THESIS NEEDS ANALYSIS FOR ENGLISH COMMUNICATION SKILLS OF THAI AIRWAYS INTERNATIONAL CABIN CREW
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Science (Development Communication) Graduate School, Kasetsart University 2005 ISBN 974-9838-10-6
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to Advisor Committee, Mr. Suchoti Daosukho as my thesis advisor for his valuable suggestions, understanding, supports throughout my thesis process, Assistant Professor Dr. Praderm Chumjai, as my major co-advisor, for his inspiration and consultation to conduct my thesis, Assistant Professor Dr. Pichai Tongdeelert, for all suggestions, and Assistant Professor Dr. Chairit Photisuvan for his approval. I would like to express my special thanks to Assistant Professor Dr. Jumnongruk Udomsade for her suggestions and supports me also. My sincere thanks are conveyed to my colleagues at Thai Airways International for their cooperation to answer the questionnaire and my classmate in Batch 5 especially Miss Premkamol Iamming and Miss Siriwan Siritaweechai for their supports. Last but not least, I would like to dedicate this work to my beloved sister Miss Niramal Chenaksara for her supports and all of her valuable taking care of me. Panrattana Chenaksara May, 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Problem Statement Objectives Expected Results Definitions of Terms CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Needs Needs Analysis Adult Education Communication Communication and Culture Communication Skills Thai Airways International Public Company Limited Related Researches CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Research Design and Methods Population Sample size Research Instrument Data Collection Data Analysis (iii) (v) 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 8 18 20 26 30 37 43 47 47 47 47 48 50 50
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Page CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results from Cabin Crew Discussion CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions of the Study Recommendations of the Study Suggestions for further Study REFERENCES APPENDIX Questionnaire for Cabin Crew 90 51 51 67 71 71 73 74 76 80
LIST OF TABLES Table 1 2 3 General Characteristics of Cabin Crew English communication skills’ background of Cabin Crew English language training courses received by the Cabin Crew from Thai Airways International Extra English courses attend by the Cabin Crew Reason of Cabin Crew for taking extra English courses Level of English communication skills of Cabin Crew when communicating with passengers on various topics Level of communication problem (listening and speaking skills) of Cabin Crew Level of listening problems of the Cabin Crew with the accent of non Thai passengers Causes of listening problem of Cabin Crew Causes of speaking problem of Cabin Crew Frequency of occurrence of the Cabin Crew Page 52 53
53 54 54
4 5 6
61 62 62 63
9 10 11
LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED) Table 12 13 14 Cabin Crew problem way of solving English communication Level of Cabin Crew needs for improving English training course The Characteristics of English training course that the Cabin Crew preferred Page 63 64
LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 2 Needs Analysis model Model of Intercultural communication Page 11 29
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION It is obvious that English is an international language because it is the most widespread medium of international communication with regard to the number and geographical spread of its speakers and the large number of non-native speakers who use it as a part at least of their international contact. Proficiency in English is a requirement for success both in education and work (Khemateerakul, 1996). Good communication depends first - but not entirely - on language. In the professional world of English-speaking North America, and indeed in much of the modern world, a mastery of English is essential both to advancement of individual careers and to the fulfillment of professional duties. Thus, if English is a second language, feeling as an inability to speak or write like a native is major professional handicap. There are many kinds of business in the world that heavily depend on English as a medium of communication such as hotel, tourism, airlines, etc. A lot of national airlines were started in the early postwar period, at a time when nationalization was fashionable and when defense considerations placed a high value on the national airline as a military reserve. Without state investment many national airlines would not have been able to afford up-to-date aircraft and would have found it difficult to survive in the limited markets of the time. Governments subsidized them in order to protect local employment, to promote trade and tourism and to help the country’s balance of payments. Another reason for government involvement is quite simply, prestige. A flag carrier is often seen as a status symbol, an indicator of national ‘virility’, especially in developing countries. There are approximately 1200 scheduled airlines in the world, of which some 300 operate on international route. Airlines exist in many different shapes and sizes (Hanlon, 1996).
Thai Airways International is one of leading Airlines in Asia that serves many destinations to the world. The President of Thai Airways International, Mr. Kanok Abhiradee, said that his mission is to re-establish THAI as the world’s top airline. His vision is to boost the airline’s competitiveness. To do this, the airlines initial focus would be on manpower, which is believed to be Thai’s major strength. Mr. Abhiradee said “We are not strong on the financial and technology sides, so we have to bring out the best in us, which is service with a touch of Thai,” (Bangkok Post, 2002). Thai Airways International show - case the Thai charm and hospitality that is a good and unique to the world. Moreover, to make passengers feel like at home. In this regard, communication is a factor to service’s success. Communication is very important to all organization. Externally, a business cannot provide a good service if it does not communicate effectively and efficiently. Customers will go elsewhere if they cannot get their orders filled correctly and quickly. People in business and industry continually encounter problems in communication. The message they try to convey become distorted or are misunderstood. Individuals with different backgrounds have different interpretations of certain words and expression. Expression of ideas was clearly but the audiences had not been understood at all. Problem Statement Thai Airways International employees are mostly Thai or non-native English speakers and there are some communication problems with the passengers, most of them are foreigners, especially for the “front line” service staff e.g., cabin crew, captains, check in staff. English language is used as the second language when communicating with the passengers so cabin crew encounters with difficulty. English communication in terms of speaking and listening are the heart of communication skills of cabin crew. Thai cabin crew has to have a minimum score of 550 to pass the TOEIC test. The TOEIC test emphasizes on reading, writing, listening. In the real working situation of cabin crew, speaking and listening are the most important communication skills.
Thai Airways provides English courses for working routine, Public Address and safety procedures. Cabin crew can speak English fluently only working routine e.g. food, drink. But in the real situation, communication between crew and passengers are not limited only to the working routine. Mr. Nikom Raviyan (2004), Vice President of In-flight Services & Cabin Crew Development Department, indicated that some cabin crew cannot communicate efficiently with the passengers who need more information, which are beyond the working routine, so communication problems occurred. This research was conducted in order to solve the communication problems beyond the working routine with the passengers that had the process as follows: Objectives The objectives of the study were: 1. To study general characteristics of cabin crew. 2. To determine English communication skills apart from working routine of Thai Airways International cabin crew. 3. To examine the English communication problems between cabin crew and passengers. 4. To analyze the English Training Needs for English communication skills Improvement. 5. To describe comments and suggestion of cabin crew.
Expected Results Findings will be beneficial for Thai Airways Human Resources Development in developing the English communication competency of the cabin crew and the improvement of English training courses. Definitions of Terms Cabin Crew refers to flight attendants (male and female) who are working in Royal Business Class and /or Economy Class in the Intercontinental Routes of Thai Airways International. Intercontinental Routes refer to route network to 71 destinations in 34 countries around the world which are North Pacific Routes, European Routes, Australian and New Zealand Routes, and Regional Routes of Thai Airways International. English Communication Skills refer to capability of speaking, and listening in English between cabin crew and passengers of Thai Airways International. Listening skill refers the capability of perceiving and understanding in English communication of Thai Airways International cabin crew. Speaking skill refers to ability to converse or interact of Thai Airways International cabin crew to passengers. Working routines communication refers to English communication between cabin crew and passengers concerning services on board, public address and safety procedures of Thai Airways International.
English communication skills apart from working routine refer to the capability of speaking and listening in English between cabin crew and passengers beyond the services on board and safety procedure on board such as information on ground services, general information, hotel information, and tourism etc. Passengers refer to foreign customers who are able to communicate in English with cabin crew of Thai Airways International. Needs refers to the desire and expectation from English language training courses that are beyond the working routine of cabin crew from Thai Airways International. Problems refer to the difficulties and obstacles when communicating in English to passengers regarding working routines and apart from working routines. Standard of recruitment refers to the test and interview of cabin crew which are 550 TOEIC score as minimum and Thai and English interview. Training refers to the needs of study toward the English courses by Thai Airways International cabin crew.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The study of needs analysis for English communication skills of Thai Airways International cabin crew reviewed literature and related researches on the following issues: 1. Needs 2. Needs Analysis 3. Adult Education 4. Communication 5. Communication and Culture 6. Communication Skills 7. Thai Airways International Public Company Limited 8. Related Researches Needs Needs in general There are many definitions of needs but in this thesis shows about the needs that concern about the expectation of the learners or students toward the courses. Needs can refer to students’ study or job requirement, that is, what they have to be able to do at the end of their language course. This is a goal-oriented definition of needs. Needs in this sense are perhaps more appropriately described as objectives (Widdowson, 1983). Needs can mean ‘what the user-institution or society at large regards as necessary or desirable to be learnt from a program of language instruction (Mountford, 1981).
Needs mean the ability to comprehend and / or produce the linguistic features of the target situation (Hatchison and Waters, 1987). Needs refer to what the students themselves would like to gain from the language course. This view of needs implies that students may have personal aims in addition to or even in opposition to the requirements of their studies or jobs (Robinson, 1991). Type of Needs Nadler (1989) stated that a need for training is somehow identified, and often incorrectly. To begin with, what is a need? As usually defined, it is the difference between a goal (or what is expected) and what actually exists. In essence, then, there is no need unless somebody feels a lack of some kind. He classified needs into three types as follows: 1. State Needs: These arise directly out of the previous event, “Specify Job Performance.” From the specifics, it is possible to identify exactly what a person should do and therefore to give a specific indication of the need of somebody who is doing that job. 2. Implied Needs: It is not specifically stated but likewise arises from the situation. If somebody is being considered for a promotion or transfer, there is at least an implied need for some learning so that the individual will perform effectively when placed on the new job. For a person on the existing job, the implied need can arise from a change in process, technology, or materials. The Implied Need can also arise when a new worker enters an existing unit. Tasks may be reassigned, requiring those already doing the job to perform differently. In a sense, some of the implied needs are really stated needs that have not been spelled out by the organization or those introducing change into the work situation. 3. Felt Needs: There is almost universal agreement that learning takes place much more effectively when the learner feels the need to learn. The Stated and Implied Needs flow from
individual. When a person wants to perform better and the gap between performance and expectation is clear, there is a felt need. One problem in going to the employee to determine needs, without first having completed the event “Specific Job Performance,” is that the Designer is more likely to get wants than needs. Wants are legitimate, but will not meet the target indicated earlier of improving job performance. Needs are directly related to job performance, now or in the identifiable future. Needs Analysis Definition of Needs Analysis Needs Analysis have been defined in several ways e.g. Needs Analysis is concerned with identifying general and specific language needs that can be addressed in developing goals, objectives and content in a language program. It may focus either on the general parameters of a language program e.g. by obtaining data on who the learners are, their present level of language proficiency, teacher and learner goals and expectations the teacher’s skills and level of proficiency in the target language, constraints of time and budget, available instructional resources, as well as societal expectations or on a specific needs such as the kind of listening comprehension training needed for foreign students attending graduate seminar in biology (Richards and Rodgers, 1986). Needs Analysis is the use of surveys to identify both specific problems experienced by a target group, usually by comparing what exists with what would be preferred, and potential solutions to those problems (Lawlence et al., 1991). Needs Analysis is a set of procedures for specifying the parameters of a course of study. Such parameters include the criteria and rationale for grouping learners, the selection and
sequencing of course content, methodology, and course length, intensity and number of hours (Nunan, 1988b). Needs Analysis is an investigation, in light of specification of the tasks a learner or group of learners will be requires to perform in the target language need to be learnt in order to bring about proficiency in these particular tasks. The results of needs analysis can be used to determine a syllabus and suitable teaching techniques (Brumfit and Roberts, 1987). These definitions focus on an investigation of task specifications that learners will perform in target situation. There are many definitions of the needs which are open to contextual interpretations and contain value judgements. It is essential in the field of language development to examine the needs since it provides information which can be used to form the syllabus and other implementation factors of the course. Moreover, if where deficiencies of the course appear needs can be established to remedy; improve or evaluate the course. During the 1970s, according to Nunan (1988a), needs analysis procedures made their appearance in language planning. While such procedures have a long tradition in other areas of adult learning, their use in language teaching became widespread with their adoption and espousal by the Council of Europe’s modern language project. In the council of Europe documents needs analysis is used as the initial process for the specification of behavioral objectives. It is from these objectives that more detailed aspects of the syllabus such as functions, notion, topics, and structural exponents are derived. In the field of language program planning, needs analysis refers to an array of procedures for identifying and validating needs, and establishing priorities among them. Richard (1990) stated needs analysis serves three main purposes of: 1. Providing a mechanism for obtaining a wider range of input into the content, design, and implementation of a language program.
2. Identifying general or specific language needs that can be addressed in developing goals, objectives and content for a language program. 3. Providing data that can serve as the basis for reviewing and evaluating an existing program. Michalak and Yager (1979) stated that Needs Analysis is conducted to identify the cause of the problem. Needs Analysis will be useful for the development of a training program or a total management development system. This A Needs Analysis Model (fig.1) series as a guideline for asking questions in an interview, for constructing questions in a questionnaire, or for analyzing the results of our investigation.
