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- water and windmills helped with the work
- iron use became more widespread
- new horse collar and shoe helped clear the land
- switched form 2 field to 3 field system
- improved land usage
Manorial Sytem
- Manor – estate run by a lord
- Possessed – fields, gardens, grazing lands, fish ponds, a mill, a church, workshop, a village where
the lord of the manor lived
- Serfs – peasants legally bound to the land about 60% of the population were serfs
Cycle of Labor
- new cycle started in October – worked the ground for winter crops
- November – slaughtering of excess animals
- February and March the land would be plowed for planting spring crops
- Early summer was fairly relaxed
- bread was the basic staple – made from wheat, rye, and barley
- peasants also ate cheese, nuts, berries, fruits, eggs
- meat tended to be consumed on Great Feast days like Christmas and Easter
- safe water was hard to find so ale and wine was drink of choice
- agricultural society for most of the middle ages
- trade started to reemerge in northern Italy and Flanders
- use of coin cam back
Growth of Cities
- Revival of trade led to the revival of cities
- Merchants began to settle in old Roman cities
- By 1200 London had over 40,000 ppl
- Venice, Florence, and Milan had over 80,000 ppl
- Cities began to develop their own system of govt
City Life
- fire danger was great because of the wood buildings and use of candles
- cities were dirty, smelly, and polluted
- craft ppl began to organize themselves into guilds
- guilds controlled every aspect of production
- apprentice – journey man – master
- secular leaders granted nominees for church office lay investiture
- pope Gregory VII decided to reform the church 1073
- fought with Henry IV king of Germany
- concordat of worms 1122 between a new pope and king agreed that the church will pick their
leader but they would pay homage to the king
Pope Gregory VII
- declared IV deposed in 1078
- Henry forced the pope to Rome to Sicily
- Reforms:
o The roman church ahs never erred
o Pope alone could dispose and restore bishops
o Pope alone can call general councils, authorize cannon laws
o The pope can depose emperor and absolve subjects from their alliance
o All princes should kiss the Pope’s feet
Pope Innocent III
- believed pope was the supreme judge of European affairs
- forced the kings of France to take back his wife and king of England to accept the Pope’s choice
for Arch bishop
- used interdict to get his way, forbids a priest from giving sacraments
New Religious Orders
- 1098 Cistercian order – very religious and took the word out to the ppl
- 13th century – Franciscans and Dominicans
- Franciscans preached repentance and aiding the poo’
- Dominicans lived in poverty and preached against heresy – the denial of church doctrine
- court created to discover and deal with heretics
- beginning in 1252 those who did not confess voluntarily were tortured until they did
- only path to salvation was through the church
- a series of Christian military campaigns against the Muslims in the hole land
- reasons
o limited fighting between Christian Lords
o Ambitious rulers wanted new lands
o Younger sons needed new lands
o Italian merchants wanted new trade
o Pilgrims were being mistreated
o Pope Urban III said “god wills it” 1055
Crusade Dates
- first crusade 1096-1099
- second crusade 1147- 1149
- third crusade 1189- 1192
- fourth crusade 1202- 1204
- first appeared in Bologna Italy 1158
- first university in northern Europe was in Paris
- in the 12th century students and teachers in Paris left to start Oxford, England
- by 1500 there were 80 universities in Europe
- tried to reconcile faith with reason
- blended Greek philosophies with Christian teachings
- St. Thomas Aquinas made the most famous attempt to blend Aristotle with Christianity
- latin was the universal language
- in the 12th century new literature was written in the vernacular – every day speech
- new market for educated lay ppl
- troubadour poetry a heroic epics were the most famous
Late middle Ages
Black Death
- Bubonic plague was the most common
- Spread by flea invested rats
- Brought to Sicily by merchants in 137
- Spread to France by the end of 1347
- Followed trade routes hitting England in 1349 and Russia in 1351
- 30 million of 75 million died
Results of the Plague
- many believed the plague was God’s punishment and blamed the Jews
- trade declined and labor became expensive
- helped free the peasants from serfdom
Church Decline
- the struggle between Popes and kings started again with pope Boniface VIII and king Phillip IV of
France (taxes)
- Phillip IV got Frenchman Clement V elected pope in 1305
- the pope moved to Avignon, France from 1305-1377 upsetting Italian bishops
Great Schism
- pope Gregory Xi returned to Rome in 1337
- Gregory died and an Italian was elected pope
- 5 months latter the French cardinals elected a Frenchman pope
- Great schism lasted until 1417
Hundred Years War
- England still held Gascony in France
- King Philip VI of France seized it in 1337
- King Edward in III of England declared war
- The war lasted until 1453
- Foot soldiers and the longbow helped the English side.
Joan of Arc
- deeply religious peasant born in 1412
- England controlled 2/3 of France
- In February 1429 Joan made her way to Charles’ court
- Joan went with the French army to Orleans for victory
- Captured by the English and burned in 1430