military medical university Häc viÖn qu©n y

-----------*******-----------NguyÔn sinh kú

NEW
English in medicine
VOLUME ONE
(Higher education material) Use only in Army TiÕng anh dïng trong y häc

(Gi¸o tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y ®¹i häc)
Lu hµnh néi bé

People’s army publishing house Nhµ xuÊt b¶n qu©n ®éi nh©n d©n

ew English in medicine

N

1

Vo lume one Õng Anh ïng trong y häc p1 Ti D TË

Nhµ xuÊt b¶n mong b¹n ®äc ®ãng gãp ý kiÕn phª b×nh

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Héi ®ång duyÖt tµi liÖu, gi¸o tr×nh, gi¸o khoa Cña häc viÖn qu©n y Trung tíng, GS.TS. Ph¹m Gia Kh¸nh Gi¸m ®èc Häc viÖn Qu©n y ThiÕu tíng, BS. NguyÔn Quang Phóc ChÝnh uû Häc viÖn Qu©n y ThiÕu tíng, GS.TS. Vò §øc Mèi Phã gi¸m ®èc Häc viÖn Qu©n y ThiÕu tíng, GS.TS. Lª B¸ch Quang Phã gi¸m ®èc Häc viÖn Qu©n y ThiÕu tíng, PGS.TS. §Æng Ngäc Hïng Phã gi¸m ®èc Häc viÖn Qu©n y Gi¸m ®èc BÖnh viÖn 103 §¹i t¸, PGS.TS. NguyÔn TiÕn B×nh Phã gi¸m ®èc Häc viÖn Qu©n y §¹i t¸, GS.TS. NguyÔn V¨n Mïi Phã gi¸m ®èc BÖnh viÖn 103 §¹i t¸, PGS.TS. Lª N¨m Gi¸m ®èc ViÖn Báng Quèc gia §¹i t¸, BS. Ph¹m Quèc §Æng HÖ trëng HÖ §µo t¹o Trung häc §¹i t¸, BS. §ç TiÕn Lîng Trëng phßng Th«ng tin Khoa häc C«ng nghÖ M«i trêng Thîng t¸, BS. NguyÔn V¨n ChÝnh Phã trëng phßng Th«ng tin Khoa häc C«ng nghÖ M«i trêng - Chñ tÞch - Phã chñ tÞch - ñy viªn - ñy viªn

- ñy viªn - ñy viªn - ñy viªn - ñy viªn - ñy viªn

- ñy viªn

- Th kÝ

The publishing house and author would like to have readers’ comment

The military medical university’s council of reviewing teaching materials and textbooks

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Departmental Head of Scientific. m. Vice-Director of Hospital No. Vice-Rector of Military Medical University Commissioner Major-General le bach quang.D. A. Vice-Rector of Military Medical University Director of Hospital No. 103 Commissioner Senior-Colonel le nam. Technological and Environmental Information Secretary Häc viÖn qu©n y 4 . Ph. Prof. M...Prof. Ph.D. Vice-Rector of Military Medical University Commissioner Major-General dang ngoc hung. Technological and Environmental Information Commissioner Colonel nguyen van chinh.. Director of National Burn Institute Commissioner Senior-Colonel pham quoc dang.D.. M.D.Prof. Political Commissar of Military Medical University Vicechairman Major-General vu duc moi. Ph. 103 Commissioner Senior-Colonel Nguyen Tien Binh.D. Prof..D.. M.D. Rector of Military Medical University Chairman Major-General nguyen quang phuc.. Ph.Lieutenant-General Pham Gia Khanh. Prof.d.Prof. Vice-Rector of Military Medical University Commissioner Senior-Colonel nguyen van mui. Ph. Departmental Head of Scientific. A. Head of Secondary Vocational School Commissioner Senioe-Colonel Do tien luong.Prof.D.D. Ph. A. Ph.D.

-----------*******-----------NguyÔn sinh kú TiÕng anh dïng trong y häc (Gi¸o tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y ®¹i häc) Lu hµnh néi bé Nhµ xuÊt b¶n qu©n ®éi nh©n d©n Hµ néi – 2006 military medical university 5 .

trong thêi ®¹i ngµy nay. tiÕng Anh rÊt cÇn thiÕt vµ cã mét vÞ trÝ ®Æc biÖt v× tiÕng Anh ®îc 6 .-----------*******-----------NguyÔn sinh kú NEW English in medicine Use only in Army VOLUME ONE (Higher education material) People’s army publishing house Hanoi .2006 Lêi giíi thiÖu Nh chóng ta ®Òu biÕt.

Ên phÈm míi nµy dµnh cho c¸c sinh viªn y khoa vµ nh÷ng ngêi cã quan t©m trong ngµnh y. Trung tíng. Gi¸o s. cã thÓ sö dông trªn líp häc hoÆc tù häc vµ còng cã thÓ vËn dông c¶ hai. TiÕng Anh Chuyªn Ngµnh (ESP) ®· ®îc ph¸t triÓn chuyªn s©u vµ tËp trung vµo viÖc thiÕt kÕ ch¬ng tr×nh vµ biªn so¹n gi¸o tr×nh giao tiÕp. TËp gi¸o tr×nh tiÕng Anh dïng trong y häc. thµnh lËp c¸c tõ. vµ tãm t¾t c¸c v¨n b¶n.. mét ng«n ng÷ ®îc sö dông trong nhiÒu lÜnh vùc kh¸c nhau. dùng c©u.. viÕt c¸c ®o¹n v¨n.sö dông réng r·i trªn kh¾p thÕ giíi vµ tÊt nhiªn nã ®· trë thµnh ng«n ng÷ giao tiÕp quèc tÕ. Chóng t«i hy väng r»ng c¸c b¹n cã thÓ thu ®îc nhiÒu thuËn lîi tõ tËp gi¸o tr×nh nµy. Vµ hiÖn nay viÖc thiÕt kÕ ch¬ng tr×nh vµ biªn so¹n gi¸o tr×nh TiÕng Anh Chuyªn Ngµnh ph¶i tuú thuéc vµo tõng lÜnh vùc vµ môc tiªu cô thÓ. TËp gi¸o tr×nh nµy cã thÓ gióp b¹n luyÖn ®äc hiÓu. nhÊt lµ trong lÜnh vùc nghiªn cøu khoa häc vµ c«ng nghÖ. Ên phÈm míi nµy rÊt linh ho¹t. TiÕn sü Ph¹m Gia Kh¸nh 7 . cã nhu cÇu häc tiÕng Anh chuyªn ngµnh vµ n©ng cao tr×nh ®é tiÕng Anh chuyªn ngµnh trong t¬ng lai. Trong nhiÒu n¨m gÇn ®©y. vv . côm tõ. TËp gi¸o tr×nh TiÕng Anh Dïng Trong Y Häc.

and of course. or both. building words and word combination and writing sentences. Lieutenant-general Pham Gia Khanh. In the recent years. And now ESP syllabus and materials design must belong to a concrete case of a taget group. and so on. Ph. This New English in Medicine is intended for medical students and other with a professional interest in medicine who need to study ESP in medicine and to improve their knowledge of ESP in the future.Introduction As we know. It can help you to practise reading comprehension. nowadays. Prof. chiefly of researching technology and science. New English in Medicine is flexible and can be used in class. We hope that you can get a lot of advantages from it. ESP (English for Specific Purposes) has become a major developmental focus in the area of what maybe called communicative syllabus design and materials production.. English is very necessary and it has a special position since it has been widely used throughout the world. or summarizing. 8 . paragraghs.D. on your own. it has become the international language of communication and the language of various fields.

Bé s¸ch gióp cho viÖc luyÖn tËp tõ vùng. Nh÷ng ngêi ®· n¾m v÷ng c¸c thêi. nhËn xÐt ®Ó hoµn thiÖn cho lÇn xuÊt b¶n sau. giíi tõ. Chóng t«i rÊt mong nhËn ®îc nh÷ng lêi phª b×nh. ng÷ ®éng tõ. c¸c cÊu tróc c©u vµ c¸c lo¹i c©u cña ng«n ng÷ tiÕng Anh. tõ c¸c bµi tËp c¸c sinh viªn sÏ cã ®îc nh÷ng thuËn lîi trong viÖc më réng vèn kiÕn thøc tiÕng Anh cña m×nh vµ thÊy nh÷ng th«ng tin thËt hÊp dÉn. Chóng t«i hy väng. Cã nhiÒu thuËn lîi cho viÖc häc tiÕng Anh chuyªn ngµnh. qu¸n tõ. Bé s¸ch nµy ®îc chia thµnh hai tËp. §¹i t¸ NguyÔn Sinh Kú 9 .Lêi nãi ®Çu Bé s¸ch nµy dµnh cho c¸c sinh viªn y khoa ®· häc xong ch¬ng tr×nh tiÕng Anh c¬ b¶n. tãm t¾t v¨n b¶n. tõ kÐp. tõ nèi vµ c¸c d¹ng thay thÕ danh tõ. ®äc hiÓu. TÊt c¶ c¸c bµi ®Òu thuéc chuyªn ngµnh y. chóng t«i mong muèn ®îc c¶m ¬n nh÷ng ngêi ®· gióp ®ì chóng t«i hoµn thµnh vµ xuÊt b¶n bé s¸ch nµy. Tõ ®¸y lßng m×nh. tõ tè.

They know the basic tenses. This book is in two volumes. comprehension. We hope that the students will find the exercises useful in expanding their knowledge of the English language and that they will find the information interesting. and noun substitutes. connecting words. phrasal verbs. There are many advantages to learning English on medical speciality. All lessons are on medicine. structures and sentences of English. compound words. They provide practice with vocabulary. word forms. Senior colonel Sinh Ky Nguyen 10 . From the bottom of our heart. prepositions.Preface This book is for medical students who have already learned the basic general English. articles. we would like to thank several people for their help in publishing this book. We look forward to any comments and remarks on the book for the perfection of the next edition. summarizing.

Contents preface Lesson one Lesson two Lesson three Lesson four Lesson five Lesson six Lesson seven Lesson eight Lesson nine Lesson ten Lesson eleven Lesson twelve Lesson thirteen Lesson fourteen Pag e 1 Medical Specialists 3 Industrial Medicine 8 Introduction to General Surgery 14 Surgical Service to the Population 20 The Common Cold 26 Influenza 33 Headaches 38 Cholesterol and Heart Disease 43 On migraine Headache and Hypertensive 52 Headache Diseases and Injuries of the Skull 58 Cigarette Smoking and Chronic Bronchitis 64 Transplants .New body Parts 70 Shock 75 CPR 81 11 .

Vaccinations prevent diseases. They put patients to sleep during surgery. They often give vaccinations to stop diseases. and measles. They all work together to give good medical care. Then the patients do not feel pain. doctors try to prevent diseases.Lesson one MEDICAL SPECIALISTS Doctors. They often use machines and new drugs to heal patients. and other medical people are all parts of health care. they make sick people healthy. Some patients need operations. They tell their patients to eat the right kind of food and to exercise daily. polio. Many doctors specialize in only one kind of medicine. Doctors also try to prevent diseases with good advice. ophthalmologists are eye specialists. Second. First. Dentists take care of people's teeth and treat diseases of the mouth. there are many operations on the heart. Doctors have two important jobs. For example. Surgeons use operations to take care of problems inside the body. Anesthesiologists are specialists who help surgeons with operations. nurses. They treat eye diseases and try to prevent blindness. Vaccinations save many lives. Not many people die from these diseases now. 12 . For example. like smallpox. cholera.

but the family physician usually sends very sick patients to other specialists. A family practice doctor takes care of babies and old people. There are many other medical specialists. take people to hospital emergency rooms. but also they try to prevent diseases. and sometimes helicopters. A family doctor cares for the whole family. Most hospitals have an emergency room. They check women before the birth of their babies and deliver the babies. WORD STUDY drug to heal to prevent vaccination smallpox cholera polio (vt cña poliomyelitis measles to specialize ophthalmologist / drʌg / (n) / hi:l / (vt) / pri'vent / (v) / væsi'nei∫n / (n) /'smɔ:lpɔks / (n) / 'kɔlƏrƏ / (n) /'pouliou / (n) / poulioumaiƏ'laitis / ) / 'mi:zlz / (n) / 'spe∫ Əlaiz / (vi/vt) / ɔf æl'mɔlƏdƷist/ (n) thuèc ch÷a (bÖnh) phßng (bÖnh) viÖc dïng vaccine bÖnh ®Ëu mïa bÖnh t¶ viªm tñy x¸m. or they sometimes become ill suddenly.Obstetricians are specialists who care for pregnant women. Pediatricians are physicians who care for children. Family medical practice is new specialization. doctors. Emergency medicine is another speciality. and other medical people. Emergency specialists give immediate treatment. They not only heal people who are sick. Ambulances. These specialists. People sometimes have accidents at home or at work. nurses. all work together to help their patients. This doctor cares for the patients who have all kinds of illness. I. b¹i liÖt bÖnh sëi chuyªn m«n ho¸ b¸c sü nh·n khoa 13 .

