PSAT Training Part 05 Model Description A - Components
Aymeric Rousseau Argonne National Laboratory
T W V I F V P J M PWM Torque (Nm) Rotational Speed (rd/s) Voltage (V) Current (A) Force (N) Linear Speed (m/s) Power (W) Inertia (kg.m2) Mass (kg) Pulse Width Modulation (0->1)
Effort Model outputs
e.J Start T.)
Torque FD Eng TX Converter T.J End W W W
WH T. conv.M
VEH 1/s V
Carrying the inertia to the vehicle allows to limit the number of integration (1/s) as well as avoid derivative equations
.J W F.J T..Vehicle Simulation Loop (i.
Teng = (1 − PWM ) * Tctt + PWM * Twott Fuelrate ( g / s ) = f (T . eng_map_hot_and_cold)
Hypothesis: From a requested torque from the powertrain controller. the engine model provides the torque (if within the normal operating conditions) and determines the fuel rate and emissions associated with the torque and speed. W )
Wott W Ctt
. W ) Emission ( g / s ) = f (T . Temperature correction factors have been incorporated for specific versions.Engine Model (eng_map_hot.
T max = f (W )
•Neural Network engine model (1. PWM Tstarter.7L MB CIDI) –
. J Wout
Info Teng.Engine Model (Cont’d)
Inputs/outputs Second I/O = Effort Third I/O = Flow Constraints
Cold = Ktemp * Hot cold _ map Thot − Teng _ block Ktemp = 1 + (1 − )*( ) hot _ map Thot − Tcold
■ eng_map_hot_corrected : Hot and cold maps are used. The model
introduces a penalty for on cold conditions based on the engine block temperature.
Cold = Ktemp * Hot Ktemp = ⎛ fuel _ rate 1 ⎜ * ∫ ⎜ max_ fuel _ rate time _ warmup ⎝ − Ktemp n − 1 time _ cooldown ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
. The model is
based on the understanding that a portion of the fuel energy is used in warming-up the engine and this is balanced by the heat loss from the engine proportional to the warm-up state of the engine.Engine Model (Cont’d)
■ eng_map_hot : Hot conditions only ■ eng_map_hot_and_cold : Hot and cold maps are used.
Equivalent_ ratio) ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1 Temp _ cat = ∫ ⎢ * PWMeng* (Thot − Temp _ cat) + * (1 − PWMeng) * (Thot − Temp _ cat)⎥ τ COLD ⎣τ HOT ⎦ 44 ⎡ 12 ⎤ CO2 = * ⎢Eng _ fuel _ carbon_ ratio* ( fuel _ flow − HC) − * CO⎥ 12 ⎣ 28 ⎦
. ex_electrically_heated_3way_cat_map.Exhaust Model (ex_3way_cat_map. ex_oxidation_cat_map)
Hypothesis: The catalyst temperature is computed using asymmetric first order linear model. Exhaust emissions are calculated using efficiency maps Equations
Emission_ cat = (1 − Eff ) * Emission_ eng Eff = f (Temp _ cat.
Equations (Cont’d) If the catalyst is electrically heated (ex_electrically_heated_3way_cat_map):
⎤ ⎡ 1 * PWMeng * Heat _ on * (Thot − Temp _ cat ) ⎥ ⎢τ ⎥ ⎢ HOT 1 ⎥ ⎢ + * PWMeng * (1 − Heat _ on) * (Thot − Temp _ cat ) ⎥ ⎢ τ HOT _ eng _ only ⎥ Temp _ cat = ∫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 + * (1 − PWMeng ) * Heat _ on * (Thot − Temp _ cat )⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ τ HOT _ motor _ only ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎢+ * (1 − PWMeng ) * (1 − Heat _ on) * (Thot − Temp _ cat ) ⎥ τ COLD ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣
•Catalyst temperature is calculated using a lumped-capacitance approach – ex_oxidation_cat_equation_curve_fit_ORNL
Temperature correction factors have been incorporated Equations
Pout = ∫
Pavail − Pout n −1 Time _ response Pavail = min[Pdmd . (P max_ hot − P max_ cold )* Ktemp + P max_ cold ] H 2 _ rate = (H 2 _ hot − H 2 _ cold )* Ktemp + H 2 _ cold Ploss _ accessorie s = f ( Pout )
Ktemp is handled similarly as eng_map_hot_corrected
.Fuel Cell Model (fc_H2_map_hot_and_cold & fc_reformer_map_hot_and_cold)
Hypothesis: The model (based on power vs. efficiency curves) requires that the user provides the relationship between power out of the fuel cell system and the fuel use and emissions out of the system.
