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2012 8

August, 2012

DEZERT Jean

. ,

. , , Hu

5 ; , DSmT , PNN , ,

; , DSmT , ; ,

, ,

, , .

, 89.3 %.

, , Dezert-Smarandache , ,

DOI

10.3724/SP.J.1004.2012.01298

LI Xin-De1

YANG Wei-Dong1

DEZERT Jean2

Abstract This paper proposes an image target0 s multi-feature fusion recognition method based on probabilistic neural

networks (PNN) and Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT). To aim at multiple features extracted from an image, the

information from them is fused. Firstly, the image is preprocessed with binarization and then multiple features are

extracted, such as Hu moments, normalized moment of inertia, affine invariant moments, discrete outline parameters and

singular values. Secondly, due to the difficulty of the construction of the basic belief assignment in DSmT, in this paper the

target recognition rate matrix is constructed by PNN, that is, the basic belief assignments can be assigned to the evidence

sources by PNN. Finally, the procedure of airplane target recognition can be accomplished by the DSmT combination rule

at the level of decision fusion. For small distortion of target image, the multi-feature fusion method proposed in this paper

is compared with the single-feature one through a series of experiments. The experimental result in this paper proves that

this method greatly improves the right recognition rate, satisfies real-time requirements, and has good ability of rejection

of judgement and strong insensitivity to target image size. And even for big distortion, the right recognition rate can also

reach 89.3 %.

Key words Information fusion, target recognition, Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT), airplane image, probabilistic

neural networks (PNN)

Citation Li Xin-De, Yang Wei-Dong, Dezert Jean. An airplane image target0 s multi-feature fusion recognition method.

Acta Automatica Sinica, 2012, 38(8): 12981307

2011-10-19

2012-03-26

Manuscript received October 19, 2011; accepted March 26, 2012

(60804063, 61175091),

(BK2010403),

(200902), (3208000501),

(20100169001),

(3208001203)

Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China

(60804063, 61175091), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu

Province (BK2010403), Public Funds of Image Processing and

Intelligent Control Key Laboratory of Chinese Education Ministry (200902), Science and Technology Innovation Foundation in

Southeast University (3208000501), Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (20100169001), and Excellent Young Teacher

Foundation of Southeast University in Teaching and Science Research (3208001203)

1.

210096 2. F91761

1. Key Laboratory of Measurement and Control of CSE (School

. [17] ,

. , Dudani [1]

, Bayes K

, 93.18 %

95.45 %; Roberts[2] ,

, 80 % ; [3]

, (Back propagation, BP) 88.8 %.

. [8]

of Automation, Southeast University), Ministry of Education,

Nanjing, 210096, P. R. China 2. The French Aerospace Laboratory, Office National d0 Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales

(ONERA), F-91761 Palaiseau, France

BP DSmT (Dezert-Smarandache

theory)[913] ,

Hu ,

,

,

.

,

, .

,

.

, .

. [14]

(Characteristic vector matching, CVM) (Point pattern matching,

PPM) ,

; [15]

Rui

,

,

; [16] K-

(K nearest neighbor, KNN)

,

(Support vector machine, SVM) SVMKNN 28.7 %

1.9 %. ,

,

.

,

, ,

DSmT

. ,

, ,

,

; , ,

,

(Probabilistic neural networks, PNN)

, , PNN

,

; , DSmT

,

.

[20] .

, 5

. ,

.

1.1 Hu

f (x, y), (p + q)

(p + q)

mpq =

M X

N

X

mp nq f (m, n)

(1)

(2)

m=1 n=1

pq =

M X

N

X

m=1 n=1

, (x, y) f (x, y) .

pq

pq =

pq

(p + q)

, r=

, p + q = 2, 3,

r0,0

2

(3)

Hu 7 ,

:

1 = 20 + 02

2 = (20 02 )2 + 411 2

3 = (30 312 )2 + (321 03 )2

4 = (30 + 12 )2 + (21 + 03 )2

5 = (30 312 )(30 12 )[(30 + 12 )2

3(03 + 21 )2 ] + (321 03 )(21 + 03 )

[3(30 + 12 )2 (03 + 21 )2 ]

6 = (20 02 )[(30 + 12 )2 (03 + 21 )2 ] +

11 (30 + 12 )(03 + 21 )

7 = (321 03 )(30 + 12 )[(30 + 12 )2

3(03 + 21 )2 ] + (312 30 )(21 + 03 )

[3(30 + 12 )2 (03 + 21 )2 ]

1.2

,

:

M P

N

P

1

x

=

. , ,

Hu [17] (Normalized

1299

xf (x, y)

x=1 y=1

M P

N

P

x=1 y=1

(4)

f (x, y)

1300

38

1.4

N

M P

P

y =

yf (x, y)

x=1 y=1

M P

N

P

(5)

N = [rk , sk , vk , fk ]

, :

min[zk (i)]

max[zk (i)]

Ni

P

3

[zk (i) z k ]

f (x, y)

rk =

x=1 y=1

, (

x, y) .