Needs Analysis Model
Behavior Discrepancy Identification
Cost / Value Analysis Skill / knowledge Deficiency Can’t do Job Aid Training
Feedback Practice Change the Job Transfer or Terminate
Don’t do Reward/Punishment Incongruence Lack of Inadequate Obstacle in System
Figure 1 Needs Analysis Model Source: Michalak and Yager (1979: 8)
Why use Needs Analysis Techniques There are four major reasons why a needs analysis must done before the training program is developed, (Michalak and Yager, 1979) stated as follows: 1. Identify specific problem areas in the organization. The first and most important reason for using needs analysis techniques is that both the trainer and management will know the problems of organization so that the most appropriate training response will be directed to those organization problems. 2. Obtain Management Commitment. The common management opinion of training as a nice thing to do can be laid directly at the doorstep of poor or nonexistent needs analysis. The way to obtain management commitment to train is to make sure that the training directly affects what happens in that manager’s organization. Trainers should see themselves in the same way that controllers or engineering managers see their departments, that is as making direct contributions to the bottom line. Trainers must be careful so that they do not kid themselves into thinking management commitment is present because managers approve of, support, pay for, send people to, or even help teach in the training program. Management commitment comes from the knowledge that the training will affect performance, profit, results, and, thus, their own performance. At the end of the year all managers must account for themselves. If training clearly improves their performance and they will know it then trainers will always have true management commitment. It has been our experience that when the trainer can improve performance on the job, management commitment follows. Training program will be supported by management rather than avoided or cut by them; training budget will be supported by management rather than trimmed. The problem of taking employees off the job and putting them into the classroom will become less the trainer’s problem than a co-problem of management and trainer.
3. Develop “before” data for effective evaluation. Another very important reason for doing a needs analysis is that unless some data are developed prior to training program, the evaluations that take place after the program is completed may not be valid. By looking at the data before any training is done the trainer can establish milestones against which to measure the effectiveness of the training conducted. 4. Determined the value / cost ratio of training. One reason training is looked upon as a nuisance rather than as a contributor to the bottom line of the organization is that trainers seldom develop a value / cost ratio for the training they conduct. If the training department does a through needs analysis and identifies the problems and the performance deficiencies, there will be many instances in which management can put a cost factor on the training needs. The major question that the trainer needs to address in value / cost analysis is: “What is the difference between the cost of no training versus the cost of training?” This means finding out what the costs would be if the situation continues without any solution being applied. Then an analysis and determination must be made of the cost conducting the training that can change the situation. The difference between these two factors will usually tell both trainer and manager whether or not the training should be conducted. There are a number of techniques that can be used by trainers to determine training need within the organization, (Michalak and Yager, 1979) gives some examples of techniques of needs analysis, how to develop an effective questionnaire, characteristics of questionnaire and some tips for writing as follows: Techniques of Needs Analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. Individual Interviews. Group Interviews Questionnaires and Survey Instruments Force-Field Analysis
5. Critical-Incident Technique 6. Behavioral Scales In this study, the Questionnaires and Survey Instrument will be emphasized because the number of people from whom the interviewer needs to get information is too large for interviews, questionnaires and/or survey instruments can be used. How to Develop an Effective Questionnaire In order to develop a questionnaire that obtains the necessary information several steps must be taken: 1. A small sample (two or three people) should be interviewed in order to learn some of terminology and some of general areas that the questionnaire should be approached. 2. The questionnaire should be developed by using the same method as discussed in the “interviewing by objectives” wanted from the questionnaire and then must identify the kinds of questions that should be asked in order to get that information. 3. The questionnaire must be tested. This is essential. It is amazing how many times we write out a question that seems very clear only to find that other people interpret it in two or three different ways. One way to test a questionnaire or survey or survey instrument is by getting two employees (one who is naive about the subject matter being discussed and more who is an expert on the subject) to answer the questionnaire. The trainer should sit directly across the table so that he or she can observe the expression of the respondent; a slight hesitation, a furrowed brow, or possibly some other indication of confusion might be noted. At that point the trainer should interrupt and ask, “what is the matter?” It may be, for example that the respondent will say. “In this question, I am not sure what you mean by ‘the work group.’ Are you talking about the people
in my office or are you talking about the whole plant?” This kind of feedback will allow the trainer to reword the question so that the possibility of misinterpretation is reduced. If the number of questionnaires to be sent out is large (200 or more), we strongly recommend that the questionnaire be tested even beyond the method just described. The trainer should send the questionnaire to 10 or 20 people and when the results come in, analyze them carefully. It is often the case that people in various parts of the organization will read the questions differently, and, therefore, the information will not be helpful. The trainer may discover that some questions are leading by the pattern of responses. All positive or all negative responses should indicate some suspicion of the way the question is worded. Characteristics of Questionnaire The characteristics of a questionnaire should be: 1. Confidentiality. One of the most important thing that must be remembered by someone using a questionnaire is that there is a potential for anxiety about the confidentially of questionnaire on the part of the respondents. In some cases, we have found an unfortunate history of a lack of confidentiality on the part of the people conducting surveys. When we approached a group, we were greeted by comments like, “Hey we are not going to tell you anything. Two years ago they conducted a survey around here and a short time afterward, three people got fired. When a survey questionnaire is conducted, it is important that the respondents be given every assurance of confidentiality. In addition to verbal assurances, there are a number of techniques that can be used in order to give the impression of confidentiality so that the real information can be obtained from those who are completing the instrument. One commonly used technique is to assign respondents a code number or to allow them to write a five-digit code number in the corner of questionnaire. They keep a copy of the fivedigit code number so that when they complete a second questionnaire at a later date, the trainer
will not have to identify who wrote which questionnaire by name but can simply match up the code numbers in the before and after. Another technique is to avoid asking for any biographical data on the questionnaire. If biographical data is necessary (that is, if the trainer needs to know from what levels in the organization the people are coming, from what age of group, from what sex group, etc), rather than asking a question that pinpoints age exactly, the trainer can ask the respondent to denote the age bracket into which he or she falls; for example, an alternative to “Please state your age________” would be “check off the age bracket into which you fall”. (a) under 25 (c) 40 to 55 (b) 25 to 40 (d) over 55
Respondents to the questionnaires that can obtain biographical information often feel that they have been pinpointed (and, in fact, an unscrupulous trainer could identify most of the respondents through their biographical data). Usually the need for accurate data on the important questions in the questionnaire outweighs the need for identifying the individual respondents. Another important fact about confidentiality should be kept in mind. When a trainer goes into an organization and collects data in a needs analysis, that information is property of the client that is, the manager of the department. A major concern (base on our previous experiences) is that someone within the personnel department, knowing that the trainer is collecting data on department X, may see this as a convenient way to get information about department X. the trainer cannot be successful in collecting data unless he or she is trusted, and it is the trainer’s responsibility to gain this trust by vigorously protecting the confidentiality of the data. 2. Closing the Loop. Another important characteristic of an effective questionnaire is that the people who have given information somehow should be brought back into the loop. (The Communications Loop refers to the flow of information and feedback. When someone gives information gets feedback, reaction, or evaluation, the second half of the loop is formed, and the
loop is closed.) When participants do not receive any feedback about the results of the questionnaire or interviews, they may greet subsequent attempts with hostility or at best, indifference. Therefore, we believe it is essential that the loop be closed. The minimum that should be done is that a letter be sent to all those who participated in the questionnaire or interviews thanking them for their participation and assuring them that the information they gave will be used productively, that is, in a training program or in a reengineering of the organization. This is the very least that should be done. We recommend, however, something more. Once the data have been analyzed and some general trends have been seen, we strongly recommend that some or all of information be shared with the people who participated in the survey. This can be done through a letter or through small group meetings. It is not necessary that every item be fed back to the participants. This, in fact, would be far more than they need or want to know. However, the important trends should be shared with the participants. One concern we often encounter when we work with trainers and managers, is: “If you ask people for information and they tell you things that you can not do anything about, you are going to be worse off than if you had not asked them for information in the first place.” We strongly disagree with disagree with this kind of thinking because it assumes that people are reasonable. The problem can be avoided by feeding back the results of the survey to the people in the following three categories. The first two categories will probably constitute less than onequarter of all the data received and the third will constitute the majority of the information. 2.1 Information about which management can do something immediately. This is exactly the way the data should be reported. Here are some things you told us and here are the steps we have already taken in order to improve the situation you brought to our attention.” 2.2 Information about which management can do nothing. “There were several things, as you might expect that we received complaints about which, unfortunately, we are just stuck with. For example, 83 percent of the respondents complained that the parking lot on the other side of the railroad tracks is inconvenient, particularly in wet or snowy weather. We
recognize the problem but we are just not able to do anything about it.” This kind of straightforward feedback is generally received positively. The participants recognize the validity of management’s inability to change the situation and yet, they feel very positive about the fact that their complaint has been registered, recognized, and, in fact, understood. 2.3 Information about which management can do something but requires further information or specific planning. Here are some problem areas you pinpointed in the organization, and management is currently working on them. We have set up task forces to deal with each of these areas, and as results become known we will be feeding these back to you through your supervisors.” Some Tips for Writing Questionnaire Hints that are often passed on to questionnaire designers: 1. Write explicit instruction so that the respondents will know exactly what to do. 2. Provide a space after each question for a comment from the respondents will know. 3. Be sure that the respondents can validly answer the questions. 4. Be specific. 5. Highlight negative to reduce the likelihood of someone misreading the question. 6. Ask one question at a time. 7. Use descriptive terms to help participants answer question that have a scale. Adult Education Adult education takes advantage of the older person’s superior ability to solve problems which require reason and judgment. Adult education ties in with the experiences of adults, with their behavior patterns, with their basic royalties, with their aptitudes, and with their environment. Adult education tries to discover what kinds of materials mature people can best learn and by what procedures they can learn most effectively. Adult education is also concerned,
as is education at other levels, with the problem of determining the true objectives of the material to be taught (Barton et al., 1976). Adult Education is concerned about these topics which are the desire to learn, understand the task, and purposes of education that (Barton et al., 1976) describes as follows: The Desire to Learn The desire to learn is essential to effective learning. This is especially true with adults who are under no compulsion to attend classes or to prepare assignments. The desire to learn may come from a deep interest in some subject for its own sake, or it may result from a feeling of need for some new knowledge or skill to meet a perplexing problem. It may also be caught from teachers and associates, especially those who are admired and respected. An important part of the teacher’s job is to arouse in his students a strong desire alive and strong throughout the course. Learning is an emotional problem as well as an intellectual one; consequently the student must want to learn or he will not achieve much, if anything, especially if he is an adult. Understanding of the Task The learner should have a clear understanding of what he should do to achieve the desire goal. He should know what he should read, what meetings he should attend, what exercises he could, what experiments he should perform, and what projects he should carry to a successful completion. If the student understands what the task is, he will learn much more rapidly and effectively than he will if he is groping about in the dark. Understanding the task has another aspect. The teaching materials and activities should be on the level of student’s education background and experiences. If the instruction is pitched on a level far above the student’s ability to understand it, he will become discouraged and very little learning will take place. Likewise, if the work is on a level that is too low, the student will not be challenged and may lose interest.
Four Purposes of Education The education policies commission formulated “The Purposes of Education in America Democracy.” These purposes are as appropriate as they were when they were written. These purposes are: 1. 2. 3. 4. The Objectives of Self-Realization. The Objectives of Human Relationship. The Objectives of Economic Efficiency. The Objectives of Civic Responsibility.
The most authoritative classification of objectives as follows: 1. Cognitive domain-those that have to do with the intellectual processes of the learner. 2. Affective domain-those that influence the attitudinal, emotional, and valuing behaviors of the learner. 3. Psychomotor domain-those that involve manipulative and mechanical processes or skills. Communication Defining Communication Defining the term communication is like trying to define the purpose of life itself. There are an enormous number of interpretations and points of view. The word is abstract and, like most words, possesses numerous meaning. There are about 126 different definitions of communication. Definitions of communication tend to emphasize one of two different concerns. The earliest definitions originated from the scientific study of how information-based view.
