Medieval Europe (dark ages) Middle age because it comes between the era of Greco-Roman civilizations and

the Renaissance in the 14th century Changes Transforming Rome - in 395 the Roman Empire was divided into an eastern and western half - in the west Gaul, Britain, Spain and North Africa fell to the Germanic people in the early 5th century - Rome was sacked in 410 - The last Roman Emperor was disposed of New Germanic Kingdoms - fear and physical insecurity led communities to seek protection - the Visigoths occupied Spain and Italy from the 3rd century until the Ostrogoths took control of Italy in the 5th century - Both kingdoms retained the Roman structure of government - pushed the Roman citizens out of power - Anglo-Saxons took power in Britain - roman influence was much weaker in Britain - Vandals in North Africa - The Kingdom of the Franks in Gaul was the only long lasting German state Kingdom of the Franks - Est. by Clovis - First Germanic leader to convert to Christianity in 500 - Clovis converted after a battle he thought he was going to lose - His conversion to Christianity gained him support of the Roman Catholic Church Germanic Society - overtime the Germans and Romans intermarried and created a new society - extended family was very important - crime was more personal which led to blood feuds and savage acts of revenge - Wergild developed “money for man” - Ordeal was used to determine The church - Christianity had become the supreme religion of the Roman Empire by 400 - As the roman empire fell the church played a larger and larger roll Church Organization - Local Communities called parishes were led by priests - Groups of parishes (diocese) were headed by a bishop - Over time the bishop of Rome became the leader of the roman catholic church - Bishop of Rome became pope Gregory I - Pope from 590 – 604 - Helped strengthened the power of the Pope - Leader of the Papal states ( Rome and surrounding territories) - Active in converting non- Christians - Pushed the monastic movement Monasticism - Monk- a man who separates himself from ordinary society in order to pursue a life of total devotion to god - Originally the monks lived isolated lives - In the 6th century Saint Benedict founded a community of monks and set up rules - Each monastery ruled by an abbot - Monks became new heroes Convents - Women began to withdraw from the world to dedicate themselves to god - Called nuns

- Convents headed by abbesses - Hilda founded the monastery of Whitby in 657 educating 5 future bishops Charlemagne- Origin - The Frankish Kingdom lost power during the 600’s and 700’s to local leaders - Pepin a local Leader and the son of Charles Martel (defeated the Muslims in 732) - When Pepin died in 768 his son who became known as Charles the Great took throne of the Frankish Kingdom Charles the Man - Athletic, well-spoken, and charismatic - Married 4 times - Understood Greek and spoke Latin - Possibly could not write - Left the empire to his sole surviving son Charles the Administrator - Delegated authority to loyal nobles - Retained local laws of conquered areas - Divided kingdom into districts - Used messengers of the lord king to inspect and report on provinces Charles the Conqueror - was an aggressive warrior - strengthened the Frankish military - expanded and consolidated the Frankish kingdom Charles the Patron of Learning - revived classical studies - preserved Latin culture - est. monastic and palace schools Feudalism Invaders - the Carolingian Empire began to fall apart after Charlemagne’s death in 814 - western Europe was invaded many times during the 9th and 10th centuries - rulers found it difficult to protect large kingdoms - people began to turn to local leaders Vassalage - warriors swore an oath of loyalty to leaders – became known as a vassal - knights – heavily armored horsemen began to dominate the warfare in Europe - lords granted each Vassal a piece of land to support him and his family – fief - the making of the feud contract was a very public ceremony Chivalry - A code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold - Institution of knighthood united them all - Young knights had little to do but fight - Tournaments were created to allow the young knights to show their skill Aristocratic Women - the lady had to manage the estates since the men were away at court or war - overseeing the large staff, castle, food and supple and money took skill - Eleanor of Aquitaine an example of a strong woman o Married to king Louis VII of France o Married to king Henry II of England European Kingdoms High Middle Ages England William of Normandy - October 14, 1066 – battle of Hastings - Defeated King Harold - Crowned king of England - Norman Conquest

- Blended with Anglo-Saxons HenryII - reigned 1154- 1189 - power of the English Monarchy was expanded during his reign - expanded the royal court system which helped create the common law system - fought with the church - had Thomas a Becket the archbishop of Canterbury murdered Magna Carta - English nobles resented the Kings power - At Runnymede in 1215 King John was forced to sign a document of rights - A feudal document - Based on Mutual rights and obligations - Monarch’s power was limited not absolute Parliament - during the reign of Edward I - 2 knights from every county, 2 ppl from every town and all the nobles and bishops - Nobles and church lords formed the House of Lords - Knights and towns ppl formed house of commons French Kingdom Capetian Dynasty - from the former Carolingian Empire - Capetian dynasty of French Kings est. in 987 - Little power - Controlled the land around Paris Phillip II Augustus - Reigned from 1180-1223 - Turning point in the growth of the French monarchy - Leaders after Phillip II continued to add lands - By 13000 France was the largest and best-governed monarchal state in Europe Otto I - Saxon king Otto I of the German lands protected the Pope - In return the pope crowned him emperor of the Romans in 962 – a titled unused since Charlemagne Frederick I - tried to create a new kind of empire by controlling Italy - Should have concentrated on Building a strong German Kingdom - Defeated by the Pope in 1176 The End - the struggle between popes and emperors hurt the holy Roman Empire - by fighting in Italy the kings lost power to the German lords - many smaller independent kingdoms created Eastern Europe Slavs - Originally One ppl - Western Slavs formed the Polish and Bohemian Kingdoms - Southern Slavs embraced Roman Catholic church - Easter Slavs formed kingdom of Kiev in Russia Russia - Swedish Viking invaded the kingdom of Kiev - Oleg – Viking leader who settled in Kiev - Adopted Christianity - Mongols conquered Russia - Prince Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod defeated the German army and was rewarded the Grand prince by khan Byzantine empire

Justinian - became emperor of eastern roman empire in 527 - determined to reestablish the empire - by 552 restored Roman Empire in Mediterranean - created code of roman law (the body of civil law) Problems - Justinian spread the empire too much - Too little money and resources - Provinces of Syria and Palestine lost in 636 - Lost part of the Balkans in 679 - Smaller empire became known as the Byzantine empire - Lasted until 1453 Life - Greek and Christian state - Easter Orthodox Church - Emperor chosen by God – power absolute - Constantinople was a center of commerce