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)

**Drawing an oblique projection
**

y This face will have features with true shape z

**Cavalier projection Cabinet projection
**

Full size, Half length. 30, 45, 60.

Receding line α x Oblique view of a cuboid Receding angle

α taken as 45o Draw essential contours (circles, curves etc.) on this face

Cavalier & Cabinet projections

Cavalier C bi C li & Cabinet projections j i

R 25

Oblique view q

Features on the front face can be drawn with the actual dimensions and shape g Receding axis is 45o to the horizontal

Receding axis z

45o x Third Angle projection

Oblique Projection

40

22

φ 10

**Dimensioning Oblique Drawing
**

• Dimension should be made to read from the bottom and right hand side of the sheet. sheet • dimensions, Dimension lines, extension lines and arrowheads must lie in the same li d h d t li i th oblique plane to which they apply. • As far as possible, the dimensions should be placed in the front face. • As far as possible, the dimensions should be placed outside the outlines of the.

50

50

Solids of Revolution

The cylinder, cone and sphere are called ‘Solids of Revolution”.

• Cylinder is obtained by rotation of a rectangle about axis. • Cone is obtained by rotation of a right angled triangle about axis • Sphere is obtained by rotation of a semicircle about axis.

**Dimensional parameters of different solids.
**

Square Prism

Top Rectangular Face Longer Edge Corner of base

Square Pyramid

Apex Slant Edge

Cylinder

Cone

Apex

Base

Base Edge of Base

Triangular Ti l Base Face

Base

Edge of Base

Corner of base

Generators Imaginary lines generating curved surface of cylinder & cone.

Sections of solids( top & base not parallel)

Frustum of cone & pyramids. ( top & base parallel to each other)

STEPS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS Related to Projection of SOLIDS STEP 1: Assume solid STANDING on the PLANE with which it is making INCLINATION. INCLINATION ( If INCLINED to HP, ASSUME it standing ON HP) ( If INCLINED to VP, ASSUME it standing on VP) STEP 2: CONSIDERING SOLID’S INCLINATION ( AXIS POSITION ) draw it’s FV & SOLID S it s TV. STEP 3: IN LAST STEP, consider remaining inclination, DRAW IT’S FINAL FV & TV.

GENERAL PATTERN ( THREE STEPS ) OF SOLUTION:

AXIS AXIS VERTICAL INCLINED HP

AXIS AXIS VERTICAL INCLINED HP

AXIS INCLINED HP

AXIS INCLINED HP

AXIS INCLINED VP

AXIS INCLINED VP

AXIS

er

TO VP

AXIS INCLINED VP

AXIS

er

TO VP

AXIS INCLINED VP

60 mm long, has a triangular face on the ground and the vertical plane containing the axis makes an angle of 450 with the VP. Draw its projections. Take apex nearer to VP.

Problem. A square pyramid, 40 mm base sides and axis

1st. Angle oF

a’1

b’1

F aFbF T aT bT o

cFdF dT cT

d1 a1 o1 c1 b1

d’1 a1

c’1

o’1

(APEX NEARER TO V.P). V P)

(APEX AWAY FROM V.P.)

11

Hints

• If axis of given solid is inclined to HP (VP)

1. 1 Assume axis is perpendicular to HP (VP)

• Draw top view (FV) and then corresponding front view (TV) (TV).

**2. Change position of front view (TV) to the given inclination. i i li ti
**

• Draw corresponding new top view (FV)

3. Change position of new top view (FV) if inclination with other principal plane is given.

.

Problem: A cone 40 mm diameter and 50 mm axis is resting on one generator on Hp which makes 300 inclination with Vp. Draw it’s projections. More number of generators approximation.

Replace a,b,.. With aT, bT… Drawing ellipse? p

Better

o’

h’1 F

a’ h’b’

h

a’1

b’1

g’1

c’ g’ g f’ d’ e’ g1 f o b c d f1 e e1 d1 c1 h1 a1 b1 o1 o’

**f’1 c’ d’1 1 e’1
**

g1 f1 e1 d1 c1 h1 a1 b1 13

o1

30

o1

T

a

1st.

Angle

**How to draw an Ellipse
**

• Major and minor axes.

– Arcs of circle method – Concentric circles method

**Problem. Major axis AB & minor axis CD are 100 & 70mm long respectively. Draw ellipse.
**

STEPS: 1.Draw two axes at 90°. Name ends & intersecting point. 2.Taking AO distance, i.e. half major axis, from C, mark F1 & F2 on AB (focus 1 and 2). 2) 3.On line F1- O taking any distance, mark points 1,2,3, & 4 4.Taking F1 center, with distance A A1 draw an arc above AB and taking F2 center, with B-1 distance cut this A arc. Name the point p1 5.Repeat this step with same centers but taking now A-2 & B-2 distances for drawing arcs. Name the point p2 6.Similarly get all other P points. With same steps positions of P can be located below AB. 7. Join all points by smooth curve to get an ellipse.