.................................. ..................... Eye specialists.................. 14 .................................... 3.................... 2................ ....................... To take care of patients. ...to treat disease patient operation surgeon anesthesiologist obstetrician pregnant pediatrician physician ambulance / tri:t / (v) / di'zi:z / (n) / 'pei∫Ənt / (n) / ɔpƏ'rei∫n / (n) / 'sƏ:dƷn / (n) / ænis i:zjƏ'lƏdƷist / (n) / ɔbste'tri∫n / (n) / 'pregnƏnt / (adj) / pi:diƏ'tri∫n / (n) / fi'zi∫n / (n) / 'æmbjulƏns / (n) ®iÒu trÞ bÖnh bÖnh nh©n ca phÉu thuËt nhµ phÉu thuËt b¸c sü g©y mª b¸c sü s¶n khoa cã thai b¸c sü nhi khoa thÇy thuèc xe cøu th¬ng II........................................................................... ................ To make sick people healthy.......... To use machines and new drugs to heal patients.... .................. To prevent diseases........... Translate these word combinations into Vietnamese........................... .............................................................................. ...................... 6.......................................... .............. 1................................................................................................ .................. 5........................ 4..................... To die from diseases............................. ......... ............................. ............................................

... Different medical specializations........ What are doctors........................................................ Immediate treatment................................................................................................ 8.......... 12..................................................................................................................... ........................................................................ .......................................... and other medical people? ........... 15 ............................................... .......... Operations on the heart.......................... .............. ..... ........... ..................................................................... ....................................................... 1................. Please............................................................ .. A family doctor.................................. 11...................................................... 4................................................................... 9....................................... How many important jobs have doctors? and what are they? .. ........ 2............................................ ... ........ ... Answer the following questions................. name some diseases vaccinations prevent............ III................... ........................... nurses................................ Accidents at home or at work........ Hospital emergency rooms.................................................... 3........................... . What do ophthalmologists do? ....7............... 10...................... .. ....................................

................................... What do surgeons use operations for? ........... e............................................................................... ........ Sometimes there are some small operations...... 7...g ................................. one of the methods of examining in early cases of inflammation is to pass the hand rapidly from the non-affected to the affected area and back again............... 9..5............ 6........ Who do obstetricians care for ? and when? .............................. 8................................... Where do ambulances............. I am in my last year at the Military Medical University... ......................... Translate this paragraph into Vietnamese.. .............. Almost every day we are present at some serious operation........ We are also shown some methods of examining.............................. What do dentists do? . IV..................... 16 ................................................... ..................... The teachers always advise us to use different methods of examining........ ....................................................................... nurses and other medical people work together for ? ......... I am a medical student.................. 10.......................... and sometimes helicopters take patients to ? .............. What do specialists........................... Usually an expert surgeon performs such operations.......................................... ................. some small skin incisions for an abscess which any medical student can perform............ doctors.................................. What kinds of illness can a family doctor treat? ...........................

......... 17 ..temperature..sick people and take care of patients.. they learn to take a (9) ……... Both kinds of nurses learn in classes and in clinics...in hospitals....work in hospitals are general-duty nurses.......... blood pressure and pulse rate.. Like doctors. factories and private homes...as clinics... drugs and medicines and the psychology.......... Therefore.... Practical nurses usually help (13).…… education...... They (2)……..about nursing care...V. Nurses are a necessary part of health (1)…. However.. Professional nurses have two to five years of (6).... there are many (5)…….. There are two kinds of nurses: professional and practical. on the other hand usually assist (14)...... Practical nurses are (11).. They also practice different (10)……... many nurses in other places (4)…….... There are also jobs in the offices of doctors and dentists. the nutrition of foods. schools..…............filling Fill each blank in the following passage with only ONE suitable word.... they learn about the anatomy of the (7) …….kind of nurses............... In their classrooms...... they work with (8)……... Gap .. Most nurses (3)……. In their clinical studies....nurses with the patients... chemistry....... Professional nurses.. but they study for only one year or two.... These nurses also (12)........kinds of nursing jobs.... they have two jobs......

accidents on the job may also injure and kill workers. farm machines sometimes injure farm workers. Fires sometimes kill fire fighters.rays get skin cancer. Many large companies employ both occupational doctors and safety engineers to protect workers from accidents and illness on the job. Construction workers sometimes fall from buildings. They know that certain groups of workers often have the same diseases. Many people who work with X. safety 18 . At the same time. doctors study the workers and their diseases. First. For example.Lesson two OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE People who work together often get the same diseases. Most coal miners develop black lung disease after years of work in coalmines. These people probably get these diseases because of their work. For example. In addition. People who work with electricity may get electrical shocks. lung cancer is common among many asbestos workers and miners. They do this in three ways.

They teach the workers about safety on the job. They harm the skin. Toxic chemicals such as lead (Pb). WORD STUDY occupational medicine lung cancer / ɔkju:'pei∫Ənl / / lʌŋ'kænsƏ / y häc lao ®éng ung th phæi 19 . They measure and control gases in the air. Industrial noise sometimes causes deafness.engineers study accidents and their causes. They set standards for work in the dangerous situations. People who work around loud noise for a long time sometimes become hard of hearing. They make the work area a safe place. there are new chemicals. hard hats and safety shoes. Second. mercury (Hg). airport workers must cover their ears near the airplanes outside. and some of them are toxic. noise. they plan and design new machines to prevent accidents in the future. and other internal organs such as the heart. liver. chemicals. After careful study. There are many causes of accidents and illness at work. After they find the causes. the lungs. They design different ways to store and transport toxic chemicals. Third. doctors and safety engineers work together to change the machines or the jobs because they want to prevent more accidents or illnesses. Among them. For example. and silica (SiO2) made people sick in the past. In addition. Some workers must wear personal protective means. I. Many things cause illnesses and injuries on the job. For example. both doctors and safety engineers do many things to decrease the danger of injuries and illnesses on the job. Education is necessary for prevention. or kidney. Occupational physicians and safety engineers often prevent these problems. gasses in mines cause accidents and poison miners. and they make people sick today. and radiation are a few. they educate workers about the dangers in their jobs. like eye goggles.

tia R¬ngen II. In a long reading it is usually in the first or last paragraph. ng¨n ngõa ho¸ chÊt sù bøc x¹ g©y ®éc ®éc ch× thuû ng©n silic dioxyt gan thËn tËt ®iÕc tia X. WHAT IS THE MAIN IDEA? The main idea is the important idea of the reading. b¶o hé ®Ò phßng.common (adj) among (prep) asbestos (n) black diseases construction (n) electrical shock occupational doctors protect (v) prevent (v) chemicals (n) radiation (n) poison (v) toxic (adj) lead (n) mercury (n) silica (n) liver (n) kidney (n) deafness (n) x-ray (n) / 'kɔmƏn / / Ə 'mʌŋ / / æz'bestɔs. Occupational physicians study accidents at home. / lung / di'zi:ziz / phæ biÕn trong sè Ə z'bestɔs ami-¨ng bÖnh ®Ëm phæi x©y dùng / kƏn'strʌk∫n / ®iÖn giËt / i 'lektrikƏl ∫ɔk / and safety b¸c sÜ vµ kü s an engineers toµn lao ®éng / endzi'niƏz / / pro'tekt / / pri'vent / / / / / / / / / / / / 'kemikƏlz / reidi'ei∫n / 'pɔizn / 'tɔksik / led / 'mƏ:kjuri / 'silikƏ / 'livƏ / 'kidni / 'defnis / 'eks 'rei / b¶o vÖ. Put a tick ( √ ) by the statement of the main idea. It is usually at the beginning or the end of a paragraph. 20 . a.

healthy). People who work with chemicals sometimes get sick. ……. specialist. ……. 6. The old man is both…………. Safety engineers treat workers after illnesses and accidents …….. noun. 5. III. 4.. ……. Safety engineers study the causes of accidents at work. 2. 2. Write T by the statements if they are true. ……. Safety engineers study the cause of accidents at home. Occupational doctors and safety engineers help make the work place safe. Then choose the correct form of the words in parentheses. Do not look at the reading.. or Adj on the left. Doctors sometimes change workers' jobs to prevent illness.and deaf.1.. Those children are……………(health. Occupational doctors study the groups of workers and their diseases. ……. 3. and write V. ……. treatments). N.. Fill in the blank in the following sentences. (specialize.. Safety engineers try to prevent accidents on the job. decide if you need a verb. c. or adjective.(treats. in one field of medicine must study two or three years more.. Drugs and surgery medical………. (blind. ……. special) are two different kinds of 21 . Doctors who…………. ……. 9.b. 7.. First. 8. 3. have you understood the reading? A. If false. People who work together often get the same diseases. …….. 1.. write F. Education about causes of accidents helps prevent future accidents. ……. 4. Accidents at work never hurt workers ……. blindness) ……... B.

to save her life. "An explosion" is the effect. poisonous) …….. Read together the following pairs of sentences. operation) ……. but the doctor saved them. The patient is very……………. illness). 6. The patient needed an…………. ……. 5.. 22 .. Small pieces of asbestos get into the lungs. ……. ……. You must shout to make him hear you because of his…………. dangerous) …….... WHAT IS THE CAUSE AND EFFECT? Things happen because something causes them. ……………clothing. medicine is another special field of medicine. Their lives were in………….12. protective) are. 9. Preventive) IV. Breathing becomes difficult. (protect. (educate. "Too much methane" is the cause.2.……. (Prevent.. or result.. deafness). education) ……..1. ……. Safety engineers…………… workers about dangers in their jobs. (deaf. One is the cause and one is the effect. " Why? It happened because there was too much methane gas.. (ill. 8.. Safety shoes protection.(operate.. Example: "There was an explosion in the mine. (poison.11.... There are many……………chemicals. ……... (danger.. Write C for cause and E for effect by the statements.10.. 7. Prevention. ..

……..1. People sometimes get sick. ……..2. People work with dangerous chemicals. ……..1. Miners have black lung disease. ……..2. Miners breathe coal dust for many years. ……..1. Doctors learn about the causes of diseases. ……..2. Doctors protect workers from the diseases. ……..1. Workers work with toxic chemicals. ……..2. Workers get sick from the chemicals. ……..1. Workers have fewer accidents on the job. ……..2. Workers study about job safety.

V. READING FOR COMPREHENSION AND TRANSLATION.
Read the following passage then mark T by the statements if they are true or F if they are false and translate the passage into Vietnamese. MINE SAFETY Coal mining is a very dangerous job for miners. Since 1900, more than one hundred thousand workers have been killed in coal mining accidents in the United States. There are four kinds of mining accidents. Accidents with machines kill or injure more miners than any other kinds. The second most important danger is cave-ins. The roof or wall of the mine sometimes falls or caves in. Then miners are trapped inside the mine and cannot get out. Gases in mines are also very dangerous. Methane and carbon monoxide are the most dangerous. Too much methane may cause a violent explosion. Carbon monoxide is also a poisonous gas. Methane and carbon monoxide have no smoke, so miners do not know when the gases are in the mine. If there is too much of a poisonous gas in

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the mine, the miners die. They sometimes take a small bird into the mine with them. The bird will die from the gas first. Then the miners know that they must leave the mine quickly. Because of the poisonous gases, it is important to bring fresh air into the mine. The fourth danger is from coal dust, which makes the air inside the mine dirty. Miners who breathe large amounts of dust for many years are likely to develop black lung disease. This disease causes problems with the lungs and even death. Mines are safer places to work today than they were in the late eighteenth century. In 1900, 3.5 miners per 1000 were killed in mine accidents each year. Today, the death rate is 0.5 per 1000. Safety standards have improved conditions in the mines. ...........1. Explosions kill 100.000 workers every year. ...........2. When miners are trapped, they cannot get out of the mine. ...........3. Methane can cause an explosion. .......... 4. If there is a lot of fresh air in the mine, there will be accidents with gases. ...........5. Black lung disease is a serious disease. ...........6. People do not die of black lung disease. .......... 7. Fewer miners died in 1900 than they do today. ...........8. Mining is still a dangerous job. ...........9. Carbon monoxide may kills miners. ...........10. The air inside mines is always safe to breathe.

