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Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Column Shear
( )
c
'
u
c w
g
0.17 1 C.114
14
N
V f b d
A
 
= +


\
Recall
( Axial
Compression )
5 . 0 If
c u
> V V
Ties must satisfy C.7.10
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Additional Note on Reinforcement Ratio
( )
Recall 0.01 0.04 C.10.9.1
For crosssection larger than required for
loading:
Min. reinforcement may be computed for
reduced effective area, A
g
, ( 1/2 A
g
(total) )
Provided strength from reduced area and
resulting A
st
must be adequate for loading.
(C.10.8 )
Nondimensional Interaction
Diagrams
See Figures B12 to B26
or ACI Common 340 Design Handbook Vol 2
Columns (ACI 340.2R91)
n n
c g c g
versus
P M
f A f A h
n n
n n
c g c g
e
versus R
P P
K
f A f A h
= =
or
Nondimensional Interaction
Diagrams
Design using nondimensional
interaction diagrams
Calculate factored loads (P
u
, M
u
) and e for
relevant load combinations
Select potentially governing case(s)
Use estimate h to calculate h, e/h for governing
case(s)
1.)
2.)
3.)
Design using nondimensional
interaction diagrams
Use appropriate chart (App. A) target
g
(for each governing case)
Select
4.)
5.)
n
c g
P
f A
u c
g
n
c g
P f
A
P
f A
=
 


\
Read
Calculate
required
h b A b * h &
g
=
Design using nondimensional
interaction diagrams
If dimensions are significantly different from
estimated (step 3), recalculate ( e / h ) and redo
steps 4 & 5.
Revise A
g
if necessary.
Select steel
6.)
7.)
g st
A A =
Design using nondimensional
interaction diagrams
Using actual dimensions & bar sizes to check all
load combinations ( use charts or exact:
interaction diagram).
Design lateral reinforcement.
8.)
9.)
Example: Column design using
Interaction Diagrams
Determine the tension and compression
reinforcement for a 16 in x 24 in. rectangular tied
column to support P
u
= 840 k and M
u
= 420 kft. Use
f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi. Using the interaction
diagram.
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the initial components
u
n
840 kips
1292 k
0.65
P
P
= = =
u
n
u
12 in.
420 kft
ft
e 6.0 in.
840 k
M
P
 

\
= = =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the initial components
24 in. 5.0 in. 19.0 in. h = =
19.0 in.
0.79
24 in.
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the coefficients of the column
( )( )( )
n
n
g c
1292 k
16 in. 24 in. 4 ksi
0.84
P
K
A f
= =
=
( )( )
( )( )( )( )
n
n
g c
1292 k 6 in.
e
16 in. 24 in. 4 ksi 24 in.
0.21
P
R
A f h
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using an interaction
diagram, B13
( ) ( )
n n
c y
, 0.21, 0.84
0.7
4 ksi 60 ksi
0.042
R K
f f
=
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using an interaction
diagram, B14
( ) ( )
n n
c y
, 0.21, 0.84
0.9
4 ksi 60 ksi
0.034
R K
f f
=
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using linear interpolation to find the of the column
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0.9 0.7
0.7
0.7
0.9 0.7
0.034 0.042
0.042 0.79 0.7
0.9 0.7
0.0384
= +
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Determine the amount of steel required
Select the steel for the column, using #11 bars
( )( )( )
st g
2
0.0384 16 in. 24 in.
14.75 in
A A = =
=
2
st
2
b
14.75 in
9.45 bars 10 bars
1.56 in
A
A
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The areas of the steel:
The loading on the column
2
st
2 2
s1 t
15.6 in
7.8 in , 7.8 in
A
A A
=
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The compression components are
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
2
s1 s1 y c
c c
0.85 7.8 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
441.5 k
0.85 0.85 4 ksi 16 in. 0.85
46.24
C A f f
C f ba c
c
= =
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The tension component is
( )
2
s1 s s
s s cu
7.8 in
21.5 in.
29000 ksi 0.003
21.5 in.
87 ksi
T A f f
d c c
f E
c c
c
c
= =
   
= =
 
\ \
 
=

\
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Take the moment about the tension steel
( ) ( )
n s1 c
e
2
a
P C d d C d
 
= +

\
e 6 in. 9.5 in.
15.5 in.
= +
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The first equation related to P
n
( ) ( )
n
2
2
n
15.5 in. 441.5 k 21.5 in. 2.5 in.
0.85
46.24 21.5 in.
2
8388.5 kin. 994.2 19.65
541.2 k 64.14 1.27
P
c
c
c c
P c c
=
 
+

\
= +
= +
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The second equation comes from the equilibrium
equation and substitute in for P
n
n s1 c
2
s
2
s
2
s
541.2 k 64.14 1.27 441.5 k 46.24 7.8
7.8 1.27 17.9 99.7
0.1628 2.282 12.782
P C C T
c c c f
f c c
f c c
= +
+ = +
=
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Substitute the relationship of c for the stress in the
steel.
The problem is now a cubic solution
c f
s
RHS
15 in. 37.7 10.38
19 in. 11.45 2.64
19.5 in. 8.92 4.63
20.0 in. 6.52 6.70
19.98 in. 6.62 6.62
2
21.5 in.
87 0.1628 2.282 12.782
c
c c
c
 
=

\
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute P
n
Compute M
n
about the center
( ) ( )
2
n
541.2 k 64.14 19.98 in. 1.27 19.98 in.
1313.7 k 1292 k
P = +
= >
n s1 c
2 2 2 2
h h a h
M C d C T d
     
= + +
  
\ \ \
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute M
n
about the center
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
n
2
441.5 k 12 in. 2.5 in.
0.85 19.98 in.
46.24 19.98 in. 12 in.
2
7.8 in 6.62 ksi 21.5 in. 12 in.
4194.25 kin. 3241.4 kin. 490.54 kin.
7926.2 kin. 660.5 kft.
M =
 
+

\
+
= + +
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Check that M
n
is greater than the required M
u
Check the P
n
is greater than the required P
u
( )
n
0.65 660.5 kft.
429.33 kft. 420 kft.
M =
=
( )
n
0.65 1313.7 k
853.9 k 840 k
P =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Determine the tie spacing using #4 bars
( )
( )
b
stirrup
16
spacing smallest 48
smallest dimension
16 1.41 in. 22.56 in.
48 0.5 in. 24 in.
16 in.
d
d
= =
Use 16 in.
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