ARCS OF CIRCLE METHOD

As per the definition Ellipse is locus of point P moving in a plane such that the SUM of it’s distances from two fixed p points (F1 & F2) remains constant and equals to the length ( q g of major axis AB.(Note A .1+ B .1=A . 2 + B. 2 = AB) p3 p2 p1 p4

C

F1

1

2

3

4

O

B F2

D

**CONCENTRIC CIRCLE METHOD Problem :- Major axis 100 mm and minor axis 70 mm long. : long
**

3 2 4 C 1 2 1 A 3 5 4 5 B 10 10 9 8 D 9 8 7

Steps:

1. Draw two axes as ⊥ bi 1 D bisectors of each f h other. 2. Taking their intersecting point as a center, draw two center dra t o concentric circles of 70 mm and 100 mm diameters. 3. Divide both circles in 12 equal parts. 4. 4 From all points of outer circle draw vertical lines downwards and upwards respectively. 5.From 5 From all points of inner circle draw horizontal lines to intersect those vertical lines. 6. Mark all intersecting points. 7. Join all these points to get the required ellipse.

6 6

7

**To divide a circle into 12 equal parts
**

Draw the two diameters 1–7 and 4–10, perpendicular to each other. With 1 as a centre and radius = R (= radius of the circle), cut two arcs at 3 and 11 on the circle. i l Similarly, with 4, 7 and 10 as the centres and the same radius cut arcs on the circle radius, respectively at 2 and 6, 5 and 9, and 8 and 12. The points 1, 2, 3, etc., give 12 equal divisions of the circle circle.

.

Problem: A cone 40 mm diameter and 50 mm axis is resting on one generator on Hp which makes 300 inclination with Vp. Draw it’s projections.

1st. Angle

More number of generators approximation.

Replace a,b,.. With aT, bT…

Better

Incline true lines

o’

h’1 F

a’ h’b’

h

a’1

b’1

g’1

c’ g’ g f’ d’ e’ g1 f o b c d f1 e e1 d1 c1 h1 a1 b1 o1 o’

**f’1 c’ d’1 1 e’1
**

g1 f1 e1 d1 c1 h1 a1 b1 18

o1

30

o1

T

a

PROBLEM: Line AB is 75 mm long and it is 300 & 400 Inclined to HP & VP respectively. End A is 12mm above Hp and 10 mm in front of VP. Draw projections. Line is in 1st quadrant.

bF

TL

b’1

θ F aF T aT

Ø

Front View LFV

2

1

TL Top View

bT

b1

PROBLEM: Line AB 75mm long makes 450 inclination with VP while it’s FV makes 550. End A is 10 mm above HP and 15 mm in front of VP. If line is in 1st quadrant draw it’s projections and find it’s inclination with HP.

bF b’1 LOCUS OF b1’

550

F T

aF

Front View

aT

LFV

1

Top View

LOCUS OF b

bT

b1

Problem: A cylinder 40 mm diameter and 50 mm axis is resting on one point of a base circle on Vp while it’s it s axis makes 450 with Vp and Fv of the axis makes 350 with Hp Draw 1st angle projections Hp. projections.

4’d’ 3 3’ c’ a’ d’ 4’

1’ a’

c’

1’

3’

F T

2 b 2’ b’ a bd c 450

b b’

2’

350 c1 d1 a1 4 b1 3

1

24

3 1

2

**Geometry with straight lines
**

• • • • • • Triangle 180 60° Rectangle/Square Rectangle/Sq are 360 90° Pentagon 540 108° Hexagon 720 120° H Heptagon 900 128.57° Octagon 1080 135°

α2 α1

α3

α1 + α 2 + α 3 = 180

α = 135o

**Can we draw geometries without measuring angles ?
**

With any point O as centre and radius = OA, draw a circle.

B

From A draw a cord of length OA, which intersects circle at B. Length OB will be ????

C

D

O E

Equilateral triangle??? q g Angle CAB = 120° Method to make a hexagonal of side = AB.

A

B

E is middle point of line DB DB.

How to locate point 5: Bisecting Line 4-6

8 7 6 5 4 P

4

E 5

6

A

B

Line

24

Problem: A cube of 50 mm long edges is so placed on Vp on one corner that a body diagonal is parallel to Vp and perpendicular to Hp. Draw it s it’s 3rd angle projections.

Replace a,b,.. With aT, bT…

11 21

2,4 3

a

41 a1 31 d1

1

Ta F

a‘,1

b,d

b, d d‘,4

c

b1 4

' 1

d a

' 1

' 1

c

c1

' a1

c‘,3

1

' 1

c

' 1

3

' 1

' b1

' 11 ' c1

' d1

' 21

' 41 ' 31

b‘,2

' b1

' 21

Scales S l

Dimensions of large objects must be reduced to accommodate on standard size drawing sheet. This reduction creates a scale of that reduction ratio is represented by REPRESENTATIVE FACTOR. (R F ) t db FACTOR (R.F.)

