Chapter ≠ 01 Introduction 1.1 Origin of the report 1.2 Scope of the report1.3 Objective of the study 1.3.1 General Objective1.3.

2 Specific Objective 1.4 Methodology and Sources of Information 1.4.1 Primary sources1.4.2 Secondary Sources 1.5 Limitation of the study Page 1 of 51

1.1 Origin of the report As a requirement for the fulfillment of our BBA program in the business administration we have to perform three months internship program. As a student of BBA I have gathered enough theoreticalknowledge and now want to put my potentiality in the practical field. The main objective of theinternship program is to have practical knowledge of the professional life and to relate the four years theoretical learning to practical field. 1.2 Scope of the Report The report covers two departments during the period in practical orientation and the area of organizational overview, performance of the overview of Credit Risk Management, identificationof loans and advances, conclusion & recommendation . 1.3 Objective of the Study 1.3.1 General Objective: The broad or general objective of the study is to learn and analyze the credit risk management of NBL and the system the followed for credit assessment. 1.3.2 Specific Objective: • To know about the National Bank Limited • To learn about credit department of NBL • To gather information about credit risk and its management process • Analyze the credit assessment process Page 2 of

51 1.4 Methodology and Sources of Information 1.4.1 Primary sources : The information for the Project “ Credit Risk Management of National Bank Limited ” will becollected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data will collected through face toface interview and discussion with the officials of NBL. Secondary data will collected fromwebsites, relevant articles and journals etc. Primary Sources • Discussion with officials • Face to face interview 1.4.2 Secondary Sources Most of the information of the report is collected from secondary sources like • Relevant books and websites • Various manual and Credit Mechanism • Published reports and annual reports of the National Bank Limited • Previous performance matters booklet • Collected data from employee of the Branch and Division. 1.5 Limitation of the study Numerous constraints have been faced in the preparation of the report. However the mainconstraints to accomplish this report are the following: • The allotted time period was very short to cover everything exclusively. • Any research work demands a high degree of involvement regarding collection of information, literature review and organization of information. While doing so, manylimitations arose even though researchers always put their best effort to avoid them. Page 3 of 51 All types of required data were not available that may be helpful to make this paper morecomplete. Chapter ≠ 02Background of the National Bank Limited 2.1 Evolution of NBL2.2 Corporate Information of NBL2.3 Vision of NBL2.4 Mission of NBL2.5 Objectives of NBL2.6 Business Goal2.7 Line of Business of NBL2.8 Hierarchy of NBL2.9 Branches of NBL

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2.1 Evolution of National Bank Limited Bangladesh economy has been experiencing a rapid growth since the 90s. Industrial andagricultural development, international trade, inflow of expatriate Bangladeshi workers'remittance local and foreign investments in construction, communication, power, food processing and service enterprises ushered in an era of economic activities. Urbanization andlifestyle changes concurrent with the economic development created a demand for banking products and services to support the new initiatives as well as to canalize consumer investmentsin a profitable manner. A group of highly acclaimed businessmen of the country groupedtogether to responded to this need and established National Bank Limited in the year 1983. National Bank Limited was established on 23rd March 1983 with authorized capital TK. 100million and paid up capital of TK. 80 million was subscribed by the sponsors/directors and TK. 4million was subscribed to the government. Remaining TK. 36 million has been fully subscribed by the public. The management of the Bank is vested in a board of directors consisting of 21members including the managing director of the Bank. Managing directors is the chief executiveof the Bank. The Bank carries of deposits, investment of funds, financing of trades, businessmen,industrialists, importers and exporters etc. The National Bank Limited opened new brancheseight during 1983, raising the total number branches 112 in 2009, total number of employees of the Bank was 242 in 1983 and increased to 2239 in 2009, and during the short periods of itsoperation the Bank has made notable progress in various activities. NBL determined to bring back the long forgotten taste of banking services and flavors. NBLwant to serve each one promptly and with a sense of dedication and dignity. The then Presidentof the People's Republic of Bangladesh Justice Ahsanuddin Chowdhury in angulated the bank formally on March 28, 1983 but the first branch at 48, Dilkusha Commercial Area, Dhaka startedcommercial operation on March 23, 1983. The 2nd Branch was opened on 11th May 1983 at Page 5 of 51 Khatungonj, Chittagong. At present; NBL has been carrying on business through its 112 branches spread all over the country. Besides, the Bank has drawing arrangement with 415correspondents in 75 countries of the world as well as with 32 overseas Exchange Companies. NBL was the first domestic bank to establish agency arrangement with the world famousWestern Union in order to facilitate quick and safe remittance of the valuable foreign exchangesearned by the expatriate Bangladeshi nationals. NBL was also the first among domestic banks to introduce international Master Card inBangladesh. In the

