THE EFFECT ON PURCHASE INTENTION THROUGH THE DIMENSIONS OF BRAND IMAGE AND BRAND OF ORIGIN
Kuang-Wen Wu, Department of International Trade, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan ROC firstname.lastname@example.org Kun-Chang Wu Department of International Trade, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan ROC email@example.com ABSTRACT This research, which investigated the dimensions of brand image and brand of origin, is aimed at finding out the relationships between these two elements within the women’s footwear industry in Taiwan. Specifically, it aimed to examine the influence of the level of brand image on consumers’ purchase intentions in this study. The three dimensions of brand image, as defined in this study, focused on three types of benefits provided by brand image; functional benefits, symbolic benefits, and experiential benefits. The research uses the dimensions innovativeness, design, prestige, and workmanship to evaluate the effect of brand of origin. For data collection, this research utilized convenience sampling of females in Taiwan. The questionnaires in this research were distributed around department stores and female footwear retail stores in southern, central, and northern areas of Taiwan. A total of 710 valid responses used in the data analysis procedures. This research uses descriptive statistical analysis to analyze the characters of the samples, and adopts factor analysis to simplify complex and diverse relationships among the variables. The efficiency of all questionnaires will be evaluated through reliability and validity analysis. This research uses structural equation modeling to test and examine the relationships among observed and latent variables with the purpose of highlighting and testing dimensions which can influence the variables significantly. Finally, this research purposed to evaluate and determine best practices for influencing consumer purchase intention within the women’s footwear industry in Taiwan. Key words: Brand Image, Brand of Origin, Purchase Intention INTRODUCTION To satisfy the need of consumers were always focused on the price and quality of products or services before, but branding is becoming more and more important for the consumers. The progress of production technology and the difference among each product become fewer. Due to these reasons, the method of profiting for enterprises focuses on how to increase consumer purchase intention and repurchase intention of their products today. Consequently, the purchase intention in female footwear industry was one of the main points of the study. Recently, most of the Taiwanese industries are still original equipment manufacturer. In this situation there are two methods to increase profit and enhance competitive advantage: the first is to set up the ability to achieve global-logistic and the second is to
and country of manufacture) as the basis for their evaluations of product quality. this study discussed the effect on consumer purchase intention through the path which was from brand of origin to brand image. the dumping on footwear from China causes the local footwear industry declined. design. There are two methods for solving the predicament: (1) Differentiation (2) Brand Development. According to the halo effect which was announced by Han (1989). 1999. and verbal product descriptions produce larger effect of country of origin than the actual product presence. (2) related to perception of a country’s
.Therefore. (2) To identify how the brand of origin affect brand image in the female footwear industry. They proposed that each dimension of brand of origin meted the criteria: (1) were consistently found in previous. they will perceive the American style shoes and Japanese high technology. 2003. Roth and Romeo(1992) differentiated four dimensions of brand of origin: innovativeness. price. the consumers did have different judgments against its country of origin (Samiee 1994.g. LITERATURE REVIEW Brand of Origin It is often difficult for buyers to discern the true intrinsic quality (e. explaining that country of origin of brand may influence brand image and brand equity.build the development of brand extension. Due to globalization. Verlegh & Steenkamp. the value which created by the brand will be higher than the products itself. Phau and Prendergast（2000）announced the concept of country of origin of brand (COB). therefore. There were eight studies that measured country image construct using different scaled items. this research found that country of origin have only somewhat generalization. Brand Image. This concept was explained that when consumers buy a name brand product such NIKE or TOTOTA. Lantz and Loeb (1996) defined country image as the consumers’ perceived overall evaluation of a particular country. flavor. even thought the product was produced or assembled in other country. but only one research study reported the item means (Cattin et al. color. According to the second way. once the brand was accepted by consumers. there is a massive amount of hybrid products available for consumers to choose from. brand. Peterson and Jolibert (1995) had done a meta-analysis on the effect of the country of origin.g. There were a lot of studies on the country of origin. and workmanship. It is necessary to develop and operate brands in the Taiwan footwear industry. (3) Whether the level of brand image can influence the consumers purchase intention in the female footwear industry. The research objectives in this study: (1) To find out the relationships between each dimension of brand image and each dimension of brand of origin in the female footwear industry. prestige. country of design. Aaker and Keller’s (1990) research discovered that a brand with positive image improves consumer loyalty and trust and strengthens consumers purchase intention. Lee & Wu. Brand image will influence the consumer purchase intention positively in this research. Orbaiz & Papadopoulos. and the larger samples generate larger effect of country of origin than smaller samples and single cue produced larger effect of country of origin than multiple cues. At present. Peterson & Jolibert. 1982) and only one research reported the correlation (White 1979) . fit) of products. consumers usually use extrinsic cues (e. Han (1989) announced the halo effect which interpreted that a buyer’s generally favorable perceptions about a particular country which causes favorable judgments about that country’s products and vice versa. therefore this research will focus on the theories of brand (e.g. Country of Origin of Brand). Tsai. 2004). Therefore. 1995. which analyzed those for the past three decades.