REPRESENTATIVE FACTOR (R F ) = (R.F.) DIMENSION OF DRAWING DIMENSION OF OBJECT

=

LENGTH OF DRAWING ACTUAL LENGTH

FOR FULL SIZE SCALE R.F.=1 OR ( 1:1 ) ). Other RFs are described as 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000, 1:1,00,000

Lab 06

what we need 1. Cutting plane 2. Part, assembly, any 3-D view.

**Sectional Vi S i l Views Cross section Section
**

Required to add information of surfaces that represented b h d by hidden lines in standard FV TV, and FV, TV SV.

28

Section (thin parallel) lined areas are those portions that came in actual contact with cutting plane. Visible parts behind the cutting plane are shown, but not hatched.

Hatching Pattern g

Continuous thin lines at convenient angle (preferably 45 ) to the 45°) principal outlines.

Spacing between the hatching lines should be chosen in proportion to the size of the hatched areas, provided that the requirement for minimum spacing are maintained.

Common Mistakes

Full section view u sec o v ew

NOTES • S i l views are Sectional i always viewed in the direction defined by cutt g plane arrows. cutting p a e a ows.

• Any hidden surface that is behind cutting plane is not included in sectional view.

**Hatch lines represent location of cutting plane passing through solid material. g
**

33

Full & Half section views

**Example: Sectional Orthographic Views
**

A A

Mistakes in dimensioning? Representation of cutting plane?

35

Section B-B a b c

Rib not sectioned

Common mistake is to omit back edge

Section A-A

36

Sectional i S ti l view of Ribs f Rib

Ribs add strength and rigidity to an object. Usually narrow.

37

**Pg. 167 Luzadder book
**

Keyway

Front view

a) Although the spoke is in line with the front view, it can give the impression that it is a stunted spoke b) Sectioned spoke can indicate that it is a continuous web S i d k i di h i i i b c) The full length of spoke is shown to indicate the structure. It should be shown along with front view to indicate the number of spokes and angles between them 38

Revolved sections

Cutting plane

Section rotated 90o so that exact shape can be viewed

39

Examples of Revolved Sections

Revolved sections examples show the shape of an object’s l d i l h h h f bj cross-section superimposed on a longitudinal view

Removed Sections

Removed sections R d ti are like revolved sections but moved ti b t d aside.

Section A-A A Section B-B

A

B B

Section C-C

C

C

Offset Sections

• C i plane lines need not be drawn as straight Cutting l li d b d i h lines Stepped line

Include as many features as p possible without causing confusion

Offset full section

42

Countersunk hole

43

**Choosing Full/Half/Broken sectional view
**

Half & Partial sectional views --- allow showing outer and inner features on the same figure. Normal half/partial orthographic g p projection may include hidden lines. Broken line is a freehand line.

44

Cutting Plane Lines

Phantom line

45

Section B-B B B

Section A-A

**ALIGNED S C ONS GN SECTIONS
**

• To include, in a section, certain angled elements, cutting plane may be bent so as to pass through those features.

– Plane & feature are aligned into original plane.

47

Su Summary y

• When a part is cut fully in half, the resulting view is called a full section. section • A line called the cutting-plane line shows where the object was cut and from which direction the section is viewed.

– The arrows point toward the section being viewed.

• In the section view, the areas that would have been in , actual contact with the cutting plane are show with section lining. • The visible edges of the object behind the cutting plane are generally shown because they are now visible but they are not cross-hatched. cross hatched • Section views can replace the normal top, front, side, or any other standard orthographic view. view

Su Summary y

Labeling !!

• Wh a cutting plane coincides with a center line, When i l i id ih li the cutting plane line takes precedence. • Omit hidden lines in section views. y p y • A section-lined area is always completely bounded by a visible outline

• To avoid a false impression of thickness and solidity, ribs/webs, gear teeth, and other similar features are not hatched with section lining even though the cutting plane slices them.

Summary

• Sectional views are important for assemblies.

Sheet 8 ??

PROBLEM: A room is of size L=6.5m, D=5m, H=3.5m. An electric bulb hangs 1m below the center of ceiling. A switch is placed in one of the corners of the room, 1.5m above the room 1 5m flooring. Draw the projections and determine real distance between the bulb & switch. PROBLEM:- A picture frame 2 m wide and 1 m tall is resting on horizontal wall railing makes 350 inclination with wall. It is attached to a hook in the wall by two strings. The hook is 1.5 m above wall railing. Determine length of each chain and true angle between them

51

PROBLEM: FV of line AB is 500 inclined to XY and measures 55 mm long while it’s TV is 600 inclined to XY line. If end A is 10 mm above HP and 15 mm in front of VP, draw it’s projections Find TL inclinations of line with HP & VP VP projections. TL, VP.

bF b’1

X

aF

θ

500

Y

Φ

600

aT

Using “Rotational Method” to find TL. For true length “projection in one of “ j ti i f principal view needs to parallel to reference line”.