Because it was derived from behavioral perspectives, communication was seen as behavior, the intentional act of getting information from one person to another person. In contrast, later definitions originated from the phenomenological study of how communication produces meaning and leads to developing effective interpersonal relationships, thus representing a meaning base view. Though proponents of the meaning-based view did not deny the characteristics of communication advocated by the information-based view, they argued that communication was more than the intentional attempt to get a message from a source to a receiver. Communication was also seen as a process of attributing meaning to people’s actions and developing a relationship between people (Dance and Larson, 1976). Dance (1982) found three points of “critical conceptual differentiation”, which form the basic dimensions on which definitions differ as follows: The first dimension is level of observation, or abstractness. Some definitions are broad and inclusive; others are restrictive. For example the definition of communication as “The process that links discontinuous parts of the living world to one another” is quite general. On the other hand, communication as “The mean of sending military messages, orders, etc., as by telephone, telegraph, radio, couriers,” is restrictive. The second distinction is intentionality. Some definitions include only intentional message sending and receiving; others do not impose this limitation. The following is an example of definition that includes intention: “Those situations in which of source transmits a message to a receiver with conscious intent to affect the latter’s behaviors”. A definition that does not require intent is this one “It is a process that makes common to two or several what was the monopoly of one or some”. For example: Communication is all the procedures by which one mind may affect another. This, of course, involves not only written and oral speech, but also music, the pictorial arts, the theatre, the ballet, and in fact, all human behavior (Shannon and Weaver, 1949).
The third dimension is normative judgement. Some definitions include a statement of success or accuracy; other definitions do not contain such implicit judgements of fidelity. The following definition, for example, presumes that communication is necessarily successful: “Communication is the verbal interchange of a though or idea.” The assumption in this definition is that a thought or idea is successfully exchanged. Another definition, on the other hand, does not judge whether the outcome is successful or not: Communication [is] the transmission of information.” Here information is transmitted, but it is not necessarily received or understood. Berko et al. (1995) defined communication is a conscious or unconscious, intentional or unintentional process in which feelings and ideas are expressed as verbal and/or nonverbal messages, sent, received and comprehended. It has also been explained as “who says what, in what channel, to whom, with what effect.” This process can be accidental having no intent, expressive resulting from the emotional state of the person or rhetorical resulting from specific goals of the communicator. Being able to effectively communicate improve your facility to maneuver ideas. Vague impression gain reality; idea are picked up and examined, set in categories, and eventually added to other ideas. You can not really understand or compare until you can explain. Learning to communicate is learning how to think. Human communication occurs on the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and public levels. Interpersonal communication takes place within the person and is sometimes referred to as personal or cognitive communication. It encompasses such activities as thought-processing, personal decision making, and determination of self-concept. Interpersonal Communication refers to communication that takes place between two persons who establish a communicative relationship. Forms of interpersonal communication include conversations, interviews, and small group discussion. Public communication is characterized by a speaker sending a message to an audience. Public communication may be direct, such as a face to face message delivered by a speaker to an audience; or indirect, such as a message relayed by radio or television.
Communication is dynamic, continuous, irreversible, interactive, and contextual. Human communication is dynamic because the process is constantly in a state of change. As the attitudes expectations, feelings and emotions of persons who are communicating change, the nature of their communication does so as well. Communication is continuous because it never stops. Whether asleep or awake, we are all processing ideas and information through our dreams, thoughts, and expressions. Our brains remain active; we are communicating. Communication is irreversible. Once a message was sent, we cannot undo it. Once we make a slip of the tongue, give a meaningful glance, or make an emotional outburst, we cannot erase it. Our apologies or denials cannot eradicate what has taken place. Communication is interactive. We are constantly in contact with other people and with ourselves. Other people react to our speech and actions, and we react to our own speech and actions and then react to those reactions. Thus a cycle of action becomes the basis for our communication. The highly complex process of communication is contextual because it is very much a part of our entire human experience. The complexity of communication dictates that we develop the awareness and the skills necessary to function effectively as communicators, and to adapt to the setting, the people present, and the purpose of the communication. A recent word-processing advertisement summarized this well when it heralded, “You do not talk to your mother the same way you talk to your buddies. Better not, for your sake. That nice polite talk is perfect for Sunday dinners. Or when you are asking for money. That’s why you have got street talk. Back talk. Coffee talk. Baby talk. And-even when you are not saying a word-body talk, which has absolutely no regard for syntax and grammar. Custom language made to order….” To be an effective communicator, need to understand the relationship between communication and culture, how the communication process operates and how you not only send
and process information but how you reason your way to conclusion and evaluate the ideas others send. In addition, good communicators know what ethical standards they use in making their decisions. Levels of Communication A Third important contextual aspect of communication is the level at which it takes place. There are five basis levels of Human Communication, (Lawrence et al., 1991) classified as: 1. Interpersonal communication is communication between two people, either face to face or through mediated forms such as telephone, characterized by the mutual awareness of the individuality of the other. Interpersonal communication is one of the most important and popular topics in communication research because it leads to one of the most treasured outcomes, the development of human relationship. 2. Group communication occurred among three or more people interacting in an attempt to achieve commonly recognized goals. These goals may be task-oriented, such as a group making a decision within an organization, or socioemotional in nature, such as family outing or social gathering of friends. Patton and Giffin (1989) claimed that group communication is important to study if only because there are far more groups in this world than individuals, since we are each part of many groups. The size of group, generally limited to the number of people who can participate together actively in a group conversation (about 15), also creates the potential for the development of subgroups and opposing coalitions and the relationship between group members and can have a strong impact on the interactions within a group. 3. Organizational communication was occurred within a particular social system composed of interdependent groups attempting to achieve commonly recognized goals. Organizational communication is thus made possible by the prior levels of communication – intercommunication and group. Organizational communication is also unique and important level
of analysis for communication researchers because we spend a significant portion of our lives working and communicating within the organizations. 4. Societal communication was the broadest level of communication and occurs within between social systems composed of interdependent organization attempting to achieve commonly recognized goals. It thus encompasses all of the prior levels of communicationinterpersonal, group, organizational. Societal communication not only focuses on communication within a particular culture but also on communication between people from different cultures such as Japan and USA Communication researcher studying societal communication are thus interested in both intracultural and intercultural communication. 5. Mass Communication occurs when a small number of people send message to a large, anonymous, and usually heterogeneous audience through the use of specialized communication media. Because of the size and complexity of most social systems, it is virtually impossible to have face to face communication between members of the various publics, necessitating the use of mediated communication technologies. Mass communication uses such diverse media as film, television, radio, newspaper, books and magazines. Mass Communication is similar to public communication in that the source of the messages takes primary responsibility for the communication. Mass Communication, however, also has the potential for reaching larger audiences than face-to-face public communication and provide less opportunity for audience feedback. Both Public Communication and Mass Communication have the advantage of being able to reach large audiences, thereby communicating with many people in a short amount of time. But both forms of communication also have the disadvantage of limited shared communication with the audience and often seem like one-way communication situation. Two special forms of communication are discussed most appropriately at the societal communication level: public communication and mass communication. Public Communication occurs when a small numbers of people usually one person address a larger group of people.
Speeches, lectures, oral reports and dramatic performance are all forms of public communication. Although the speaker takes the major responsibility for the public communication and sends the preponderance of verbal messages, that person is not the only one engaging in communication. The audience sends messages to the speaker, primarily via the nonverbal message system. Mass communication occurs when a small number of people send messages to a large, anonymous, and usually heterogeneous audience through the use of a specialized communication media such as newspaper, radio, television etc. Communication and Culture Porter and Samovar (1988) explained culture is the deposit of knowledge, experiences, beliefs, values, attitudes, meaning, hierarchies, religion, timing roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects, and possessions acquired by a large group of people in the course of generations through individual and striving. Usually, “when one speaks of culture, nationality comes to mind”. Nationality refers to the nation in which one was born, now resides, or has lived in or studied for enough time to become familiar with the customs of the area. Some nationality identifiers are Irish, Egyptian, and Korean. Nationality is one factor of culture. However, as you probably found out when you made your list, there are others cultural group identifiers can include the region of a country (e.g. , the southern part of United States), religious orientation (e.g., Islam), political orientation (e.g., Democrat), socioeconomic status(e.g., upper middle class), gender (e.g., female), sexual orientation (e.g., gay male), age/generation (e.g., senior citizen), vocation (e.g., blue collar), avocation (e.g., stamp collector), family background (e.g., Italian Catholic from a large family), marital status (e.g., married), and parental status (e.g., single father). We are each culture-filled. We are each a combination of many cultures. Think about your daily communication. A great deal of it centers on your cultural identifications. As a student, for example, how many times do you refer to student-oriented topics, including such factor, as the institution you attend, the courses you are taking, your major, and how your education will help you in the future. You probably compare and contrast your “studentness” to other students and nonstudents. Communication and culture have a direct link, and communication is directly influenced by culture. A culture consists of all those individuals who
have a shared system of interpretation. Culture is a communication phenomenon because it is passed among its adherents by communication-written and oral, verbal and non verbal. Parents, schools, and the media were all influential in aiding one to develop ones believe system through communication. One was spoken to, listened to, saw to, read about the rules, customs, and habits of those with whom one lived, in ones home, region of the country, and nation. This is an ongoing process; it was and done through communication. Because no two people’s experiences are exactly alike, they are unique in your cultural identifications. “You can subscribe to and belong to a multiple of cultures, and each culture can be shared by multiple groups.” Go back to the list you developed at the start of this section. Is there anyone you know who would perceive his or her cultural description exactly like yours? Probably not. You may be male, she is female. You may be Baptist, she is Jewish. And, some people would have one or more of the same items on their lists, or even all of the same lists. But the odds are you interpret the same items differently. Is his religious commitment the same as yours? Is her loyalty to country the same? When you speak to individuals who identify themselves the same as one of your cultures, you generally share some rules, rituals, and beliefs that allow you to understand each other. For example, if you selected North America or a citizen of The United States as one of your cultures probably speak English as one of your languages. Language is one of your common bonds to others of your culture. Another common bond probably is your belief in freedom of speech, and, another might be your acceptance of the free enterprise system as a means of transacting business. Of course not all individuals speak English with the same fluency, not all people defined free speech in the same way, and not all interpretations of free-enterprise system are exactly alike. But there will be enough commonality so that those who call themselves North Americans can identify themselves more clearly with each other than with those who identify themselves as Russians. Again, this identification takes place through communication. When you interact with those with whom you have to a cultural bond, you are participating in intracultural communication. For example, a baseball fanatic speaking to another baseball fanatic has a cultural bond. When you speak to those with whom you have little or no cultural bond, however, it is referred to as intercultural communication. A Japanese Citizen with little knowledge of New Zealand and a New Zealander with little knowledge of Japan or its customs who are speaking with each other are involved on an intercultural level. To be a truly competent intercultural
communicator, a person has to have global communication awareness. Accepting that cultural being, understand the process you use to discuss cultural affiliations, as well as other aspects of yourself, are important parts of learning to be a competent communicator. Of course, each culture will alter the basic steps of conversation in different ways. In some cultures, the openings are especially short, whereas in others the openings are elaborated, lengthy, and, in some cases, highly ritualized. It is easy in intercultural communication situations to violate another culture’s conversational rules. Being overly friendly, too formal, or too forward may easily hinder the remainder of the conversation. The reasons that such violation may have significant consequences is that you may not be aware of these rules and hence may not see violation as cultural differences but rather as aggressiveness, stuffiness, or pushiness-and almost immediately dislike the person and put a negative cast on the future conversation. Also members of different cultures are likely to pursue conflict differently. For example, in a study of Chinese and American students, it was found that Chinese students were more likely to pursue a conflict with a non-Chinese than with Chinese student. Americans, on the other hand, were more likely to pursue a conflict with another American than with a non-American. Members of differently cultures will also view conflict management techniques differently. For example, one study found that American men preferred clear argument and a focus on problem-solving while African American women preferred assertiveness and respect. Mexican-American men emphasized mutual understanding through discussing the reason for the conflict while women focused on support for relationship. Anglo-American men preferred direct and ration argument while women preferred flexibility. These examples underlie the important principle that different cultures will view interpersonal conflict techniques differently (DeVito, 1996). Dealing with different culture that if you are speaking in English to audiences that do not use English as their first language, (Littlejohn, 1987) consider these:
: Speak slowly and enunciate well. But be careful not to talk down to people. Chances are good that they are well-educated in their own language, but it may take more time to process what they hear. : Avoid idioms. People whose first language is not English tend to take them literally. : Remember that humor does not translate well. Puns are especially ineffective. : Be ware of sarcasm. When a boss sarcastically told an employee. “You just made my day,” the employee did not understand : Be careful about direct eye-contact with many Asians : Do not be upset if people from other cultures show little reaction as you speak : Realize that people from other cultures may be reluctant to ask questions. They do not want to look stupid in front of their colleagues and they do not want to lose face if you do not know the answers. Model of Intercultural Communication This basic model of intercultural communication is designed to illustrate that culture is a part of every communication transaction. Culture Source Receiver Messages Culture Source Receiver
Figure 2 Model of Intercultural Communication. Source: DeVito (2003: 45)
Intercultural Communication Effectiveness DeVito (1996) explained that in applying the skills for interpersonal effectiveness, be sensitive to the cultural difference among people. The direct eye contact that signals immediacy in much of the United States mat be considered rude in Hispanic and other cultures. The empathy that most Americans will welcome may be uncomfortable for the average Korean. Effectiveness in intercultural communication requires that you be: : Open to new ideas and to differences among people. : Flexible in ways of communicating and in adapting to the communications of the culturally different. : Tolerant of other attitudes, values, and ways of doing things. : Creative in seeking varied ways to communicate. This qualities-along with some knowledge of other culture and the general skills of effectiveness-“should enable a person to approach each intercultural encounter with psychological posture of an interested learner…and to strive for the communication outcomes that are as effective as possible under a given set of relational and situational constraints”. Communication Skills Hurst (1991) mentioned that communication must be a two way process, with people hearing and listening, perceiving and understanding one another’s words and intention. This thesis is concerned about the speaking and listening skill as follows: Speaking: It was not just confidence in front of the audience that the manager needed but a refinement of pronunciation so that others could listen more easily and understand what was
being said. The technicalities of speaking slowly and clearly were just as important as the training in style and, perhaps, acting that a course in presentation would provide. They decided that the public speaking course might be helpful but not until after some basic steps were taken in speaking. Making contact: Eye contact during conversation or when speaking to an audience shows that both sides are paying attention to one another. If the audience avoids the eye of the speaker, it can indicate lack of interest. If the speaker avoids the eye of the audience, it can imply lack of honesty. Enforced eye contact can pressurize the person you are addressing into responding in some way. It prevents from ignoring you and forces a reaction of reaction of one sort or another. As more speakers – whether live. Listening: We listen on a number of levels, for a variety of purposes. We listen to discriminate among sounds or symbols. Awareness of the purposes of listening sometimes aids a listener to select the listening techniques that best fit the desired outcome. In discriminative listening, we attempt to distinguish among auditory and visual stimuli. Distinctions are at the base of all the listening we do. Because we are concerned with identified auditory and visual cues at this level, experience and practice are our best strategies for improving listening discrimination. For example, we tend not to discern subtle shades of meaning and vocal nuances until we become accustomed to the communication style of a particular person, so it takes time to develop these skills. This explains why you may get confused as to whether someone is being sarcastic or straightforward. The shading of the voice is just slightly different between the two; plus you may not be watching the person’s face to see if he or she is smiling or serious. Through discrimination we can come to understand differences in verbal sounds (dialects, pronunciation) and nonverbal behavior (gestures, facial reactions). By understanding such differences, we gain sensitivity to the sights and sounds of our world. You can then determine, for example, whether a person is being cautious, negative, or uncooperative because you realize that the same set of words can be taken in a variety of ways. If you do not listen discriminatively to how something is said, you may miss the entire meaning of the message.