focusing on satisfying consumers’ basic needs. a brand image should be based on brand concept-image. design. According to Park. Brand Image Kotler (2000) defined that A brand is a name. Therefore. H2b: The symbolic dimension has a positive relationship with brand image in the female footwear industry. or other feature that distinguishes products and services from competitive offerings. Like the Aaker’s definition. The consumers depend on the brand image to deduct quality of product. 2000. and can be used for distinguishing with competitor's products and servers. H : The design dimension has a positive relationship with brand of origin
in the female footwear industry. Teas & Agarwal.. MacInnis’ (1986) research. 2003). H1d: The workmanship dimension has a positive relationship with brand of origin in the female footwear industry. H1c: The prestige dimension has a positive relationship with brand of origin in the female footwear industry. are applicable to a broad range of product categories. Orbaiz & Papadopoulos. (3) Experiential: subjective experience from using the product or service. subsequently stimulating consumer's purchasing behavior. brand of origin would influence the brand image. With reference to the foregoing the study raised nine hypotheses as below: H2:Each dimension of brand image has a positive relationship with brand image in the female footwear industry. Jaworski and. 1984. and they will have higher brand attitudes and purchase intention. the brand is a specific name or mark.
. which can be structured in the following three benefits: (1) Functional: actual benefits from using a product or service. Chao. Kamins and Marks (1991) announced that consumers’ regarding is familiarity and the product with good brand image. A positive product belief on a given origin will have a positive effect on brand image. Keller (1993) proposed that a brand as an association or recognition consumer’s make based on their memory toward a product. symbol. Verlegh & Steenkamp. term. 1998. stressing the ability to fulfill consumers’ inner needs and self-image. H1a: The innovativeness dimension has a positive relationship with brand of origin in the female footwear industry. The brand image is important in marketing because the brand image is regarded as the clue of a kind of information.production and marketing strengths and weaknesses. 1999. (3) either intuitively and/or based on previous researches. This leads to Hypothesis H1: H1: Each dimension of brand of origin has a positive relationship with brand of origin in the female footwear industry. The country of origin image (country image) has direct influence toward product beliefs (Erickson et al. (2) Symbolic: added value of a product or services. H : The functional dimension has a positive relationship with brand image
in the female footwear industry.
H3: Each dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on each dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. This means consumers’ purchasing behavior is affected by their choice of product and brand. timing. H3c-4: The workmanship dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the experiential dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3c-1: The innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the experiential dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3b-2: The design dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the symbolic dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. a retailer. brand. consumer behavior occurs when consumers are stimulated by external factors and come to a purchase decision based on their personal characteristics and decision making process. and quantity. H3a-1: The innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the functional dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3b-4: The workmanship dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the symbolic dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3b-1: The innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the symbolic dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. According to Kotler (2000).H2c: The experiential dimension has a positive relationship with brand image in the female footwear industry.