bT

b1

PROBLEM :- Line AB is 75 mm long . It’s FV and TV measure 50 mm & 60 mm long respectively. End A is 10 mm above Hp and 15 mm in front of Vp. Draw g p y p p projections of line AB if end B is in first quadrant. Find angle with HP and VP.

bF b’1

θ

a’

LTV

1’

X

a

Y

Φ

LFV 1

bT

b1

6.5m 1m 3.5m 1.5 x a y a’ b’ b’1

PROBLEM: L=6.5m, D=5m, H=3.5m. H=3 5m An electric bulb hangs 1m below the center of ceiling. A switch is placed in one of the corners of the room, 1.5m above the flooring. Draw the projections and determine real distance between the bulb and switch.

5m

b

Answer: a’ b’1

h’

(chains)

ab a’b’

1.5 m

wide & 1 m tall is resting on horizontal wall railing makes 350 inclination with wall. It is attached to h k i th t a hook in the wall by two strings. ll b t t i The hook is 1.5 m above the wall railing. DETERMINE LENGTH OF EACH CHAIN AND TRUE ANGLE BETWEEN THEM

PROBLEM- A picture frame 2 m

1m

c’d’ X a1 ad

(wall railing)

Y

(frame)

h

(chains)

b1

bc

Answers: Length of each chain= hb1 True angle between chains =

PROBLEM:- Two mangos on a tree A & B are 1.5 m and 3.0 m above ground and those are 1.2 m & 1.5 m from a 0.3 m thick wall but on opposite sides of it. If the distance measured between them along the ground and parallel to wall is 2.6 m, Then find real distance between them by drawing their projections.

TV

B

A

0.3M THICK

56

b’

a’ 1.5

3.0

PROBLEM:- Two mangos on a tree A & B are 1.5 m and 3.00 15 3 00 m above ground and those are 1.2 m & 1.5 m from a 0.3 m thick wall but on opposite pp sides of it. If the distance measured between them along the ground and parallel to wall is 2.6 m, Then find 26m real distance between them by drawing their projections.

2.6

bB 1.5

1.2 12 a

PROBLEM:-Flower A is 1.5 m & 1 m from walls Q (parallel to reference line) & P (perpendicular to reference line) respectively. Flower is 1.5 m above the ground. Orange B is 3.5m & 5.5m from walls Q & P respectively. Drawing projection, find distance between them If orange is 3.5 m above ground.

b’ b b’1

3.5 m a’ x 1.5 m y Wall Q 1.5 m a 3.5 m 1m

Ground

B

b Wall P 5.5 m

58

PROBLEM :- An object contains three rods OA, OB and OC whose ends j , A,B & C are on ground and end O is 100mm above ground. The top view of object contains three lines oa, ob & oc having length equal to 25mm, 45mm and 65mm respectively. These three lines are equally inclined and the shortest line is vertical. Draw their projections and find length of each rod.

Tv

O C A

Fv B

PROBLEM :- A top view of object (three rods OA, OB and OC whose ends A,B & C are on ground and end O is 100mm above ground) contains three lines oa, ob & oc having length equal to 25mm, 45 l t 25 45mm and 65 d 65mm respectively. Th ti l These th three li lines are equally inclined and the ll i li d d th shortest line is vertical. Draw their projections and find length of each rod.

o’

TL2

TL1

x

b1’

b’

a’ a

a1’

c’

c1’

y

o b c

Answers: TL1 TL2 & TL3

PROBLEM:- A pipeline from point A has a downward gradient 1:5 and it runs due South - East. Another Point B is 12 m from A and due East of A and in same level of A. Pipe line from B runs 150 Due East of South and meets pipeline f l l f i li f f h d i li from A at point C. Draw projections and find length of pipe line from B and it’s inclination with ground.

5 1

A

12 M

B

E

C

Bearing of a LINE: Horizontal angle between line & meridian ( idi (north south th th line)----Measured in DEGREES (0 to 90◦). Measured in Top View. S 45° E. S 15° E.

PROBLEM:- A pipe line from point A has a downward gradient 1:5 and it runs due South - East. Another Point B is 12 m from A and due East of A and in same level of A. Pipe line from B runs 150 Due East of South and meets pipe line from A at point C. Draw projections and find length of pipe line from B and it’s inclination with ground.

12m

a’

5 1

b’

FV

x

W

c’

N

c’1

c’2

y

a

450

b

EAST

150

TV

c = Inclination of pipe line BC

SOUTH

PROBLEM: A person observes two objects, A & B, on the ground, from a tower, 15 M high, at the angles of depression 300 & 450 respectively. Object A is due North-West direction of observer and object B is due West direction. Draw projections of situation and find distance of objects from observer and from tower also.