meantime, NBL has also introduced the Visa Card and Power Card. The Bank has in its use the latest information technology services of SWIFT and REUTERS.NBL has beencontinuing its small credit programmed for disbursement of collateral free agricultural loansamong the poor farmers of Barindra area in Rajshahi district for improving their lot. Alongside banking activities, NBL is actively involved in sports and games as well as in various Socio-Cultural activities. The Bank established extensive drawing arrangement network with Banks andExchange Companies located in important countries of the world. Expatriates Bangladeshi wageearners residing in those countries can now easily remit their hard-earned money to the countrywith confidence, safety and speed. The number of workforce of NBL stood at 2239, whichinclude 1689 officers and executives’ and 550 staff. Now NBL is on line to establish trade andcommunication with the NBL International banking companies of the world.As a result NBL will be able to build a strong root in international banking horizon. Bank has been drawing arrangement with well conversant money transfer service agency "WesternUnion". It has a full time arrangement for speedy transfer of money all over the world.Transparency and accountability of a financial institution is reflected in its Annual Reportcontaining its Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Account. In recognition of this, NBL wasawarded Crest in 1999 and 2000, and Certificate of Appreciation by the Institute of CharteredAccountants of Bangladesh.With a strong sense in all business areas commercial banking, NBL could foresee tremendousgrowth in home in homebound remittance form Bangladesh expatriates in USA and UK, MiddleEast and different countries of the world. Consecutively NBL established a unique moneyremittance system with Western Union of USA for inbound and outbound remittance. At present Page 6 of 51 NBL is the only authorized agent for this unique service in Bangladesh. From the very beginning NBL is playing a vital role in the private sector Banking. National Bank Limited is one of the leading private commercial bank having a spread network of 112 branches across Bangladesh and plans to open few more branches to cover the importantcommercial areas in Dhaka, Chittagong, Sylhet and other areas in 2009. National Bank Limited has been licensed by the Government of Bangladesh as a Scheduledcommercial bank in the private sector in pursuance of the policy of liberalization of banking andfinancial services and facilities in Bangladesh. In view of the above, the Bank within a period of 25 years of its operation achieved a remarkable success and met up capital adequacy requirementof Bangladesh Bank. National Bank Ltd is one of the leading banks which introduced first Credit Card in Bangladesh.Our technology has been upgraded to manage the growth of the bank and meet the demands of our customers. ATMs now allow customers to retrieve 24x7 hours cash withdrawals. NationalBank Limited is a customer oriented financial institution. It remains dedicated to meet up withthe ever growing expectations of the customer because at National Bank, customer is always atthe center. National Bank Limited has its prosperous past, glorious present, prospective future and under processing projects and activities. Established as the first private sector Bank fully owned byBangladeshi entrepreneurs, NBL has been flourishing as the largest private sector Bank with the passage of time after facing many stress and strain. The member of the board of directors iscreative

businessman and leading industrialist of the country. To keep pace with time and inharmony with national and international economic activities and for rendering all modernservices, NBL, as financial branches with computer network in accordance with the competitivecommercial demand of time. Moreover, considering its forth-coming future the institutionautomated all its infrastructure of the Bank has been rearranging. The expectation of all class businessman, entrepreneurs and general public is much more to NBL. Keeping the target in mind Page 7 of 51 NBL has taken preparation to open new branches by the year 2007. The emergence of NationalBank Limited in the private sector is an important event in the Banking arena of Bangladesh.When the nation was in the grip of severe recession, Govt. took the farsighted decision to allowin the private sector to revive the economy of the country. Several dynamic entrepreneurs cameforward for establishing a bank with a motto to revitalize the economy of the country. NationalBank Limited was born as the first hundred percent Bangladeshi owned Bank in the Privatesector from the very inception it is the firm determination of National Bank Limited to play avital role in the national economy. Page 8 of 51 2.2 Corporate Information of NBL Corporate Information Incorporation of the Bank 15.03.1983Certificate of commencement of Business 20.03.1983Licensed issued by Bangladesh Bank 22.02.1983Licensed issued by Bangladesh Bank for opening the First branch, Dilkusha Branch 22.03.1983Formal Lunching of the Bank 23.031983Commencement of Business of DilkushaBranch23.031983Listed with Dhaka Stock Exchange 20.12.1984Publication of prospectus 30.12.1984Date of first public subscription (IPO) 14.01.1985Trading of shares in DSE 21.04.1985Association with Gulf exchange Pte Ltd 26.11.1985Signing in agreement with Western UnionMoney Transfer 16.05.1993Listed with Chittagong Stock exchange 06.11.1995Trading of Shares in CSE 06.11.1995Listed with CDBL 29.09.2004Inauguration of Balaka Exchange Pte Ltd 08.07.2007Registration Certificate as Stock Broker 24.10.2007 (Source: National Bank Limited annual Report, 2008) Page 9 of 51

2.3 Vision of National Bank Limited

Ensuring highest standard of clientele services through best application of latest informationtechnology making due contribution to the national economy and establishing ourselves firmly athome and abroad as a front ranking bank of the country are our cherished vision. 2.4 Mission of National Bank Limited Efforts for expansion of our activities at home and abroad by adding new dimensions to our banking services are being continued unabated. Alongside, we are also putting highest priority inensuring transparency, account ability, improved clientele service as well as to our commitment toserve the society through which we want to get closer and closer to the people of all strata.Winning an everlasting seat in the hearts of the people as a caring companion in uplifting thenational economic standard through continuous up gradation and diversification of our clienteleservices in line with national and international requirements is the desired goal we want to reach. 2.5 Objectives of National Bank Limited • Bringing modern Banking facilities to the doorstep of general public throughdiversification of Banking services, thereby arousing saving propensity among the people. • Foreign a cordial, deep-rooted and firm banker-customer relationship bydispensing prompt and improved clientele services. • Taking part in the development of the national economy through productivedeployment of the Bank’s resources as well as patronizing different social activities. • Connecting clients to modern banking practices by the best application of improved information technology, so that they get encouraged to continue and feel proudof banking with NBL. Page 10 of 51 • Ensuring highest use of the professional workforce through enhancement of their aptitude and competence. • Responding to the need of the time by participating in syndicated large loanfinancing with like-minded Bank’s of the country, thereby expanding the area of investment of the Bank. 2.6 Business Goal To patronize, sponsor and encourage games and sports, entertainment and other socioeconomicactivities, alongside providing the best services to the clients . 2.7 Line of Business of NBL • Investment Banking (Capital Market Operation In DSE & CSE) • Lease Finance

• Investment In Government & provide Security • International Trade Finance (Import, Export) • Foreign Exchange Dealing (Currency Dealing, Remittance) • Money Market Operations (Call Money Market) • Corporate Finance • Syndication • SME BankingPersonal Banking (Auto Loan, Vocational Loan, Personal Loan) Housing Finance Page 11 of 51 ChairmanAsst. Officer Computer Operator Managing Director Deputy Managing Director Senior Executive Vice PresidentExecutive Vice PresidentSenior Vice PresidentVice PresidentSenior Asst. Vice PresidentAsst. Vice PresidentSenior Principle Officer Principle Officer Executive Senior Officer Officer Junior Officer 2.8 Hierarchy of NBL Page 12 of 51

