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Friction Minilecture - Introduction to Friction So far in IEA all surfaces have been considered either perfectly smooth or perfectly rough. Under these conditions the contact force between two surfaces is considered negligible or exactly enough to ensure equilibrium, respectively. However for real surfaces this is not the case and one must consider the effects of friction. Frictional forces act to oppose the relative motion of two real surfaces. Frictional forces are often beneficial for it is friction that allows movement, without friction it would be impossible to walk, ride a bicycle or drive a car. In other aspects friction is undesirable and causes the surfaces of objects to wear down. There are two types of friction, dry friction and fluid friction. Dry friction is concerned with dry surfaces that slide over one another while fluid friction deals with the friction caused by two fluid layers moving over each other. Only dry friction will be considered in this course. Minilecture - Coulomb’s Laws of Dry Friction Many of the important aspects of friction are summarized by the following points. • • • • • • Friction is always directed to oppose motion and can never create motion. The frictional force is never greater than the force required to prevent motion from occurring. The frictional force reaches a maximum as there is impending motion between the two objects, at this point the frictional force is proportional to the normal between the bodies. The constant of proportionality is known as the coefficient of static friction, denoted by µs, which depends on the two surfaces that are sliding over one another. Therefore at the point of impending motion the frictional force can be written as F = µs N. As the surfaces begin to slide over one another the frictional force between them reduces as the constant of proportionality becomes µk, the coefficient of kinetic friction. The coefficient of kinetic friction is usually 20% - 25% lower than the coefficient of static friction.
Minilecture - Typical Frictional Problems There are three typical situations which require the role of friction to be investigated which are outlined below. 1) Impending motion is not assumed. • In this case the problem should be solved using equations of equilibrium. Determine location of normal force from moment equilibrium and the frictional force from force equilibrium. Then check the location of the normal and the magnitude of the frictional force. If the normal is on the body and the frictional force is less than µs N, then the calculations are correct and motion will not occur. If the normal is not on the body but the frictional force is less than µs N then the body will tip over. If the frictional force is greater than µs N and the normal force is on the body then the body will slide and the actual friction will be µk N. 2) Impending slipping is known to occur at all contact surfaces. • In this case since impending motion is known to occur, the frictional force is known to be equal to µs N. Therefore it is possible to solve a problem for µs and N using the equilibrium equations if µs is not given or solve for N and an applied force if µs is given.
Try to formulate which materials have the highest coefficients of static friction by tipping the plate with the blocks on it until they begin to slide. Sturges. 9. titanium.1st Edition by William F. etc. aluminum. • In this situation the problem must be solved as in 1) above. P2 (Paper and Pencil) Show that for impending motion the tangent of the angle of the plate is equal to the coefficient of static friction by solving the equilibrium equations analytically rather than numerically. Also try putting the wooden wedge (bathroom door stop) on the plate in several orientations and seeing if it will slide or tip. T4 (Take Time To Think) In the following experiment you have several plates of different materials (wood. If the frictional force that is found is greater than µs N the assumption must be changed and the problem resolved. 9-117. etc. Assumptions must be made whether or not the body tips or not and solved according to the assumption. polymer. 9-35. P2 (Paper and Pencil) Solve problems 9-21. Reading Chapter 9 of text Note: Figures referenced within this document are from Engineering Mechanics : Statics .2nd Edition by William F. Riley and Leroy D. (published in 1993) Note: Problems referenced within this document are from Engineering Mechanics : Statics .).121. Sturges.ENGR 1100 Introduction to Engineering Analysis Fall 2000 3) Impending motion is known but the type of motion is unknown. 9-42. Riley and Leroy D.) and several blocks mad of different materials (steel. styrofoam. aluminum. (published in 1996) 2 .