. Purchase Intention Purchase intention means probably attempting to buy a product (Dodds. H3c-3: The prestige dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the experiential dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3a-4: The workmanship dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the functional dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. & Grewal. 1991). H3a-2: The design dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the functional dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3a-3: The prestige dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the functional dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3c-2: The design dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the experiential dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. These factors included choosing a product. Monroe. H3b-3: The prestige dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the symbolic dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry.
people who were older than 40 years old did not applied to do the survey in this study. KOKKO. Three countries were chosen in the study for measure each item. therefore. and the purchase intention will be higher. they were excluded from the research population. and the sample of this study was selected from female footwear shoppers who received the questionnaire invitations to do a survey. Framework According to the literature review. Therefore. the better the confidence and attitude to the products are. Miss Sofi. Kamins and Marks (1991) advocated that consumers’ regarding is familiarity and the product with good brand image. Laroche et al. Dianan. However. and these countries were Taiwan. people who were less than 18 years old have inadequate power with consumption. GREEN PINE.Consumers’ purchase intentions always arise after consumer perceived value and perceived benefit. (1996) thought the consumers’ familiar degree to the products is the higher. Annalee was
. SENSE 1991. non-no. it will have higher satisfaction to the products too. The female footwear with Taiwanese brand such as AS. Look. People comparatively purchase those which are familiar with oneself and the products with good brand image because the good brand image can make you feel at ease and reliable. the following research hypotheses are proposed: H4: Each dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female industry. Therefore. Japan. The sampling method in this study was convenience sampling. and north areas of Taiwan. Comparatively speaking. Hence. The targeted brands used to do the survey were suitable for young consumers. the framework in the study was shown in Figure 1:
Brand of Origin (H1) ˙˙Innovativeness ˙˙Design ˙˙Prestige ˙˙Workmanship
Brand Image (H2) H3 ˙˙Functional ˙˙Symbolic ˙˙Experiential H4 Purchase Intention
Figure 1 The Research Framework METHODOLOGY Sampling Plan There were about 750 questionnaires distributed in this study. and Europe. central. will have higher brand attitudes and purchase intention. H4b: The symbolic dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female footwear industry. The study aimed at the research population of the ages between 18 and 40 years old. H4a: The experiential dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female footwear industry. The questionnaires were distribute to the female footwear shopper around the department stores and female footwear retail stores in south. the research chose purchasing intention to be the indicator of consumers making a buying decision identify whether or not the brand image will significantly influence consumer’s purchasing intention. H4a: The functional dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female footwear industry.
Minx.000 or less (61.8%). whereas the third largest educational group. and the statistic analysis method was SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). this study used Cronbach’s α to measure the coefficient of internal consistency of variables in the questionnaire. The descriptive statistic analysis was used to realize the distribution of the sample characteristics. 1996). It may be possible that the final data-producing sample closely represents the target population. was professional (9. color. The Japanese brands such as 2. 47 respondents did not finish the survey. 1992) were modified by the author in this study: use of new technology.1%). iki2. Desire. The largest group of personal income per month was NT$20. and experiential. The items used to measure each dimension of brand image were proposed by lots of empirical researches and modified by the author. while the measured behavior scores are termed observed or manifest variables (Byrne. The items used to measure each dimension of brand of origin (Roth and Romeo’s. which was slightly fewer than the second largest group. and discriminative validity were ensured respectively. 2001). the initial model is modified appropriately should evidence of lack-of-fit and model misspecification arise (Muller. Fiorucci.used to hint the respondents to do the survey. RESULT Sample Characteristic Among the 757 respondents who participated in the questionnaire survey. craftsmanship.2%) and the smallest age group was 40 years old or more (. Using SEM to understand social and behavioral circumstances whether or not (1) a good initial model is conceptualized based on a sound underlying substantive theory. appearance. design.(1991) perspectives such as design well. and Descriptive Statistic Analysis. status. use of new engineering advances. durability. The majority of respondents were single (85. one-factor vs.88. style. Data Analysis Method It analyzed the data with SPSS 10. The largest educational group was college (74. thereby strengthening the external validity of study findings.3%). Single factor confirmatory factor analysis.6%). and the European brands like TAS. The age range of the respondents was from 18 to 75. reliability and validity analysis. social approval. and manufacturing quality. symbolic. Therefore. ZUCCA.Maa. two factor tests for convergent validity. The largest age group was between 18 and 24 years old (64. safety.8%).8%). workmanship. and Ophélie were chosen in the survey of this study. (2) appropriate data are collected to estimate the unknown population parameters. prestige. while the second largest group of marital states married (14. For reliability. and (4) whether theoretically justified. (3) the fit of those data to the priori hypothesized model is assessed. ClayDerman. exclusivity. The theoretical phenomena that scales intend to measure are often called latent variables. and so the researcher has to use scales to measure the theoretical constructs. and
. The items of purchase intention were adopted Dodd’s et al. The average of the respondents’ age was 21. sensory pleasure. All instruments were modified from existing scale. Cumar. The dimensions of brand of origin and brand image were sub-constructs in this study. The second largest educational group was high school (9. variety.0 and AMOS statistic package software. The largest occupation group of the respondents was students. and cognitive stimulation. personal expression. this study required measures of seven latent variables: innovativeness.5%). bellwink. This resulted in a total of 710 valid responses used in the data analysis procedures. Instrumentation Some constructs cannot be observed directly in the social science field. functional.