equations based physic model for transient modeling – proprietary
.Fuel Cell Model (Cont’d)
Inputs/outputs On/Off. P / / Constraints Model Info P /
Pmax for Hot and Cold conditions Other Models •GCTool-Eng.
. The effect of losses and rotor inertia are taken into account on the electrical side when calculating the current corresponding to the produced torque.Electric Motor Model (mc_map_Pelec_funTW_volt_in)
Hypothesis: The motor/controller provides the demanded torque from the powertrain controller. The temperature is taken into account by limiting the time allowed above continuous torque.
= PWM * T max Pmeca − Ploss I = V Ploss = f (W .
Electric Motor Model (Cont’d)
Inputs/outputs On/Off. J I
T max = min[(1 − Ktemp ) * T max_ peak + Ktemp * T max_ cont . T max_ allowed _ by _ Im ax _ at _ actual _ voltage] ⎛ 1 Tactual ⎞ * ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ T max_ cont ⎟ Time _ max_ at _ overtorque ⎝ ⎠
Other Models •Map based model with power as input for fuel cell applications (mc_map_Pelec_funTW_pwr_in) •Physics based electric motor model for transient modeling – under development
. PWM V W Constraints
Ktemp = ∫
Power losses are handled as a 2-D lookup table indexed by rotor speed and input torque
P I = V W = T − Tloss ∑J
PWM Tin. the generator’s torque speed-dependent torque capability. J V
Info I W
T max = f (W )
For continuous and peak torque in propelling and regenerative conditions (4 limits)
. and the controller’s current limit.Generator Model (gc_generator_map_trq_in)
Hypothesis: The generator/controller model includes the effects of losses.
Temp ) R int = f (SOC .
V = Num _ cell * (Voc − R int ) Voc = f (SOC . Temp ) Qess _ gen − Qess _ case Temp = ∫ Mass * Cp I * Coulomb SOCabs = Ah _ max − ∫ 3600 Ah _ max = f ( Temp ) SOCusb = SOCabs − SOC min SOC max − SOC min
+ V -
. The equivalent circuit accounts for the circuit parameters of the battery pack as if it were a perfect open circuit voltage source in series with an internal resistance.Battery Model (ess_generic_map only)
Hypothesis: Battery pack is modeled as a charge reservoir and an
equivalent circuit whose parameters are a function of the remaining charge in the reservoir.
based on PNGV requirements – integrated(proprietary version) •Physics based battery model for transient modeling from PennState
.Battery Model (Cont’d)
Inputs/outputs Constraints / / Model I (Voc − V min) *V min ⎤ . developed by Ford.
Info V /
⎡ Voc2 P max_ dis = min⎢ R int ⎣ 4 * R int (V max− Voc) *V max P max_ ch = R int
•Lumped parameter model of ANL Li-ion battery – ess_liion_equation_curve_fit_ANL •RC model.
Therefore. J Wout
Info Tout. there is only one degree of dynamic freedom and thus the model has only one integrator. J Win
* sign (Wimp ) * Kclutch
Kclutch ( Nm / rd / s 2 ) = f (Wratio ) Wturb Wratio = Wimp
Equations for transient and idle conditions are different
.Torque Converter Model (cpl_torque_converter_map)
Hypothesis: The torque converter is modeled as two separate rigid bodies when the coupling is unlocked and as one when the coupling is locked. Equations
During _ Steady _ state
Tturb = Tratio * Wimp ⎛ Wturb Tratio = f ⎜ ⎜ Wimp ⎝ Timp Wimp = ∫ J Timp = Tin − Wimp ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
* sign (Wimp
Lock cmd ) * Kclutch Tin. The downstream portion of the torque converter unit is treated as being rigidly connected to the drivetrain.
