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BCS Certificate Level

**Computer & Network Technology
**

Week 9

Nundloll Arvin

They can be used for up to 4 or 5 variables. They are a visual representation of a truth table. . Expression are most commonly expressed in sum of products form.Karnaugh Maps K-Maps are a convenient way to simplify Boolean Expressions.

B + A.B + A. .B minterms are represented by a 1 in the corresponding location in the K map.Truth table to K-Map B A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 P 1 1 0 1 A 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 The expression is: A.

K-Maps Adjacent 1’s can be “paired off” Any variable which is both a 1 and a zero in this pairing can be eliminated Pairs may be adjacent horizontally or vertically B A B is eliminated. leaving B as the term another pair . leaving A as the term The expression becomes A + B 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 a pair A is eliminated.

B.B. 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 Notice the code sequence: 00 01 11 10 – a Gray code.C + A.C 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 BC A 00 01 11 10 0 1 1 1 1 One square filled in for each minterm.K-Maps (Cont. .) Two Variable K-Map A B C 0 0 0 P 0 A.B.C + A.

we can “wrap around” and this pair equates to A.C as A is eliminated. .C as before.C as B is eliminated.C + B.Grouping the Pairs BC A 0 1 1 equates to B. 00 01 11 10 1 1 Our truth table simplifies to A. Here.

.Groups of 4 Groups of 4 in a block can be used to eliminate two variables: BC A 00 0 1 01 11 1 1 10 1 1 The solution is B because it is a 1 over the whole block (vertical pairs) = BC + BC = B(C + C) = B.

B.C 00 A.B.C A.B.B.C A.B.C 0 1 10 A.B.C Extreme ends of same row considered adjacent .B.B.C A.C A.C A.B.C 10 A.C 01 A.C 11 A.B.C A.B.Karnaugh Maps Three Variable K-Map A BC 00 A.B.

C A.C BC A 00 01 11 10 0 1 X= .Karnaugh Maps Three Variable K-Map example X A.C A.B.B.B.C A.B.

The Block of 4. again A BC 00 1 1 01 11 10 1 1 0 1 X=C .

B. .Karnaugh Maps Two Variable K-Map A B C 0 0 0 P 0 A. some views lead to groupings which are easier to see.C + A.B.C 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 AB C 00 01 11 10 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 There is more than one way to label the axes of the K-Map.C + A.B.

We can use these as 1’s if it helps. A 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 P 0 x 1 x 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 AB C 0 00 01 1 11 1 10 1 x x 1 .Don’t Care States Sometimes in a truth table it does not matter if the output is a zero or a one Traditionally marked with an x.

C.D A.B.B.B.Karnaugh Maps Four Variable K-Map CD AB 00 A.B.C.C.B.C.C.C.C.B.D A.D A.C.D A.B.C.C.B.B.D 11 A.B.D A.C.B.D A.C.C.B.B.B.C.D A.D A.C.B.B.B.D 10 A.B.C.D A.C.D A.C.D A.C.D .D 01 A.D Four corners adjacent A.B.D A.D A.B.D 00 01 11 10 A.C.D A.

B.B.Karnaugh Maps Four Variable K-Map example F A.C.B.D A.C.D A.C.D AB CD 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 F= .C.C.B.D+ A.D A.B.C.B.D A.C.B.D A.

B.C.B.D A.D A.C.B.B.B.C .D A.D AB CD 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 1 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 F = B.C.Karnaugh Maps Four Variable K-Map solution F A.D + A.B.D+ A.D A.C.C.C.D A.C.B.

We can equally well work with the 0’s AB 00 C 0 0 1 0 11 1 10 1 01 11 10 0 0 AB 00 C 0 1 01 1 1 P = (A + B).(A + C) P = A.C equivalent .B + A.Product-of-Sums A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 P 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 We have populated the maps with 1’s using sum-of-products extracted from the truth table.

group the zeros instead of the ones particularly when the number and patterns of zeros is simpler than the ones .e.Inverted K Maps In some cases a better simplification can be obtained if the inverse of the output is considered i.

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