O

300 450

A

S

B

W

o’

300 450

15M a’1 a’ ’ a b’ N

PROBLEM: A person observes two objects, A & B, on the ground, from a tower, 15 M high, at the angles of depression 300 & 450. Object A is due North-West direction of observer and object B is due West direction. Draw projections of situation and find distance of objects from observer and from tower also.

W b Answers: Distances of objects from observe o’a’1 & o’b’ From tower oa & ob o

E

S

Point view of line b1 a1 p1 x1 a p y b y1 Auxiliary plane method. Find point view of line. Draw reference line parallel to line and obtain true length. p2 Point a2, b2 Shortest distance a2 p2

xT F

p’ a’ ’ b’

SHORTEST distance between POINT & LINE

**Shortest Distance between 2 skew Lines (AB & CD)
**

Skew (oblique) lines Lines that are not parallel & do not intersect

c

Distance measured along Line ⊥ to both. both b

•Find T.L. of one of the lines and project its p p j point view using auxiliary plane method •Project the other line also in each view. • Shortest distance between skew lines can be measured along the one line perpendicular to both. Common perpendicular !! C di l

66

a

d b

T F

a c d

c

Primary auxiliary view TL d d, c Secondary auxiliary view

Required distance c b a d b a c q d a Mistake ?

T F b B

d

P

A dP is ⊥ to ab

a

In mines, this method might be used to locate a connecting tunnel.

True Angle between 2 Skew Lines (AB & CD)

Measure angle in view that Shows both lines in true length b a T c F a’ d y d d’

Draw P.A. V. such that one line (AB) shows its True Length Draw S.A.V. view with reference line perpendicular to the True Length of the line (AB) to get the point view of the line Draw a tertiary auxiliary view with reference line parallel to the other line in order to get its True Length Since the secondary auxiliary view had the point view of the first line, the tertiary auxiliary view will have the True Length of th first line also. L th f the fi t li l

x

c’

b’

68

c3

**ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES
**

Parallel b3

a3

TERTIARY AUXILIARY VIEW TRUE LENGTH OF BOTH LINES

PRIMARY AUXILIARY VIEW b1

2 c2 a2 ,b2

d3

True Angle between the two b h lines

True length c1 a1

d2 Point view of one line b

SECONDARY AUXILIARY VIEW

d1

Parallel

a T c F a’ c’ b’ d y d’

x

Angle between two nonintersecting lines is measurable in a view that shows both lines in true shape. shape

Piercing Point

• Intersection between a line and plane

– Point – Piercing point. point True angle between line and plane ??

70

**Piercing point of a line with a plane
**

Edge view of the plane Mistake ? T A1 p1

True length of g principal line

Line T F

p

p’

Plane

In a view showing the plane as an edge, the edge piercing point appears where the line intersects the edge view. Draw auxiliary view to get EDGE VIEW.

Principal line

Part of the line hidden by the plane should b shown h ld be h dotted

How to find angle between a line and a given plane ?

**Angle between 2 planes
**

e f

d a T x F a a’ b b’

c

• Obtain an auxiliary view such that the reference line is perpendicular to the True Length of the line of intersection of the planes • In this case, the intersection line y is parallel to both principle planes and hence is in True Length in both g front and top views

d’ e e’

c’

• Both planes will be seen as edge views in the auxiliary view. i i h ili i • The angle between the edge views is the angle between the planes

f’

**Line of intersection of the 2 planes (here it is True Length)
**

x1 e f f1, e1 ,

PRIMARY AUXILIARY VIEW d a T x F a a’ b b’

c

b1, a1 y y1 1

c1, d1

d’ e e’

c’

f’

Helix

• Space curve

– FV & TV specify helix completely. – Widely employed on screw threads, helical springs, conical spring, screw conveyors, staircases, etc.

PROBLEM: Draw a helix of one convolution, upon a cylinder. Given 80 mm pitch and 50 mm diameter of a cylinder.

8 7 6 5

P8 P7 P6

HELIX (UPON A CYLINDER)

P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

6 7 5

Pitch: Axial advance during one complete revolution .

4 3 2 1

P

F T

P

4

1 2

3

PROBLEM: Draw a helix of one convolution, upon a cone, diameter of base 70 mm, axis p , , 90 mm and 90 mm pitch.

P8 P7

HELIX (UPON A CONE) ( )

P6 P5 P4 P3 P2

X

P

P1

6 7 5

Y

P6

P5 P4

4

P

P7 P8

P1

1

P3 P2

2 3

Problem: Draw a spiral of one convolution. Take distance PO 40 mm. IMPORTANT APPROACH FOR CONSTRUCTION! FIND TOTAL ANGULAR AND TOTAL LINEAR DISPLACEMENT AND DIVIDE BOTH IN TO SAME NUMBER OF EQUAL PARTS.

2 P2

SPIRAL

3 P3

P1

1

4

P4

O

7 6 P7 P6

5 4

3

2 1

P

P5

5

7

6

**Problem: Point P is 80 mm from point O. It starts moving
**

towards O and reaches it in two revolutions around. It Draw locus of point P (To draw a Spiral of TWO convolutions).