(

x, y) J(x,y) :

J(x,y) =

N

M P

P

sk =

Ni

P

((

x) + (y y) )f (x, y)

vk =

x=1 y=1

,

(

x, y) :

p

J(x,y)

NMI =

=

s m

M P

N

P

2

2

((x x

) + (y y) )f (x, y)

x=1 y=1

M

P

N

P

Ni

P

(11)

3

[zk (i)]

i=1

[(x, y) (

x, y)] f (x, y) =

x=1 y=1

M P

N

P

i=1

(10)

f (x, y)

x=1 y=1

(6)

PM PN

, m = x=1 y=1 f (x, y) ,

.

1.3

,

.

Hankel Apolar

. ,

, :

20 02 11 2

(7)

I1 =

400

I2 =

30 2 03 2 630 21 12 03 +430 12 3 +421 3 03 312 2 21 2

10

00

(8)

I3 =

20 (21 0312 2 )11 (30 0321 12 )+02 (30 1221 2 )

700

(9)

[zk (i) z k ]

i=1

Ni

P

(12)

2

[zk (i)]

i=1

fk =

zk

(13)

, zk (i) i

.

1.5

1. A Crmn ,

U V :

"

#

S

0

(14)

U H AV =

0 0

, S = diag{1 , 2 , , r } 1 2

r > 0, i , i = 1, 2, , r A

, AAH AH A i ,

i = i .

2

DSmT

1.

.

2.1 DSmT

,

,

DSmT ,

, = {1 , 2 }, D =

{1 , 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 } , 1 , 2 1 2

, 1 2 , DSmT

5 (Proportional conflict redistribution rules No. 5, PCR5)

. 1. , mi

1

Fig. 1

1

Table 1

T1

m1

x11

m2

1301

x21

Model building

T2

x12

Tn

x22

x1n

x2n

It

1

1

n

P

j=1

n

P

x1j

x2j

j=1

..

.

..

.

..

.

..

m5

x51

x52

..

.

x5n

..

.

1

n

P

x5j

j=1

i , Tj T j ,

S

S

It = T1 Tn , xij T

i j .

Dezert [9]

PCR5, :

DSmT ,

Bel1 () Bel2 ()

S1 , S2 ( [9])

,

m1 () m2 (),

X

m1 (i ) m2 (j ), A D

(15)

i ,j D

i j =A

D ,

(15)

m() , m():

D 7 [0, 1]. mfM () ()

, . PCR5

,

. ,

. PCR5 VBA

(Vacuous belief assignment) ,

( [9]) :

k = 2 , X D \ {},

X

Y D /X

XY =

"

m2 (X) m1 (Y )

m1 (X) m2 (Y )

+

m1 (X) + m2 (Y ) m2 (X) + m1 (Y )

(16)

(15) (16) [9],

, m12 () m12k ()

.

2.2

[2122] . ,

, .

BP , PNN : 1)

, ,

; 2)

, , PNN

; 3)

.

PNN : k , n

, . 1)

.

. 5

, ,

. 3 ,

3. 2)

, k n ,

k n. 3) .

1302

k ,

k.

2.3

DSmT

, ,

BBA (Basic belief assignment) ,

.

,

,

.

,

.

,

BBA ;

, , ,

BBA .

2.2 PNN

, ,

. PNN

, BBA ,

DSmT BBA

.

PNN

, M , .

2. M

m11 m1n

.

..

..

.

M =

(17)

.

.

.

mn1 mnn

, mij i j ,

i = j , mij ,

.

, PNN

.

? , ,

PNN , PNN

, ,

2 M l (l = 1, , 5).

M l (l = 1, , 5) l

PNN

,

. , M l mlij

i , j

. , ,

. ,

38

M l (l = 1, , 5)

.

, .

3. X P (X =

x) = p(x, ), , p(x, ) ,

, (X1 , X2 , , Xn ) X ,

(X1 , X2 , , Xn ) :

L() = L(X1 , X2 , , Xn ) =

n

Y

p(Xi , )

(18)

i=1

. Fisher

, (X1 , X2 , , Xn ),

, :

,

= L(X1 , X2 , , Xn , )

=

L()

max L(X1 , X2 , , Xn , )

(19)

1 , X2 , , Xn )

= (X

. (x1 , x2 , , xn )

(X1 , X2 , , Xn ) , =

1 , x2 , , xn ) .

