# Electron Spin Resnance

Kunal Garg April 3, 2012

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Objectives

• To determine the Lande g factor for the free electron • To determine the half width of the absorption line

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Theory

Spin is an internal degree of freedom that has the same eﬀect as the angular momentum. Though we have no consideration for structure of the electron and it being considered as a point particle cannot be thought of spinning about an axis (as if it were a sphere), nevertheless because electron is charged and has an angular momentum, it has a net angular dipole moment. So if an isolated electron is placed in an external magnetic ﬁeld, like any other magnetic dipole, the electron spin tend to direct its magnetic dipole moment along the direction of the applied magnetic ﬁeld, the most energy eﬃcient conﬁguration. However, the spin of the electron is quantized. Therefore, only two conﬁguration of spin is allowed. The electron spin dipole moment can align itself either parallel or anti-parallel to the applied magnetic ﬁeld. The lowest energy state, the ground state, is the state in which the spin dipole moment aligns itself parallel to the applied magnetic ﬁeld and when the dipole moment is antiparallel it is the excited state. As the excited and ground states are two allowed quantum states and not classical continuum states, the electron cannot absorb any amount of energy and gradually move from ground state to excited state. The transition from ground state to excited state will occur only if the energy provided is precisely equal to the energy diﬀerence between these two states. However, if just a monochromatic source of irradiative energy is available, we can change the magnetic ﬁeld strength such that the transition energy required to excite the electron spin state varies. Only when the magnetic ﬁeld is such that the transition energy is equal to the energy of photons from the monochromatic source, the photons get absorbed and the transition occurs. Paramagnetic substances have unpaired electrons. Compounds like 1, 1 − diphenyl − 2 − picryl − hydrazil (DPPH) have eﬀectively a single electron left out which can be approximated to a free electron. In a steady external magnetic ﬁeld there are two energy states. In electron magnetic spin resonance, an oscillating magnetic ﬁeld is used to induce transitions between these two energy levels. If an oscillating magnetic ﬁeld is applied with a frequency that corresponds to the energy diﬀerence between the two levels, photons will be absorbed as transitions are made from the lower

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Current was varied and the same was repeated. we have ∆E = hν = gµB B . We need ﬁrst to adjust the values of C and R such that we get the appropriate frequency. The sample is kept enclosed in a inducting tube. which we can detect. There will be a net absorption of energy from the oscillating magnetic ﬁeld. The potential energy of a dipole in a magnetic ﬁeld is given by. it is set at the proper frequency to absorb the energy drop. The plots are as follows:
Figure 1: Current= 1. and we ﬁnd the perfect value of B at which resonance occurs. where ν is the frequency of radiation needed for transition.B And the two possible energy values are given as ±1/2gµ.1 A 2
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Set-up
The set up consists of Helmholtz coils through which a dc current passes to maintain a constant magnetic ﬁeld. So if we have a monochromatic source.energy level to the upper one.
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Results and Observations
For a given current. as given by the Boltzmann factor. the potentials from the two channels were plotted in XY mode and parameters were adjusted to get the best possible inverted peak. U = −µ. Further it is modulated with AC signal at a given frequency with just the phase being adjustable with respect to the oscillations in the LCR oscillator. In thermal equilibrium. there will be slightly more electrons in the lower state than the upper one. When we are done. we can determine the value of Lande ‘g’ factor.B . We can observe this net absorption. and photons will be emitted as transitions are induced from the upper level to the lower one. Hence at resonance.

Figure 2: Current= 1.2 A
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.15 A
Figure 3: Current= 1.

was calculated and relative errors were calculated with respect to the lorentzian ﬁt value for w.Figure 4: Current= 1. the full width at half minimum is found out. . Further. FWHM. from the direct measurement of the coordinates.3 A These plots were attempted to be ﬁt with an lorentzian y = y0 + 2A π w (4 ∗ (x − xc)2 + w2 )
From the curve ﬁt.25 A
Figure 5: Current= 1. The plots are as follows:
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R = 54mm) .507 Plugging in Ir = 1.The following data were obtained using these graphs Current Curve Fit Error(SD) Data Reading Relative Error 1.08 The literature value is 2.252854 1.1 0.065492 1.2 0.42 1.42639 0.498628 1.43 4.44915 0.00187 0. Ir we have g = 2.42 6. it was obtained that. ν = 146M Hz and µB = 9.43242 0. Hence our result agrees to the literature value within an error of 4%
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.00208 0.00219 0.00.45069 0.48 1.27 ∗ 10−2 (all in SI units). So plugging in all values in the expression g= hν µB B
For h = 6.00249 0.3 0. the maximum FWHM was for the current 1.48609 0.45 4.809559
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Calculations
From the above table.263609 1.2 . we get g = 2.25 0.0024 0.2A.15 0. The value of B could be computed from the current knowing the number of turns and radius of the Helmholtz coil.626 ∗ 10−34 . After plugging the values speciﬁc to the apparatus(N = 250.

Hence the peak to peak √ resonant ac current is 2 2 × 0.48 The ratio of FWHM to the full range is 5.12A = 0. using the formula δ(B) = µ0 N 4 3/2 δ(2I) 2R 5
Plugging.48V . while the full width was found to be 5. R = 54mm
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. we have
δ(2I) = 0.339 = 3.095 ∗ 0.05. we have to calculate the corresponding magnetic ﬁeld created due to the Helmholtz coil.22 ∗ 10−2 A Now.6
Calculation of δB
The FWHM at resonance was found to be 0. the values.05 = 0.095 The rms current that correspond to this resonance was read to be 0. N = 250.12A.339. (See graph below)
0. Hence.

• The lande g factor was veriﬁed to be nearly 2.
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Conclusion
• The phenomenon of ESR was demonstrated.
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Precautions
• The current should be limited to the capacity of Helmholtz coil • The resonator must be tuned properly. else the resonance eﬀect wont be observed.