SPIRAL of two convolutions

2,10

P2

3,11

P3 P10 P11 P4 P12 P13

P1 1,9

P9

16

P15 P14

13

10

4,12 4 12

8 P7 6 5 4 3 2 1

8

P

8,16 ,

P7 P5 P6

5,13

7,15

6,14

Problem: A link 60 mm long, swings on a point O ob e : o g, sw gs o po from its vertical position of the rest to the left through p 60° and returns to its initial position at uniform velocity. During that period a point P moves at uniform speed along the center line of the link from O p g at reaches the end of link. Draw the locus of P.

O, P

N

M

**Find the shortest distance of point P from the body diagonal AB of the cube of side 50 mm as shown
**

, a1‘, b1’ a1 p1 1 10 Required distance p1’ dg d’g’ 10 p’ 50 b’, b’ e’ b1

Draw an auxiliary view to get the true length of the line Draw an auxiliary view to get the point view of the diagonal Project the point P in these views to get the required distance F, A f,d p

c’, d’ c,b

a,g

d,e

Auxiliary Views

Projection lines must be thin continuous lines.

Necessity of Auxiliary view y

83

Problem: A right circular cone, 40 mm base diameter and 60 mm long axis is resting on Hp on one point of base circle such that it’s axis makes 450 inclination with Hp. Draw i ’ projections in I angle projection method. ih it’s j i i l j i h d

o’

F T

a’ h’ b’

c’ g’ g

f’ d’ e’

450

g1 f e h1 a1 b1 c1 1 f1 e1 d1 o1

h

a

b c

d

PLANES

PRINCIPAL PLANES HP (TP) & VP (FP)

Plane ⊥ to one principal plane and inclined to other principal plane termed as “Auxiliary Plane”.

**How to project a point on A.V.P. A V P ??
**

AUXILIARY PLANES

Auxiliary Vertical Plane (A.V.P.)

Auxiliary Inclined Plane (A.I.P.)

Profile Plane ( P.P.)

α

A.V.P. A VP

⊥ to Hp & ∠ to Vp

β

Line in TV.

Line in FV

Line in FV & TV

Projection of point on A.V.P.

(⊥ to HP, at an angle α to VP)

VP = FP

O

O’

AVP is represented by a reference line TA drawn at the prescribed angle (in this case α) Procedure for drawing auxiliary view Draw •Draw TA at an angle α to FT •Draw PT PA perpendicular to TA such that PFO = PA O’

86

Projection of point P on A.I.P. j p (⊥ to VP and inclined at β to HP)

•D Draw FA such that it makes an angle β with FT h h i k l ih • Project PA on AIP by drawing a line PF PA such that PF PA is ⊥ to FA and O PT = O’ PA.

87

Ex: A li AB, 50 mm long, is inclined at 30° to the line l i i li d h H.P. Draw its projections.

a'

b'

F T a b

Draw A.V. of a plane ABC (A(50,10,30), B(10,40,0), C(10,30,50)) on a plane which is ⊥ to frontal plane and inclined at an angle of 45o to top plane. Draw plane another A.V. on a plane which is perpendicular to the top plane and inclined at an angle 60o to the frontal plane. USE III rd ANGLE

x2 X

50 40 30 20 10

Distance of a1 f Di t f from FA = di t distance of a f f from OZ a1’ b1’ c1’ 60o 45o y2 y1 Z Distance of b1 from FA = distance of b from OZ Distance of c1 from FA = distance of c from OZ Distance of a1’ from TA = distance of a’ from OZ Distance of b1’ from TA = distance of b’ from OZ Distance of c1’ from TA = distance of c’ from OZ a1

T

a

c b

10 20

O

10 20 30 40 50

a a’

50

b’ F x1 b1

c’ c 1

Y

89

Problem: A square pyramid 30 mm base side and 50 mm long axis is resting on it’s apex on Hp, such that it’s one slant edge is vertical and a triangular f face through it is perpendicular to Vp. Draw it’s 1st angle projections.

a’ ’

b’d’

c’ ’

a a’1 d’1

b’1 c’1

Hidden lines in Projections of solid !

F T a

o’ ’ d b o b c a1 o1 b1 d1 c1

o o’1

a’

b’d’

c’

F T a

o’ d b o b c a1 o1 b1 d1 c1

Problem: A square pyramid 30 mm base side and 50 mm long axis is resting on it’s i ’ apex on H Hp, such that it’s one slant edge is vertical and a triangular face through it is g perpendicular to Vp. Draw it’s 1st angle projections.

Edge View of Plane

Point View of Line !!!

• Vertical plane Edge view is line in top view. view • Horizontal plane Edge view is li i f t l i i line in frontal view. • Neither vertical nor Horizontal I li d or oblique H i l Inclined bli to principle plane.

– Need to f ll some procedure to d follow d get edge view of that plane.