Discriminative listening is also important when you come in contact with some of the nonhuman features of our everyday lives. You may listen, for instance, to household appliances to determine whether they are functioning properly. People in certain professions, such as doctors and repairpersons, sometimes find discrimination to be their most important listening skill. In comprehension listening, the objective is to recognize and retain the information in a message. To comprehend a message, the listener must first discriminate the message to recognize its auditory and visual components. But listening for comprehension goes beyond the objective of discriminating a message. At this point in the process, heightened concentration is needed. Since one of the major tasks of a student is to gain and understand the information presented in lectures, listening comprehension is a critical factor in success or failure in college. “Among the students who fail,” a study concluded, “deficient listening skills were a stronger factor than reading skills or academic aptitude.” Some techniques have been found to enhance listening comprehension. One strategy is to concentrate on getting the main points of a message rather than all the supporting details. That is, a student listening to an instructor discuss an idea in class should focus on the main point rather than on the elaboration and details also being presented. Even when taking notes, it is wise to sort the main points and the supporting details into two columns. Improving Your Listening Berko et al. (1995) explained that effective listening is clearly a complex, involving process requiring a great deal of commitment on the part of the listener. Despite its complexities, you can do a great deal to improve your skills as listener. Improving listening skills stems first from understanding what is involved in the process so that you can monitor your own listening behavior and recognize what you are and are not doing at any given time in the listening process. Improvement of listening skills then requires breaking old habits, putting new strategies in their place, and practicing these new skills can result from guided practice that your instructor can provide as you study listening as a communicator. But it will take time, energy, and commitment on your part to work with these skills until they are a natural part of your listening repertoire.
Good Listener Techniques Berko et al. (1995) stated that here are some suggestions to help listeners develop greater skill in the process: 1. Recognize that both the sender and receiver share responsibility for effective communication. If you are sending a message, define your terms, structure your message clearly, and give your receiver the necessary background to respond effectively. Remember that communication noise must be controlled if the transaction between the two of you is to be successful. As a receiver, you should ask question and provide feedback if you cannot understand the speaker’s point. If possible, repeat the major ideas so that the speaker can check to be sure you have grasped his or her meaning. 2. Suspend judgment. One of the greatest barriers to human communication is our tendency to form instant judgments about almost everything we encounter. As listeners we are prone to assess speakers prematurely, before we have even comprehended the entire message. Statement such as “I do not like his voice”, “this is a boring lecture”, or “I disagree with her point” all set up barriers to effectives listening. Instead, good listening involves setting aside these judgments and listening for the message. 3. Be patient listener. Avoid interrupting or tuning out until the entire message has been communicated. We often find ourselves beginning to act before we have totally understood what is being said. Think about how difficult it is to assemble a new product until you thoroughly comprehend the instructions. Or remember the times you filled out a form, only to realize later than you wrote your name when directions said to print and that you put your first name down when your last name should have come first. Patience in listening will help you avoid having to go back over message you missed the first time around, or did not understand because you did not let the whole message come through.
4. Avoid egospeak. Egospeak is the art of boosting our own ego by speaking only about what we want to talk about, and not giving a hoot in hell about what the person is speaking about. When you jump into conversation and speak your piece without noticing what the other person is trying to communicate, or listening only to beginning of another’ s sentence before saying, “That’s interesting, but what happen to me was….” Or “Yes, but…,” you are engaging in egospeak. As a result, you do not receive the whole message because you are so busy thinking of what you want to say. Although egospeak is a very natural human temptation, it can very easily become a real barrier to communication. There are several techniques you might try to use to control egospaeak if you classify yourself as such. First, monitor your body. Individuals who are about to interrupt have a tendency to lean forward as if to jump into communication, and poise an arm and hand so that they can thrust them forward to cut in . If you feel your body taking these actions, be aware that you are about egospeak and don’t. Another to deter yourself from egospeaking is to intentionally repeat the ideas of the speaker before you give your point of view. Be aware that you can’t summarize you either were not listening effectively or you did not listen long enough to gain the message. If it is the latter, you know you are egospeaking. In future conversation, see if you can repeat the message of the speaker to yourself before you jump into. 5. Be careful with emotional responses to words. Words can bring about instant reactions from you or others. Incited words are those that trigger strong feelings within us, either positive or negative. How do you react to the words child-abuser, rapist, and income tax? Words like these often send us off on tangents. In an everyday situation, you may tighten up and block out the rest of the message when your friend mentions the name of a person with whom you have just had an argument. Or you might start daydreaming about the beach when your instructor uses the word sunshine. Speakers should be aware that listeners can be off on tangents by certain words, resulting in interferance with the effort to communicate. As receivers, we should be aware that we can be led astray and lose our concentration through our emotional response.
There is no quick way to way to prevent yourself from reacting to inciting words. By monitoring your body, however, you might catch yourself physically pulling in, feel yourself flushing as you become upset, or catch yourself daydreaming. These responses are typical of the emotional triggers that set us off while listening. 6. Be aware that your posture affects your listening. When you listen to an exciting lecture, how do you sit? Usually you lean slightly forward, with your feet on the floor, and look directly at the presenter. On the other hand, if you slump down and stare out the window, it is unlikely that you are actively participating in the communication act taking place. What happens to you when you curl up in a comfort able chair, turn on soft music, and try to read? Most likely, instead of reading you fall asleep or begin daydream. 7. Make a conscious effort to listen. If it is important for you to listen carefully to a message, then you must tune in to that message. As discussed earlier, hearing and listening are not synonymous. Listening requires a concerts effort on your part to receive, perceive, concentrate, assign meaning and respond to the message. Listening does not happen automatically. Be aware of what is going on within the entire communication process, including what type of internal and external responses the other participants may be having to the message. Abandon the common notion that listening is a passive process; assume at least 50 percent of the responsibility for the communication. Know how you are responding and allow yourself to become actively involved in the process by concentrating on understanding the message and then providing meaningful feedback designed to assist the speaker and facilitate the entire communication. 8. Control distractions. All of us are surrounded by noise. Such factors as the sound of machinery, people talking, and music playing can interfere with efficient listening. If the message is important to you, try to adjust the interference and control. If possible, turn off the machinery or move away from it. Tell someone who is speaking to you while you are talking on the telephone that you cannot listen to both people at the same time. Turn off the radio or raise your voice so that others can hear you over the sound. Remember that there is a little point in
continuing the communication. If you cannot hear the other person or that person can not hear you. 9. Tune in to the speaker’s cues. An effective speaker provides the listener with all sorts of verbal and nonverbal cues. You should recognize transition (words indicating a change of ideas or topic: “therefore”, another idea is ….”, finally), forecasts of ideas (statements that show a series of ideas will follow: “there are three ideas that…..,” “the next point is…”) and internal summaries (restatements of ideas that have just been explained: “and so we have seen that…”). These are all vehicles for furthering your grasp of the major points the speaker is presenting. The vocal dynamics, or paralanguage-rate, volume, pitch and pauses-used by the speaker can also help you to understand the points being developed. By stressing words, pausing before an idea, or increasing the volume of a phrase, the speaker is tell you that something is important, unusual, or significant. The speaker’s physical movements can also carry a meaning that may reinforce-or contradict- a verbal message. For example, a speaker who uses a forceful gesture, or enumerates points with the fingers can assist listeners in following the main points. We often have to listen with our eyes as well as our ears to pickup all the cues to help us understand the real message. Look beyond the words themselves for the full intent of the message. 10. Paraphrase. When you are responding to a message, paraphrase the speaker’s ideas. Paraphrasing can be one of the most effective to sharpen concentration, because to do so requires careful focus and storage in short term memory. By repeating the ideas in your answer, you let the speaker know what you have received. Then if the paraphrase is not correct, the speaker can clarify and make you understand what was really intended. The use of active feedback allows both of you to be sure that the message sent was the message received. 11. Visualize. To engage in a communication, a good technique is to try to visualize the speaker’s points, especially if you need to store them away in your long term memory for future
recall. Many people are visually oriented, so it can be great help to associate the points of a message with some visual images you already have order to make the message more meaningful for you. Visual associations are a useful way to enhance storage and retrieval in the long term memory. Thai Airways International Public Company Limited Thai Airways International Company Limited details consisted of company profile, history, equipment, finance, and marketing (Thai Airways International Limited Company, 2003). Company Profile Thai Airways International Public Company limited is the national carrier of the Kingdom of Thailand. It operates domestic, regional and Intercontinental flights radiating form its home base in Bangkok to key destination around the world and within Thailand. The company’s share capital, authorized and fully paid amounts to 14,000 million baht and is owned, through the Thai government, by the people of Thailand. At the end of September 1998, total asset of the company amounted to 150,000 million baht. In it operations, Thai has achieved profitable every year for the last 34 consecutive years, since 1965. The over all objectives of THAI as stated in the company corporate plan are firstly, to develop and expand company business, as THAI is national flag carrier, to become one of the world’s vest airlines; secondly to promote Thailand as a gateway into Asia Pacific region; thirdly, to support Thailand’s tourism industry and finally, to maximize profit in order to raise funds of human resource development.
