0
nom
=
M M
d
M
b b
b
B
(B-d)h
2
6
d/B
d/h
thickness h
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.25
0.5
1.0
2.0
= 0
0.2 0.4 0.6
K
t
0
nom
=
d
M M
3
D
d
d/D
M
D D
6
2
b b
b
32
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.1 0.2 0.3
22
Bending of flat bar with shoulder fillet Bending of flat bar with notch
Bending of circular bar with shoulder Bending of circular bar with U-shaped
fillet groove
K
t
0
B b
nom
=
r
r/b
B/b
M
b
M
b
M
b
6
hb
2
thickness h
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
6.0
2.0
1.2
1.05
1.02
1.01
0.1 0.2
K
t
0
nom
=
r
r/b
B/b
B b
M
b
M
b
M
b
6
hb
2
thickness h
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.05
1.02
1.01
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
K
t
0
nom
=
r
D d
r/d
d
D/d
3
M
b
M
b
M
b
32
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
6.0
2.0
1.2
1.05
1.02 1.01
0.1 0.2 0.3
K
t
0
nom
=
r
D d
r/d
d
D/d
M
b
M
b
M
b
32
3
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.2
1.05
1.02
1.01
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
23
Torsion
Maximium shear stress at stress concentration is
max
= K
t

nom
, where K
t
and
nom
are
given in the diagrams
Torsion of circular bar with shoulder Torsion of circular bar with notch
fillet
Torsion of bar with longitudinal keyway Torsion of circular bar with hole
K
t
0
nom
=
r
D d
r/d
d
D/d
M M
3
v v
M
v
16
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
2.0
1.3
1.2
1.1
0.1 0.2 0.3
K
t
0
nom
=
r
D d
r/d
d
M M
3
D/d
v v
v
M 16
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.2
1.05
1.01
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
K
t
0 r/d
r
d
8
d
3
nom
=
v
/4
7
d
d
16M
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
0.05 0.10
K
t
0
nom
=
d
M M
3
D
d
d/D
M
v v
v
D
16
D
6
2
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.1 0.2 0.3
24
10. Material data
The following material properties may be used only when solving exercises. For a real
design, data should be taken from latest official standard and not from this table (two values
for the same material means different qualities).
1
Material Youngs 10
6
Ultimate Yield limit
modulus strength tension/ bending torsion
E compression
GPa K
-1
MPa MPa MPa MPa
Carbon steel
141312-00 206 0.3 12 360 >240 260 140
460
141450-1 205 0.3 430 >250 290 160
510
141510-00 205 0.3 510 >320
640
141550-01 205 0.3 490 >270 360 190
590
141650-01 206 0.3 11 590 >310 390 220
690
141650 206 0.3 860 >550 610
Offset yield strength R
p0.2
(
0,2
)
Stainless steel
2337-02 196 0.29 16.8 >490 >200
Aluminium
SS 4120-02 70 23 170 >65
215
SS 4120-24 70 23 220 >170
270
SS 4425-06 70 23 >340 >270
1
Data in this table has been collected from B Sundstrm (editor): Handbok och Formelsamling i
Hllfasthetslra, Institutionen fr hllfasthetslra, KTH, Stockholm, 1998.
25