. the transmitted torque depends on the input torque and the speed difference. J Wout
.Tin) * PWM * sign(Win − Wout) Tin − Tout Win = ∫ Jin Jout = Jin * PWM + Jcpl
when clutching when declutching Info Tout. J Win
Clutch PWM Tin. slipping. = min(Tslip _ max. and fully engaged. When slipping. When engaged... the clutch requests and transmits no torque.Clutch Model (cpl_clutch_map)
Hypothesis: The clutch has three states: disengaged. Equations (for transients only)
Tout = Tslip _ max* PWM * sign(Win − Wout) or. the entire torque is transmitted. When disengaged.
Info Tout. the losses are taken into account using torque losses to easily deal with regenerative conditions.Gearbox Model
Hypothesis: The gearbox model allows the torque multiplication and speed division based on the gear number or ratio (for CVT) command from the powertrain controller. Win . J Win
Tin − Tloss ∫ Jin = Jtx shaft 2
Tout Tloss Jout = Ratio * ( Tin − Tloss ) * Wout
= f ( Tin . Ratio ) = ( Jin + Jtx ) * Ratio
Win = Ratio For _ neutral Win = Jout
Gear # Tin. As for all the other models.
Info Tout. a torque coupler is a three-sprocket belt or chain drive whereby two torque sources combine their torques to provide to a drivetrain component such as the transmission or final drive. Both final drive and torque coupler models are similar in a sense that their functionality is to apply a fixed reduction ratio to both torque and speed by taking into account the losses. Equations
Tout = Ratio * (Tin − Tloss ) Tloss = f (Tin .Final Drive and Torque Coupler Models
Hypothesis: Physically. J Win
. Win ) Win = Ratio * Tout Jout = Jin * Ratio
J back Win
Tout = Ratio * (Tin − Tloss ) Tout _ front = Tout * Kfront Tout _ rear = Tout * Krear
Krear = f (Wratio _ rear ) Wrear − Wfront Wratio _ rear = 0 . J front T.Transfer Case Model
Hypothesis: The transfer case model contains blocks that calculate inertia. torque loss.5 + 0 . and front and rear torque split for four-wheel drive vehicles. J Wout_front Wout_back
Info T.5 * (Wrear + Wfront ) Kfront = 1 − Krear Win = Ratio * Wout Wout = Wout _ front + Wout _ rear 2
/ Tin. and speed. The transfer case model also implements the gear ratio effect on torque. inertia.
J Model Wout Win Other models: •Use detailed model for each accessory – integrated
. The torque losses are subtracted from the engine torque. Equations
Win = Wout Tout = Tin − Pacc * Eng _ ON * (Weng > Widle ) Win
Inputs/outputs Eng On/Off Info Tin. J Tout.Mechanical Accessories Model
Hypothesis: The model takes into account the mechanical losses associated with the powertrain.
The current losses are taken from the energy storage.Electrical Accessories Model
Hypothesis: The model takes into account the electrical losses associated with the powertrain. Equations
Vout = Vin Pacc Vin Inputs/outputs Iout = Iin −
Other models: •Use power instead of voltage for fuel cell – integrated •Use detailed model for each accessory – integrated
/ Vin Iout
Info Vout Iin
T Radius T − Tin − Tbrake W V = R F = Mdynamic =
J + Jwh
Brake PWM Tin.Wheel Model
Hypothesis: The wheel models transform rotational energy to linear (W to V and T to F). The losses due to mechanical brakes and the tire friction are taken into account in this model. J Wout
where among the forces are aerodynamic drag. M /
Info / V
Fin − Floss Mstatic + Mdynamic
Floss = 0 . and the force of gravity that must be overcome to climb a grade. The force provided by the powertrain as well as the vehicle losses are used to calculate the actual vehicle speed. 5 * ρ * Cd * FA * V
+ mg sin( α )
/ F.Vehicle Model
Hypothesis: The classic equation for longitudinal vehicle dynamics is implemented in the model: F=ma.