History Thai International was founded in 1960 as a joint venture between Thailand’s domestic carrier, Thai Airways Company (TAC) and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) with the Scandinavian carrier initially providing a 30% share capital of two million Baht. SAS also provided operations, managerial and marketing expertise with the shortest possible time. Thai nationals through training and experience were gradually able to assume full managerial responsibility and the number of expatriate staff dully reduced until, in 1987, expatriates accounted for less than one percent of staff based in Thailand. In April 1, 1977, after a 17 year capital participation partnership with SAS, the Thai Government bought out SAS remaining 15% holding and THAI became fully owned by the Thai Government bought out SAS remaining 15% holding and THAI became fully owned by Thai people. In 1960, flights were inaugurated from Bangkok to 9 overseas destinations all within the Asian region. Intercontinental services were launched in 1971, to Australia, followed by flights to Europe in 1972, and to North America 1980. Thai International growth was greatly accelerated on April 1, 1988 as a result of its merger with Thai Airways Company (TAC), the domestic airline, which raised the company’s share capital from 1,400 million to 2,230 million Baht. Under the cabinet policy, as authorized by General Prem Tinasulanonda, prime Minister at the time, Thai International would be responsible for commercial aviation, both international and domestic. Thai International can now rightfully be called Thailand’s only national carrier. On June 25, 1991, Thai Cabinet approved a resolution enabling THAI to list its shares on the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET). The resolution authorized THAI to convert Baht 10.77 billion of retained earnings into capital, and increase its capital by an additional Baht 3 billion with a first issue of 100 million shares. Of those 100 million shares, five million shares were
reserved for THAI employees at par Baht 10 and 95 million shares were to be offered to the public. The listing of THAI shares was commenced in July 19, 1991. by converting retained earnings into capital and increased its share capital upon the Cabinet approval, THAI registered share capital has risen from Baht 2,230 total of Baht 14,000 million. This has made the total amount of THAI share listing to be the largest in the history of set. Moreover, THAI public offering of shares is the single largest one over undertaken in Thailand. The main purpose in listing on the SET and offering to the public are to obtain the additional funds needed in keeping the airlines competitive edge in the intercontinental market and to allow member of the general public and THAI employees to become shareholders in this national flag carrier of Thailand. During its 38-year history, THAI has grown and expanded continuously to the point where the company has become one of the largest corporations and employers in the country and is recognized as being among the most progressive, technologically advanced and efficient corporate organizations not only within Thailand, but also the region. Among its many first is fact that it is the largest commercial catering organization in Southeast Asia producing an average of 50,000 meals a day for 50 scheduled airlines, including THAI, using Bangkok International airport. In its first full year of operation, 1960/61, THAI carried some 83,000 passengers. In its financial year 1997/98, the annual passenger total had risen to 15.2 million. Equipment The first aircraft used by THAI, in 1960, were Douglas DC-6Bs. Subsequently the fleet utilized 990 Coronados, Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelles (with which THAI was able to offer the first all-jet fleet of any Asian airline) Douglas DC-9s and DC-8s. the fleet was gradually
standardized into an all DC-8 operation using first, the 140-saet series 33 aircraft, then the longer range stretched version, the series 62, with 146seats series and the series 63, with 200 seats. During these development years aircraft were mostly leased, but once financial resources allowed, aircraft were purchased. Mostly THAI fleet are now fully owned. Wide-body jets were first introduced in 1977, when the first 223-seat a300-b4 Airbus was introduced on THAI regional routes. By the end of 1988 THAI had 12 A300-B4s and seven of the series 600. This aircraft has proved itself to be exceptionally well-suited for regional operations. Two medium to long range DC-10-30 aircraft were used initially on intercontinental routes and later mainly for services to Middle East. At the end of 1987, these two aircraft were replaced by two of longer range series DC-10-30Ers, with 243 seats. The Boeing 747 jumbo jets were first introduced into the fleet in 1979 and the first two of THAI new MD-11 jets in 1991. They have become the standard equipment for long-haul intercontinental routes. The latest type of aircraft that joined THAI fleet in December 1997 was the B777-200. THAI was the first airline in Asia to take delivery of the A330-300 and the aircraft is now being utilized on regional routes within Asia. THAI merger with TAC in 1988 added a further dimension to fleet planning: the need to serve the varied demands of high and low density domestic routes. The TAC fleet of 11 aircraft joined THAI all wide-bodied fleet of 30 aircraft and together they added a valuable degree of flexibility in servicing the needs of passengers and cargo shippers over all types of route. The THAI fleet, at present, consists of 83 aircraft. Route network THAI currently operates to 60 destinations from its home base of Bangkok, in 34 countries across four continents. Within Thailand, THAI al so operates domestic services from Bangkok to 13 Thai cities. The aircraft Asian and Middle East destinations are operated with A300, A330, B747 and B777 equipment according to distance and traffic volume.
THAI intercontinental routes cover key destinations in Europe, Australia and North America, with Mainly B747, MAD-11 and A300 aircraft. THAI serves its major and minor provincial destinations within Thailand utilizing A300, B737 and ATR-72 aircraft. Finance Total revenue from all activities for THAI during the financial year 2003/04 2nd Quarter reached 39,392 million baht and net profit for this quarter was 5,318 million Baht. Sources of revenue for THAI were the carriage of passengers, cargo and mail, the provision of ground and cargo handling to other airlines using Bangkok International Airport, technical and engineering services, flight catering, the provision of duty free sales on board Thai flights and operation of airport limousine and bus services for passengers and crew between the airport and city, with connections to Pattaya. Marketing THAI marketing strategy is not confined to promotion of passenger services, which has long been a key to the airline success but involves major effort, THAI diversified into a related industry in 1980 by jointly investing in the 775 room Royal Orchid Sheraton and Towers Hotel and the 440-room Bangkok Airport Hotel, both of which opened in 1983. THAI holds 24% and 40%respectively of the equity in these properties. Worldwide marketing operations have been mounted, not only by the airline in its won right, but also in cooperation with the Tourism Authority of Thailand and other elements of the tourism industry. This has been especially important in the development of the 1987 Visit Thailand Year, which resulted in a major surge in international tourist arrivals in Thailand. By cooperation closely with both private and government sectors, THAI has arranged cultural, educational, sports, and trade promotions through out the world.
A future aspect of THAI transportation marketing operation is the creation and organization of Royal orchid Holidays (ROH) inclusive packages covering many of the airlines intercontinental destinations THAI has also put our special domestic program Euarng Luang Tours for local tourists. THAI is also very active in seeking to develop and promote Thailand export industries. Its Cargo Handling Terminal in Bangkok occupies some 60 percent of the huge Cargo Village at Don Muang, which covers an area of over ten hectares. Currently, THAI cargo handling operation accounts for approximately 80 percent of all cargo export, import and in transit between all flight movements through Bangkok International Airport. On July 1, 1993, THAI launched its own Frequent Flyer Program which is one of the marketing tools used to create and capture THAI most valuable customers in order to maximize the company revenue and profit. The program has been named ROYAL ORCHID PLUS (ROP) and it is designed uniquely for THAI. THAI has now become a truly global airline through the signing of Star Alliance network with fourteen other world-leading airlines, namely Air Canada, air New Zealand, All Nippon Airways, Austrian Airways, Asiana Airlines, Lufthansa German Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, Mexicana Airlines, SAS, Spanair, Singapore airlines, Unitd Airlines and VARIG Brazilian Airlines. Also THAI’s ROP members can accrue their mileage earned on board these carriers and vice versa. Such strategic alliance of the six airlines cover competitively four main economic regions of the Far East, Europe, United States and South America. In addition, THAI is the process of strategic alliance arrangements with Ansett Airlines to cover Australia. Personnel to the present day, the total number of personnel employed by THAI has grown from 477 in 1960 to 25,000 of which over 9- percent are based in Thailand.
A major feature of THAI organization has always been the very high priority given to training and career development for its employees. The company operates its very comprehensive training centre in Bangkok, which contains five fully computerized state- of-the-art flight simulators classrooms and sophisticated teaching facilities. Of special note is the full scale cabin mock-up in which cabin crew staff can be fully trained before they start flying as trained (Thai Airways International Limited Company, 2003). Related Researches Khemateerakul (1996) conducted a research on “needs analysis as a basis for the Intensive English Course of the International Program at Bangkok University”. The purposes were to investigate students’ needs and problems in using English in the International Program of Bangkok University, and to examined students’ wants regarding English Skills to be emphasized in the Intensive English course of the International Program and other factors which include time, instruction, class size and evaluation. This study was conducted using questionnaires which were administered to three groups of respondents: the first group consisted of first year students, the second group of second and third year students, and the third group of instructors of the International Program. It was found that according to their needs with regards to English language skills, all respondents perceived all skills as urgent needs which listening was needed most. The order was listening, reading, writing, and speaking. All English skills were perceived as moderate problems by students while writing and speaking skills were perceived as students’ greatest problems by instructors. Both students and instructors wanted the listening skill to be emphasized in the intensive English course. Ratanavichak (1996) did a study on “development of listening and speaking activities based on eclectic approach in a course in business English for hotels”. The purposes of this research were to develop listening and speaking activities based on an eclectic approach in course in business English for Hotels and to investigate listening and speaking achievement. Population consisted of 2 groups: expert English teachers and 23 students of first year diploma level in a course in Business English for Hotels, at Khon Kaen Vocational College, Muang District, Khon
Kean Province during the academic year 1996. Research instrument was ten listening and speaking activities based on an eclectic approach, an evaluation form and a listening and speaking achievement test. Population was taught with listening-speaking activities based on the eclectic approach for 5 weeks. The effectiveness of the activities was evaluated after with each plan. The English listening and speaking achievement test was evaluated after teaching with all plans. The data were analyzed by mean, standard deviations and percentage. The results were as follows: All listening and speaking activities were effective. The mean scores of the students and the experts’ opinion on all activities surpassed 2.5. The English listening and speaking achievement score of the students taught through listening activities based on the eclectic approach was 66.83 percent which passed the criteria of 60 percent. Suphan (1996) studied the “development natural approach English lessons for home economics students” and investigated the students’ English language proficiency after taught with ten Natural Approach English Lessons. The respondents were 31 students of second year home economics who enrolled in Home Economic English 3 in the first semester of the 1996 academic year, at Nakhon Sawan Vocational College, Muang District, Nakhon Sawan Province. There were two kinds of research instrument. The first was for surveying the students’ needs and the teachers’ opinions on the students’ needs and for designing lessons. The second kind was a protosyllabus, ten natural approach English lessons, and an English proficiency test for the experiment. The subjects were taught for 10 weeks. The English efficiency test was used before and after the experiment. The data were analyzed by using mean, standard deviation and paired t-test. The finding showed that: the ten natural approach English lessons were effective for using in the home economic English Class. After the students were taught with ten natural approach English lessons, their English language proficiency was significantly higher than that of prior leaning at the .001 level. Wuttiprecha (1996) studied the “development of big books for Thai beginning learners of English”. The purposes of this research were to develop big books for Thai beginning learners of English at Wat Suandok Element School, to study the students’ English achievement through the uses of the big books, and to study the students’ stages of literacy development. Population
was 31 students of Prathomsuksa3 at Wat Suandok Elementary School, Chiang Mai during the second semester of the academic year 1996. The duration of the experiment was 14 weeks. The first big book and lesson plans were used and evaluated. Data collected were statistically analyzed and used in developing the subsequent big book and lesson plans. The skill levels of the students in listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills were assessed by an achievement test. In addition, 6 students were observed upon their stages of literacy development during the implementation of the three big books. Findings of this research were as follows; three effective big books with lesson plan were developed. The achievements of speaking and hand-writing were at a superior level and those of listening and reading were at a commendable level, dictation was at a rudimental level. The students’ stages of literacy development followed Holdaway’s observation stages. The students reached the fourth stage which was called “early reading”. There was some evidence showing that the students were approaching the next stage which was called “advance early reading”. Khantharos (1997) conducted a study on “development of social interaction activities in English business correspondence teaching for third-year certificate vocational education students”. The purpose of this study was to develop social interaction activities. The respondents were 21 students of third-year certificate of vocational education who took English business correspondence course at Chiang Mai Commercial College, Amphur Muang, Chiang Mai Province, in the second semester of the academic year 1997. The research procedure began with the survey of types and demand of English business letters used by companies in Chiang Mai province, the students’ need survey of the order of the contents and the design of the lesson plans used social interaction activities. Each lesson plan was evaluated by 2 specialists and from the students’ abilities in writing letters and it was developed. The questionnaires were administered to survey the students’ attitude to social interaction activities at the end of the experiment. The result revealed that all lesson plans used social interaction activities were efficient and the students’ attitude to those activities were positive. Tongngam (1997) studied on “development of scripted drama activities to enhance English listening and speaking skills for intermediate level dramatic arts students”. The purpose
of this research were to develop scripted drama activities to enhance English listening and speaking skills for intermediate Level Dramatic Arts students and to investigate the students’ opinions about the scripted drama activities. The sample comprised of 39 Intermediate Level 2/2 students who were enrolled in English listening and speaking course (E024) at the Chiang Mai College of Dramatic Arts, Muang District, Chiang Mai province, in the second semester of academic year 1997. Research procedures were the design of drama scripts together with lesson plan of scripted drama activities, implementation of the lesson plan followed by revision of plan based on end-of-activities evaluation. Students gave their opinions concerning script drama activities that all scripted drama activities were appropriate for the students’ level of knowledge and ability and that the students’ opinions about those activities were positive.
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Research Design and Methods The study of “Needs Analysis for English Communication Skills of Thai Airways International Cabin Crew” was conducted as a survey research. Questionnaire was the main instrument to collect data for the study. Population The total of Thai Airways International cabin crew was 1887 persons who had responsibility for Economy Class and/or Business Class of Intercontinental Route. Sample Size Three hundred thirty cabin crew were selected as sample by using Yamane (1967) formula. The selection process based o the voluntary basis. Formula N n e n = = = = = n = Whole number of population Sample size Error (0.05) N 1+N(e)2 1887 1+1887(.05) 2 330.04 (330 cabin crew)
Research Instrument The main research instrument was questionnaire which was composed of closed and open-ended questions divided into 5 parts: Part I : General characteristics of cabin crew.