2.9 Branches of NBL NBL which was started at Dilkusha Branch on March 23 rd , 1983 was the first and major privatecommercial Bank in Bangladesh operating throughout the country as well as the age of the Bank is only 18 years. During this period it has established total 76 branches over the country andmade a smooth network inside the country as well as throughout the world. The number of Branches as territory wise is mentioned in the table: Area-wise Branches Division Area Number of Branches Dhaka Area 44Chittagong Area 23Rajshahi Area 16Khulna Area 09Selhet Area 16 Page 13 of 51

Chapter ≠ 03 Credit Policy Guidelines of NBL 3.1 Different Forms of Credit in NBL3.2 Purposes of Loans and Advances3.3 Focus on Various Lending Areas3.4 Steps in Loan Processing3.5 Flowchart Approval for process of Loans and Advances3.6 Lending Caps3.7 Rate of Interest3.8 Security and Support against Loans & Advances3.9 Mode of Disbursement3.10 Mode of Adjustment3.11 Validity of Loans & Advances Page 14

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03.1 Different Forms of Credit in NBL Generally we find three types of loan:The different types of loans and advances that NBL offers are as follows:Secured Overdraft (SOD)Loan (general)Loan against Trust Receipt (LTR)Bank GuaranteePayment Against Document (PAD)Cash Credit (Pledge)House Building Loan Cash Credit (Hypo)House Building Loan (staff)Foreign Documentary Bill Purchase (FDBP)Term Loan.Inland Documentary Bill Purchase (IDBP) Page 15 of 51 LoansContinuousLoan Term Loan Demand Loan

03.1.1 Continuous loan: In this mode of loan, within a fixed amount and fixed period of time, one can receive and depositmoney several time. NBL provide different types of continuous loan : • Secured Over Draft- financial obligation • Cash credit- hypothecation • Cash credit- pledge • Secured Over Draft- General 03.1.2. Term Loan: Here, the borrower will take the whole amount at a time and has to deposit/ repay loan withinspecified time. NBL provides different types of term loan:Retail Banking LoanSME LoanAny Purpose LoanHousing LoanEducation LoanLease Financing Scheme Loan 03.3.3 Demand Loan:

The loans that become repayable on demand by the bank will be treated as Demand Loan. If anycontingent or other liabilities are turned to forced loan i.e. without any prior approval as regular loan those too will be treated as Demand loan. Such as: LTR, PAD, FBP and FDBP and LDBP etc. Page 16 of 51

3.2 Purposes of Loans and Advances National Bank Limited has been offering wide range of credit facilities as under: NAME PURPOSE Cash Credit ( Hypo & Pledge) • Business capital/ Working capital.SOD (General) • Against Financial organization/works/supply orders.SOD (Export) • Payment of Accepted bills at maturity before receipt of export proceeds.Loan (General) • Acquiring capital assets/purchasingconstruction, finishing, expansion,repair, renovation of House/Flat /Realestate business etcLCA(Loan against cash Assistance) • Financing for the period of the L/Cobligations against receipt of documents.LC(Local & Foreign) sight & on Deferred payment basis • For import/Local procurement of goods/services.PAD • For making payment of the payment of the L/C obligations against receipt of documents.LTR • Retirement of shipping documentsLIM • Retirement of shipping documentsPC • Meeting Financial requirement of theexporter at pre-shipment stage againstExporter L/C.LDBP/FDBP • As post shipment finances against local/foreign export bills.BTB L/C • Import of raw/packing materials againstExporter L/CBank Guarantee Local/Foreign •

For submission of tendency/to obtainand offer as security against work order,supply order/ For Gas, Electricityconnection/against delivery of goods/against release of goods, withoutor against partial payments by customer etc. National Bank will also finance any other activity under any credit nature, which will meet theinstitution’ basic principles of safety, liquidity and spread, upholding, credit norms and complyingwith the guidelines/ directives of the Central Bank/ regulatory body. Page 17 of 51

3.3 Focus on Various Lending Areas National Bank’ main focus on various lending/as will be as under: Industry and Business Segment* Focus i. Trading BusinessGrowii. Ready Made GarmentsGrowiii. Textile (Yarn/Fabrics Manufacturing)Growiv. Chemicals/ToiletriesGrowv. EntertainmentGrowvi. Telecommunication/ITGrowvii. Power Generation and DistributionGrowviii. Energy (power/Fuel/Gas)Growix. Electric GoodsGrowx. Services viz. GSA, Freight Forward,and Airlines.etc.Growxi. Steel and Re-rolling MillsGrowxii. Engineering and ConstructionGrowxiii. Small Traders/SMEEncouragexiv. Agro-based industry/ Dairy products/Fishery/Tea/cropEncouragexv. Export Oriented IndustriesEncouragexvi PharmaceuticalsEncouragexvii Consumer loans(personal, auto, creditcard)Encouragexviii. Food and Allied( edible oil, flour etc)Maintainxix. Ship scrappingMaintainxx. Real EstateMaintainxxi. PaperMaintainxxii. TransportDiscouragedxxiii. Cold storage financeDiscouragedxxiv. Financing Cement IndustriesDiscouraged*The Industry and Business Segment Focus will be revised from time to time depending onnational requirement, market conditions, Cyclic of the economy, appetite for growth for eachsector, shift in Government Policy and National Bank, credit planning. Page 18 of 51

3.4 Steps in Loan Processing There are some stages the proposal has to come across. The steps are:Request for Credit the clientCredit Application from filled upScrutinizing the documentsAnalyzing the information Preparing the proposal

