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horse collar and shoe helped clear the land - switched form 2 field to 3 field system - improved land usage Manorial Sytem - Manor – estate run by a lord - Possessed – fields, gardens, grazing lands, fish ponds, a mill, a church, workshop, a village where the lord of the manor lived - Serfs – peasants legally bound to the land about 60% of the population were serfs Cycle of Labor - new cycle started in October – worked the ground for winter crops - November – slaughtering of excess animals - February and March the land would be plowed for planting spring crops - Early summer was fairly relaxed Food - bread was the basic staple – made from wheat, rye, and barley - peasants also ate cheese, nuts, berries, fruits, eggs - meat tended to be consumed on Great Feast days like Christmas and Easter - safe water was hard to find so ale and wine was drink of choice Trade - agricultural society for most of the middle ages - trade started to reemerge in northern Italy and Flanders - use of coin cam back Growth of Cities - Revival of trade led to the revival of cities - Merchants began to settle in old Roman cities - By 1200 London had over 40,000 ppl - Venice, Florence, and Milan had over 80,000 ppl - Cities began to develop their own system of govt City Life - fire danger was great because of the wood buildings and use of candles - cities were dirty, smelly, and polluted - craft ppl began to organize themselves into guilds - guilds controlled every aspect of production - apprentice – journey man – master Christianity Papacy - secular leaders granted nominees for church office lay investiture - pope Gregory VII decided to reform the church 1073 - fought with Henry IV king of Germany - concordat of worms 1122 between a new pope and king agreed that the church will pick their leader but they would pay homage to the king Pope Gregory VII - declared IV deposed in 1078 - Henry forced the pope to Rome to Sicily - Reforms: o The roman church ahs never erred o Pope alone could dispose and restore bishops o Pope alone can call general councils, authorize cannon laws o The pope can depose emperor and absolve subjects from their alliance o All princes should kiss the Pope’s feet Pope Innocent III
believed pope was the supreme judge of European affairs forced the kings of France to take back his wife and king of England to accept the Pope’s choice for Arch bishop - used interdict to get his way, forbids a priest from giving sacraments New Religious Orders - 1098 Cistercian order – very religious and took the word out to the ppl - 13th century – Franciscans and Dominicans - Franciscans preached repentance and aiding the poo’ - Dominicans lived in poverty and preached against heresy – the denial of church doctrine Inquisition - court created to discover and deal with heretics - beginning in 1252 those who did not confess voluntarily were tortured until they did - only path to salvation was through the church Crusades - a series of Christian military campaigns against the Muslims in the hole land - reasons o limited fighting between Christian Lords o Ambitious rulers wanted new lands o Younger sons needed new lands o Italian merchants wanted new trade o Pilgrims were being mistreated o Pope Urban III said “god wills it” 1055 Crusade Dates - first crusade 1096-1099 - second crusade 1147- 1149 - third crusade 1189- 1192 - fourth crusade 1202- 1204 Universities - first appeared in Bologna Italy 1158 - first university in northern Europe was in Paris - in the 12th century students and teachers in Paris left to start Oxford, England - by 1500 there were 80 universities in Europe Scholasticism - tried to reconcile faith with reason - blended Greek philosophies with Christian teachings - St. Thomas Aquinas made the most famous attempt to blend Aristotle with Christianity Literature - latin was the universal language - in the 12th century new literature was written in the vernacular – every day speech - new market for educated lay ppl - troubadour poetry a heroic epics were the most famous Late middle Ages Black Death - Bubonic plague was the most common - Spread by flea invested rats - Brought to Sicily by merchants in 137 - Spread to France by the end of 1347 - Followed trade routes hitting England in 1349 and Russia in 1351 - 30 million of 75 million died Results of the Plague - many believed the plague was God’s punishment and blamed the Jews - trade declined and labor became expensive - helped free the peasants from serfdom Church Decline
the struggle between Popes and kings started again with pope Boniface VIII and king Phillip IV of France (taxes) - Phillip IV got Frenchman Clement V elected pope in 1305 - the pope moved to Avignon, France from 1305-1377 upsetting Italian bishops Great Schism - pope Gregory Xi returned to Rome in 1337 - Gregory died and an Italian was elected pope - 5 months latter the French cardinals elected a Frenchman pope - Great schism lasted until 1417 Hundred Years War - England still held Gascony in France - King Philip VI of France seized it in 1337 - King Edward in III of England declared war - The war lasted until 1453 - Foot soldiers and the longbow helped the English side. Joan of Arc - deeply religious peasant born in 1412 - England controlled 2/3 of France - In February 1429 Joan made her way to Charles’ court - Joan went with the French army to Orleans for victory - Captured by the English and burned in 1430