This part included 8 questions concerning general characteristics of cabin crew such as sex, age, working experiences, education attainment, background of English communication skills, experiences in training English courses from Thai Airways International, extra English courses and reason to take up extra English courses. Part II : English Communication Skills apart from the working-routine.
This part included 14 items of non- working-routine assessing the level of English communication skills in terms of listening skill and speaking skill. The scoring for each level was as follows: Meaning Excellent Good Fair No respond Part III : Level 3 2 1 0 Mean range 2.34-3.00 1.67-2.33 1.00-1.66
Communication problems with passengers
This part included 8 questions on the degree level of communication problem with passengers. The scoring was designed as follows:
Meaning Very extensive problem Extensive problem Moderate problem Fairly problem Rarely problem No respond
Level 5 4 3 2 1 0
Mean range 4.21-5.00 3.41-4.20 2.61-3.40 1.81-2.60 1.00-1.80
The scale of percent non-working routine English communication skills with passengers: Meaning Most of the time Moderate Seldom Part IV : Level 3 2 1 Needs for English Training Courses Improvement.
This part had 8 questions concerning the needs of English training courses improvement. The scoring of needs was as follows: Meaning Very strong need Strong need Moderate need Fairly need Rarely need No respond Level 5 4 3 2 1 0 Mean range 4.21-5.00 3.41-4.20 2.61-3.40 1.81-2.60 1.00-1.80
Part V :
Comments and Suggestions.
This part included 2 open-ended questions. Pre-test of the research instrument Questionnaires wording was improve after the researcher pre-tested the questionnaire with 15 cabin crew of Thai Airways International. Data Collection Data were collected from cabin crew who had responsibility for Business Class and/or Economy Class of Intercontinental Route. The selection process based o the voluntary basis. Data were collected from December 15, 2004 to January 15, 2005. Data Analysis Data collected from cabin crew and passengers were analyzed by using statistical program. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation were employed to describe information.
CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results from Cabin Crew Results are presented into 5 parts as follows: Part I: General characteristics of Cabin Crew. Part II: English communication skills in several topics which are apart from workingroutine. Part III: Communication problems with passengers. Part IV: Needs for English training courses improvement. Part V: Comments and suggestions. Part I: General characteristics of Cabin Crew General characteristics of cabin crew such as sex, age, working experiences, education attainment, English communication skills background, experiences of English training course from Thai Airways International, and experiences of learning extra English course were studied. As shown in Table 1, majority of the Thai cabin crew who were chosen as respondents were female (59.1%), the rest was male (40.9%). The age ranged from 27 to over 45 years with most at 47.0% belonging to 33-38 age bracket, followed by these with age of 27-32 years at 42.7%. A great majority at 79.4% had been working with Thai Airways from 7-11 years. Only a
very few at 0.6% had been with the airlines for over 21 years. Almost all of these cabin crew at 83.9% graduated with a Bachelor Degree Table 1 General Characteristics of the Cabin Crew by sex, age, working experiences, and education attainment. (n = 330) Characteristics Number Percent Sex Female 195 59.1 Male 135 40.9 Age 27-32 140 42.4 33-38 155 47.0 39-44 31 9.4 Over 45 4 1.2 Working experiences 7-11 262 79.4 12-16 60 18.2 17-21 6 1.8 Over 22 2 0.6 Education attainment High school 5 1.5 Diploma 17 5.2 Bachelor’s Degree 277 83.9 Master’s Degree 31 9.4 Table 2 shows that the level of English communication skills’ background of cabin crew in terms of listening skill was fair (mean=1.64). Their speaking skill was also fair (mean=1.58).
Table 2 The level of communication skills background of Cabin Crew (n = 330) Communication skills Listening skill Speaking skill No Level of communication skills Excellent Good Fair Respond X 17 179 133 1 1.64 (5.2%) (54.2%) (40.3%) (0.3%) 15 161 153 1 1.58 (4.5%) (48.8%) (46.4%) (0.3%) SD .583 .585 Level Fair Fair
Most of cabin crew (73.33%) had been trained in General In-flight conversation course, pronunciation course (57.57%), public address course (57.27%), service on board / safety procedure course (55.45%), and other courses (4.54%) respectively (Table 3). Table 3 English language training courses received by Thai Airways International cabin crew (n=330) English training courses Number Percent General In-flight conversation 242 73.33 Pronunciation 190 57.57 Public Address 189 57.27 Service on board / safety procedure 183 55.45 Others 15 4.54 Table 4 shows that the majority of cabin crew (81.5%) did not have any extra English courses besides those given by the company
Table 4 Extra English courses attended by the Cabin Crew Items Extra English courses Yes No Number 61 269 (n=330) Percent 18.5 81.5
Majority of the cabin crew at 55.73% took extra English language courses because they wanted to communicate in English fluently. A great number at 49.18% just wanted like to enhance their communication skills while 32.78% took extra English course to get promoted to a higher position (Table5). Table 5 Reasons of Cabin Crew for taking extra English courses Reasons To communicate English fluently To enhance communication skills To be promoted to higher position To supplement the regular courses from Thai Airways Others Number 34 30 20 17 4 (n=61) Percent 55.73 49.18 32.78 27.86 6.55
Part II: English communication skills in topics apart from working-routine This part presents the level of English communication skills of Thai Airways cabin crew in terms of listening and speaking skills, followed by their ability to converse with the passengers in topics apart from working routine. These are: hotel information, general information about Thailand, tourist information, food ingredients, current events, capability to solve the problem, seat facility, seating arrangement, flight schedule information, connecting flight information, immigration information, immigration formality, and custom formality.
As shown in Table 6, the listening skill level of the sampled cabin crew was in good level (mean=1.71) whereas the speaking skill level was fair (mean=1.60). For listening and speaking skills levels of non-working routine conversation topics between cabin crew and passengers as follows: - Hotel information : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.63). : Fair speaking skill level (mean=1.58). - General information about Thailand. : Good listening skill level (mean=1.71). : Good speaking skill level (mean=1.68). - Tourist information. : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.57). : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.55). - Ingredients of food. : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.42). : Fair speaking skill level (mean=1.34). - Up to date information such as news. : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.52). : Fair speaking skill level (mean=1.46). - Capability to solve the problem. : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.63). : Fair speaking skill level (mean=1.60).
- Seat facility. : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.64). : Fair speaking skill level (mean=1.63). - Seat arrangement. : Good listening skill level (mean=1.72). : Good speaking skill level (mean=1.68). - Flight schedule information. : Good listening skill level (mean=1.84). : Good listening skill level (mean=1.82). - Connecting flight information. : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.66). : Fair speaking skill level (mean=1.64). - Immigration information. : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.62). : Fair speaking skill level (mean=1.58). - Immigration formality. : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.58). : Fair speaking skill level (mean=1.56). - Custom formality. : Fair listening skill level (mean=1.57). : Fair speaking skill level (mean=1.54).
Table 6 Level of English communication skills of the cabin crew when communicating with the passengers on various topics. (n=330)
Topics for communication 1. English communication skills of cabin crew Listening skill Speaking skill 2. Hotel information Listening skill Speaking skill 3. General information about Thailand Listening skill Speaking skill 4. Tourist Information Listening skill Speaking skill 5. Ingredients of food Listening skill Speaking skill
Level of English Communication Skill
13 (3.9%) 8 (2.4%) 16 (4.8%) 12 (3.6%) 26 (7.9%) 22 (6.7%) 18 (5.5%) 16 (4.8%) 12 (3.6%) 9 (2.7%)
212 (64.2%) 187 (56.7%) 179 (54.2%) 172 (52.1%) 188 (57.0%) 187 (56.7%) 159 (48.2%) 155 (47.0%) 119 (36.1%) 100 (30.3%)
101 (30.6%) 131 (39.7%) 131 (39.7%) 140 (42.4%) 110 (33.3%) 114 (34.5%) 147 (44.5%) 152 (46.1%) 194 (58.8%) 215 (65.2%)
4 (1.2%) 4 (1.2%) 4 (1.2%) 6 (1.8%) 6 (1.8%) 7 (2.1%) 6 (1.8%) 7 (2.1%) 5 (1.5%) 6 (1.8%)
.557 Good .596 Fair
.634 Good .628 Good
Table 6 (Continued) (n = 330) Topics for communication 6. Up to date information such as news Listening skill Speaking skill 7. Capability to solve the problem Listening skill Speaking skill 8. Seat facility Listening skill Speaking skill 9. Seat arrangement Listening skill Speaking skill 10. Flight schedule information Listening skill Speaking skill 11. Connecting flight information Listening skill Speaking skill
Level of English Communication Skill
9 (2.7%) 7 (2.1%) 12 (3.6%) 10 (3.0%) 24 (7.3%) 20 (6.1%) 24 (7.3%) 22 (6.7%) 34 (10.3%) 36 (10.9%) 25 (7.6%) 23 (7.0%)
158 (47.9%) 146 (44.2%) 190 (57.6%) 183 (55.5%) 168 (50.9%) 175 (53.0%) 193 (58.5%) 187 (56.7%) 212 (64.2%) 202 (61.2%) 172 (52.1%) 169 (51.2%)
157 (47.6%) 170 (51.5%) 123 (37.3%) 131 (39.7%) 132 (40.0%) 128 (38.8%) 108 (32.7%) 115 (34.8%) 80 (24.2%) 88 (26.7%) 128 (38.8%) 133 (40.3%)
8 (1.8%) 7 (.21%) 5 (1.5%) 6 (1.8%) 6 (1.8%) 7 (2.1%) 5 (1.5%) 6 (1.8%) 4 (1.2%) 4 (1.2%) 5 (1.5%) 5 (1.5%)
1.63 1.60 1.64 1.63
.580 .582 .644 .631
Fair Fair Fair Fair
.617 Good .623 . Good
.607 Good .626 Good
Table 6 (Continued) (n = 330) Topics for communication 12. Immigration information Listening skill Speaking skill 13. Immigration formality Listening skill Speaking skill 14. Custom formality Listening skill Speaking skill
Level of English Communication Skill
Excellent 23 (7.0%) 20 (6.1%) 17 (5.2%) 15 (4.5%) 14 (4.2%) 11 (3.3%)
Good 162 (49.1%) 157 (47.6%) 163 (49.4%) 160 (48.5%) 166 (50.3%) 161 (48.8%)
Fair 141 (42.7%) 148 (44.8%) 146 (44.2%) 151 (45.8%) 145 (43.9%) 153 (46.4%)
No Respond 4 (1.2%) 5 (1.5%) 4 (1.2%) 4 (1.2%) 5 (1.5%) 5 (1.5%)
SD .633 .629
Level Fair Fair
Part III: Communication problems with passengers This part presents the level of communication problems in terms of listening and speaking skills which the cabin crew had concerning working-routine and non-working routine and other problems such passengers accent, causes of listening and speaking problem, frequency of English communication problem, and way to solve English communication problem with passengers of cabin crew. As shown in table 7, the level of communication problem of most of the cabin crew with regards listening to both working routine and non-working routine was fair with mean of 1.86 and 2.45 respectively. The same is fair with the speaking problem. The level of problem was fair for
both speaking working routine and non-working routine with mean of 1.98 and 2.35 respectively. The overall level of listening problem was fair at 2.45 and also with speaking with mean of 2.48. Table 7 Level of communication problem (listening and speaking) of the cabin crew (n=330)
Level of Communication Problem Problem in Very Extensive Moderate Fairly Rarely communicating with extensive problem problem problem problem passengers problem Listening problem 6 23 130 126 45 (1.8%) (7.0%) (39.4%) (38.2%) (13.6%) - Listening to 1 13 60 126 124 working-routine (0.3%) (3.9%) (18.2%) (38.2%) (37.6%) - Listening to non4 34 100 134 52 working routine (1.2%) (10.3%) (30.3%) (40.6%) (15.8%) Speaking problem 5 29 130 122 43 (1.5%) (8.8%) (39.4%) (37.0%) (13.0%) - Speaking to working 2 12 75 133 103 routine (0.6%) (3.6%) (22.7%) (40.3%) (31.2%) - Speaking to non3 34 108 126 55 working routine (0.9%) (10.3%) (32.7%) (38.2%) (16.7%) No respond 6 (1.8%) 6 (1.8%) 1 (0.3%) 5 (1.5%) 4 (1.2%)
SD. .878 .893 .966 .893 .895 .950
Level Fairly problem Fairly problem Fairly problem Fairly problem Fairly problem Fairly problem
2.45 1.86 2.35 2.48 1.98 2.37
Cabin crew had moderate level of listening problem to Australian accent (mean=2.87), fair with regards t American and British accent with mean of 1.85 and 2.43 respectively (Table 8)
Table 8 Level of listening problems of the cabin crew with the accent of non Thai passengers (n=330)
Level of Listening Problem No Very Extensive Moderate Fairly Rarely Accent extensive problem problem problem problem respond problem 14 69 125 97 25 American (4.2%) (20.9%) (37.9%) (29.4%) (7.6%) 12 48 104 88 62 16 British (3.6%) (14.5%) (31.5%) (26.7%) (18.8%) (4.8%) 16 81 127 69 24 13 Australian (4.8%) (24.5%) (38.5%) (20.9%) (7.3%) (3.9%) 4 35 115 105 43 28 European (1.2%) (10.6%) (34.8%) (31.8%) (13.0%) (8.5%) 24 69 119 69 34 15 Indian (7.3%) (20.9%) (36.1%) (20.9%) (10.3%) (4.5%) 24 93 122 66 25 Asian (7.3%) (28.2%) (37.0%) (20.0%) (7.6%) 4 14 14 5 4 289 Others (1.2%) (4.2%) (4.2%) (1.5%) (1.2%) (87.6%)
Level Fairly problem Fairly problem Moderate problem Fairly problem Moderate problem Fairly problem No respond
2.43 1.194 2.87 1.132 2.30 1.126 2.80 1.223 2.08 1.036 .40 1.131
Table 9 shows that the cabin crew had listening problem with passengers’ accent (64.84%) the most. Second language (38.78%) and disturbing noise (30.30%) were second and third cause of listening problem for cabin crew. The training courses were not enough for cabin crew (28.18%) was the forth cause, following by cross culture cause (26.96%), and the last was the training course did not serve the need of cabin crew (19.69%), and others (3.03%) such as physical problem respectively.