(x

,

.

, :

4. P (J = j) = p(j, ), , P

PNN j ,

j ( M

j ), M

, = {1, 2, , n}

M . j , .

j,

p(j, ) ,

,

:

= max p(j, ) = max mij ,

p(j, )

mij M (20)

.

= (j)

, ml .

PNN ,

j l (l = 1, , 5), 5

. ,

4 M l (l = 1, , 5)

l (l = 1, , 5). l

ml :

xlj = mll j ,

l = 1, , 5, j = 1, , n

(21)

2

Fig. 2

1303

2.4

3.2 .

( 2),

:

1) , PNN

,

M l (l = 1, , 5).

2) ,

PNN .

3) PNN

,

,

.

4) PCR5 .

5) ,

. > ,

; < ,

.

3

3.1

Matlab 7.0 , 7

30 ( 672

504 , ,

) ( 4 ),

, 7 , 3

().

, 5

PNN radbas,

dist,

netprod, compet, dotprod, 0.1. , 5 PNN

3

Fig. 3

3.1.1 1:

, 10 ,

210 15 ,

7 , 105 , .

0.7 (

, ),

, ,

. 4 .

1304

38

5

Fig. 5

4

Fig. 4

3 ,

, ,

,

.

3.1.4 4: DSmT

4 ,

,

97 % .

3.1.2 2: DSmT

, 210

1 , 7 , 7 ,

, ,

DSmT ,

2 .

2 ,

, , DSmT

,

.

3.1.3 3: DSmT

, 2

( 5) , 5

, 3 .

2

Table 2

, 3

, 7 , 25

. , 7 5

. K-

BP

. K-,

0.5,

, K- K 6.

BP ,

0.5,

, BP 5

3 , S

, 500,

Levenberg-Marquardt ,

, 0.05,

nodes = ts + d, 1 d 10 , , t

, s .

6 7 .

Results of classification

Hu

NMI

(< 0.7)

3

Table 3

Hu

NMI

DSmT

Results of classification

DSmT

(< 0.7)

(< 0.7)

:

4

Table 4

1305

(, )

The recognizable minimum size using different methods, where represents null

Hu PNN

NMI PNN

PNN

PNN

PNN

70 %

486

3 888

15 553

486

80 %

15 553

486

90 %

15 553

3 888

). 7 , 25

, 175 ; 7 , 5

, 35 . ,

, 1/2,

, , 8

.

6

Fig. 6

K-

KNN

8

Fig. 8

7

Fig. 7

BP

Comparison between the proposed method and

BP neural network

6 7 ,

K- BP

, 97.1 %.

3.1.5 5:

, (

), ,

,

, ( 4

: 1) 8 ,

, 90 %

; 2) ,

, ; 3)

,

, .

3.2

, ,

,

,

, , ,

. 7

25 ,

,

.

,

1306

441 , 394 ,

89.3 %;

2 412 ms, 5.5 ms,

.

,

, DSmT PNN

.

, 97 %

, ,

,

.

,

,

. , ,

DSmT , ,

DSmT [1222] . ,

,

[2326] ,

.

References

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, ,

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. E-mail: xindeli@seu.edu.cn

(LI Xin-De

Associate professor at

the School of Automation, Southeast

University. His research interest covers intelligent robot, robot perception,

information fusion, reasoning under uncertainty, and machine vision. Corresponding author of this paper.)

In: Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on

Neural Networks. New York, USA: IEEE, 1992. 761768

2012

.

.

E-mail: weidongy2007@126.com

(YANG Wei-Dong

Received his

master degree from Southeast University in 2012. His research interest covers information fusion and image pro-

on the quincunx-sampled discrete wavelet frame. Acta Automatica Sinica, 2010, 36(1): 1222

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26 Chen Rong-Yuan, Lin Li-Yu, Wang Si-Chun, Qin QianQing. Remote sensing image fusion based on differential evolution algorithm under data assimilation framework. Acta

1307

cessing.)

DEZERT Jean

,

.

, ,

, .

E-mail: jean.dezert@onera.fr

(DEZERT Jean Ph. D., senior scientist at the French Aerospace Labroatory. His research interest covers information fusion, reasoning under uncertainty, multicriteria

analysis for decision-making support, and multisensor multitarget tracking.)

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