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Lesson three INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL SURGERY
The term "Surgery" comes from Greek. Surgery is the branch of medicine in which various mechanical therapeutic manipulations (incisions, punctures, suturing, reductions of dislocations and so on) performed by physicians are used. These procedures are designated by the words "surgical operation" or merely by one word "operation". For a very long time, surgical operations were performed only on the superficial parts of the body but even after such operations, severe inflammations due to the infection of the wound were frequently met with, causing death. Only during the second half of the 19th century, the general development of natural science made it possible to 25

On the basis of Pasteur's work. In 1836.I. bacteria. During the years that followed scientists found that to protect the wounds from infection it was enough to treat all objects to be handled and used during an operation with a physical agent. the famous French scientist Pasteur published the results of his remarkable studies of the processes of putrefaction.Pirogov was the first to voice the assumption that wounds were infected by invasion of special causative agents named by him "miasmas". heat. WORD STUDY introduction (n) / intrƏ'dʌk∫n / sù giíi thiÖu. The method elaborated by Lister was given the name of antiseptic. Lister began to irrigate the wounds with a solution of carbolic acid and to treat the instruments and dressing material to be used in the operations with the same solution. I. lêi giíi 26 . namely.solve this difficult problem. Pasteur proved that these processes were evoked by minute living organisms. This method gave fine results. This new method of disinfections was given the name of asepsis. The brilliant Russian surgeon N. The antiseptic and aseptic methods of treating wounds revolutionized surgery and almost completely eliminated the danger of infecting wounds to be operated on. To protect the wounds from the penetration of bacteria or to destroy these bacteria after their penetration into the wounds. the British surgeon Lister concluded that the purulence of wounds was also caused by bacteria which found their way into the wounds from the air.

. ®å vËt to handle (v) / 'hændl / cÇm. ph¸t biÓu invasion (n) / in'veiƷn / sù x©m nhËp causative agent /'kɔ:ze tiv t¸c nh©n g©y bÖnh.. gäi tªn superficial (adj) ë bÒ mÆt / sju:pƏ'fi∫Əl / to meet with (v) / mi:t / gÆp ph¶i century (n) thÕ kû.cã thÓ gi¶i possible to quyÕt . xuÊt b¶n / 'pʌbli∫ / remarkable (adj ) / ri'ma:kƏbl / xuÊt s¾c.thiÖu manipulation (n) thao t¸c / mƏnipju'lei∫n / puncture (n) sù chÝch. lµm cho. n¾m physical agent t¸c nh©n lý häc disinfection (n) sù khö trïng.(adj) / ænti'septik/ khö trïng object (n) / ɔ'bdzikt / dông cô. tÈy uÕ / disin'fek∫n / 27 . chíng khÝ to publish (v) c«ng bè. 'eidƷƏnt / g©y viªm miasmas (n) / mi'æzmƏz / khÝ ®éc... ®¸ng chó ý putrefaction (n) sù thèi r÷a / pju:tri'fæk∫n / minute (adj) / mai'nju:t / rÊt nhá living organism / 'ɔ :gƏnizm / sinh vËt on the basic of / 'beisis / trªn c¬ së cña to conclude (v) / kƏn'klu:d / kÕt luËn to find one's way / wei / into vµo ®îc penetration (n) sù x©m nhËp / peni'trei∫n / irrigate (v) / 'irigeit / röa carbolic acid / ka:'bɔlik 'æsid / axit cacbonlic to treat (v) / tri :t / xö lý instrument (n) / 'instrumƏnt / dông cô antiseptic (n). chç chÝch / 'pʌŋkt∫Ə / suturing (n) sù kh©u / 'sju:t∫Əriŋ / to designate (v) / 'dezigneit / ®Æt tªn. tµi giái to voice (v) / vɔis/ nãi lªn. brilliant (adj) / briljƏnt / lçi l¹c. tr¨m n¨m / 'sent∫uri / to make it solve….

............. 8...................................................................................................................................... 4................................................................. ......................................................... ..... What did the famous French scientist Pasteur publish? ....... 3........ What do the words "surgical operation" mean? ... ... ....................... 2............................................................................... 1..... 5................ When was this difficult problem solved? ..................................................................................... What made it possible to solve the problem? ........................................................................... .......................... To what were inflammatory processes after operations due? ............ 28 .. ........................................................... Who was the first to discover the real cause of wound infection? .. Answer the following questions......... v« khuÈn c¸ch m¹ng ho¸ lo¹i trõ II.......................................................................... What did Pasteur prove? .......... 6................. 7............................................................. ......................... ................................................................................... Where does the term "surgery" come from? ...............asepsis (n) aseptic (adj) to revolutionize (v) to eliminate (v) / / / / æ'sepsis / æ'septic / revƏ'lu:∫naiz / i'limineit / sù v« trïng v« trïng...............................................................................

................. What name was given to Lister 's method? .............................................................................. 10.................................................. ........................... .................................................................................. The brilliant Russian surgeon N................... Translate the followings into Vietnamese........................... ....................................... 1........ What new method did the scientists find during the years that followed? ........................................................................................................ ........................ ..............Pirogov was the first to voice the assumption that wounds were infected by invasion of special causative agents... ......................................................................... ...................I....... With what did he treat the instruments to be used in the operations? ............... ...................... .................................................................... What is the significance of the antiseptic and aseptic methods for surgery? ....... 13........................ 29 .................................... 12........... III....................................................................................................................................................9............... .......... What did the British surgeon Lister begin to do to protect the wounds from the penetration of bacteria? ................ 11.......................... ...............................................................

.................................................... ................................................. Lister began to irrigate the wounds with a solution of carbolic acid and to treat the instruments and dressing material to be used in the operations with the same solution................................. ..................................... During the years that followed scientists found that to protect the wounds from infection it was enough to treat all objects to be handled and used during an operation with heat............................................................................................................................ ....... 4.... age and address........... .......... ..... ................. ....................................................................................................... The patient to be admitted to the clinic had a very high temperature and showed evidence of an acute illness................................................................................... These methods of treating wounds completely eliminated the danger of infecting wounds to be operated on....................................... ..... ....................................................................................... 6.......... .......... ..... 5..................................................... ................................. .............................................................. ..... .......................... 30 ............................... ............................................................................................. The patient to be examined was brought to the casualty ward where he was first asked to give his name........................................................... .................................................................... .............2....... 3............................... .................................................................................... ........................................................

.............. Translate the followings into English........... Measures to be taken to protect the health of people are various......................... 8................ Pasteur proved that the processes of..............................................the wounds with............... ..and............. The general development of........... 7............ 3..........was caused by............ Surgery is the branch of.................. parts of the ........... To protect the wounds from..in which various . These procedures are designated by the words.... 2. are used.......................... Methods of................................... ................ 31 ....... 7..........................................................Lister began ........................................................... . 4.................................. of infecting wounds V................. IV.............................................that the purulence of.......................were evoked by........ ....................................................................revolutionized surgery and almost completely eliminated.... .................... ...........made it possible to solve this problem 5...........................operations were performed only on......................... .. For a long time...manipulations performed by................. 1......... 9..... 6........... This method was given the name of .. Fill in the blanks.................................................................... Trong mét thêi gian dµi nh÷ng nhµ phÉu thuËt chØ tiÕn hµnh nh÷ng cuéc phÉu thuËt trªn bÒ mÆt c¬ thÓ...................... 1......................... The British surgeon Lister......

...... ........................................................................................................................................................ .............. 4.... ..... .. ............................................................... ............................. ............ ................................ 5..... ....................................... g©y ra tö vong.... ............... Nhµ b¸c häc Anh Lister ®· röa vÕt th¬ng b»ng dung dÞch axit carbolic ®Ó ng¨n ngõa sù x©m nhËp cña vi khuÈn................................. ................................................. ................................................................................................................................. Nhµ b¸c häc Ph¸p Pasteur ®· chøng minh r»ng nh÷ng tiÕn tr×nh viªm nhiÔm lµ do nh÷ng sinh vËt rÊt nhá....... .............................................. 32 ..... 3................................. 2..................... Sau nh÷ng cuéc phÉu thuËt nh vËy thêng bÞ viªm nÆng........................................................................................... ....... Pirogov lµ ngêi ®Çu tiªn nªu mét gi¶ thuyÕt cho r»ng nh÷ng vÕt th¬ng bÞ viªm nhiÔm do sù x©m nhËp cña nh÷ng t¸c nh©n g©y viªm ®îc gäi lµ "chíng khÝ"............................................................................. ............................... vi khuÈn g©y nªn................................................... ............................................................................................................ ...............................................................................................................

etc.Lesson four SURGICAL SERVICE TO THE POPULATION Surgical work is done mainly in specially equipped medical institutions surgical hospitals. for which reason the entire medical personnel must be taught the basic rules of first aid. So the duty of as many laymen as possible is to learn elementary rules of first aid. fractures. Emergency aid is administered to patients brought to medical institutions at a time when the medical personnel have already finished their regular work and have gone home. it is necessary to give first aid at the place of the accident or near by. surgical departments of general hospitals. Urgent aid is also very important and therefore surgical institutions must have in readiness everything required for administering it. 33 . It is very important that the population should be able to deliver to a medical institution any patient in need of such aid. and when only the physicians. But sometimes in cases of injuries. surgical departments of dispensaries and polyclinics. First aid is extremely important but it cannot always be rendered by a physician. Sometimes it is necessary to give not only first aid at the place of accident but also emergency aid as well. hemorrhages. nurses and orderlies on duty are in.

v× lý do nµy c¬ b¶n nguyªn t¾c. it requires a wide variety of knowledge and skill. I. This form of aid is known as outpatient or polyclinic aid. chñ yÕu trang bÞ s¬ cøu v× thÕ. Many patients with surgical trauma are not in need of hospital treatment. In cases of minor injuries and mild inflammatory processes. there must be a special organization with transport facilities at one’s disposal. Surgical service in those institutions is referred to as hospital surgical aid. as well as after discharge from hospital. WORD STUDY surgical (adj) surgical service mainly (adv) to equip (v) first aid for which reason basic (adj) rule (n) / 'meinli / / i'kwip / / 'ri:zn / / 'beisik / / rul / 34 / 'sƏ:dʒikl / ngo¹i khoa. phÉu thuËt viÖc ®iÒu trÞ ngo¹i khoa phÇn lín. Patients who seek medical assistance in dispensaries and polyclinics for the first time are also given a thorough examination. the necessary treatment may be given in a dispensary or a polyclinic where the patient comes for special procedures and then goes home. quy t¾c . The most complicated surgical operations can be performed only in well. To render surgical assistance is not an easy task.To give quick and effective aid.equipped special medical institutions where patients are admitted for a long stay.

hoµn thµnh thêng lÖ. lµm cho .. nhá. ngêi kh«ng cã chuyªn facilities (n) transport (n) at one’s disposal surgical trauma minor (adj) a thorough examination stay (n) to refer to (v) hospital surgical aid to render (v) m«n th× cµng tèt lµ ph¶i / fƏ'silitiz / / 'trænspɔ:t / / dis'pouzƏl / / 'sƏ:dʒikl trɔ:mƏ / / 'mainƏ / / ' ʌrƏ igzæmi'nei∫n / / stei / / ri'fƏ: / / 'hɔspitl / / 'rendƏ / 35 ph¬ng tiÖn vËn chuyÓn s½n cã ®Ó dïng sang chÊn nhÑ.. ®ßi hái ®a ®Õn cÇn ngêi kh«ng cã chuyên môn as nhiÖm vô cña cµng nhiÒu .. kÕt thóc.. ë l¹i nãi ®Õn.emergency. xem nh ®iÒu trÞ ngo¹i khoa néi viÖn lµm. urgent aid to finish (v) regular (adj) orderly (n) duty (n) to be on duty therefore readiness (n) to require (v) to deliver (v) in need of layman (n) the duty many of cÊp cøu / 'fini∫ / / 'regjulƏ / / 'ɔ:dƏli / / 'dju:ti / / 'ðƐƏfɔ: / / 'redinis / / ri'kwaiƏ / / di'livƏ / / 'leimƏn / as laymen possible is. thø yÕu kiÓm tra. chÝnh thøc hé lý nhiÖm vô trùc v× vËy (sù) s½n sµng cÇn. kh¸m toµn diÖn sù lu l¹i.

