You are on page 1of 10

38 8

2012 8

Vol. 38, No. 8

ACTA AUTOMATICA SINICA

August, 2012

DEZERT Jean

(Probabilistic neural networks, PNN) DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache theory)


. ,
. , , Hu
5 ; , DSmT , PNN , ,
; , DSmT , ; ,
, ,
, , .
, 89.3 %.

, , Dezert-Smarandache , ,

DOI

, , Dezert Jean. . , 2012, 38(8): 12981307

10.3724/SP.J.1004.2012.01298

An Airplane Image Target0 s Multi-feature Fusion Recognition Method


LI Xin-De1

YANG Wei-Dong1

DEZERT Jean2

Abstract This paper proposes an image target0 s multi-feature fusion recognition method based on probabilistic neural
networks (PNN) and Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT). To aim at multiple features extracted from an image, the
information from them is fused. Firstly, the image is preprocessed with binarization and then multiple features are
extracted, such as Hu moments, normalized moment of inertia, affine invariant moments, discrete outline parameters and
singular values. Secondly, due to the difficulty of the construction of the basic belief assignment in DSmT, in this paper the
target recognition rate matrix is constructed by PNN, that is, the basic belief assignments can be assigned to the evidence
sources by PNN. Finally, the procedure of airplane target recognition can be accomplished by the DSmT combination rule
at the level of decision fusion. For small distortion of target image, the multi-feature fusion method proposed in this paper
is compared with the single-feature one through a series of experiments. The experimental result in this paper proves that
this method greatly improves the right recognition rate, satisfies real-time requirements, and has good ability of rejection
of judgement and strong insensitivity to target image size. And even for big distortion, the right recognition rate can also
reach 89.3 %.
Key words Information fusion, target recognition, Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT), airplane image, probabilistic
neural networks (PNN)
Citation Li Xin-De, Yang Wei-Dong, Dezert Jean. An airplane image target0 s multi-feature fusion recognition method.
Acta Automatica Sinica, 2012, 38(8): 12981307
2011-10-19
2012-03-26
Manuscript received October 19, 2011; accepted March 26, 2012
(60804063, 61175091),
(BK2010403),
(200902), (3208000501),
(20100169001),
(3208001203)
Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China
(60804063, 61175091), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu
Province (BK2010403), Public Funds of Image Processing and
Intelligent Control Key Laboratory of Chinese Education Ministry (200902), Science and Technology Innovation Foundation in
Southeast University (3208000501), Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (20100169001), and Excellent Young Teacher
Foundation of Southeast University in Teaching and Science Research (3208001203)

Recommended by Associate Editor ZHOU Jie


1.
210096 2. F91761
1. Key Laboratory of Measurement and Control of CSE (School

. [17] ,
. , Dudani [1]
, Bayes K
, 93.18 %
95.45 %; Roberts[2] ,
, 80 % ; [3]
, (Back propagation, BP) 88.8 %.
. [8]
of Automation, Southeast University), Ministry of Education,
Nanjing, 210096, P. R. China 2. The French Aerospace Laboratory, Office National d0 Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales
(ONERA), F-91761 Palaiseau, France

BP DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache
theory)[913] ,
Hu ,
,
,
.
,
, .
,
.

, .
. [14]
(Characteristic vector matching, CVM) (Point pattern matching,
PPM) ,
; [15]
Rui
,
,
; [16] K-
(K nearest neighbor, KNN)
,
(Support vector machine, SVM) SVMKNN 28.7 %
1.9 %. ,
,
.
,

, ,
DSmT
. ,
, ,
,
; , ,
,
(Probabilistic neural networks, PNN)
, , PNN
,
; , DSmT
,
.

moment of inertia, NMI)[18] [19] ,


[20] .
, 5
. ,
.
1.1 Hu
f (x, y), (p + q)
(p + q)

mpq =

M X
N
X

mp nq f (m, n)

(1)

(m x)p (n x)q f (m, n)