Presenting of the proposal Sanctioning of the creditInforming the client, Implementation Figure: Steps of processing Loan 3.5 Flowchart Approval for process of Loans and Advances Page 19 of 51

Credit application processed by credit officers andrecommendation by Credit In charge of the branchBranch Credit CommitteeBranch Manager Regional officeRegional office Credit CommitteeRegional HeadHead Office, Credit DivisionHead Office Credit CommitteeDeputy Managing Director (Credit)Managing Director Executive Committee(EC) Figure: Approval Process of Loans & Advances 3.6 Lending Caps Page 20 of 51

National Bank Limited is very much aware of over concentration of credit in particular area, whichmay under some situation, create disaster for the bank. Keeping this in consideration and also theoverall business, trend, propose/potentials, risks& mitigate, pricing, owner’s stake in business, business competitors involvement, safety, liquidity, security etc. NBL will be guided by thefollowing Lending caps generally:Sectors Caps %Trade & Commerce45%SME10%Industry-working capital10%Project Finance – Long

Term10%Retail/Consumer (CCS)10%Agro Credit5%Work/ Supply order (contractual Finance)5%Others5% Total100%* The Caps will be revised from time to time depending on the market conditions, shift inGovernment Policy and National Bank’s credit focus. 3.7 Rate of Interest Rate of interest will be charged as per declared rate of the bank. Pricing will be basically risk based. Higher price will be considered for riskier borrowers because of their higher risk involved.Similarly lower price will be considered for prime clients on the basis of their low risk ( Low risk Page 21 of 51

grade clients means where an obligor obtained higher aggregate score as per CRG score sheet or 100% cash covered or govt./international Top bank Guarantee). In fixing interest rate cost of fund& the prevailing rate in the competing market shall also be considered. Concessional interest ratesto the deserving customers will be allowed within the declared interest rates band of the bank.Commission/charges on credit facilities will be realized taking the competing scenario in the banking market into account, involved risks in financing & overall policy of the bank. NBL will be provided loans by the following interest rates generally: Loans & AdvancesInterest Rates (%) Cash Credit(CC) 18%Secured Over Draft( SOD)16%, normally, Interest rate is 2.5% abovefrom the instrument rate such as FDR,SS etc.SME Loan16%Housing loan16%Lease Financing Scheme Loan16%Retail Banking14% (Officers)20% (Non- officers)Term Loan16%*The Interest Rates will be revised from time to time depending on the market conditions, shift inGovernment Policy and National Bank’s credit focus. 3.8 Security and Support against Loans & Advances The following types of securities are generally accepted: • Machineries of factory/ industry on hypothecation basis. Values of machineries arechecked. • Raw materials, work in process, finished goods, stock in trade on hypothecation and pledge basis. Inventory is held in a warehouse/godown for financing against pledge under Bank’scontrol. Value of Inventory is checked. Page 22 of 51

• Land and building of acceptable type and value, under registered mortgage. • Financial obligation after ascertainining its genuineness of issuance, ensuring marking of lien of the lender bank on the instrument and obtaining confirmation from the issuing bank that encashment including even before maturity date will be allowed to the lender bank onrequest without referring to the instrument holder. • Bills receivable against work order/supply order duly assigned/supported by registered P.Aexecuted by the client favoring the bank, confirmed by the work entrusting authority thatthe cheques/ bills against the work shall be issued in the name of the bank A/C of theclient. • Cars/ buses/water crafts/ vessels under hypothecation and joint registration. • Shipping documents as lien against LC. • Trust receipt (For LTR) • Export documents-under lien (for LDBP/FDBP). • Export LC/ Contact under lien (For LDBP/FDBP). • Packing credit letter. (For PC) • Personal guarantee/corporate guarantee/cross-corporate guarantee. • Post dated cheques. • 1 st /2 nd charge/1 st ranking pari passu charge on fixed and floating assets of the limitedcompanies financed. • Bank obtains authorization to debit client’s account in order to keep policy in force. Insurance: Page 23

of 51 National Bank having insurable interest on a property/ an asset obtain insurance policy as per norms against credit facilities extended in order to protect this bank’s interest. Insurance policyshall be taken covering all possible risks. Branches shall ensure that insurance policy is current andrenewed on a timely basis. Insurance shall be obtained from a reputed company. General/Special conditions/Covenants: General/Special conditions/Covenants will be according to the nature of advances, securityarrangements, ownership pattern, and mode of acquisition, institutional norms / instructions, guidelines of the central bank / regulatory authority. 3.9 Mode of Disbursement In disbursing credit the bank ensures drawings for the purpose the loan has been sanctioned. Whererequired visit of the business/site etc are suggested and all subsequent disbursement are madeconditional to full utilization of disbursed money in the preceding phase. In case of disbursementof loan, money for acquisition of assets, payment is suggested after receipt of the asset by the borrower. 3.10 Mode of Adjustment For the borrower to exhibit capability to periodically adjust the drawings taken and as such to haveidea regarding the rationale for the continuation of the facility, adjustment mode is given. In termof lending, where revolving transaction is not allowed, adherence to adjustment stipulation(monthly, quarterly, half yearly or otherwise) is suggested to ensure recovery of the loan disbursed. 3.11 Validity of Loans & Advances Page 24 of 51 Validity date for continuous credit is set at a period not exceeding 1 year. Short term loan mostly isallowed for trade/commerce. This expiry date is virtually the date for adjustment/ review of thefacility, subject to periodical and satisfactory turnover of the limit. Conduct of the business duringthe whole of validity period determines the fate of continuation of the facility for the next period.Loans for short/ medium/long term are also sanctioned depending upon the requirement thereof and also on cash flow generation, repayment capacity and over all lending feasibility. Such loansare allowed for adjustment in installment.Short term : Up to 12 monthsMedium term : More than 12 months and up to 60 monthsLong term : More than 60 months. Chapter ≠ 04 Page 25 of 51