89 for purchase intention.89 for the three dimensions of brand image.79 Acceptability for the price of product . As shown in Table 1.73
Reliability and Validity of Scales The reliability of scales used in this study was calculated by Cronbach's coefficient alpha.77 Symbolic (Cronbach’s alpha = .70.77 Appearance . coefficient alpha values ranged from .81 . and purchase intention obtained an acceptable level of a coefficient alpha above .77 .73 Experiential (Cronbach’s alpha = . brand image.65 Personal expression .65 .80 to . Table 1 Reliability of Scales and Item-Construct Factor Loadings Construct/Factor/Item Factor loading Brand of Origin Innovativeness (Cronbach’s alpha = . 1994).85 to .81) .82 Sensory pleasure .72 .94 Design well .53 .82 .84 Manufacturing quality .97 .77 Durability .89 Brand Image Functional (Cronbach’s alpha = .85) .51 .74 .49 .88 Style .89) .86 .90 Color .60 .66 .76 Variety .78 .88) .85 R2 .79 Status .88 Purchase Intention Probability of buy the product of this brand .65 .88 .40 . The coefficient alpha values exceeded the minimum standard of . from . All four dimensions of brand of origin.66 .67 .second largest group of personal income per month was between NT$20.001 and NT$25.62 .80 .91 Cognitive stimulation .80) .82 Workmanship (Cronbach’s alpha = .62 .63 Use of new technology .70 .58 .92) .98 Use of new engineering advances .63 Prestige (Cronbach’s alpha = .92 for the four dimensions of brand of origin.69 . indicating that
. The reason caused this situation was most of the respondents were students.93 Social approval .79 Willing to buy the product of this brand .89 Exclusivity .88) . providing good estimates of internal consistency reliability.85 Design (Cronbach’s alpha = .81 Craftsmanship . and .7 (Nunnally & Bernstein.42 .72 Safety .6%).000 (14.86 Accord with the economic benefits .78 .