(2)

m=1 n=1

pq =

M X
N
X
m=1 n=1

, (x, y) f (x, y) .
pq

pq =

pq
(p + q)
, r=
, p + q = 2, 3,
r0,0
2

(3)

Hu 7 ,
:
1 = 20 + 02
2 = (20 02 )2 + 411 2
3 = (30 312 )2 + (321 03 )2
4 = (30 + 12 )2 + (21 + 03 )2
5 = (30 312 )(30 12 )[(30 + 12 )2
3(03 + 21 )2 ] + (321 03 )(21 + 03 )
[3(30 + 12 )2 (03 + 21 )2 ]
6 = (20 02 )[(30 + 12 )2 (03 + 21 )2 ] +
11 (30 + 12 )(03 + 21 )
7 = (321 03 )(30 + 12 )[(30 + 12 )2
3(03 + 21 )2 ] + (312 30 )(21 + 03 )
[3(30 + 12 )2 (03 + 21 )2 ]
1.2
,
:
M P
N
P

1
x
=

. , ,
Hu [17] (Normalized

1299

xf (x, y)

x=1 y=1
M P
N
P
x=1 y=1

(4)
f (x, y)

1300

38

1.4
N
M P
P

y =

yf (x, y)

x=1 y=1
M P
N
P

(5)

N = [rk , sk , vk , fk ]
, :

min[zk (i)]
max[zk (i)]
Ni
P
3
[zk (i) z k ]

f (x, y)

rk =

x=1 y=1

, (
x, y) .
(
x, y) J(x,y) :

J(x,y) =

N
M P
P

sk =

Ni
P

((
x) + (y y) )f (x, y)

vk =

x=1 y=1

,
(
x, y) :
p
J(x,y)
NMI =
=
s m
M P
N
P
2
2
((x x
) + (y y) )f (x, y)
x=1 y=1
M
P

N
P

Ni
P

(11)
3

[zk (i)]

i=1

[(x, y) (
x, y)] f (x, y) =

x=1 y=1
M P
N
P

i=1

(10)

f (x, y)

x=1 y=1

(6)
PM PN
, m = x=1 y=1 f (x, y) ,
.
1.3
,
.
Hankel Apolar
. ,
, :
20 02 11 2
(7)
I1 =
400
I2 =
30 2 03 2 630 21 12 03 +430 12 3 +421 3 03 312 2 21 2
10
00

(8)
I3 =
20 (21 0312 2 )11 (30 0321 12 )+02 (30 1221 2 )
700

(9)

[zk (i) z k ]

i=1
Ni
P

(12)
2

[zk (i)]

i=1

fk =

max[zk (i)] min[zk (i)]


zk

(13)

, zk (i) i
.

1.5
1. A Crmn ,
U V :
"
#
S
0
(14)
U H AV =
0 0
, S = diag{1 , 2 , , r } 1 2
r > 0, i , i = 1, 2, , r A
, AAH AH A i ,
i = i .

2
DSmT
1.
.

2.1 DSmT
,
,
DSmT ,

, = {1 , 2 }, D =
{1 , 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 } , 1 , 2 1 2
, 1 2 , DSmT
5 (Proportional conflict redistribution rules No. 5, PCR5)
. 1. , mi

1
Fig. 1

The framework of multi-feature fusion and recognition arithmetic

1
Table 1
T1

m1

x11

m2

1301

x21

Model building

T2

x12

Tn

x22

x1n

x2n

It
1
1

n
P
j=1
n
P

x1j
x2j

j=1

..
.

..
.

..
.