Credit Risk Management of NBL 4.1 Types of CRM4.2 Mission and Vision of CRM4.3 Major objectives of the CRM guidelines4.4 Risk Management Process4.5 Credit principles followed by NBL4.6 Credit Evaluation of NBL 4.7 Credit Risk assessment4.8 Credit Information Bureau Report (CIB report)4.9 Credit Assessment System4.10 National Bank’s Risk Grading Framework 4.11 Credit Risk Grade Matrix 4.12 Different categories of Credit Risk Grading Credit 4.13 Risk Grading Review4.1 Types of CRM Page 26 of 51 In perspective of National Bank Limited risk is defined as the possibility of losses, financial or else. Now a day’s risk management plays a vital role to reduce uncertainty of assets and or else.The major area of risk the bank think is that Credit Risk, Liquidity Risk, Market Risk, OperationRisk and Reputation Risk due to Money Laundering Risk. Market risks include Foreign exchangerisk, Interest rate risk and Equity risk. Figure 01: Types of Risk Management of National Bank Limited Page 27 of 51

4.2 Mission and Vision of Credit Risk Management National Bank’s mission is to ensure quality services, establish and maintain modern andelectronic banking all financial activities with highly motivated and skilled personnel, maintainingtransparency, accountability & integrity and thereby ensure stable and sound financial operationalsystem. National Bank Limited will:• Extend credit facilities at competitive price with prudence & efficiency. • Offer wide range of products. • Encourage loans & advances to income generating activities and will thereby

createemployment opportunity and improve standard of living of the common people. Loans andadvances for productive purpose which will alleviate poverty will be stressed upon. • Diversify lending activities, avoiding sectored concentration, ensuring geographicaldispersal. • Design its loan operations keeping social and economic factors in consideration. • Attach importance to consumer credit, Loans to small businessmen, Festival loan, SmallLoans for finishing and expansion of house, Personal loan for salaried persons and any purpose loan. • Prefer lending which will be adequately secured with acceptable security. Borrower’s stakein any activity will be ensured. • Encourage syndicated financing in prospective/ profitable ventures. • Not incur any uncovered foreign exchange risk in lending fund. • Invest at reasonable lending rates. • Monitor End use of loans/ advances. Page 28 of 51 • Generally prefer short term lending promoting through lending small and mediumenterprises. • Constantly explore prospective and profitable investment areas in order to achieveinstitutional and country objectives. • Extend of credit which should contribute within defined risk limitation to the bank’sachievement of profitable growth and superior return on the Bank’s capital. 4.3 Major objectives of the CRM guidelines The main objectives of the guidelines are as under: • To provide directional guidelines to all concerned to improve risk management culture &establish minimum standard for managing risks in credit operations. • To adopt an appropriate working method. • To keep legal aspects relating to loans and advances vivid. •

To introduce and adopt uniform practice in working. • To make lending correct information based. • To identify proper lending correct area. • To analyze all aspects related to credit and ascertain viability of lending. • To make credit documentation exhaustive. • To ensure proper supervision, monitoring & follow up. • To ensure safe return of money lent, avoidance of credit loss and strengthen asset qualityand to protect bank’s interest. Page 29 of 51 4.4 Risk Management Process NBL's activities involve analysis, evaluation, acceptance and management of some risk or combination of risks. Risk management is emphasized not only for regulatory purpose but also toimprove operational and financial performance of the Bank. The main objective of the risk management is that the Bank takes well calculative business risks while safeguarding the Bank'scapital, its financial resources and profitability from various risks. Risk Origination by Business Units Credit RiskOperationalRisk MarketRisk LiquidityRisk ReputationRisk Risk Identification Identify, Understand and Analyze Risks Risk Assessment & Measurement Quantify and Assess Risk Impact Risk Control & Migration Recommend Measures to Control & Migrate Risks Risk Monitoring Monitor and Report on Progress & Compliance Page 30 of 51

Balance Risk against Return Figure: Risk Management Process In order to streamline risk control features in a more effective manner, National Bank

Limited has put in places all manuals as suggested in the core risk management guide lines of BangladeshBank. To manage the risk, National Bank Limited takes some steps. They actively involveanalysis, evaluation, acceptance and management of some risk. Risk management is not only for regular process but also improve financial performance of the Bank. 4.5 Credit Principles Followed by NBL To achieve their goal for maximizing the stockholders’ value and protect the interest of thedepositors as well as to improve the quality of banks assets as fundamentally sound financialinstitution, they will abide by but will not be limited to the following Credit Principles, whichshould guide their behavior in their lending decisions: • Assessment of the customer’s character, integrity and willingness to repay will from basisof lending. • Customer having capacity and ability to repay shall only be lent. • Possibility of default will be worked out before lending. • Credit will be extended in the areas risks of which can be sufficiently understood andmanaged. • Independent Credit participation in the credit process shall be ensured. • Ethical behavior in all credit activities shall be ensured. • Be proactive in identifying, managing and communicating credit risk. Page 31 of 51

• Be diligent in ensuring that credit exposures and activities including processing functioncomplying with NBL requirements as well requirement of regulatory authority. • Risk and reward to be optimized. • Diversified Credit Portfolio to be built and maintained. • Credit will normally be financed from customers’ deposits and not out of shorttermtemporary funds or borrowing from other banks. •

The bank shall provide suitable credit services and products for the market in which itoperates. • Credit will be allowed in a manner which will in no way compromise with the Bank’sstandard of excellence and to customers who will not compromise such standards. • All credit extension must comply with the requirement of banking companies Act. 1991and amendments thereof from time to time. 4.6 Credit Evaluation in NBL National Bank will follow the following credit evaluation process: • Prevailing credit practices in the market. • Credit worthiness, background and track records of the borrower. • Financial standing of the borrower supported by financial statement and other documentaryevidences. • Legal jurisdiction and implication of applicable laws. • Effect of any applicable regulations and laws. Page 32 of 51 • Purpose of the loan/ facility. • Tenure of the loan/facility. • Viability of the business concern. • Cash flow analysis and also projections thereof. • Quality, value and adequacy of security, if available. • Risk taking capacity of the borrower. • Entrepreneurship and managerial capabilities of the borrower. • Reliability of the sources of repayment. • Volume of risk in relation to the risk taking capacity of the bank or company concern. • Profitability of the proposal to the bank or company concerned. •