Plane can be delineate graphically by

• Two intersecting lines. o te sect g es • A line & a point • Two parallel lines • Three points (not on same li line.

92

**Concept of Principal lines of a plane
**

All the points lie on a straight line representing the edge of the plane Point view

C B T F A TL T A1

A A’ C’ B’ Principal line

Principle lines: Lines on the boundary or within the surface, parallel to the principle planes of projection

**To obtain the edge view of a plane
**

b1 a1 c1 -Draw a principle line in one principle view and project the true length line in the other principle view -With the reference line perpendicular to the true length line, draw a primary auxiliary view of the plane, to obtain the edge view Distances: b’ Horizontal line (parallel to top plane) a1, b1, c1 from TA = a’, b’, c’ from FT Edge view of the plane

True length a c T F c’ l’ l

b

a’

**Successive Auxiliary Views
**

• From primary auxiliary views, a secondary auxiliary view can be drawn • Third auxiliary views can be projected from secondary views

– A i fi i number of successive auxiliary An infinite b f i ili views may be drawn

95

Ex: A line AB, 50 mm long, is inclined at 30 to the 30° H.P. and its top view makes an angle of 60° with the V.P. Draw its projections.

a'

b'

F T a b

**Secondary auxiliary view of a cube
**

Direction of view is perpendicular to the fold line

h1 g1, d1 e1 f1, a1 f’, g’ b1 45o a’, d’ T F a, e b, b f b’, c’ P.A.V. PAV

c1

e’,h’

Distances: e1, f1, a1, b1 from TA = e, f, a, b from FT , , h1, g1, d1, c1 from TA = h, g, d, c from FT

d, h

c, g

S.A.V. of a cube

h1

Distances e’, f’, a’, b’ from TA1 = e2, f2, a2, b2 from A1A2 h’, g’, d’, c’ from TA1 = h2, g2, d2, c2 from A1A2

g1, d1 e1 f1, a1 f’, g’ b1 45o a’, d’ T F b’, c’ b, b f e2 d, h c, g a2 60o f2 b2 h2 d2 g2 Fold line c2 SECONDARY AUXILIARY VIEW c1

e’,h’

a, e

Problem: TV is a triangle abc. ab is 50 mm long, angle cab is 30° and

angle cba is 65°. a’b’c’ is a FV a’ is 25 mm, b is 40 mm and c is 10 mm 65 a b c FV. a mm b’ c’ above Hp respectively. Draw projections of that figure and find it’s true shape.

a1b1 b’ 15 15 10 F T c’ c Y a’

c1

b’1

A1

A2 c’1 ’

a’1

a

300 50 mm

650 b

DISTANCES FOR NEW FV come from PREVIOUS FV AND FOR NEW TV, DISTANCES OF PREVIOUS TV are accounted.

99

**Problem Fv & Tv of a triangular plate are shown. Determine it’s true shape.
**

50 25 15 a’ 20

10

c’ 1’ b’ a c 1 b b’1 A1 A2 b1 a1 a’1 c’1 c1 F T

15

40

DISTANCES FOR NEW FV come from PREVIOUS FV AND FOR NEW TV, DISTANCES f from PREVIOUS TV are accounted.

Problem: A frustum of regular pentagonal pyramid is standing on it’s larger base on Hp with one

base side perpendicular to Vp. Draw it’s Fv & Tv. Project it’s Aux. Tv on an AIP parallel to one of the slant edges showing TL. Base side is 50 mm l h l d h i id i 0 long, top side is 30 mm long and 50 mm is height id i l d 0 i h i h of frustum.

1’

2’5’

3’4’

AIP // to slant edge Showing true length i.e. a’- 1’

4 5 1 F T

a’ b’ e’ c’ d’

3 2

Aux.Tv

d1 e1 FA

1

e d

5 4 1 3 2

c1 b1

a

a1

c

b

1. 1 Attendance & Marks http://web.iitd.ac.in/~hirani/marks & attendance.pdf 2. Lab sheets (http://web.iitd.ac.in/~hirani/mel110-lab-sheets.pdf)

Summary of Topics

Hidden Lines

Treatment of Tangent Surfaces

**FREELY SUSPENDED SOLIDS:
**

Positions of CG, on axis, from base, for different solids are shown below.

CG

H

CG

H/2

H/4 GROUP A SOLIDS ( Cylinder & Prisms) GROUP B SOLIDS ( Cone & Pyramids)

Problem: A pentagonal pyramid 30 mm base sides & 60 mm long axis, axis is freely suspended from one corner of base so that a plane containing it’s axis remains parallel to Vp. Draw it’s orthographic projections.

LINE

o’

FOR SIDE VIEW

d’g’ VERTICAL d’ c’e’

H g g’ o’ c’ e’ e a o b c do 1 d1 d’

g’

a’b’ Y e1 a1

IMPORTANT:

When a solid is freely suspended from a corner, then line joining point of contact & C.G. remains vertical. ( Here axis shows inclination with Hp.) So in all such cases, assume solid standing on Hp initially.)