..

m5

x51

x52

..
.

x5n

..
.
1

n
P

x5j

j=1

i , Tj T j ,
S
S
It = T1 Tn , xij T
i j .
Dezert [9]
PCR5, :
DSmT ,
Bel1 () Bel2 ()
S1 , S2 ( [9])
,
m1 () m2 (),

mfM () (A) m (A) =


X
m1 (i ) m2 (j ), A D

(15)

i ,j D
i j =A

D ,
(15)
m() , m():
D 7 [0, 1]. mfM () ()
, . PCR5
,
. ,
. PCR5 VBA
(Vacuous belief assignment) ,
( [9]) :
k = 2 , X D \ {},

mP CR5 (X) = m12 (X) +

X
Y D /X
XY =

"

m2 (X) m1 (Y )
m1 (X) m2 (Y )
+
m1 (X) + m2 (Y ) m2 (X) + m1 (Y )

(16)
(15) (16) [9],
, m12 () m12k ()
.

2.2

[2122] . ,

, .
BP , PNN : 1)
, ,
; 2)
, , PNN
; 3)
.
PNN : k , n
, . 1)
.
. 5
, ,
. 3 ,
3. 2)
, k n ,
k n. 3) .

1302

k ,
k.

2.3
DSmT
, ,
BBA (Basic belief assignment) ,
.
,
,
.
,
.

,
BBA ;
, , ,
BBA .
2.2 PNN
, ,
. PNN
, BBA ,
DSmT BBA
.
PNN
, M , .
2. M

m11 m1n
.
..
..
.
M =
(17)
.
.
.

mn1 mnn
, mij i j ,
i = j , mij ,
.
, PNN
.
? , ,
PNN , PNN
, ,
2 M l (l = 1, , 5).
M l (l = 1, , 5) l
PNN
,
. , M l mlij
i , j
. , ,
. ,

38

M l (l = 1, , 5)

.
, .
3. X P (X =
x) = p(x, ), , p(x, ) ,
, (X1 , X2 , , Xn ) X ,
(X1 , X2 , , Xn ) :

L() = L(X1 , X2 , , Xn ) =

n
Y

p(Xi , )

(18)

i=1

. Fisher
, (X1 , X2 , , Xn ),
, :
,

= L(X1 , X2 , , Xn , )
=
L()
max L(X1 , X2 , , Xn , )

(19)

1 , X2 , , Xn )
= (X
. (x1 , x2 , , xn )
(X1 , X2 , , Xn ) , =
1 , x2 , , xn ) .
(x
,
.
, :
4. P (J = j) = p(j, ), , P
PNN j ,
j ( M
j ), M
, = {1, 2, , n}
M . j , .
j,
p(j, ) ,
,
:
= max p(j, ) = max mij ,
p(j, )

mij M (20)

.
= (j)
, ml .
PNN ,
j l (l = 1, , 5), 5
. ,
4 M l (l = 1, , 5)
l (l = 1, , 5). l
ml :
xlj = mll j ,

l = 1, , 5, j = 1, , n

(21)

2
Fig. 2

1303

The flowchart of arithmetic

2.4

3.2 .

( 2),
:
1) , PNN
,
M l (l = 1, , 5).
2) ,
PNN .
3) PNN
,
,
.
4) PCR5 .
5) ,
. > ,
; < ,
.

3
3.1
Matlab 7.0 , 7
30 ( 672
504 , ,
) ( 4 ),
, 7 , 3
().
, 5
PNN radbas,
dist,
netprod, compet, dotprod, 0.1. , 5 PNN

3
Fig. 3

The binary image of seven kinds of airplanes

3.1.1 1:
, 10 ,
210 15 ,
7 , 105 , .
0.7 (
, ),
, ,
. 4 .

1304

38

5
Fig. 5

4
Fig. 4

Targets which are not in the training database

3 ,
, ,
,
.

3.1.4 4: DSmT

The right rate of recognition

4 ,
,
97 % .
3.1.2 2: DSmT
, 210
1 , 7 , 7 ,
, ,
DSmT ,
2 .
2 ,
, , DSmT
,
.
3.1.3 3: DSmT
, 2
( 5) , 5
, 3 .
2
Table 2

, 3
, 7 , 25
. , 7 5
. K-
BP
. K-,
0.5,
, K- K 6.
BP ,
0.5,
, BP 5
3 , S
, 500,
Levenberg-Marquardt ,

, 0.05,
nodes = ts + d, 1 d 10 , , t
, s .
6 7 .