Credit Risk Grading • Yield from the facility • Market aspect • Total global exposure of the borrower • CIB status 4.7.1 Credit Risk Assessment Page 33 of 51 Risk Assessment The primary factor determining the quality of the Bank’s credit portfolio is the ability of each borrower to honor, on timely basis, all credit commitments made to the Bank. This must beaccurately determined by the authorized Credit officers/Executives prior to approval. Therefore athorough credit risk assessment shall be conducted prior to the sanction of any credit facilities.While assessing a credit proposal more emphasis shall be given on repayment potential of loansout of funds generated from borrower’s business (cash flow) instead of realization potential of underlying securities. Credit risk assessment process in the Bank shall be considered by thefollowing the risk assessing areas: Borrower Analysis: Full particulars of the proprietor, partners, Directors, etc to be examined, their managementcapability to be ascertained. Overall performance and credit status of the allied concerns of theclient i.e. group will be assessed. analysis: Before extending credit in an area, over all business conditions of that area/sector will be criticallyexamined, prospects and problems to be ascertained. Demand and supply of the concerned goods/services, Demand and supply gap, contribution of the borrower in meeting the gap, strength andweakness of the borrower & their competitors to be accurately assessed. Analysis: Lending decision will be preceded by an intensive analysis on whether the borrower depends on asingle or a very few customer or gets the supply of the raw materials/dealing items from a singlesuppler. Such sales and supply concentration will be given a very careful consideration. Financial Analysis: Page 34 of 51 An analysis of a minimum of 3 years historical financial statements of the borrower shall be presented

. Financial Performance: Where term facilities (tenor more than 1 year) are proposed, borrower’s future/ projected financial performance should be provided, indicating an analysis of the sufficiency of cash flow to servicedebt repayments. Loans should be granted if projected cash flow is insufficient to repay debts. and Mitigating Factors Risk inherent in a credit proposal shall have to be identified and appropriate justifying factorsshould be applied. These are to be summarized in the Credit Assessment Form. That has to identify properly. If any risk factor is identified by the credit officer but that is actually not mitigatingfactors. That will be make loss for the organization. Collateral offered against a credit facility shall properly be valued and verified by the concernedrelationship officer or Relationship Manager and revalued and re-verified annually in thesubsequent period(s). In addition to the valuation of the Relationship Officer, the same Collateralmust be valued and verified by an enlisted surveyor of the bank if the total credit facility to theconcerned customer exceeds Tk 25.00 lac. Any valuation of the collateral must be supported by the photograph and side map, where applicable. 4. 7.1.9. Insurance Coverage Page 35 of 51 Adequacy and extent of insurance coverage must be assessed in the credit Assessment Form.Customer preference for not taking required insurance policy must be obtained from approvedinsurer of the Bank. to Policy It should be clarified whether the customer is agreed to comply with the bank’s internal policy andexternal regulatory requirements. Any deviation from the policy and other internal or externalrequirement must be justified and mentioned as deviation in the Credit Assessment From. Loans Proposal for syndicated loans shall be analyzed with respect to risk and return in the same manner as directly sourced loans. In case of participation in a syndication deal, Bank will independentlyassess the proposal and will not solely depend on the credit assessment of the lead Arranger.. 4.8 Credit Information Bureau Report (CIB report): One of the major risk reducing criteria for the bank is Credit Information Bureau Report. Bank caneasily know the total information of any customer from Credit Information Bureau.Banks are requested to send the CIB if a customer want to avail more than 50 thousand taka. EveryBank needs to submit their various statements like monthly statement, quarterly statement toBangladesh Bank. Bangladesh Bank gathers that credit information and make an individual codename for every customer. They provide information about the limit, outstanding, disbursementdate, expiry date. If a customer applied for a Credit facility in any bank, the bank request toBangladesh Bank to sent CIB report to the Bank where bank can know the details of customer. If acustomer have loan facility more than 1.00 crore

bank need to send monthly statement, if acustomer have loan facility less than 1.00 crore bank sent the statement quarterly. 4.9 Credit Assessment System 4.9.1. Credit Assessment System: Page 36 of 51 Commercial banks and financial institutions intermediate between lenders and borrowers. Thesefinancial intermediaries collect deposit and disburse it as loan and advance to the individual people, business, commercial, industrial entity. The loan and advance should be given to them whohas the certain and predicted cash flow to repay the credit. If the credit officer fail to analyze theclients viability of repaying the loan and the projects cash flow possibility of default may arise dueto the information. In sanctioning the loan, is the key to identify the borrowers’ ability, expertise,efficiency, and industry analysis, business performance to ensure the recovery of the credit alongwith the good supervision, monitoring and the relationship. The purpose of appraisal is to be surethat the proposed advance will be safe, liquid, and profitable and for acceptable purpose covered by adequate security. 4.9.2. Allocation of Authority: To assure proper and orderly conduct of the banking operation, the board of directors empoweredthe Managing Directors and executives of the bank to lend up-to certain under certain terms andconditions at their discretion. Important point is that an officer will not be delegated certain power on the basis of his position. In other words, an officer does not automatically get lending authority by virtue of his corporate /functional title. Specified lending authority will be delegated by theManaging Director to various Executives after taking into consideration his proven credit judgment , Knowledge, and experience. 4.9.3. Approving Authority : In National Bank Limited, the credit proposal goes through certain steps that are ordered in termsof hierarchy. The board of directors is the ultimate authority and it delegates different power to the Page 37 of 51 different committees. In National Bank Limited, there are following hierarchies in approving creditfacilities: Figure: Approving Authority Sequence Branch Credit Committee: The branch credit department is maintained by the branch manager and the other members aresecond man or manager operation, credit in-charge, and other members are nominated by the branch manager and the credit officer who prepares the proposal calls them relation