Table 9 Causes of listening problem of cabin crew Causes Accent Second language Disturbing noise Not enough training course Cross culture Training course do not serve the need of cabin crew Others Number 214 128 100 93 89 65 10 (n=330) Percent 64.84 38.78 30.30 28.18 26.96 19.69 3.03
As shown in Table 10, English as second language (45.15%) was the most cause of speaking problem, followed by accent (43.93%), not confident to talk (27.57%), cross culture (26.96%), insufficient training courses (26.96%). The training courses did not serve the needs of cabin crew (23.33%) were the last cause of speaking problem, and there were some other causes (4.54%). Table 10 Causes of speaking problem of cabin crew Causes Second language Accent Lack of confidence Cross culture Insufficient training course Training course do not serve the need Others Number 149 145 91 89 89 77 15 (n=330) Percent 45.15 43.93 27.57 26.96 26.96 23.33 4.54
Table 11 shows that 48.78% of the respondents seldom had communication problem while 46.66% had moderate. Only a few at 3.93% had communication problem most of the time.
Table 11 Frequency of occurrence of the cabin crew Frequency Most of the time Moderate Seldom No respond Number 13 154 161 2 (n=330) Percent 3.93 46.66 48.78 0.60
Majority of the respondents at 85.2% solved by themselves whatever communication problems they had with the passengers, while 10.3% called other cabin crew for assistance whenever they had communication problems with passengers. A very few at 0.9% asked other passengers when solving communication problems (Table12). Table 12 Cabin crew problem ways of solving English communication. Ways of solving problems Try to solve it by yourself Call other cabin crew Inform Air Purser or In-flight Manager Ask other passengers No respond Number 281 34 10 3 2 (n=330) Percent 85.2 10.3 3.0 0.9 0.6
Part IV: Needs for English training courses improvement This part presents the needs level of cabin crew in order to improve English training courses. This needs level focuses on listening, speaking of conversation, pronunciation, use of idioms and slang. Furthermore this also describes the characteristic or features of English training courses that the respondents need.
As presented in table 13, the cabin crew had an extensive need (mean=3.42) for listening skill improvement, and in daily conversation (mean=3.50). The need for English training course to focus on listening idioms and slang was just moderate (mean=3.32). In terms of improving speaking or conversational skill, the cabin crew had extensive training needs in pronunciation (mean=3.63). Just like in listening need the respondents just had moderate need to improve their use of idioms and slang words (mean=3.32). Table 13 Level of cabin crew needs for improving English training courses (n=330)
Level of needs Needs in English Very Extensive Moderate Fairly courses extensive need need need need Focus on 42 110 136 30 listening (12.7%) (33.3%) (41.2%) (9.1%) - Daily 51 125 107 34 conversation (15.5%) (37.9%) (32.4%) (10.3%) - Pronunciation 52 130 102 38 (15.8%) (39.4%) (30.9%) (11.5%) - Idiom and slang 44 113 103 50 words (13.3%) (34.2%) (31.2%) (15.2%) - Others 11 11 14 6 (3.3%) (3.3%) (4.2%) (1.8%) Focus on speaking - Daily conversation - Pronunciation 24 105 132 58 (17.6%) (40.0%) (31.8%) (7.3%) 66 120 108 21 (20.0%) (36.4%) (32.7%) (6.4%) 62 130 103 27 (18.8%) (39.4%) (31.1%) (8.2%) Rarely No need respond X 10 (3.0%) 11 (3.3%) 7 (2.1%) 15 (4.5%) 2 (0.6%) 2 (0.6%) 1 (0.3%) 5 (1.5%) 288 (87.3%) SD. Level
3.42 .968 Extensive need 3.50 1.020 Extensive need 3.54 .980 Extensive need 3.32 1.116 Moderate need .46 1.269 No respond
3.61 .987 Extensive 2 9 need (2.7%) (0.6%) 12 3 3.60 1.048 Extensive (3.6%) (0.9%) need 6 2 3.63 .978 Extensive (1.8%) (0.6%) need
Table 13 (Continued)
(n=330) Level of needs Needs in English Very Extensive Moderate Fairly courses extensive need need need need - Idiom and slang 42 122 95 49 words (12.7%) (37.0%) (28.8%) 14.8% - Others 14 13 13 3 (4.2%) (3.9%) (3.9%) (0.9%) No Rarely X need respond SD. Level
16 6 3.32 1.133 Moderate (4.8%) (1.8%) need 2 285 .51 1.353 No (0.6%) (86.4%) respond
Table 14 shows that most of respondents (47.6%) want to have English training courses every 6 months for 3 consecutive days (43.0%). Majority at 53.0% preferred the training to be on English-Thai combination with Thai and native speakers as instructors (49.7%), and with only 712 trainees in a course (38.8%). Table 14 The characteristic of English training course that the cabin crew preferred Characteristic of course The appropriate time for English course - Every 1 month - Every 2 months - Every 3 months - Every 6 months - Others - No respond The length of period for the English course - 1 day - 3 days - 5 days - others Number 25 27 67 157 49 5 116 142 27 42 (n=330) Percent 7.6 8.2 20.3 47.6 14.8 1.5 35.2 43.0 8.2 12.7
Table 14 (Continued) Characteristic of course - No respond The activities in - English - English combine with Thai - Others - No respond Instructor team - Thai - Native speakers - Thai and native speakers - No respond Number of trainees in a course 1-6 7-12 13-18 19-24 25-30 Number 3 150 175 4 1 5 160 164 1 54 135 79 52 10 (n=330) Percent 0.9 45.5 53.0 1.2 0.3 1.5 48.5 49.7 0.3 16.4 40.9 23.9 15.8 3.0
Part V: Comments and suggestions A total of 128 comments and suggestions were received the cabin crew representing (38.78%) of the expected number concerning the English training courses apart from working routine. 1. Around 20% of the cabin crew suggested that the English training course curriculum should include the following topics: daily conversation, tourism information, general information about Thailand, ground service information, technical terms, medical terms, cooking terms,
business management, idioms / slang / jargon words, problem solving such as immigration question, culture of each country, polite English sentences and phrases. 2. The cabin crew (17.87%) suggested that the English training courses should be improved in terms of the following: - The atmosphere of the class should be fun, more interesting and in small group. - The instructor should be highly qualified native speaker from prestigious University. - Teaching method should emphasize two-way communication. - The course should utilize multimedia materials and should be multifaceted to include study trips, role playing, musical games. DISCUSSION Research results show that there were more female respondents (59.1%) or more female cabin crew in the Intercontinental flight during the period November-December 2004. This indicates that airline flight crew, especially the service crew, is still female dominated on board. The English communication skills’ background in terms of listening skill and speaking of cabin crew was at fair level only. Presently, cabin crew must have a minimum TOEIC score of 550 to join the standard recruitment process. Since the English communication skills’ background of cabin crew is the heart of their job. Thai Airways should raise the minimum recruitment standard of TOEIC score 550 to 600 score or more. This will ensure the airline of having staff with excellent English communication skills.
Most of cabin crew (83.9%) graduated in Bachelor’s Degree this is because the image of cabin crew is like a servant so there were just a few cabin crew who graduated in Master Degree or more. Most of them think that if they graduated in Master Degree they could find a better job than cabin crew. There was only 18.5% of cabin crew who studied extra English courses outside the company by the reason to communicate English fluently (55.73%) the most. This is because they think that their English communication skill is enough for working routine but they do not want to increase English capability to be excellent. Moreover most of cabin crew was Thai so they did not get a chance to practice in English because they spoke in Thai with co-workers all the time, so English capability of cabin crew was based on the in-house English training course only. Majority of cabin crew (73.33%) had been trained only in general In-flight conversation and had never been provided with non-working routine English training courses by the company. Obviously, English training courses of Thai Airways did not provide for every cabin crew as in the result that present only 73.33% but not 100%. It meant that cabin crew got different chance to study English training courses from Thai Airways, moreover there were only 4 English training courses for cabin crew which is not enough to improve English capability of cabin crew. Most of cabin crew (81.5%) did not take extra English course outside the company. The desire to learn of cabin crew was very low. After discussion with cabin crew it was found that they did not have any motivation to study more due to limited time. It was very difficult for them to have a free day in order to attend any class outside the company. Moreover they did not have any motivation to learn more as promotion is firstly based on the working experience, not on the capability. This instilled to the cabin crew the idea of being more learned and smarter will not assure promotion or raise in the company. This is one of the reasons why the cabin crew were not motivated to increase their English communication skills to an excellent level. Nevertheless a few of cabin crew still had extra courses in English to enable them to communicate fluently.
The listening skill level of cabin crew were increase from fair level to good level after had been worked so it meant that cabin crew got a chance to listen from many accent of passengers but speaking skill still was the same at fair level. Thus there is need for Thai Airways International to provide the crew with training course that would improve their speaking skill. The communication skills of cabin crew on topics beyond their working routine such as food ingredient, current events, customs formality were rated at fair level. This was perhaps due to the cabin crew lack of knowledge of the topics or subjects. A training in topics should be provided by the company. Majority of cabin crew had listening problem to Australian and Indian accent. The cabin crew then need to be taught in technique of how to understand these two accents. English training course should put more emphasis on accent especially the problematic accents. Beside accent, English being the second language, lack of confidence and cultural differences were also the main causes of communication problem between the cabin crew and passengers. Hurst (1991) mentioned that communication must be two ways process, with people hearing and listening, perceive and understand one another’ words and intention. So cabin crew must understand what the passengers are saying. Dealing with different culture, Littlejohn (1987) commented that if you are speaking English to audiences that do not use English as their first language, consider these: speak slowly, avoid idiom etc. As most of cabin crew solved the communication problem by themselves personal knowledge is important. However, the cabin crew have never taken extra English course outside the company that extensive in house training course should be provided putting emphasis on listening and speaking concerning various topics. Correct standard pronunciation of words should also be emphasized in these training courses. English conversational skills will enable the cabin crew to solve communication problems with passengers.
The way to improve the English training courses must concern to the needs analysis, this is because needs analysis is an investigation, in light of specification of the tasks a learners will be requires to perform in the target language need to be learnt in order to bring about proficiency in these particular tasks. The results of needs analysis can be used to determine a syllabus and suitable teaching techniques (Brumfit and Roberts, 1987). Results of needs toward English training course showed that cabin crew need to have English training course for 3 consecutive days in every 6 months in both English and Thai activities by Thai and native speakers instructor team. The number of trainees should be limited to only 7-12 persons so cabin crew will get more chances to practice or interact with to the instructors. Most of cabin crew were over 30 years old that principle and techniques for adult education should be considered before implementing the English training course. The desire to learn of adult education is essential, which may come from deep interest in some subject, or it may result from a feeling of need for some new skill or knowledge (Barton et al., 1976).