.... 6.........................................................................to surgical task (n) render assistance Ə'sistƏns / / ta:sk / / vƏ'raiƏti / / skil / / eli'mentƏri / / ɔ:gƏnai'zei∫n / variety (n) skill (n) elementary (adj) organization (n) / ®iÒu trÞ ngo¹i khoa nhiÖm vô................... 1........................................................................... What patients is emergency aid administered to? ...................................... In what cases is it necessary to give first aid? .... Where is it important to deliver any patient in need of urgent aid? ............................... c¬ quan especially equipped medical institutions : nh÷ng c¬ së y tÕ cã nh÷ng trang bÞ chuyªn dïng a wide variety of knowledge vÒ nhiÒu mÆt / 'nɔlidʒ / kiÕn thøc hiÓu réng to have in readiness everything required for................... c«ng viÖc nhiÒu thø kü n¨ng..................................... Answer the following questions...................................... 3... 5. 7................ 2................ cã s½n mäi thø cÇn thiÕt cho............. Where is surgical work done? .................................................... What can you say about urgent aid? .. 36 ....... What must there be at one’s disposal to give quick effective aid? and .................................................................................................................................................................................. Can first aid always be rendered by a physician? .......................................................... 4... kü x¶o c¬ b¶n tæ chøc. II........................

.......... 2........ 3........................ 1......................................................................................................................................... Where may the necessary treatment be given in cases of minor injures and mild inflammatory processes? .................................. 12................................................................................................................ ............. ................................................................... ............................. .................................................... III..... The duty of as many laymen as possible is to learn how to give quick and effective medical assistance at the place of the accident......................... 10........ What do we call the form of aid given in a dispensary or a polyclinic? ............................................ What are patients who seek medical assistance for the first time given at polyclinics? ............. 37 .................................... 13........... What is required from a person to render surgical assistance in complicated cases? . Where does a patient go for special procedures? ..... Where are the most complicated surgical operations performed? ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9........................................................ ................................................................................................................................................. ................. 11........................... To give quick and effective aid is very important as it can save the patient’s life............... one must learn the basic first aid rules..........................8.................. Translate into Vietnamese................................. To give first aid................................................................

................................................ 6................ hä cã thÓ ®iÒu trÞ t¹i mét phßng kh¸m ®a khoa n¬i mµ hä ®Õn ®Ó tiÕn hµnh nh÷ng can thiÖp chuyªn khoa................................................................................................................................................. The necessary treatment may be given in a dispensary or polyclinic where the patient comes for special procedures.................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................ To render surgical assistance is not an easy task it requires a wide variety of knowledge and skill..... §«i khi nh÷ng bÖnh nh©n bÞ sang chÊn kh«ng cÇn ®iÒu trÞ trong bÖnh viÖn...................................................................................... To give quick and effective aid......................... .............. 8.. Translate into English.................................................................................. ............................. 7.. The patients in need of emergency aid must be brought to medical institutions............ ....... 38 ...................... there must be a special organization with transport facilities at one’s disposal............................. ........... 1......................................................................................................................................... ................................ sau ®ã trë vÒ nhµ................ microbiology is to combat and prevent ............. 4.. ................. ................................................................... surgical institutions must have in readiness everything required for administering it............................................................................... 9....................... ................................................ ......................... The object of epidemic diseases......................................... 5....................................... To render urgent aid................... ........ IV...

..........................to three things that made a lasting impression on them................. must take this stand: “When you are ill....................... Nh÷ng bÖnh nh©n nh vËy ®îc ®a ®Õn bÖnh viÖn.. ............................................................................. ........................... People in (3)......................... always consult us........................filling Choose one word in the box and fill in each gap........................................................................................ everyone is (7)..... generally with who public on healthy health in attention personally general whom beings without people The foreign scientists in (1)................... 3... V.............. GAp .......... ë ®ã hä ®îc c¸c b¸c sü chuyªn khoa giµu kinh nghiÖm cÊp cøu.... but health is not made in hospitals...... . the world insist that health is the natural way of life for human (9).............responsible for using in daily life the scientific principles of health”......... Their medical authorities encourage this attitude............... ...... They are not so much concerned (4)................................. Doctors are the men (6).......... as they are with things they can do to be (5)..................................................... 2... health who visit our country draw everybody’s (2).... their ailments and symptoms................................ Medical scientists (8)..................... the goal of their research is to find out how people can live long...... ........................................... TiÕn hµnh s¬ cøu t¹i n¬i x¶y ra tai n¹n còng nh cÊp cøu t¹i mét c¬ së y tÕ gÇn ®ã lµ cÇn thiÕt...................... and to win good health............ healthy 39 ................................. are very “health conscious”....

. so you have to blow it every few minutes.. there is no cure for the common cold and no medicine to prevent it.. and stop your nose running for a while. The researchers didn’t find any connection between being wet and chilly and catching a cold. it can’t cure your cold. Others say that you should avoid getting wet and chilled or you will catch cold.. treatment. Others stood outside in a cold rain until they were wet through to the skin. but over a billion dollars a year is spent on different kinds of cold medicine every year. Some people think that if you eat lots of onions and garlic. ever having to take medicine or Lesson five THE COMMON COLD Your head aches and you sneeze and cough.. put on cold wet clothing and stood in cold rooms. Other researchers have tested this theory for years. did experiments with vitamin C.. make your headache less intense. it can make you cough less. Your nose is all stuffed up... a group of volunteers took a bath. Dr. 40 . and it keeps running.. It isn’t a serious illness. you won’t catch cold... In an experiment in England. You’re not sure if you live through the day. the winner of the 1954 Nobel prize for chemistry. and you feel completely miserable. You know by these symptoms that you have a cold. That is. people have all kinds of ideas about how to prevent and treat colds. Even though there is no cure or preventive medicine for colds.. However.. Everyone suffers from the common cold at some time or other... it will prevent colds.. He says his experiments prove that if you take 1 to 2 grams a day of vitamin C.. Meanwhile. So far. This medicine can relieve the symptoms. Linus Pauling.. They have not been able to find that large amounts of vitamin C have any effect on colds.lives (10). this is apparently not so. However..

However. it is probably impossible to develop a vaccine that could work against 200 different viruses. it seemed logical to believe that they were spread when people sneezed and coughed. A similarity between colds and flu is that they are both contagious. even if they were available. This money is possibly all wasted. One difference between colds and flu is fever. Viruses are even smaller than bacteria. Some diseases can be prevented by a vaccine.millions of dollars are spent on vitamin C every year. One person catches a cold or the flu from another person. So far. or flu for short. one for each cold virus. Since colds and flu are closely related diseases. This liquid is injected into the arm and the person is safe from catching that disease. such as a heart problem. Certainly no one would want to have 200 different shots. Colds are caused by a virus. Doctors don’t know what causes colds. They believed that the explosive cough or sneeze sent the viruses shooting out into the air and then entering the mouth or nose of anyone nearby. A person with a cold does not have a high body temperature. they don’t begin inside the body as heart disease does. but about half of all flu patients do. Even doctors cannot always tell the difference between the symptoms without doing laboratory tests. people over 65. Researchers continue searching for a way to cure or prevent colds. Influenza is a much more serious disease. but they are beginning to learn how they spread. and they cause different kinds of diseases. One problem with the common cold is that the symptoms are very similar to the symptoms of influenza. scientists hope that if they find a cure for one. and people already suffering from another disease. especially for pregnant women. it will also have an effect on the other. scientists have found over 200 kinds of viruses that cause colds. 41 . When scientists discovered in the 1950s that viruses cause colds.

the virus enters the body. Colds are miserable. Explain why. When someone you know catches a cold.However. Only 8 percent without a cold caught one. researches show that this is not true. try to avoid physical contact with that person. Try not to touch things that belong to others. In one study. and don’t shake hands.(n) / miserable (adj) / at some time or other (phrase) symptom (n) / sni:z / kɔ:f / 'mizƏrƏbl / h¾t h¬i ho khæ së. nose. keep your towel and dishes separate from everyone else’s. or eyes. bÊt h¹nh hoÆc lóc nµy hay lóc kh¸c triÖu trøng 'simptƏm / 42 . towels. When you touch another person’s hand. Cold viruses spread when roommates or members of a family touch the same dishes. It isn’t even necessary to touch the person directly. When you have a cold and blow your nose. How can you use all this information for your own good health? Students are in close contact in the classroom. and when that person touches his or her mouth. but kissing apparently doesn’t spread colds. and furniture. I. you get viruses on your hands. you don’t want people to think you are impolite. and dormitories or apartments. Most cold viruses are spread through the hands. If you catch a cold yourself.(n) / cough (v). however. You can even pick up a virus when you touch the doorknob on your classroom door. Wash your hands often if you have a cold or if anyone around you has one. Word study sneeze (v). or when you touch things in public buildings. Don’t touch other people. the cafeteria or dining room. volunteers with a cold kissed volunteers without a cold. It is worth the trouble to try to avoid catching them or giving them to others. It seems completely illogical.

(phr) shot (n) available (adj) to be similar to…. (v) researcher (n) connection (n) prove (vt). mòi tiªm cã s½n t¬ng tù…. gièng nh….preventive (adj) avoid (vt) chilled (adj) apparently (adv) experiment (n). tá ra iƏri / thuyÕt. lý thuyÕt Ə'maunt / sè lîng 'mi:n wail / trong khi ®ã 'weistid / bÞ l·ng phÝ in'dzektid / ®îc tiªm vµo…. mèi kƏ 'nek∫n / quan hÖ pru:v / chøng minh. ph¸t hiÖn ra ik'plousiv kɔ:f ho bËt ra blou / 'ru:mmeit / 'fƏ:nit∫Ə / 'dɔ:nɔb / knouz ph× mòi b¹n cïng phßng ®å ®¹c qu¶ ®Êm cöa tiÕp xóc / ∫ɔt / / Ə'veilƏbl / / 'similƏ / / / / / / / / to blow one’s nose (phr) / roommate (n) / furniture (n) / doorknob (n) / to be in close contact / 43 .. phßng ngõa Ə'vɔid / tr¸nh bÞ l¹nh cøng t∫ild / Ə'pærƏntli / hiÓn nhiªn. râ rµng iks'perƏmƏnt / thÝ nghiÖm vɔlƏn'tiƏ / ngêi t×nh nguyÖn nhµ nghiªn cøu ri'sƏ:t∫Ə / sù liªn quan. (vi) theory (n) amount (n) meanwhile (adv) to be wasted (phr) to be injected into…. (v) volunteer (n). 'pregnƏnt / cã thai simƏ'lærƏti / sù gièng nhau kƏn'teidzƏs / l©y lan 'saiƏntist / nhµ khoa häc dis'kʌvƏ / kh¸m ph¸ ra. (phr) pregnant (adj) similarity (n) contagious (adj) scientist (n) to discover (vt) explosive cough (phr) / pri'ventiv / / / / / / / / / / / / / / phßng bÖnh.

you probably feel………………… 7. 44 . instead of at room temperature. cotton. Some people like to have their fruit………. you………………and…………………… 3. 6.(phr) cafeteria (n) dormitory (n) to belong to sb (phr) It is worth st to do st 'kɔntækt / / kæfƏ'tiƏriƏ / / 'dɔ:mitɔri / / bi'lɔŋ / / wƏ: / qu¸n ¨n tù phôc vô phßng ngñ (tËp thÓ) thuéc vÒ…. or polyester.…………. Roald Amundsen reached the South Pole and began the journey back to his ship…………………. A pillow is ……………with feathers. 5. 8. II. lµm (c¸i g×) còng bâ…. receive………………to prevent common Then they won’t catch these………………….filling 1.. When you have a cold. 2. Complete each sentence with one word from the box. Gap . 4.. Babies should childhood diseases. When you have a headache. captain Scott and his men were trapped in their tent by blizzards. ………………is more serious than a cold. Sweden gives Nobel……………… every year to people who have created great things..diseases. cough stuffed meanwhile miserable chilled influenza prizes contagious vitamin polite sneeze vaccines 1.

. the thumb will probably swell up.. III. 8. Colds are caused by…………………. Choose one word in the box and fill in each sentence below.. 7.. Blood is carried from the heart through the arteries. 2. Davis is………………… She is going to have a baby in May. TRanslate into Vietnamese. 1. You have to turn the……………………to open a door.some headaches. The players don’t touch each other when they play. 2. 2. 4.of a cold? How do you know you have one? 9.9. How much is gold…………………today? 6. it is………………. Ms.to shake hands when you meet someone. Thousands of people…………………. In most countries. 45 . 5. What are the……………………. you have 3. fever symptoms relieve injected pregnant doorknob contact volunteer worth vitamins viruses contagious 1. If you hit your thumb with a hammer. When your temperature a……………………… is above normal. Aspirin can…………………. There is no physical………………in tenses.to work for the Red Cross without pay..