officer. As theultimate performance of the branch depends on the loan all of the members are give importance. If the credit amount wanted is not under the sanctioning authority of the branch committee, it is sentto the Head Office Credit Committee for approval. Office Credit Department After receiving the loan proposal from different branches, credit committee (HO) seats after certaininterval for analyzing the proposal. The credit officers review the proposal and look for what other Page 38 of 51

information is needed to provide with it to present before the executive committee. Here they alsoappraise the loan proposal in the same way the branch does. The HO credit committee is headed bythe Managing Directors of the bank and other members are selected by him. Mainly the HO creditdepartment is responsible for the following activities: • The committee evaluates the quality of the lending staff posted in the branch and takeappropriate steps to made them efficient and effective. • Ensuring that all the required information and documents are collected and are in order. Department If the limit of the loan proposal exceeds the authority delegated to the HO credit committee, theloan proposal is forwarded to the executive committee for sanction. Approving the credit facility asdelegated by the Board of Directors. • Supervising implementing the directives of the Board of Directors. • Reviewing of each extension of the credit approval by the HO credit committee or ManagingDirector. • Communicate the result of all the above function to the Board of Directors . of Directors If the credit demand of the client crosses the delegated power of the executive committee, the proposal is sent to the board of directors for approval. The Board of Directors has, in the NBL;retain the following credit related responsibilities in their hand: • Delegating authority to approve and review credit • The board of directors will approve the credit for which authority is not delegated to anybody.

4.10. National Bank’s Risk Grading Framework 4.10.1 Basic Framework: When providing credit facility to the customer, Bank undertakes many risks among which creditrisk is considered to be most important one. As such, an in-depth study should be conducted on the Page 39 of 51 borrower’s creditworthiness which will help the Bank to identify all possible risk underlying in a particular credit transaction. A former evaluation of borrower’s financial health and ability to repaydebt obligation is call credit rating which helps the bank to grade the customer. As such, it is alsocalled credit risk grading. And risk identified through credit rating/risk grading is quantified for better understanding and takes appropriate technique. Besides, it helps the bank to chargecommensurate risk premium on a particular credit facility. Therefore, it is important to accuratelymeasure the risk in a transaction and grate the facility accordingly. As per recommendation of theFinancial Sector Reform Project, Bangladesh Bank made it mandatory for the bank to conduct a“Lending Risk Analysis” in the prescribed format before sanction of a loan which is steel in force.Later, Bangladesh Bank instructed all commercial Banks to develop its own credit risk gradingsystem vide its Guidelines on Credit Risk Management. In the said guideline, Bangladesh Bank provide sample Risk Grading Model and advised Banks to design their own model in line with thatone. 4.10.2 NBL’s Risk Grading Framework All credit proposals must be supported by a comprehensive risk analysis. It is the absoluteresponsibility of the originating officer to conduct comprehensive risk analysis and risk gradingscore, risk grading etc in the proposal. He/she will also insure that all necessarydocuments/proposal/ information in support of the proposed risk grading are with the proposal before the facility request is sent to the competent approval authority. 4.11 Credit Risk Grade Matrix As per instruction of Bangladesh Bank, National Bank has developed Risk Grading Scorecardwhich will be used to find out rating of all credit facilities and/or customers of the bank except theloans under Retail Credit Division. The score of the risk grading scorecard will be weighted one.There are 10 (ten) rating criteria and separate parameters have been set to measure borrower’s Page 40 of 51 position against each criterion. After analyzing borrowers’ financials or other relevant documents,the Relationship Officer will first find out the points the borrower earns against each criterion based on the parameters set and then multiply the points obtained by the relevant risk weight whichwill produce Weighted Score.A snapshot of criteria and weight assigned to each criterion is as follows: Sl.No.CriteriaWeight(%)Name of theGradeShortNameScore 01Leverage 15SuperiorSUP85+

Page 41 of 51

02Liquidity15GoodGD75-8403Profitability15AcceptableACCPT657404AccountControl5Marginal/MG/WL55-6405BusinessOutlook 10SpecialMentionSM45-5506Management/Key Person15SubstandardSS45-5407Age of Business05DoubtfulDF35-4408Size of Business05Bad & LossBL<3509PersonalBankingRelationship0510Security10Total100 Figure: A snapshot of criteria and weight assigned to each criteria The Relationship Officer of the Branch will prepare Risk Grading Scorecard in case of new proposal, renewal and/or enhancement of existing facility, any deterioration in borrower’s business position, any breach of contract by the borrower or as and when he/she feel it necessary. Customer is to be affixed in the relevant field of the Credit Assessment Sheet. 4.12 Different categories of Credit Risk Grading 1. Superior (SUP) • Credit facilities, which are fully secured i.e. fully cash covered. • Credit facilities fully covered by government guarantee. • Credit facilities fully covered by the guarantee of top tier international bank. Page 42 of 51

2. Good (GD) • Strong repayment capacity of the borrower. • The borrower has excellent liquidity and low leverage. • The company demonstrates consistency strong earnings and cash flow. • Borrower has well established, strong market share. •

Very good management skill and expertise. • All security documentations are in place. • Credit facilities fully covered by the guarantee of a top tier local bank • Aggregate score of 85 or greater based on Risk Grade Score sheet. 3. Acceptable (ACCPT) • These borrowers are not strong as good grade borrowers, demonstrate earnings, cash flowand have a good track record. • Borrowers have adequate liquidity, cash flow and earnings. • Credit in this grade is secured acceptable collateral (1 st charge over inventory/receivables/equipment/property). • Acceptable management. • Acceptable parent/sister company guarantee. • Aggregate score of 75-84 based on Risk Grade Score sheet. 4. Marginal/Watch list (MG/WL) • This grade warrants greater attention due to conditions affecting the borrower, the industry or the economic environment. Page 43 of 51 • These borrowers have an above average risk due to strained liquidity, higher than normalleverage, thin cash flow and/ or inconsistent earnings. • Weaker business credit and early warning signals of emerging business credit detected. • The borrower incurs a loss. • Loan repayment routinely falls past due. • Account conduct is poor, or other untoward factors are present. • Credit requires attention. • Aggregate score of 65-74 based on Risk Grade Score sheet.