Tatham.50 >. the convergent validity for each construct in this study was established (Hair.the scales used in this study were reliable. their values were very close to the threshold.48.43 137 .95
.11 .99.50. Although the values of PNFI and PGFI did not meet the thresholds.74
Root mean square error of approximation RMSEA GFI
AGFI TLI NFI CFI
. CFI=.99). & Black.04. The results implied that it has a good model fit. CFI=.96. were not satisfied with their relative recommended thresholds(GFI=. Therefore.86 >. The estimates of standardized factor loadings were used to determine the convergent validity of scales.82 . expect RMSE and PGFI. GFI=. and most of the goodness-of fit indices were satisfied with their relative recommended thresholds (χ = 92.05 ≧0 2 to 5 <.08 >.99.90
df χ / df
10. AGFI=.84 . As each factor loading on each construct was more than . 1998). The minimum factor loading in the confirmatory factor analysis for items in this study was .90 >. the goodness-offit results supported H1 (including H1a to H1d) and indicated that each dimension of brand of origin had a positive relationship with brand of origin.99.98.90 >. and all of the goodness-of-fit indices. TLI=.85
p>. Anderson..98).90 . The results of goodness-of-fit results completely supported
good fit χ
1424.68 . RMSEA=. Table 2 Goodness-of-Fit Results of Causal Structure Model of Purchase Intention Desired range of values for a Goodness-of-fitstatistics Absolute fit measures Chi-square test Degree of freedom Chi-square / degree of freedom ratio Goodness of fit index Incremental fit measures Adjusted good-of-fit index Turker-Lewis index Normed fit index Comparative fit index Parsimonious fit measures Parsimonious normed fit index Parsimonious goodness-of-fit index Path Analysis with Latent Variables The model fit results of second-order CFA model of brand of origin indicated that the model sufficiently fit the sample. The model fit results of second-order CFA of brand image indicated that the model sufficiently the sample. NFI=.63 (see Table 1).50
74.593** 6. Table 3 Regression Weights of the Hypothesized Causal Structure Model
Standardized β S.128 3. Table 2 presents goodness-of-fit results of the causal structure model.328 .023 -1.032** 4.85.591** -2.034 0.031 0. Functional<---Innovativeness -.288 0.H2 (including H2a toH2c) and indicated that each dimension of brand image had a positive relationship with brand image.703** 6.027 0.593 . 2001).074 0. AGFI=.047 5.863** <---Functional Purchase Intention .974** -2. GFI=.43.083 1. RMSEA=.58).029 0.417 0.035 0.893** Structural Path Result H3 Partial Supported H3a-1 Not Supported H3a-2 Supported H3a-3 Supported H3a-4 Supported H3b-1 Supported H3b-2 Supported H3b-3 Supported H3b-4 Supported H3c-1 Supported H3c-2 Supported H3c-3 Supported H3c-4 Supported H4 Supported H4a Supported H4b Not Supported H4c Supported
H4: Each dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female industry.116 .255 0.119 .472 -.200 .536** 5.960** 6.E.209 <---Symbolic Purchase Intention .078 0.348** <---Experiential
. t-value coefficient H3: Each dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on each dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry.350 -. those value of those indexes were very close to the thresholds and thus they represented an acceptable model fit.039 7. Although some fit indexes did not meet their thresholds.68.607** 3.030* 2. PGFI=.091 . PNFI=. The measurement error variance could represent a high degree than others (Byren.103 0.759** 9.420 .055 0.318 . The casual structure model of purchase intention was designed to test the hypothesis that purchase intention was influenced by the dimensions of brand of image through the dimensions of brand image. Purchase Intention .528 Functional<---Design Functional<---Prestige Functional<---Workmanship Symbolic<---Innovativeness Symbolic<---Design Symbolic<---Prestige Symbolic<---Workmanship Experiential<---Innovativeness Experiential<---Design Experiential<---Prestige Experiential<---Workmanship . After deleting those items that have higher degree of overlap the model fit results of causal structure model of purchase intention indicated that the model poor fit the sample (χ2=1424.034 0.037 0.11.051 0.
Using standardized data allows this study to compare the relative effect of each exogenous latent variable on the endogenous latent variable.202
-.01 .055 -.119
** ** **
.420 . p > . This indicated that innovativeness dimension had no significant effects on both functional and symbolic dimensions.091 -.
.055 -. Work = Workmanship.** p ≤ . innovativeness to symbolic (t = -1. * p ≤ .255 . There was also no significant relationship between symbolic dimension and purchase intention. p > .05).05).609.067
. and total effects.05). Table 4 Standardized Direct Effects.420
.05 As shown in Table 3.851.067
. Pres = Prestige. The analyses of direct.306
.318 . Func = Function.200 . as presented in Table 4. the regression weight of innovativeness to functional (t = -1.472
** ** **
Pres .05) were not significant.209.306
. and Total Effects of the Hypothesized Model Inn Direct effects Func Sym Exp Purchase Intention .350 .116 .593
.328 .318 . and there was no significant relationship between design dimension and symbolic dimension. may help to understand how exogenous variables influenced endogenous variables. p > .350 .328 . However.202
. and symbolic to purchase intention (t = -1. * p ≤ .288
Indirect effects PurchaseIntention Total effects Func Sym Exp PurchaseIntention ** p ≤ . design to symbolic (t = -1.116
* ** ** ** ** **
-. p > .01. the unstandardized data were difficult to make comparisons with each effect.417
Work . Indirect Effects.200
. Inn = Innovativeness.