H/4 X

a’ b’

b1 c1

**Auxiliary Vi A ili Views
**

Mistake ???

P j ti li h ld b thi Projection lines should be thin continuous lines.

**Problem. Major axis AB & minor axis CD are 100 & 70mm long respectively. Draw ellipse.
**

STEPS: 1.Draw two axes at 90°. Name ends & intersecting point. 2.Taking AO distance, i.e. half major axis, from C, mark F1 & F2 on AB (focus 1 and 2). 2) 3.On line F1- O taking any distance, mark points 1,2,3, & 4 4.Taking F1 center, with distance A A1 draw an arc above AB and taking F2 center, with B-1 distance cut this A arc. Name the point p1 5.Repeat this step with same centers but taking now A-2 & B-2 distances for drawing arcs. Name the point p2 6.Similarly get all other P points. With same steps positions of P can be located below AB. 7. Join all points by smooth curve to get an ellipse.

ARCS OF CIRCLE METHOD

As per the definition Ellipse is locus of point P moving in a plane such that the SUM of it’s distances from two fixed p points (F1 & F2) remains constant and equals to the length ( q g of major axis AB.(Note A .1+ B .1=A . 2 + B. 2 = AB) p3 p2 p1 p4

C

F1

1

2

3

4

O

B F2

D

**CONCENTRIC CIRCLE METHOD Problem :- Major axis 100 mm and minor axis 70 mm long. : long
**

3 2 4 C 1 2 1 A 3 5 4 5 B 10 10 9 8 D 9 8 7

Steps:

1. Draw two axes as ⊥ bi 1 D bisectors of each f h other. 2. Taking their intersecting point as a center, draw two center dra t o concentric circles of 70 mm and 100 mm diameters. 3. Divide both circles in 12 equal parts. 4. 4 From all points of outer circle draw vertical lines downwards and upwards respectively. 5.From 5 From all points of inner circle draw horizontal lines to intersect those vertical lines. 6. Mark all intersecting points. 7. Join all these points to get the required ellipse.

6 6

7

Sectional View

110

ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF SPHERE & HEMISPHERE

450 300

Isom. Scale

r

R r P

r

r R R

C

r

C

R r P

TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A HEMISPHERE Adopt same procedure. Draw lower semicircle only only. Then around ‘C’ construct Rhombus of Sides equal to Isometric Diameter. For this use iso-scale. Then Th construct ellipse in t t lli i this Rhombus as usual And Complete Isometric-Projection p of Hemi-sphere.

P C = C t of S h Center f Sphere. P = Point of contact R = True Radius of Sphere r = Isometric Radius.

TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE 1. FIRST DRAW ISOMETRIC OF SQUARE PLATE. 2. LOCATE IT’S CENTER. NAME IT P. 3. 3 FROM P DRAW VERTICAL LINE UPWARD LENGTH ‘ r mm’ UPWARD, mm AND LOCATE CENTER OF SPHERE “C” 4. ‘C’ AS CENTER, WITH RADIUS ‘R’ DRAW CIRCLE. THIS IS ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE.

PROBLEM: A HEMI-SPHERE IS CENTRALLY PLACED ON THE TOP OF A FRUSTOM OF CONE. DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF THE ASSEMBLY.

r

Sφ 50

R r P

r

50

φ30 φ50 FIRST CONSTRUCT ISOMETRIC SCALE. USE THIS SCALE FOR ALL DIMENSIONS (24.5 & 40.8) IN THIS PROBLEM.

450 300

**F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Block of 60*10*30 l k f * * F.V.
**

30 20 40

10 X

O

Y

10

30 10 30 80

O Block of 80*40*10 T.V.

F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

FV

40

10

O

φ 30 25 25

10

50

O

80

Block of 80*50*10 Block of 25*25*40 Four center method to draw ellipse

TV

F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

FV X

40

O

100 10 10 30 10

10

Y

25 25 30 R R 10

O

TV

Cuboid of 100*50*10 Draw parallel lines at 30 mm Cuboid of 50*25*40

F.V. and S.V.of an object are given in I angle projection . Draw it’s isometric view. it s

SQ 30 10 40 20

50

10

20 30

O F.V. O

60

S.V. SV

15

15

First angle projection O

F.V. and S.V.of an object are given in I angle projection. Draw it’s isometric view.

Mistake ??

F.V. Sq 20

20 40 40 30

O

20

10 30 50 60

O

100

O

F.V. F V and S.V.of an object are given S V of given. Draw it’s isometric view.

30

20 10

10

20

15

O

15

15 15

X

O

50 0 30

Y F.V. LEFT S.V.

F.V., T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. , j g

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

F. V F V.

L.H.S. LHS

20 20

x

20 30

20

O

y

50

20

20

20

O

T. V. T V

40

40

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

10 10

25

25

X

Y

O

FV

15

50

10

LSV

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