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions of the Study English, as an international language, is the most widespread medium of international communication. In order to prepare excellent English communication of cabin crew, Thai Airways provided many courses for cabin crew but it seems unable to be success because the English syllabus of course is not directly relevant to cabin crew’s problems and needs. Therefore, it will be of great advantage to improve English course in relation to problems and needs of cabin crew in order to improve English capability of cabin crew and moreover make the most passengers’ satisfaction. This research titles “Needs Analysis for English Communication skills of Thai Airways International Cabin Crew” aimed 1) to study the general characteristics of cabin crew, 2) to determine English communication skills apart from working routine, 3) to examine the English communication problems with the passengers, 4) to analyze the English training needs for English communication skills improvement. 1. General characteristics of Cabin Crew. Most of the cabin crew were female in the Intercontinental routes with the age the most at 33-38 years old. Majority of cabin crew had been working with Thai Airways from 7-11 years. Almost of these cabin crew graduated with Bachelor Degree. The level of English communication skills’ background of cabin crew in terms of listening and speaking skills was at fair level. Most of cabin crew had been trained in General conversation
course, pronunciation course, public address course, service on board / safety procedure course and other course respectively. Just only 18.5% of cabin crew who took some extra English course besides those given by the company with the reason was to communicate English fluently, to enhance communication skills, to be promoted to higher position and to supplement the regular courses from Thai Airways International respectively. 2. English communication skills apart from working routine of Thai Airways International cabin crew. English communication skill apart from working routine in terms of listening skill was at good level but speaking skill of cabin crew was at fair level only. These are topics that cabin crew have good level in terms of speaking and listening skills: general information about Thailand, seat arrangement, flight schedule information but the rest cabin crew rated as at fair level only in these topics such as hotel information, tourist information, ingredient of food, up to date information, capability to solve the problem, seat facility, connecting flight information, immigration information, immigration formality, and custom formality. 3. English communication problem with passengers Data from findings indicated that most of cabin crew had fairly problem of listening skill and speaking skill in terms of working and non working-routine. Cabin crew had moderate listening problem to theses accent: Australian accent, Indian accent, but for European accent, British accent, American accent, and Asian accent were fairly in listening problem.
The result showed that accent was the first cause to have listening English communication problem, followed by English as second language, disturbing noise, not enough training course, cross culture and training course not serve the needs of cabin crew. In terms of speaking English communication problem, the cause was second language the most which was different from listening problem, followed by accent, not confident to talk, cross culture, insufficient training course and training course not serve the needs of cabin crew. Most of cabin crew seldom had communication problem with passenger but when they had the communication problem, they try to solve it by themselves. 4. Needs for English training courses improvement From the analysis, cabin crew would like the objective of training courses to focus on listening and speaking skills moderately. Most of cabin crew had extensively needed about daily conversation, pronunciation, should be emphasized in the English training course improvement, but cabin crew moderately needed for idiom and slang word. Most of cabin crew agreed that English training courses should have in every 6 months, and should be 3 consecutive days. The training courses activities should be in English and combined with Thai when necessary. Most of cabin crew preferred to study with Thai and native speaker instructors. The class size should be7-12 trainees/class. Recommendations of the Study The research results show although the English communication skills of the cabin crew listening skill was rated good and speaking skill was rated fair. There were still some communication
problems between the passengers and cabin crew. Therefore in order to solve this problem and to improve the communication skills of the cabin crew the following are recommended: 1. Thai Airways International should raise the standard recruitment TOEIC score from 550 to 600 or higher. 2. The cabin crew should be provided with a non-working routine English courses with emphasis on speaking or conversational skills. Some training regarding Australian and Indian accents should also be provided. The content of the English training courses should include tips on pronunciation, knowledge of food ingredient, current events, immigration formality and culture of other countries. 3. English courses to be provided should have the following characteristics: The English course should be conducted in every 6 months The English course should be 3 consecutive days. Activities in the course should be in English combine with Thai. Instructor should be Thai and native speaker. Number of trainees in a course should be 7-12 persons. Suggestions for further Study Based on the finding of this study, the following are suggested: 1. The English communication skills of other front line staff functions such as cockpit crew, check-in staff, ticketing staff, and reservation staff etc should be research on.
2. Course content analysis or evaluation of English communication course on non-working routine.
REFERENCES Bangkok Post. 2002. Bangkok: June 20, 2002. p. 6. Barton, M., E. H. Gren, and E. B. Clarence. 1976. Method in Adult Education. 3rded. Danville: The Interstate Printer and Publishers, Inc. Berko, R. M., A. D. Wolvin and D. R. Wolvin. 1995. Communicating A Social and Career Focus. 6th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Brumfit, C. J. and J. T. Roberts. 1987. An Introduction to Language and Language Learning with Comprehensive Glossary of Terms. London: Batsfords Academic and Education Ltd. Dance, E. X. 1982. Human Communication Theory: Comparative Essay. New York: Harper and Row Press. Dance, E. X. and C. E. Larson. 1976. The Functions of Human Communication: A Theoretical Approach. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston Publisher. DeVito, J. A. 1996. Essentials of Human Communication. 2nd ed. New York: Harper Collins College Publisher. ____. 2003. Human Communication The Basic Course. 9th ed. New York: Harper Collins College Publisher.
Hanlon, P. 1996. Global Airlines Competition in a Transnational Industry. Oxford: Professional Publishing Ltd. Hurst, B. 1991. The Handbook of Communication Skills. London: Biddles Press Ltd. Hutchison, T. and A. Waters. 1987. English for specific purposes: A Learning-Centre Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khantharos, K. 1997. Development of Social Interaction Activities in English Business Correspondence Teaching for Third-Year Certificate Vocational Education Students. Bangkok: M.Ed Thesis, Srinakharinwirot University. Khemateerakul, B. 1996. Needs Analysis as a Basis for the Improvement of the Intensive English Course of the International Program at Bangkok University. Bangkok: M.A.Thesis, Mahidol University. Lawrence, R. F., H. B. Carle, G. F. Paul and L. K. Gary. 1991. Investigation Communication: An Introduction to Research Method. Jersey City: Prentice Hall, Inc. Littlejohn, S. W. 1987. Theories of Human Communication. 3rd ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Press. Michalak, D. F. and E. G. Yager. 1979. Making The Training Process Work. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers. Mountford, A. 1981. The What, The Why and The Way. London: British Council Press.
Nadler, L. 1989. Designing Training Program The Critical Events Model. 8th ed. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Nunan, D. 1988a. Syllabus Design. Oxford: Oxford University Press. _____. 1988b. The Learner-Centre Curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Patton, B. R. and K. Giffin. 1989. Decision-making Group Interaction. (3rd ed.). New York: Harper & Row Press. Poter, R. E. and L.A. Samovar. (Eds.). 1988. Intercultural Communication: A Leader. Belmount: Wadsworth Press. Ratanavichak, V. 1996. Development of Listening and Speaking Activities Based on Electric Approach in a Course in Business English for Hotel. M.Ed. Thesis, Srinakharinwirot University. Richard, J. C. 1990. The Language Teaching Matrix. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richard, J. C. and T. S. Rodgers. 1986. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Robinson, R. 1991. ESP Today: A Practitioner’s Guides. London: Prentice Hall. Shannon, C. and W. Weaver. 1949. The Mathematics Theory of Communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Suphan, S. 1996. Developing Natural Approach English Lessons for Home Economics Students. M.Ed. Thesis, Srinakharinwirot University. Thai Airways International Public Company Limited. 2003. Annual Report 2002/2003. Tongngam, W. 1997. Development of Scripted Drama Activities to Enhance English Listening and Speaking Skills for Intermediate Level Dramatic Arts Students. M.Ed. Thesis, Srinakharinwirot University. Widdowson, H. G. 1983. Learning Purpose and Language Use. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wutipreecha, N. 1996. Development of Big Books for Thai Beginning Learners of English. M. Ed.Thesis, Srinakharinwirot University. Yamane T. 1967. Statistic: An Introductory Analysis. New York: Harper and Row Inc
Appendix Questionnaire for Cabin Crew
NEEDS ANALYSIS FOR ENGLISH COMMUNICATION SKILLS OF THAI AIRWAYS INTERNATIONAL CABIN CREW Questionnaire for Cabin Crew This study is made to fulfill a partial requirement of the Master’s Thesis entitled “Needs Analysis for English Communication Skills of Thai Airways International Cabin Crew”. Instruction: This questionnaire is organized for surveying the problems and needs for English communication skills of Thai Airways International Cabin Crew. Your answers will be complied and analyzed to find out the way to improve the English training courses for cabin crew and to be beneficial for Human Resources Development in order to develop the English communication standard of recruitment. There are 5 parts of the questionnaire Part I : General characteristics of Cabin Crew. Part II : English communication skills apart from working-routine. Part III : Communication problems with passengers. Part IV : Needs for English training courses improvement. Part V : Comments and suggestions. Kindly send the questionnaire to PANRATTANA CHENAKSARA PER. NO. 32205 before 15 JANUARY, 2005 Thank you very much for your co-operation
Part I: General characteristics of the Cabin Crew Instruction: Please answer the entire questionnaire by yourself Please fill in the blanks provided and/or write ‘x’ to the selected answer 1. Sex Male 2. Age ………………….years 3. Working experiences …………………….years 4. Educational attainment High school Diploma Bachelor’s Degree Master’s Degree Doctor’s Degree Others ………………. (Please specify) 5. To what extent do you have background of English communication skills? Communication skills Listening Speaking Excellent Good Fair Female
6. Experience in training English courses from Thai Airways International. (You can choose more than 1 choice) General In-flight conversation Pronunciation Public Address Services on board / safety procedure Other……………………………..(please specify) 7. Have you ever studied extra English courses while you are working? Yes (Please answer No.8) No 8. What are reasons for studying extra English courses? (You can choose more than 1 choice) To communicate English fluently To be promoted to higher position To enhance the communication skills To supplement the regular courses from Thai Airways International Others ……………………………………………………….
Part II: English communication skills levels apart from working routine Instruction: Please answer the following questions, mark X to your selected answer. Each figure identifies your English communication skills levels (listening and speaking) in several topics (non-working routine) with passengers. Listening Topics of English communication Fair Excellent Good 1. English language skills of cabin crew 2. Hotel information 3. General information about Thailand 4. Tourist information 5. Ingredients of food 6. Up to date information such as news 7. Capability to solve the problem 8. Seat facility 9. Seat arrangement 10. Flight schedule information 11. Connecting flight information 12. Immigration information 13. Immigration formalities 14. Custom formalities Speaking Excellent Good Fair
Part III: Communication problems with passengers Instruction: Please answer the following questions, mark X to your selected answer. Each figure identifies the problem levels in using English with passengers. Very Extensive Moderate Fairly Rarely Problems in communicating English extensive problem problem problem problem with passengers problem 1. What is the level of communication problem in term of these skills? 1.1 Listening 1.2 Speaking 2. What are listening skill problems for you? 2.1 Listening to working-routine 2.2 Listening to non working-routine 3. What accent do you have the listening problem? 3.1 American accent 3.2 British accent 3.3 Australian accent 3.4 European accent 3.5 Indian accent 3.6 Asian accent 3.7 Others (please specify)…………….. 4. What are speaking skill problems for you? 4.1 Speaking to the working-routine 4.2 Speaking to non working routine
5. What causes of your listening problem with passengers? (more than 1choice) Training courses do not serve to the needs of cabin crew Not enough English courses from Thai Airways Second language Cross culture Accent Disturbing noise Others…………………………………………………………………. 6. What causes of your speaking problem with passengers? (more than 1choice) Training courses do not serve to the needs of cabin crew Not enough English courses from Thai Airways Second language Cross culture Accent Not confident to talk Others…………………………………………………………………. 7. How often do you have communication problems which are apart from working routine with the passengers? Most of the time Moderate Seldom 8. How do you solve communication problems which are apart from working routine with passengers? Try to solve it by yourself Call other cabin crew Ask other passengers Inform Air Purser or In-flight manager
Part IV: Needs of English training courses improvement. Instruction: Please answer the following questions. Put an X on the figure that you have chosen in each item. Each figure identifies the following degree of needs for English training courses. Very strong need Strong Moderate Fairly need need need Rarely need
Items of training needs 1. To what extent do you want the objective of English training course focus on the following aspect? 1.1 Listening 1.2 Speaking 2. In term of listening skills, what should be practiced in the English training course? 2.1 Daily conversation 2.2 Pronunciation 2.3 Idiom and slang words 2.4 Other (please specify)……………….. 3. In term of speaking skills, what should be practiced in the English training course? 3.1 Daily conversation 3.2 Pronunciation 3.3 Idiom and slang words 3.4 Other (please specify)………………….
4. The appropriate time for English training course should be: Every 1 months Every 2 months Every 3 months Every 6 month Other (please specify)……………… 6. Time for English training course should be: 1 day 3 days 5 days Other (please specify)………………. 7. English training courses activities should be appropriate in: English English combine with Thai when necessary Other (please specify)……………….. 8. English training course instructor team should be: Thai Native speakers Thai and native speakers Other 9. How many trainees are there in one course? (please specify)…………………….
Part V: Comment and suggestions 1. What is your expectation of English courses that are apart from working routine which will be enhanced Human Resources Development? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Other comments will be beneficial to improve training course: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Thank you very much for your kind co-operation in replying to this questionnaire. Miss Panrattana Chenaksara No.32205
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA Name Date of Birth Place of Birth : : : Miss Panrattana Chenaksara 16 April, 1972 Bangkok Bachelor Degree from Bangkok University (B.A.) Cabin Crew Special English instructor of Thai Airways International Thai Airways International Public Company Limited
Education background : Occupation : : :