IV. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. There will probably be a vaccine in the future to c. Linus Pauling’s research shows that vitamin C prevents colds. Every rock music band has a drummer. 5. can cure b. stuffs 2. miserable b. 10. Cold medicine ………………….3. There is no vaccine to b. The government keeps a record of the birth of every child. Sometimes the sky is beautiful at dawn. 4. An experiment in England showed that…………… a. Rita has a recurring pain in the stomach. a. c. Which one of these sentences is not true? a. a. keeping warm and dry probably prevents colds. 4. symptoms the c. It comes and goes. Dan pounded on the table to get everyone’s attention. You can have a vaccine injected into your arm to 46 . getting chilled probably doesn’t cause a cold.. can prevent 3. b. The army attacked at dawn to surprise the enemy. Dr. Iron and cotton are raw materials. prevent colds. 5. 6. b. Tom got hit in the forehead with the ball. ………………………. Researchers have shown that vitamin C can prevent colds. can relieve symptoms of c. 11. 9. People take vitamin C because they believe it prevents colds. a. getting chilled probably causes colds. 8. The waves move higher up on the beach as the tide comes in.. Coughing and sneezing are ………………….of a cold.cold. 7. c.

Answer the QUESTIONS. 6.. .. through kissing 7. Why isn’t it likely that someone will develop a cold vaccine? …………………………………………………………………………………... Do you think you should or should not shake hands with someone who has a cold? Why? …………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………..... avoid standing near people who have a cold V. How do colds spread? ………………………………………………………………………………...6.. when people cough and sneeze c.. . Is it worth the expense to take vitamin C? …………………………………………………………………………………. . 4. 47 ..... 3. avoid getting chilled or wet c.. What does cold medicine do for a cold? …………………………………………………………………………………. by hand contact b. 2.. 1.. 5..... ... Name the symptoms of a cold. avoid touching people who have colds or the objects they use b... The best way to avoid getting colds is to ………… a.. . Most colds spread ……………… a. .

.2 (Everyone prevent it):...... all P....... acute catarrhal inflammation of the nose. neuralgic and muscular pains.... find MAIN IDEAs.... P............................ 7. and nervous disturbances. P........................ .............. Why can’t a doctor tell if a person has a cold or the flu? ………………………………………………………………………………............. gastrointestinal disorder.... Linus Pauling wasted):........5 (Colds availaible):.................................................................. ................4 (Dr............................……………………………………………………………………………….............. ... All ages are liable to the disease...... distressing fever..6 (One problem do):............. It is in severe cases that vomiting is frequent in babies and in young children as well....................... What is the main idea of these paragraphs? P....... larynx and bronchi..................................... VI............. grippe) is an acute infectious epidemic disease caused by a virus and marked by depression............ 48 ........... patients Lesson six INFLUENZA Influenza (grip....

It is in the typical form of grippe that the onset is sudden. Nervous symptoms. draughts. acute catarrhal inflammation of the bronchi. e. muscular pain. In order to minimize the severity of the attack in grippe and to protect the patient from secondary infection. lµm mÖt mái c¬n sèt thanh qu¶n cuèng phæi. Therefore. and so on. Sometimes pneumonia develops and even death may occur in two or three days. he easily gets colds. The duration of the disease in a mild case is usually three to four days and the temperature is not very high. the patient must go to bed at the beginning of an attack and not be up again without the approval of his physician. . sù sÇu uÊt lµm khã chÞu. persist for several days. and bronchitis.g. muscular pains and aches in the back and limbs. e. cold. and so on. I. There are mild cases of the disease. therefore a convalescent becomes sensitive to heat.g. The effects of grippe may persist for a long period of time. . coughs and other respiratory diseases. headache and in severe cases convulsions in babies are usually present. beginning with chills. phÕ 49 . WORD STUDY influenza (n) epidemic (adj) depression (n) distressing (adj) distressing fever larynx (n) bronchi (n) / influ'enzƏ / / epi'demik / / di'pre∫n / / dis'tresiŋ / / 'fi:vƏ / / 'læriŋks / / 'brɔŋkai / bÖnh cóm dÞch sù khã chÞu. Distressing fever and other symptoms. it is in the very young or when there are pulmonary complications that grippe is especially serious. It is only in severe cases that the patient's temperature is very high and rises higher with each succeeding paroxysm.

tæn th¬ng sù tæn th¬ng hÖ thÇn kinh cã kh¶ n¨ng bÞ viªm phÕ qu¶n chøng co giËt nhÑ. bÞ bÖnh phæi biÕn chøng gi¶m ®Õn møc tèi thiÓu møc ®é trÇm träng c¬n. What other name can you call influenza? 50 . 1. tiÕp theo c¬n kÞch ph¸t (thuéc) phæi. t¸c dông giã lïa. dÞu kÕ tiÕp. luång giã bÖnh nh©n ®ang håi phôc II. trËn b¶o vÖ thø ph¸t dËy kh«ng cã sù cho phÐp hËu qu¶. Answer the following questions.neuralgic (adj) gastrointestinal disorder disturbance (n) nervous disturbance to be liable to bronchitis (n) convulsion (n) mild (adj) succeeding (adj) paroxysm (n) pulmonary (adj) complication (n) to minimize (v) severity (n) attack (n) to protect (v) secondary (adj) to be up without (prep) approval (n) effect (n) draught (n) convalescent (n) / njuƏ'rældʒik / / 'gæstrouin'testinl / / dis’tƏ:bƏns / / 'nƏ:vƏs dis'tƏ:bƏns/ / 'laiƏbl / / brɔŋ 'kaitis / / kƏn'vʌl∫n / / maild / / sƏk'si:diŋ / / 'pærƏsizm / / 'pʌlmƏnƏri / / kɔmpli'kei∫n / / 'minimaiz / / / / / / / / / / si 'veriti / Ə'tæk / prƏ’tekt / 'sekƏndƏri / wið'aut / Ə'pru:vƏl / i'fekt / drɔ:t / kɔnvƏ'lesnt / qu¶n (thuéc) ®au thÇn kinh rèi lo¹n tiªu ho¸ d©y sù rèi lo¹n.

.......................................................................................................................................... 5........................ What are the characteristic features of a mild case? of a severe one? .................................................................. 3...................................................... 12................................................. What may develop sometimes? ................................................................... What must one do in order to minimize the severity of the attack in grippe? ...... What else may occur? .. 11.................................................................................................. What does a convalescent become sensitive to? ................................................. 8....................................................................... What ages are liable to the disease? ................................. .............................................................................. What symptoms are usually present in grippe? ................................................................................................... What kind of disease is it? ..................................... 13......................................................................................................... 51 . 4........ 6............ 2...................................................... What nervous symptoms are usually present in severe cases? ..... How long may the effects of grippe persist? .......................... 10.............................................................................. What is the typical form of the disease? ............................................................ In what cases and in whom is vomiting frequent? ............................................................................ When may the patient be up again? .................. 14.......... 9....................................................................... 7.....

... ........................................................... It was in the evening that the patient developed a splitting headache.................................. 52 ........... ................................................... 4....... ....................................................................................................................... 7......................................................................................................................................................... It was after vomiting that patient Ostrov complained of severe pains in his abdomen........................................................................................... ...... 1. 8..................................................................... 2......................................... It was about one of the new methods of testing that our professor spoke of at the scientific conference............................. ................... ............ It is in the typical form of grippe that the onset is sudden............................................... . 3............................ It is in severe cases of grippe that vomiting is frequent in babies and in young children as well............................ It was severe pains in his legs and feet that patient Ostrov complained of.................................................................................................. 5...................................... beginning with chills................................... 6.................. ................................................... .................. It was a patient of the third ward that asked some medicine for a bad headache...................................................................... .................... ............................. Translate into Vietnamese..............III.. ............................................................................... It is especial in young children that grippe is dangerous because of its tendency to complications......... .................

............... are………………........for several days................. disturbances........................ It is in …………………........... .......................... kho¶ng mét nöa bÞ sèt. …………………disorder................ 3....... 2........................ mäi ngêi ai còng bÞ c¶m l¹nh........................................................... 5... HoÆc lóc nµy hoÆc lóc kh¸c. .. C¶m vµ cóm c¶ hai ®Òu l©y lan......... Cho ®Õn nay.. ................................................... Cóm lµ bÖnh trÇm träng h¬n... 1................ and bronchi................. c¸c nhµ khoa häc ®· t×m ra ®îc h¬n 200 loµi virus g©y ra c¶m...... larynx......... TrÎ s¬ sinh nªn ®îc tiªm phßng vac-xin ®Ó phßng ngõa nh÷ng bÖnh trÎ em thêng gÆp.... It is marked by……………….......................................... disease....................... ................................. Translate into English........................ Fill in the blanks.. 53 ........... inflammation of the nose.... 1....................... ............ Pains often persist ............... he must be put to bed at the very beginning of an attack....... fever…………………..... .......... In order to protect the patient from………………............................. 3.............. 2...........symptoms.. ... IV... ................. 5......... cases that there 4........ and ……………...... Influenza is a ………………..................................................................... .....infection....... ………………pains.............. V.... C¶m l¹nh do virus g©y ra. 4................................... nhng nh÷ng bÖnh nh©n cóm.... Nh÷ng ngêi bÞ c¶m kh«ng sèt..............................

black dots..... ........ There is a steady pain in the head............ and the headache starts..... at school. A person works too hard............. .... or at home....... Each kind begins in a different place and needs a different treatment.............. One kind starts in the arteries in the head........... At the beginning of the headache.............. Some of these headaches start with a change in vision...... You have a headache and you think it will never go away. is caused by tension.... A muscle headache usually starts in the 54 . Your head feels as if it is going to explode......... The vision is blurred and the person may vomit from the pain............ is nervous about something..... are more frequent in women than in men....... Then there are no more for several months or even years.... The person sees wavy lines....... Sleep is the best cure for them..................... These headaches. pounding your brain with a hammer....... which starts in the muscles in the neck or forehead. or bright spots in front of the eyes.... a rock musician is playing a drum........ which are called migraine headaches........ The headache occurs on only one side of the head... A cluster headache lasts up to two hours and then goes away.... Lesson seven HEADACHES Some little man is inside your head. This is a warning that a headache is coming..... are called cluster headaches because they come in clusters or groups for two or three months.. The arteries swell and send pain signals to the brain..... When the pain finally goes away.............. Cluster headaches. which also start in the arteries... The neck and head muscles become tense............... the eyes are red and watery...... the head is sore..... Beside him... Men have more cluster headaches than women do.... Doctors say there are several kinds of headaches... The muscle headache.... or has problems at work.........................

næ ®éng m¹ch sng lªn. Another 40 percent start in the arteries. If the patient realizes that difficulties at home. A change in diet or an increase in exercise might stop the headaches. phång lªn thÞ gi¸c xÈy ra. at work. but a doctor can help control most of them because of recent researches. it is time to talk to a doctor. There is a steady pain. Medicine can help. Everyone has headaches from time to time. or keep recurring.morning and gets worse as the hours pass. but there are other ways to treat them. and a bursting feeling. If they continue over several days. mi:grein ®au ®Çu ®¸nh dån dËp c¸i bóa lµm næ. A headache can also be a signal of a more serious problem. Usually aspirin doesn’t help a muscle headache very much. Psychological problems and even medicine for another physical problem can cause headaches. The doctor asks the patient to analyze his or her daily living patterns. the doctor first has to decide what kind they are. I. There is no magic cure for headaches. How do doctors treat headaches? If a person has frequent headaches. The doctor has to discuss and analyze all these patterns of the patient’s life. WORD STUDY headache (n) to pound (vt) hammer (n) to explode (vt/vi) artery (n) to swell (vt/vi) vision to occur (v) blurred (adj) migraine (n) / / / / / / / / / / / 'heideik / paund / 'hæmƏ / ik'sploud / 'a:tƏri / swel / 'viʒn / ƏkƏ: / blƏ:d/ 'maigrein. About 40 percent of all headaches start in the head and neck muscles. or at school are causing the tension. it might be possible to make changes and decrease these problems. pressure. xuÊt hiÖn bÞ mê. nhßa ®au nöa ®Çu 55 .

in Choose one word in the box and fill in each sentence below. 3.. cures l. 56 . thuèc gi¶m ®au c¨ng th¼ng ph©n tÝch kiÓu. The teacher……………. tense 1. a. blurred n. your stomach may protest and make you……………. forehead c. swell d. Students feel……………… before an important exam. While Pat was swimming she got water in her eyes. 2. vomit g. 'fizikƏl / ri'kƏ: / ®¸m. the children that they had to behave or there would be no party. physical p. Everything looked…………………. côm dai d¼ng b¾p thÞt tr¸n næ tung thuèc aspirin. c¸ch. pætn / saikƏ'lɔdʒikl / 'fizikl . mÉu (thuéc) t©m lý (thuéc) c¬ thÓ t¸i ph¸t II. steady h. Tension in the………………. People in the hospital are called ………………… 4. hammer k. vision f. ache e. of the neck can cause headache. patients m.cluster (n) steady (adj) muscle (n) forehead (n) bursting (adj) aspirin (n) tension to analyze (v) pattern (n) psychological (adj) physical (adj) to recur (v) / / / / / / / / / / / / 'klʌstƏ / s'tedi / 'mʌsƏl / 'fɔ:rid. filling . 5. 'æspƏrin / 'ten∫Ən. 6. muscles q. drum o. When you are sick and in pain. 'ten∫n / 'ænƏlaiz / 'pætƏn . arteries b. warned i. 'fɔ:hed / 'bƏ:stiŋ / 'æsprin.