Results of classification

Hu

NMI

(< 0.7)

3
Table 3

Hu

NMI

DSmT

Results of classification

DSmT

(< 0.7)

(< 0.7)

:
4
Table 4

1305

(, )

The recognizable minimum size using different methods, where represents null

Hu PNN

NMI PNN

PNN

PNN

PNN

70 %

486

3 888

15 553

486

80 %

15 553

486

90 %

15 553

3 888

). 7 , 25
, 175 ; 7 , 5
, 35 . ,
, 1/2,
, , 8
.

6
Fig. 6

K-

Comparison between the proposed method and


KNN

8
Fig. 8

7
Fig. 7

BP
Comparison between the proposed method and
BP neural network

6 7 ,
K- BP
, 97.1 %.

3.1.5 5:
, (
), ,

,
, ( 4

The effect of the size of target0 s image

: 1) 8 ,
, 90 %
; 2) ,
, ; 3)
,
, .

3.2
, ,
,
,
, , ,
. 7
25 ,
,
.
,

1306

441 , 394 ,
89.3 %;
2 412 ms, 5.5 ms,
.

,
, DSmT PNN
.
, 97 %
, ,

,
.
,
,
. , ,
DSmT , ,
DSmT [1222] . ,
,
[2326] ,
.

References
1 Dudani S A, Breeding K J, McGhee R B. Aircraft identification by moment invariants. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 1977, C-26(1): 3946
2 Roberts G A. Aircraft recognition using a parts analysis
technique. In: SPIE Proceedings on Applications of Digital
Image Processing XI. Bellingham, WA: Society for PhotoOptical Instrumentation Engineers, 1988. 338345
3 Du Ya-Juan, Zhang Hong-Cai, Pan Quan. Threedimensional aircraft recognition using moments. Journal of
Data Acquisition and Processing, 2000, 15(3): 390394
(, , . .
, 2000, 15(3): 390394)
4 Flusser J, Suk T. Pattern recognition by affine moment invariants. Pattern Recognition, 1993, 26(1): 167174
5 Mitchell R A, Westerkamp J J. Robust statistical feature based aircraft identification. IEEE Transactions on
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1999, 35(3): 10771094
6 Fung G M, Mangasarian O L. A feature selection Newton method for support vector machine classification. Computational Optimization and Applications, 2004, 28(2):
185202
7 Cheng Yong-Mei, Pan Quan, Zhang Hong-Cai, Wang Gang.
Information fusion image recognition algorithm and applications in three dimension airplane image recognition. Acta
Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica, 2004, 25(2): 176179

