Digital Re-print - July | August 2012

Technological expertise helps to Understand enzyme recovery in pelleted feed
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Understand enzyme recovery in pelleted feed
by Jérôme Lamoine1, expert in Product Application Technologies, Adisseo, France

eed compounders have to ensure feed safety, which requires more heat treatment than before, especially to control salmonella. But they also have to handle pelleting parameters in order to guarantee the stability of additives, particularly enzymes, pelleting being the critical phase with a major risk of loss of activity. Adisseo carried out trials2 comparing various equipment: single or double classical conditioners, thermic and mechanical treatment equipment such as compactors or expanders, with different operating parameters: duration, energy, and tem-


peratures ranging from 80°C to 98°C. The tests were conducted on commercial feed compounds in Europe and Asia including NSP enzyme with a xylanase activity target of 1100 u/kg. As shown in Table 1, in most cases, the xylanase activity reached the target value. But, even if the same kind of equipment were used, the results differed according to numerous processing parameters such as the length of conditioning, the pelleting equipment characteristics, the feed output and the cooling. The following explanations are taken from literature and Adisseo’s technical expertise.

The role of conditioning
Literature shows that, due to steam addition, the conditioning temperature has a direct impact on enzyme recovery after pelleting3. Furthermore, because of the coating effect acting like a ‘fuse’, the enzyme inactivation is not always linear. Trials show that coated xylanase can resist higher temperatures, but only up to a certain level (On Graph 1 for example, the coated xylanase is stable up to 85°C, but loses 35 percent of activity at 95°C; the ‘fuse threshold’ is exceeded). The duration of conditioning also affects enzyme stability. Trials performed on a pilot pellet mill4 show that increasing the conditioning

Table 1: Effect of different conditioning equipments and pelleting settings on NSP enzyme activity in feed Trial conditions: Type of conditioner Feed output (tons/h) Temperature after conditioner Temperature before pellet mill Xylanase activity: After conditioner 1368 After pellet mill After cooler: units/kg (recovery vs target %) 1200 1205 1048 (95.3%) 1186 1260 904 (82.2%) Line 1 Single not reported 90°C 90°C 10.0 80°C 80°C Line 2 Line 3 Double 14.9 80°C 80°C 11.2 80°C 80°C Line 4 Line 5 Compactor 12.0 75°C 89°C Line 6 Expander 12.0 80°C 98°C 9.0 73°C 85°C Line 7

Target = 1100 units/kg (100.0%) 1079 1205 1052 (95.6%) Wear and settings of die and rolls impact, + lower output of the line = higher pelleting specific energy 1100 325 284 (25.8%) 700 678 542 (49.3%) no 0 0 (0.0%) sample no sample 1124 (102.2%)


Results on target

Bad cooling effect

High mechanical treatment

High mechanical and heat treatment

Moderate mechanical and heat treatment

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“The  more  you  increase  the  duration  of  conditioning  the  more  you  lose  enzyme  activity,”  example, the coated xylanase is stable up to 85°C, but loses 35% of activity at 95°C; the “fuse  says Jérôme Lamoine.  threshold” is exceeded).  FEATURE
Graph 1: Effect of conditioning temperature on different xylanases recovery after pelleting. 
100% 90% 80% % of activity in mash feed 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 65°C 75°C 85°C 95°C Processing temperature Coated xylanase Xylanase 1 Xylanase 2 Xylanase 3

Graph 2 : Effect of conditioning time at different temperatures, on β‐glucanase recovery after pelleting. 

100% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

%  of activity vs m ash

68% 100%



13% 26% 7% 15 min

30 sec





Processing temperature


Uncoated xylanases 1, 2, and 3 are destroyed at low temperature levels, when coated xylanase can resist up  temperature, the enzyme has lost 60% of its activity at 15 minutes compared to 30 seconds.  to 85°C. But at 95°C, its coating is less protective. 

Graph 1: Effect of conditioning temperature on different xylanases recovery after pelleting. Uncoated xylanases 1, 2, and 3 are destroyed at low temperature levels, when coated xylanase can resist up to 85°C. But at 95°C, its coating is less protective.

The same feed has been kept at different temperatures during 30 seconds or 15 minutes. At each 


Graph 2 : Effect of conditioning time at different temperatures, on βglucanase recovery after pelleting.