2. blurred vision bursting feeling a. headache usually starts in the morning and gets worse.. When someone sees black dots or wavy lines. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. is necessary for III. A complete…………………examination anyone entering the army. migraine muscle b. a. have more of the kind of headache that leaves the head sore. Men c. clusters c. Today there are………………. Sleep c. a. wear glasses or contact lenses. Older 5. b. A………………. Women people b. 9. 10. Aspirin 4. a. Arteries b. The farmers were happy when a……………… rain continued all night. red and watery eyes c. People with poor ………………. this is a change in……………. cluster c. for many diseases that used to kill people. 8. 11. 12..... a 3. ……………… carry blood from the heart to the rest to the body.. …………………… is the best cure for migraines.. blurring vision b. if you eat too much. ……………….7. 57 . You may get a stomach………………. a. A migraine headache causes………………………….

........................... not usually helpful for 9.......... 3....... ....... a.................................6... migraine b.. Which kind of headache affects more women than men? . cluster c.......................................... ........................ Tension causes a………………........................................................... ........ .... .................. headache are the most common............................ warning c................... headache......... ..................................... .............................................. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS 1............... 2............................. .......................................... Describe a muscle headache................................. a.......................................................... A change in a patient’s life patterns can…………………………….... The muscle and the………………......................................................................................................................... .. ................. the best treatment for one way to treat b...................................................................................... Describe a migraine headache..................headache................... 4................................................. What are some things that can cause a muscle headache? 58 ................. a........... migraine a...... Describe cluster headaches.. cluster c............... 5............................................. both a IV................................................ help cure headaches b................................. .... 8... Medicine is……………………………........................................... cause headaches and b c........................ muscle 7............. b............................................................ ...

.......................................................................................... V.............. ...................................................................................................................................................... .. If you have a headache........... Why does a doctor analyze the life patterns of a headache patient? ........ 4.................. .............................................................. 59 .................. 7.......................................... 1................................................. Cã nhiÒu lo¹i ®au ®Çu............................................................... ®au ®Çu tõng ®¸m............................................................................................................ ............. will aspirin help? .. ............................................... 3.............. ............................................... ....................................... ........................ ....................................................................... ..................... ®au c¬ ®Çu........................... §ã lµ ®au nöa ®Çu..................... §au ®Çu tõng ®¸m thêng kÐo dµi vµi ba th¸ng....................... ............................ Nh÷ng ngêi qu¸ c¨ng th¼ng vÒ mét ®iÒu g× ®ã hoÆc cã nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò vÒ gia ®×nh hoÆc ë n¬i lµm viÖc thêng bÞ ®au c¬ ®Çu......................................................................................................... 6......................... ................................................. BÖnh nh©n ®au ®Çu kiÓu nµy m¾t bÞ ®á vµ ch¶y níc........................ TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH.......... ........................... 2.... Nh÷ng bÖnh nh©n migren thêng bÞ nhßa thÞ lùc vµ cã thÓ bÞ n«n do ®au....... ...................... .................................

or taking a shower. Every year more than one million Americans have heart attacks. Some people say that the danger of hear disease is exaggerated. One project in Massachusetts has studied the same group of men and women since 1948. shaving. which causes heart attacks. such as walking.Lesson eight Cholesterol and Heart Disease Do you know your cholesterol level? Many people don't. One kind of choleterol sticks fat to the walls of arteries. A high level of cholesterol in the blood is an important risk factor for heart disease. People with heart disease suffer chest pains that make simple activities. doctors can see blood circulating through the 60 . making them smaller and finally blocking them. and half of them die. difficult. The researchers have found that the people who have high levels of cholesterol have more heart attacks. Research has proven that cholesterol levels are connected with heart disease. cholesterol comes from the liver. However. heart disease is a main cause of death in developed countries. It produces a condition called "hardening of the arteries". A natural substance in the blood. With tiny cameras. The amount of cholesterol is affected by diet and by physical qualities we inherit from our parents.

It is never too late to change. low-fat diet. By the time he was seventy-seven. He went on a 61 . Blood cholesterol levels start to fall after 2 to 3 weeks of following a low-cholesterol. Nearly half of teenagers have some fat deposits on their artery walls. too. One man began his health program when he was seventy-three. Heart disease develops faster if we have high cholesterol levels and also smoke. However. Anything that comes from an animal is high in fat and high in cholesterol. he had lowered his arteria blockage from 50 percent to 13 percent and his cholesterol from 320 to 145 without drugs. no one with cholesterol level below 150 has ever had a heart attack. In the Massachusetts study. we must change our eating habits. Dietary changes alone can result in a 10 percent reduction of the everage person's cholesterol level. What is a safe level of cholesterol? Adults have a high risk of heart attack if their cholesterol level is above 240 milligrams per deciliter of blood. can lower their cholesterol by 30 or 40 percent. Children must be served fruit in the school cafeteria. the smart snack is fruit. Artery blockage can be reduced by as much as 40 percent through changes in diet and amount of exercise. They show fat deposits and blockages caused by high cholesterol. including persons over the age of sixty-five. Aerobic exercise helps. along with low-fat meals. Schools must send recipes home with the children. Angiograms are x-rays of the heart arteries. It occurs earlier in boys than in girls. Heart disease begins in children as young as 3 years old. We must teach them responsibility for their health through classes in nutrition and aerobic exercise. Parents must include children in planning and preparing meals and shopping for food.heart valves. Adults. including children in elementary schools. about half of American adults have cholesterol level above 200. Below 200 is better. To lower our cholesterol level. The American Heart Association National Cholesterol Education Program says that fat should be no more than 30 percent of our diet. We must educate everyone. For example.

How can you control the amount of fat in your diet if you eat in restaurants? Restaurants must provide healthy meals that are low in fat. People often complain about low-fat diets before they have had time to get used to them. beans. Restaurant owners must learn to give equal service to customers on a healthy diet. Don't fry food in oil. salt. Restaurant owners should not make customers feel embarrassed because they want to follow a diet that is good for them. A low-cholesterol diet that cuts out most animal products and high-fat vegetables may be unfamiliar to people. 62 . and cholesterol. The East Harlem Healthy Heart Program is an educational program. Sometimes major changes in diet or lifestyle are easier than minor ones because the results are bigger and faster. Cook it in water. A few restaurants serve only these recipes. cholesterol. A diet is a personal thing. mustard. or yogurt instead. vinegar. It has 2 goals: to get people to change their diets and to find volunteers to help run educational activities. Avoid egg yolks (the yellow part of the egg). or sugar. butter. Fast results encourage us. Learn about grains and vegetables. salt. Some restaurants have items on the menu marked with a heart to show that they are low in fat. Eat potatoes. Actors wear costumes and carry big pieces of plastic fat. fresh herbs. Food can taste good without cream. Groups of children perform songs and dances that educate people about heart disease and diet. Heart disease causes one out of every four deaths in East Harlem in New York City. and salt. when people feel worried and nervous about what is going to happen. You can use olive oil. The Heart Association says to use no added fat of any kind. A new diet can cause general anxiety. low-fat vegetables. One way it educates is by street shows.vegetarian diet with only 10 percent fat. They entertain so people will listen. plus programs to reduce stress and get more exercise. and fruit. They must learn to deal with the changes in their lives. or vegetable water.

as well as to others. cêng ®iÖu /`sʌbstƏns / chÊt / in`herit / thõa kÕ. Volunteers also stand in supermarkets to suggest healthy food choices to shoppers.fat milk tastes better than the whole milk. but it also brings results. ®©m. Their friends stare at them because they look so healthy. I.Volunteers lead walking and exercise groups to show people how to begin exercising. Word study cholesterol (n) risk (n) exaggerated (adj) substance (n) to inherit (v) to stick (v) hardening of the arteries valve (n) angiogram (n) deposit (n) blockage (n) / kƏ`lestƏrɔl / chÊt colesteron / risk / nguy c¬. The volunteers have shoppers taste two kinds of milk to see which tastes better. d¸n /`ha:dniŋ Əv i: s¬ cøng ®éng m¹ch `a:tƏri:z / / vælv / van / æn`dʒaiougræm / phim tia x m¹ch / di`pɔzit / líp l¾ng ®äng /`blɔkidʒ / t¾c nghÏn 63 . They are more attactive to themselves. In 1983. By 1990. If people don't do this. di truyÒn /stik / c¾m. Healthy people are more confident. only 35 percent of the American public knew their cholesterol levels. Shoppers are encourged to buy low-fat milk instead of whole milk. rñi ro / ig`zædʒƏreitid / th¸i qu¸. We can prevent heart disease by living a healthful lifestyle and eating the right kind of diet. Most people are surprised that the low. People feel better if they lower their cholesterol through diet. Education costs money. 65 percent of the people had had theirs checked. two out of three men amd women in America will eventually get heart diseases.

xö lý ®éng viªn. mÔ cèc giÊm lßng ®á trøng kªu ca. quà nhà ¨n tù phôc vô c«ng thøc (nÊu ¨n . mua vui nh×n ch»m ch»m.. ®Ò cËp. khÝch lÖ bèi rèi. than phiÒn dÇu «liu mï t¹t gi¶i quyÕt. cuèi cïng /`kɔstju:m / / entƏ`tein / / steƏ / / i`vent∫uƏli / 64 .deciliter (n) reduction (n) aerobic (adj) /`desili:tƏ / / ri`dʌk∫n / / eƏ`roubik / elementary school / eli`mentri sku:l / (n) responsibility (n) / rispɔnsƏ`bilƏti / nutrition (n) / nju:`tri∫n / snack (n) / snæk / cafeteria (n) / kæfƏ`tiƏriƏ / recipe (n) /`resƏpi / vegetarian(n) unfamiliar ( to smb) (adj) added (adj) grain (n) vinegar (n) egg yolk (n) to complain (about) (v) olive oil (n) mustard (n) to deal (with) (v) to encourage (v) embarrassed (adj) to get smb to do smt costume (n) to entertain (v) to stare (v) eventually (adv) / vedʒiteƏriƏn / / ʌnfƏ`miliƏ / / ædid / / grein / /`vinigƏ / / eg jouk / / kƏm`plein / /`ɔliv ɔil / /`mʌstƏd / / di:l / / in`kʌridʒ / / im`bærƏst / ®Òxilit sù gi¶m bít (thuéc) thÓ dôc nhÞp ®iÖu trêng tiÓu häc tr¸ch nhiÖm dinh dìng b÷a ¨n nhÑ. lóng tóng khiÕn ai lµm g× trang phôc. ng¾m nh×n rèt cuéc. bæ sung ngò cèc. ¸o quÇn tiÕp ®·i.) ngêi ¨n chay xa l¹ (®èi víi ai) thªm..

exercise is good for the heart............ so the water will flow freely through the pipes.......................... 10. John's parents..... Most television stars are ..... Is it impolite to ........... Gap .................. Some people are .... with a low-fat diet...... ........before an exam...... 7............ 3........ .... I'm hungry now.............in yourself... him to stay in school even though his grades were not very good.................. 2..... occurs naturally in the blood...... 12.... 5...................... 65 ...... I think I'll have a .. 11...... but it's 2 hours until dinner.. red hair from his mother... 9... Students often suffer from .... Is it impolite to ask someone . you have ........at people? 8......... questions? 4...................................... confidenc anxiety e encourag valve ed factor suggesti on service angiogra m stare herbs aerobic personal attractiv e recipe risk snack reducti on stress unfamiliar inherited deal with complain s exaggerat cholester ed ol 1.. 6.................... If you are sure of yourself...II.............................. Mark .filling Choose one suitable word in the box and fill in the gap of each sentence below........ Open the ......