38

(, , , .
. , 2004, 25(2): 176179)
8 Hou Jun, Miao Zhuang, Pan Quan. Intelligent target recognition method of sequential images based on DSmT. Journal
of Computer Applications, 2006, 26(1): 120122
(, , . DSmT
. , 2006, 26(1): 120122)
9 Smarandache F, Dezert J. Advances and Applications of
DSmT for Information Fusion. USA: American Research
Press, 2004/2006/2009. Vol. 13
10 Li X D, Dezert J, Smarandache F, Dai X Z. Combination
of qualitative information based on 2-tuple modelings in
DSmT. Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2009,
24(4): 786798
11 Li X D, Dezert J, Smarandache F, Huang X H. Evidence
supporting measure of similarity for reducing the complexity
in information fusion. Information Sciences, 2010. 181(10):
18181835
12 Li Xin-De, Yang Wei-Dong, Wu Xue-Jian, Dezert Jean. A
fast approximate reasoning method in hierarchical DSmT
(B). Acta Electronica Sinica, 2011, 39(3A): 3136
(, , , Dezert Jean. DSmT
(B). , 2011, 39(3A): 3136)
13 Li Xin-De, Dezert Jean, Huang Xin-Han, Meng Zheng-Da,
Wu Xue-Jian. A fast approximate reasoning method in hierarchical DSmT (A). Acta Electronica Sinica, 2010, 38(11):
25662572
(, Dezert Jean, , , .
DSmT (A). , 2010, 38(11):
25662572)
14 Gu Li, Zhuang Zhen-Quan, Zheng Guang-Yong, Wang ZaiJian. Algorithm for hand shape matching based on feature
fusion. Computer Applications, 2005, 25(10): 22862288
(, , , . .
, 2005, 25(10): 22862288)
15 Deng Cheng-Qiang, Feng Gang. Content-based image retrieval using combination features. Computer Applications,
2003, 23(7): 100102
(, . . ,
2003, 23(7): 100102)
16 Chen Li, Chen Jing. Multi-feature fusion method based on
support vector machine and K-nearest neighbor classifier.
Journal of Computer Applications, 2009, 29(3): 833835
(, . K-.
, 2009, 29(3): 833835
17 Huang Z H, Leng J S. Analysis of Hu0 s moment invariants on
image scaling and rotation. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology. Chengdu, Sichuan: IEEE Computer Society CPS,
2010. 7: 476480

18 Wei M, Chen H N, Yan T Y, Zhou J, Wu Q Z, Xu B. NMIbased small target detecting method. In: Proceedings of the
2nd International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering. Wuhan, Hubei: IEEE Computer Society CPS,
2010. 13631366
19 Wei Jia-Jie, Liu Zhi-Gui, Tang Yi. Research of key recognition based on improved affine invariant moments. Microcomputer Information, 2010, 26(17): 196197
(, , .
. , 2010, 26(17): 196197)
20 Chen S Y, Feng J. Research on detection of fabric defects
based on singular value decomposition. In: Proceedings of
2010 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation. Harbin, Heilongjiang: IEEE, 2010. 857860
21 Specht D F. Probabilistic neural networks. Neural Networks,
1990, 3(1): 110118

Automatica Sinica, 2010, 36(3): 392398


(, , , .
. , 2010, 36(3): 392398)

.
, ,
, .
. E-mail: xindeli@seu.edu.cn
(LI Xin-De
Associate professor at
the School of Automation, Southeast
University. His research interest covers intelligent robot, robot perception,
information fusion, reasoning under uncertainty, and machine vision. Corresponding author of this paper.)

22 Specht D F. Enhancements to probabilistic neural networks.


In: Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on
Neural Networks. New York, USA: IEEE, 1992. 761768

2012
.
.
E-mail: weidongy2007@126.com
(YANG Wei-Dong
Received his
master degree from Southeast University in 2012. His research interest covers information fusion and image pro-

23 Yang Bo, Jing Zhong-Liang. Image fusion algorithm based


on the quincunx-sampled discrete wavelet frame. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2010, 36(1): 1222
(, . .
, 2010, 36(1): 1222)
24 Li Wei, Zhu Xue-Feng. An image fusion algorithm based on
second generation wavelet transform and its performance
evaluation. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2007, 33(8): 817822
(, . .
, 2007, 33(8): 817822)
25 Liu Gui-Xi, Yang Wan-Hai. A wavelet-decomposition-based
image fusion scheme and its performance evaluation. Acta
Automatica Sinica, 2002, 28(6): 927934
(, . .
, 2002, 28(6): 927934)
26 Chen Rong-Yuan, Lin Li-Yu, Wang Si-Chun, Qin QianQing. Remote sensing image fusion based on differential evolution algorithm under data assimilation framework. Acta

1307

cessing.)

DEZERT Jean
,
.
, ,
, .
E-mail: jean.dezert@onera.fr
(DEZERT Jean Ph. D., senior scientist at the French Aerospace Labroatory. His research interest covers information fusion, reasoning under uncertainty, multicriteria
analysis for decision-making support, and multisensor multitarget tracking.)