Coated enzymes can also resist to specific heat and mechanical treatments (like compactors  The same feed has been kept at different temperatures during 30 seconds or 15 minutes. At each temperature, the enzyme or expanders), but again, only up to a certain level (lines 5 to 7 in Table 1).  has lost

time from 30 seconds to 15 minutes leads to a 60 percent increase of enzyme loss of activity at any temperature from 75°C to 95°C (see Graph 2). “The more you increase the duration of conditioning the more you lose enzyme activity,” says Jérôme Lamoine.

The characteristics of pelleting equipments also have an impact on enzyme recovery in feed.  For  example,  an  increase  of  the  compression  ratio  (ratio  between  channel  length  and  Filip_Anzeige_130x180mm_GB_c_Filip_Anzeige_117x191mm_US_c 16.11.11 17:33 Seite 1 diameter of the die, L/d), improves the pellet quality, increases the final temperature of the  pellets,  but  results  in  higher  losses  of  enzymes.  Compression  ratio  and  also  production  output (tons per hour) of the line have an impact on the retention time of feed inside the  pellet  die.  Tecaliman  has  shown  that  extending the  duration  of  retention  in  the  pellet  mill  die increases the pellet temperature and decreases the enterobacteria content5. So Jérôme  Lamoine  wonders  what  happened  to  the  enzymes.  His  trials,  achieved  at  a  customer  feedmill, prove that when using two identical pelleting lines, with the same equipment, the  • sieve cleaning brushes same product and the same temperature, xylanase recovery drops from 79% to 21% (lines 3  • sieve cleaners with studs and 4 in  Table 1). The main difference between the two lines was the feed flows (14.9t/h vs 

60 percent of its activity at 15 minutes compared to 30 seconds.

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Pelleting equipment
Coated enzymes can also resist specific heat and mechanical treatments (like compactors or expanders), but again, only up to a certain level (lines 5 to 7 in Table 1). The characteristics of pelleting equipment also have an impact on enzyme recovery in feed. For example, an increase of the compression ratio (ratio between channel length and diameter of the die, L/d), improves the pellet quality, increases the final temperature of the pellets, but results in higher losses of enzymes. Compression ratio and also production output (tons per hour) of the line have an impact on the retention time of feed inside the pellet die.

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Feed output
Tecaliman has shown that extending the duration of retention in the pellet mill die increases the pellet temperature and decreases the enterobacteria content5. So Jérôme Lamoine wondered what happened to the enzymes. His trials, achieved at a customer feed mill, prove

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FEATURE that when using two identical pelleting lines, with the same equipment, the same product and the same temperature, xylanase recovery drops from 79 percent to 21 percent (lines 3 and 4 in Table 1). The main difference between the two lines was the feed flows (14.9t/h vs11.2t/h) that due to die wear and rolls gap settings, lead to a high difference in specific pelleting energy applied to feed. enzyme recovery, with losses of activity by 13 percent to 28 percent on Lines 1 and 2 for example. He concludes that, among all the pelleting parameters influencing enzyme stability, two key indicators should be highlighted: the feed temperature before pelleting which is a good indicator for characterizing heat resistance, and the specific energy of pelleting (kWh/t) “which is relevant to characterise losses during pelleting”. He points that this kind of study first requires the preparation of a strict protocol for each trial, and the methodical collection of representative samples (following the recommendations of the regulation6). He also points that, when the powder form of enzymes has reached its limits in the feed mill, the liquid form can be a safe alternative.

Cooling parameters
Finally, cooling parameters also affect enzymatic activity. Jérôme Lamoine shows that the cooler design (vertical or counter flow) and its settings (air speed linked to the duration of cooling) affect

1 Lamoine, J., 2011. Technological expertise for guaranteed performances. Conference during the Rovabio® Expertise Tour in Brugge, Belgium. 2 Lamoine, J., and Y. Laitem, 2011. Pelleting parameters influencing enzymes stability. Adisseo trials. 3 Beardsworth, P., 2004. Coating helps to keep enzyme « cold ». Feed Tech 8.6 4 Inborr, J. et al, 1994. Stability of feed enzymes to steam pelleting during feed processing. Animal Feed Science Technology 46. 5 Tecaliman, 2007. Etablissement des barèmes de décontamination par un procédé de granulation sur les aliments porc, pondeuse, poulet et dinde. Fiche Technique n°68. 6 Commission Regulation (EC) No 152/2009 of 27 January 2009, laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of feed. Annex I Methods of sampling.

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About the author
Jérôme Lamoine1, expert in Product Application Technologies, Adisseo More



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