The modified casual model removed the arrows representing the relationship between each dimension of brand of origin and each dimension of brand image. It is the two functional dimension and experiential dimension rather than symbolic dimension that affect purchase intention.319). the hypothesized model was modified to the model presented in Figure 2. According to the prior discussion. so that symbolic dimension of brand image wouldn’t affect purchase intention in this study. the respondents did not agree that the items used to measure symbolic dimension: social approval and personal expression. and innovativeness dimension to experiential dimension became unpredictable. Similarly. innovativeness to symbolic (-. Those unpredicted results may due to several reasons like brands we use in the existed market were mostly normal goods (mostly taken for comparatively lower price. distortions like most people may assume that the relationship between innovativeness dimension and symbolic dimension are positive. and symbolic to purchase intention (. The results indicated that the innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has a negatively indirect effect on purchase intention through the experiential dimension of brand image. The design dimension of brand has a positively indirect effect on purchase intention through the functional dimension and experiential dimension of brand image. The study aimed at female footwear. All the four indirect effects were significant: innovativeness to purchase intention (-. prestige to purchase intention (. Exp = Experiential In Table 4. Brand of Origin Brand Image Purchase Intention
.202). The consumers may have existed stereotype on the brands in this study.103).067). These results supported the empirical finding of Aaker and Keller. three of thirteen direct effects were not significant: innovativeness to functional (-. workmanship to purchase intention (. The innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has negative effect on symbolic dimension and experiential. However. this research has shown that their relationship was negative.306). The outcome of innovativeness dimension to symbolic dimension. GUCCI and so on.Sym = Symbolic. 1991) that brand image indeed positively affect purchase intention. DISCUSSION The data analysis indicated that brand of origin may influence purchase intention through brand image. therefore. therefore. The prestige dimension and workmanship dimension has positively indirect effects on purchase intention through each dimension of brand image. and that means less innovation). and purchase intention.055). the relationship between innovativeness dimension and experiential dimension were negative in this study. Nonetheless. the original hypothesis stated that each dimension of brand of original has positive relationships with each dimension of brand.091). the brand name in this study were not luxurious brand such as LV. and design to purchase intention (. and Kamins and Marks (1990.
and those brands did not involve high and low price brand. The targeted brands of each country were medium price. Although innovativeness dimension may have indirect effect on purchase intention negatively.” The study could only be demonstrated in Tainan City.88. Future studies may use a different sampling method to collect data. In any future study. The most important strategy for manufactures or sellers is to increase purchase intention of female footwear by improving workmanship and prestige such as improve the quality /use better material or letting consumers feel that their female footwear is exclusive. Manufactures or marketers could formulate a competitive strategy based on the modified model to keep current customers and to attract new
. other significant variables. therefore the objective for application of the marketing implications derived from the empirical test of six constructs on “a model of purchase intention towards brands from various brand of origin. It was not available for the application of marketing implication derived from the study in the whole consumers in Taiwan because most of the respondents in this study were college students or young consumers. The research results do not really apply to other age groups since most of the respondents in the study were students. other three dimensions of brand of origin have indirect effect on purchase intention positively. The average of the respondents’ age was 21. for example. may be added into the hypothesized causal structural model. it indicated that this study can only apply to the young consumers who were about 18 to 24 years old. such as involvement and price effect. Practical Implications Brand of origin could improve brand image and then affect purchase intention through the dimensions: innovativeness. It only represented the consumers in Taiwan instead of all of the consumers in the world. the results could be helpful to businesses to understand the value of their brands and the differences compared to others. randomly selecting respondents from a list of customers of a specific department store. prestige. If more samples with various representations could be selected. design. therefore the results in this study can only explain about the female footwear has medium price. and workmanship.Design Purchase Intention Prestige Experiential Workmanship
Figure 2 Modified Causal Model Limitations and Future Research The study was limited to the area of Taiwan. a rather restricted small area.
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