............ Pregnant ................ The doctor wants my mother to have an ..a child who doesn't behave well... stage d... 1....... Match the words with the definition.............. act in response to something e......... but he is really paid only $800.... Smoking is a ... 6... One of the students made a good ... 4................................. of the sun m... 15... 10......... A .......................... at the same time c. Tom said he earned $1000 a week..... 2... Location ................... React ......... 12. and he had a heart attack... place 66 ........ The ....................... Period ...... 5...........13. 17......................... III... 7.in how much fat you eat might make you healthier... 9. 3.. It is difficult to ....................... 14........... usual action k...... Solar .... Drown ................................................ Habit .. to see if her arteries are blocked..................... Fever .................. 18.. Nervous ....... 16...... He ........................................... die in water i...of running away from the dog was too much for the old man. Meanwhile ..... Strike ........ .................. watch h.. anxious j.. a. 19..... but the low.......... high body temperature l.............. for what we could do in the International Day program.............. is 20....... length of time b.................. hit g. 8.. Observe ...... This restaurant has good food....... grind f.in many diseases of the heart and lungs......................... 11..

........ going to become a mother IV.... It can be easier to change our diet a lot than change it a little.. People usually feel good about going on a new diet.... No direct relationship has been proven between high cholesterol levels and heart attacks......5............. ........... ........... ... 3.8...... Comprehension Questions 1..... 7.6............ Around 500............ 9.... .......10.. What are some symptoms of heart disease? .......n..... 2.....11.... What is "hardening of the arteries"? How is it connected with high cholesterol? 67 ......... Children should learn more responsibility for eating healthy food......... More than twice as many people had their blood cholesterol levels checked in 1990 as in 1983...... 2. .... .. . Girls have no risk of heart disease....... ..... .. 4............ ..... 1.. Old people shouldn't bother to change their eating habits because it's too late for it to do them any good... Low-fat diets always taste bad......000 Americans die each year from heart disease.. V... ........ Most people think that whole milk tastes better than lowfat milk...... Smoking can be a risk factor for heart disease. True(T)/False(F)/Not enough(NE) information ........

................................................. VI................ 10................................................................ ........................................ Mr............ 5......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .... 7.................................................................................. Circle the letter of the best meanings of the bold word......................... 6........... What are some ways to reduce fat in your diet? ............................................... Why are angiograms useful? . ................................... 3................................................. 4................... How can parents help teach children healthy eating habits? .................. Describe the East Harlem Healthy Heart Program............................................................................. These words have more than one meaning.... ............ What level of cholesterol is believed to be safe? ............ ............. 8........................................... 9... ........ ........................... How can schools help teach children healthy eating habits? ............................. Choose the meanings of the words as they are used in these sentences..................................................... 68 .............. 1.................. ......... Becker has worked in the field of computer science for 10 years........................................................ .. How long does it take for cholesterol levels to start to drop? ...................... At what age does heart disease start? ............................ .........................................

a unit of weight 4. Carolyn is often late for class because she has to walk so far from her apartment. true 7. such for a long distance c. the place where baseball is played 2. The current value of gold is $321. the unit of Enghlish money b. a place where animals or plants are raised c. make better c. a. at this time c. a.2 pounds in a kilo. very b. anxiety 69 . a.a. Ali and Muhammed live in a large apartment complex near the university. I know that it isn't so a. a kind of medicine 5. The movement of electricity b. the movement of a stream of water in the ocean 6. There are 2. until now b. far enough 3. an area of specialization b. Trappers sometimes cure the skins of the animals they catch before they sell them. related group of building b. dry and prepare for use b. hits or strikes c. too c. complicated c. a. a.

hence the lack of autopsy material for study is met with. and fluid retention. photophobia. but also by anorexia. it is only in recent years that its pathophysiology has been extensively investigated. Migraine is usually a benign and self-limited disease. nausea. Migraine is characterized not only by headache. or at least the tendency to migraine. this initial brief period of vasoconstriction is replaced by a prolonged phase of dilatation of the cranial arteries. The headache is often presaged by phenomena produced by vasoconstriction of cranial blood vessels.Lesson nine ON MIGRAINE HEADACHE AND HYPERTENSIVE HEADACHE Although migraine was described in the first century A. Some observations about vascular headache of the migraine type can be set down with a fair degree of certainty. weight gain. There are several reasons for the slow accumulation of knowledge concerning migraine. Pain is a subjective sensation which is difficult to measure.D. 70 . presumably preferring to coexist with the intermittent discomfort of their headaches while relying on numerous omnipresent proprietary remedies for relief of pain. A large proportion of patients with this complaint fail to consult a physician. In some fashion. and despite the fact that migraine has been termed the commonest complaint of civilized man. vomiting. occurs in families. In the first place migraine. this is the painful stage of headache that may be relieved by vasoconstrictor agents.

fizi'ɔlƏdzi / / in'vestigeit / / Ə. and although certain characteristics have been emphasized repeatedly. than phiÒn cã v¨n hãa. I. no specific symptom complex has been elaborated. v¨n minh sinh lý bÖnh ®iÒu tra. sù ®au. mÆc dï bÖnh. It may be produced by medications that stimulate one or another of the subcortical systems. Despite these defects in our knowledge. WORD STUDY migraine (n) hypertensive (adj) to describe (v) despite (prep) complaint (n) civilized (adj) pathophysiology (n) to investigate (v) accumulation (n) concerning (prep) subjective (adj) sensation (n) benign (adj) self-limited disease hence (adv) autopsy (n) material (n) / 'migrein / / 'haipƏ:'tensiv / / dis'kraib / / dis'pait / / kƏm'pleint / / 'si:vilaizd / / 'pæ Ə. vÒ viÖc chñ quan c¶m gi¸c nhÑ (bÖnh). lµnh (u) bÖnh tù khái do ®ã gi¶i phÉu thi thÓ tµi liÖu. bÖnh phÈm 71 . nghiªn cøu sù tÝch luü vÒ. Descriptions of the so-called hypertensive headache have varied greatly. m« t¶ bÊt chÊp.Migraine is commonly evoked by periods of prolonged wakefulness and extraordinary effort or by prolonged anxiety.kju:mju'lei∫n / / kƏn'sƏ: niŋ / / sʌb'dʒektiv / / sen'sei∫n / / bi'nain / / self limitid / / hens / / 'ɔ:tɔpsi / / mƏ'tiƏriƏl / chøng ®au nöa ®Çu (thuéc) chøng cao huyÕt ¸p. the relief of headache in the hypertensive individual has been used as a criterion for a good result whenever any new therapy or procedure has been introduced for the treatment of elevated blood pressure.

chÐp l¹i kh¸. sù gi÷ l¹i sù gi÷ níc (thuéc) m¹ch ghi l¹i. v¾n t¾t kÐo dµi sù mÊt ngñ. tû lÖ ®i kh¸m bÖnh. sù kh«ng ngñ ®îc ®Æc biÖt. mèi lo 72 . ®«ng có mặt ở khắp nơi biÖt dîc. chung sèng tõng c¬n. hîp lÝ tríc hÕt. thuèc t thuèc chøng biÕng ¨n.proportion (n) to consult (v) presumably (adv) to coexist (v) intermittent (adj) discomfort (n) to rely (v) numerous (adj) omnipresent (adj) proprietary (adj) remedy (n) anorexia (n) photophobia (n) weight gain (n) retention (n) fluid retention vascular (adj) to set down fair (adj) in the first place to presage (v) vasoconstriction (n) vasoconstrictor agent cranial (adj) in some fashion brief (adj) prolonged (adj) wakefulness (n) extraordinary (adj) effort (n) anxiety (n) / prƏ'pɔ :∫n / / kƏn'sʌlt / / pri'zju:mƏbli / / kouig'zist / / intƏ'mitƏnt / / dis'kʌmfƏt / / ri'lai / / 'nju: mƏrƏs / / ' mni'preznt / / prƏ'praiƏtƏri / / remidi / / ænou'reksiƏ / / 'foutƏ'foubiƏ / / gein / / ri' ten∫n / / flu:id / / 'væskjulƏ / / fεƏ / / 'presidʒ / / veizou kƏn 'strik∫n / / 'kreiniƏl / / 'fæ∫n / / bri:f / / prƏ'lɔŋd / / 'weikfulnis / / iks'trɔ:dnri / / 'efƏt / / æŋ 'zaiƏti / phÇn. hái ý kiÕn cã thÓ ®o¸n chõng cïng tån t¹i. dùa vµo nhiÒu. tríc nhÊt b¸o tríc sù co th¾t m¹ch thuèc co m¹ch (thuéc) sä ë mét møc ®é nµo ®ã ng¾n. tin cËy. tõng håi sù khã chÞu tin. chøng ch¸n ¨n chøng sî ¸nh s¸ng sù t¨ng c©n sù bÝ (®¸i). l¹ thêng sù cè g¾ng sù lo l¾ng.

. .................................................................... 5.................... Answer the following questions................ nhîc ®iÓm defect (n) / di'fekt / tiªu chuÈn criterion (n) / krai'tiƏriƏn / ®a vµo to introduce (v) / intrƏ'dju:s / thêi gian c¸ch ly quanrantine / 'kwɔrƏntin / one or another of the subcortical systems : vïng nµy hay vïng kh¸c díi vá n·o subcortical (adj) description (n) so-called (adj) dilatation (n) to evoke (v) to emphasize (v) repeatedly (adj) specific symptom complex: Héi chøng ®Æc trng / sʌb'kɔ:tikƏl / / dis'krip∫n / / sou'kɔ:ld / / dai lei'tei∫n / / i'vouk / / 'emfƏsaiz / / ri'pi:tidli / II........... gîi lªn nhÊn m¹nh nhiÒu lÇn............. 4............................................ ........ 2........... .... Why do patients with migraine fail to consult a physician? 73 .................. When was migraine described first? .............................. phøc hÖ complex (n) / 'kɔmpleks / thiÕu sãt..... When was its pathophysiology extensively investigated? ............................................................................ How has it (migraine) been termed? .............díi vá n·o sù m« t¶ c¸i gäi lµ sù gi·n....... 3.................... .................................................. 1.................................... nh¾c ®i nh¾c l¹i mét tËp hîp..................................... sù në g©y ra................. What is the reason for the slow accumulation of knowledge concerning migraine? ............................

....................... ............... .......................................... ....................................................................................................... ................................ 3........... III.... 74 ................ .................................................................................. 6........................ 10..................... What is migraine commonly evoked by? ................ Translate into Vietnamese....................................... 7......................... Descriptions of the so-called hypertensive headache have varied greatly and its characteristics have been emphasized repeatedly.............. ............................................................... What is migraine characterized by? ...... 1.......................... 8......................................... The pathophysiology of migraine has been extensively investigated...................................................................................................................................................... What has been used as a criterion for a good result in the treatment for hypertensive headache? ................................... What can headache? you say about the so-called hypertensive .................................... Has any specific symptom complex concerning hypertensive headache elaborated? .......................... .................... 9. ..................................................................................................................... .............. 2........... Migraine has been termed the commonest complaint of civilized man...................... ...................

.................................... . ...................................................................................................................................................... Shocked patients who have resumed (= have begun again) breathing often later stop breathing and must therefore be watched closely.................. 4................................................................................................................................................... After the operation had been performed the patient was taken to the ward........................................... 9................... ............................................................................................................................... ....... ......... ...... ........ ............... 5............................................ ......................... .......... ................. ... 7..... ................................. Before the operation began the instruments had been thoroughly boiled............................ Quarantine is the limitation of freedom of movement of persons who have been exposed to communicable diseases........................................... The operation will have been finished by 12 o’clock........ ........................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6................... The relief of headache in the hypertensive individual has been used as a criterion for a good result of the treatment.................................................... ............................ 8........................................................ ........ 75 ............ .........................................................................................................

of blood pressure. 2.......... t¨ng c©n. 76 .. A new procedure has been introduced for……………. of knowledge…………....... Nh÷ng bÖnh nh©n migren Ýt khi (seldom) ®Õn b¸c sÜ kh¸m bÖnh....of civilized man. ....... Migraine may be produced by…………………........ ……………………………………………………………………………..... vµ gi÷ níc. n«n.. ……………………………………………………………………………. preferring to rely on ………………remedies for ……………… of pain....to consult a physician.. Migraine..... or at least ……………… to migraine occurs in……………...... ... 2.. 3....... 1.... 5......... ... ……………………………………………………………………………..... 7.......... V.............. There are some reasons for the slow………….. Fill in the blanks. It is known that pain is a subjective…………... IV........ sî ¸nh s¸ng........ 4......... Patients with headache…………. migraine.. Migraine has been termed the commonest…………….. which is difficult……………........ ..... 6........ Chøng ®au nöa ®Çu kh«ng chØ cã triÖu chøng ®Æc trng lµ ®au ®Çu mµ cßn cã triÖu chøng ®Æc trng lµ buån n«n.... 1................... Translate into English..........