5. Special Mentioned (SM) • This grade has potential weakness that deserves management’s close attention. If leftuncorrected, this weakness may result in a deterioration of the repayment prospects of the borrower. • Severe management problems exist. • Facilities are downgraded to this grade if sustained deterioration in financial condition is noted(consecutive losses, negative net worth, excessive leverage). • Bangladesh Bank criteria for Special Mentioned (SM) shall apply. • Aggregate score of 55-64 based on Risk Grade Score sheet. 6. Sub Standard (SS) • Financial condition is weak and capacity or inclination to repay is in doubt. • These weaknesses jeopardize the full settlement of loans. • Bangladesh Bank criteria for Sub Standard (SS) shall apply. Page 44 of 51 • Aggregate score of 45-54 based on Risk Grade Score sheet. 7. Doubtful (DF) • Full repayment of principal and interest is unlikely and the possibility of loss is extremely high. • However, due to specifically identifiable pending factors, such as litigation, liquidation procedures or capital injection, the asset yet is not classified as Bad & Loss. • Bangladesh Bank criteria for Doubtful Credit shall apply. • Aggregate score of 35-44 based on Risk Grade Score sheet 8. Bad and Loss (BL) • Credit of this grade has long outstanding with no progress in obtaining repayment or on theverge of wind up/ liquidation. • Prospects of recovery are poor and legal options have been pursued. • Proceeds expected from the liquidation or realization of security may be awaited.

Thecontinuance of the loan as a bankable asset is not warranted, and the anticipated loss shouldhave been provided for. • This classification reflects that it is not practical or desirable to defer writing off this basicallyvalueless asset even though partial recovery may be affected in the future. Bangladesh Bank guidelines for timely write off of bad loans must be adhered to. Legal procedures/ suit initiated. • Bangladesh Bank criteria for bad and loss (BL) shall apply. • Aggregate score of less than 35 based on Risk Grade Score sheet. 4.13 Credit Risk Grading Review Credit Risk Grading for each borrower should be assigned at the inception of lending and should be periodically updated. Consistency and accuracy of the Risk Grade should be examined periodically by the branch and Internal Control & Compliance Division while conducting inceptionit must also be ensure that CRG has been properly done and periodically updated. Frequencies of the review of the credit risk grading are mentioned below: Page 45 of 51 NumberRisk GradingShortReview frequency(at least) 1SuperiorSUPAnnually2GoodGDAnnually3AcceptableACCPTAnnually4Marginal/ watch listMG/WLHalf yearly5Special MentionSMQuarterly6SubstandardSSQuarterly7DoubtfulDFQuarterlyBad & LossBLQuarterly Chapter ≠ 05 Page 46 of 51

Findings 5.1 Findings of the study • The rate of interest or product cost is set up by the Head Office. Interest rate has to bewithin a limit for every bank which is notified by the Bangladesh Bank. • Pricing for the credit varies for depending on the risk level of credit facility. Risk level ismeasure on some criteria like; CIB Report, CRG points, Personal Information. High riskycredit facility charged high interest. Price of Credit facility also set up by the Head Officecredit committee.

• Credit allocation is set-up by the Head Office Credit committee. The Head of the Branchcan authorize credit up to Tk.20 Lac. Page 47 of 51 • Branch credit officer prepare the credit proposal containing details customer information. • Some big credit facilities recommended by the Head Office credit Committee which is processed with fast monitoring and screening. • Sometimes clients and customers are moving here and there inside the bank premises. So ithampers the smooth functioning and security system of the bank. • Quality development may help the bank to hold on the old customers and attract potential customers. • The number of Brochure is not sufficient to supply information to the clients for their query. Chapter ≠ 06Recommendation Page 48 of 51

Conclusion 6.1 Recommendation • The process of sanctioning a loan is very time consuming. Management should give moreeffort to reduce the time of processing a loan. • The main portion of profit comes from the foreign exchange and credit division, but thereare not enough employees on these departments to serve the clients. So number of employees should be increased in these departments. • The management must be more careful of sanctioning that loans which are recommend by powerful bodies. Because these loans sometimes become more risky. Page 49 of

51 • To reduce the credit risk the original documents of the client must be verified thoroughly. • The repayment capacity of loan of the client should be properly investigated to reduce thedefault risk. 6.2 Conclusion The National Bank’s philosophy - "A bank Performance for potential" has been precisely anessence of the legend of success in Bangladesh. The bank has proved to be successful by offeringquality services to its customers in time. Most of employees of National Bank are very efficient(with few exceptions); everyone knows their work very well and can perform efficiently to produce the best output. National Bank Limited has consistently remained focused on efficient customer service by providing wide range of products and services. Their products and services are as diverse as themarket segment demand. Their customer’s group range from individuals, big corporate clients, Page 50 of 51 NGO’s to non residents. Financing to NGO’s were done for extending microfinance to cover less privileged people who are struggling to fight poverty. NBL also focus on its delivery platform, its people and its brand to support the growth. Improvement in mix of deposit by developing moreretail savings products remained in their policy objectives. National Bank Limited’s core value toremain socially responsible corporate citizen will remain integral part to its strategy andcommunicating them to all stakeholders is intrinsic to the plan. Page 51 of 51

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