.... those who are nearby must seek immediate medical help..... Phô n÷ m¾c chøng ®au nöa ®Çu nhiÒu h¬n nam giíi..... Chøng ®au nöa ®Çu........... Lesson ten DISEASES AND INJURIES OF THE SKULL CONCUSSION OF THE BRAIN................ In severe head injury... Concussion of the brain being one of the most serious results of trauma. ……………………………………………………………………………........ blows on the head.. .............. the head striking against the pavement during a fall in the street... ...... ... 4.. etc....... very frequently no injuries to the skull are found...... ...............3........... but the patient develops a characteristic picture of concussion of the brain.. …………………………………………………………………………….. a fall from a height.............. hay Ýt nhÊt xu híng m¾c chøng ®au nöa ®Çu thêng xuÊt hiÖn ë nh÷ng ngêi cã cïng huyÕt thèng................. for example.......... 77 .........

At the moment the injury is sustained or immediately after it, the patient loses consciousness. He produces the impression of a person who is fast asleep, breathing evenly and deeply, answering no questions and not reacting to light stimuli. This condition is frequently accompanied by vomiting and involuntary urination and lasts several minutes, half an hour, and sometimes longer. Then the patient gradually recovers consciousness, but often feels weak and dizzy, has a headache and buzzing in the ears. Having regained consciousness the patient cannot recall what happened. Complete unconsciousness at the moment the injury is sustained; vomiting and amnesia are the most characteristic signs of concussion of the brain. CONTUSION OF THE BRAIN. In contusions of the brain multiple hemorrhages are observed at points corresponding to the side of the blow or on the opposite side. In addition to hemorrhages, crushing of the brain substance with subsequent softening of its tissue is possible. This picture of the disease at first resembles that of concussion of the brain, but the phenomena do not disappear within a few days as they do in cases of concussion of the brain, but increase and focal symptoms appear (paresis, paralyses, convulsive twitchings). Contusions of the brain run different courses depending on the localization and extent of destruction of the brain tissue. Patients with contusion of the brain must be ensured complete rest for a long period of time and must be administered sedatives, the treatment and care of them being generally the same, as in concussion of the brain. I. WORD STUDY
concussion (n) / kƏn'kʌ∫n / chÊn ®éng

78

concussion brain blow (n)

of

the / blou / / straik / / 'kɔn∫Əsnis /

chÊn ®éng n·o (có) ®¸nh, ®Ëp, gi¸ng ®Ëp vµo, va vµo ng· tõ trªn cao xuèng ý thøc, tri gi¸c mÊt ý thøc, mª ngñ thiÕp ®i nhanh ®Òu ®Òu, ®Òu ®i t×m ph¶n øng l¹i (sù) ®i ®¸i, ®i tiÓu ®¸i dÇm dÒ nhí l¹i chøng quªn chÊn dËp chÊn dËp n·o ch¶y m¸u nhiÒu chç ®iÓm, chç sù dËp n¸t chÊt n·o nhòn, nhuyÔn sau ®ã, ®Õn sau gièng víi, gièng nh triÖu chøng t¹i chç liÖt nhÑ tª liÖt (thuéc) co giËt chøng co giËt tiÕn triÓn kh¸c nhau

to strike against (v) a fall from a height consciousness (n) to lose consciousness to be fast asleep evenly (adv) to seek (v) to react (v) urination (n) involuntary urination to recall (v) amnesia (n) contusion (n) contusion of the brain multiple hemorrhages point (n) crushing (n) brain substance softening (n) subsequent to resemble (v) focal symptoms: paresis (n)

/ / / / / / / /

'i:vƏnli / si:k / ri:'ækt / juƏri'nei∫n / in'vɔlƏntri / ri'kɔ:l / æm'ni:ziƏ / kƏn'tju:ʒn /

/ / / /

pɔint / 'krʌ∫iŋ / 'sʌbstƏns / 'sɔfƏniŋ /

/ 'subsikwƏnt / / ri'zembl / / 'foukƏl /

/ pƏ'ri:sis 'pærisis / paralysis (n)(pl.-ses) / pƏ'rælisis / convulsive (adj) / kƏn'vʌlsiv / convulsive twitching / 'twit∫iŋ / to run different / 'kɔ:siz / courses

79

extent (n) destruction (n) to ensure (v) sedative (n) to have buzzing in the ears to recover or to regain

/ / / / /

iks'tent / dis'trʌk∫n / in'∫uƏ / 'sedƏtiv / bʌziŋ/

ph¹m vi, møc ®é (sù) ph¸ hñy b¶o ®¶m thuèc gi¶m ®au ï tai tØnh l¹i

consciousness (v)

to seek immediate medical help : t×m thÇy thuèc cÊp cøu a most serious result : mét hËu qu¶ rÊt trÇm träng

II. Answer the following questions.
1. When does a patient develop concussion of the brain? ................................................................................................... 2. What must those who are nearby do in case of an accident (head injury)? ................................................................................................... 3. When does the patient lose consciousness? ................................................................................................... 4. What impression does he produce? ................................................................................................... 5. What is this condition frequently accompanied by? ................................................................................................... 6. How long does this condition last? ................................................................................................... 7. How does consciousness? the patient feel (after) having regained

................................................................................................... 8. What are the most characteristic signs of concussion of the brain? ................................................................................................... 9. What is observed in contusions of the brain?

80

. Why do contusions of the brain run different courses? .... the injured man produced the impression of a person being fast asleep............... 1. 3......... ……………………………………………………………………………………........... 10.............. ................. Translate into Vietnamese...................... 12...... Having lost consciousness................. Complete unconsciousness at the moment of injury being a sign of a serious trauma............. Having regained consciousness.. persons with head injuries must be given immediate attention.............................. the patient could not recall what had happened........................................................ ......... 11......................... 4............. ………………………………………………………………………………….... What are the treatment and care of patients with concussion and contusion of the brain? ................ those who are nearby must seek immediate medical help............. 81 ............................... ......... ……………………………………………………………………………….............................. III............ ……………………………………………………………………………….......... Concussion and contusion of the brain being a very serious result of trauma....................... .... 2... ……………………………………………………………………………………. What does the picture of contusion of the brain resemble at first? .......................

When the temperature of the body rises above normal the condition then existing is known as fever... …………………………………………………………………………………….... ……………………………………………………………………………….. Ensured complete rest and treatment with sedatives... and it is usually accompanied by quickened pulse and respiration. ……………………………………………………………………………………... The onset of fevers may be abrunt or gradual. ……………………………………………………………………………………. weariness.……………………………………………………………………………….. acute pain.. 6.... patients with such a trauma must be ensured complete rest for a long period of time. 8. …………………………………………………………………………………….. those of sudden onset being frequently characterized by chills. . ……………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………. ... and sometimes accompanied by vomiting.. .... as well as by chilly sensations. ……………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………….... uneasiness... while those of gradual onset are characterized by headache... 7... 82 .. the above mentioned patients will recover completely. Contusion of the brain running different courses. ... ………………………………………………………………………………. ... loss of appetite. headache. and disordered secretions... ……………………………………………………………………………………. general malaise. 5.. etc....

........... In addition (2). 4.. .......... 1.... BÖnh c¶nh cña chÊn dËp n·o lóc ®Çu gièng nh bÖnh c¶nh cña chÊn ®éng n·o.. V.....by the administration of suitable drugs....………………………………………………………………………................. bÖnh nh©n thêng bÞ mª man....... ……………………………………………………………………………………. Translate into English. GAP ..... 2... Trong chÊn ®éng n·o... IV.............. 3. 83 ........... . sau khi tØnh bÖnh nh©n kh«ng thÓ nhí l¹i nh÷ng c¸i ®· x¶y ra.... .... …………………………………………………………………………………... he will die from shock (3).....FILLING The patient who has (1).. ………………………………………………………………………………. . a crushing injury often has other severe injuries..tissue damage from compression.......... .... ... Nh÷ng trêng hîp chÊn dËp n·o tiÕn triÓn kh¸c nhau..lost plasma and blood are replaced promptly. Trong chÊn dËp ®Çu thêng kh«ng thÊy th¬ng tÝch ë sä nhng bÖnh nh©n ph¸t triÓn bÖnh c¶nh ®Æc trng cña chÊn ®éng n·o.. pain and anxiety should be (5)........ …………………………………………………………………………………….... …………………………………………………………………………………. At the same (4).. ………………………………………………………………………………. ..

. 84 ............. hemorrhage from the (8)......There are some patients with injuries to the nose....... The frequent injuries to the nose are fractures of the nasal (6).............. The wounds of the soft parts of the head and face are very dangerous because (9)......... The basic method of treating such wounds consists in an operation and suturing as soon after the injuries as (10)..........the rich blood supply to the face and the skin of the skull........ of the nasal bones are pain in the region of the bridge of the nose..... and its deformation............ Signs of (7).............. ..................

some mention is also made of an increased incidence of respiration illness in smokers. smoking tends to aggravate their airway resistance. Application of cigarette smoke condensate to the bronchial mucosa of laboratory dogs caused similar pathologic changes. or almost complete relief from coughing or striking improvement in coughing after smoking had been stopped. available literature suggests association of cigarette smoking with chronic bronchitis.Lesson eleven Cigarette smoking and chronic bronchitis Almost without exception. Emphysematous subjects are especially vulnerable to bronchial irritants. Accumulating evidence indicates that one of the major causes of chronic bronchitis is smoking. These 44 evidenced a lower mortality rate during the 20 years after the onset of their dyspnea than did the 83 who continued to smoke. Of 150 patients seen with chronic bronchitis. The incidence of chronic bronchitis is appreciably less in women than in men. Human lung and bronchial tissues obtained from habitual cigarette smokers show considerably more pathologic changes at postmortem examination than do those from nonsmokers or ex-smokers. 143 were cigarette smokers. most of them were heavy smokers from an early age. presumably because of considerable difference in their past smoking habits. 44 noted complete. 85 . Of the 60 who stopped smoking.

“Smoking may impair your health”. Word study cigarette (n) exception (n) literature (n) association (n) accumulating (adj) accumulating evidence mention(n/v) striking (adj) to evidence (v) mortality (n) mortality rate appreciably (adv) emphysematous (adj) subject (n) vulnerable(adj) irritant(n) to tend(n) / / / / / sigƏ'ret / ik'sep∫n / 'litrƏt∫Ə. With all of the publicity. 'litƏrit∫Ə / Əsousi'ei∫n / Ə'kiu:mjuleitiŋ / thuốc lá ®iÕu ngoµi ra.All patients are admonished to stop smoking. approximately 72 million of them smoke cigarettes. cho thấy số tử vong tỉ lệ tử vong rõ rệt (thuộc ) khí thùng người. ngoại lệ tài liệu mối liên quan. it is hardly likely that anyone is unaware that there is a great deal of evidence that smoking may be hazardous to health. cigars). I. More than 90 million persons in America use tobacco in one form or another (pipes. even if cigarette package contains a warning. Nevertheless. But success in stopping smoking is low. always including a frank statement that smoking is unquestionably harmful. rõ rệt chứng minh. ®èi tîng dễ bị tổn thương chất kích thích có khuynh hướng / / / / / / / / / / / 'men∫n / 'straikiŋ / 'evidƏns / mƏ:'tƏliti / reit / Ə'pri:∫iƏbli / emfi'si:mƏtƏs / 'sʌbdʒikt / 'vʌlnƏrƏbl / 'iritƏnt / tend / 86 . liên đới chồng chất những chứng cớ chồng chất đề cập. nói đến nổi bật. Numerous techniques are utilized. the overwhelming majority of these people continue to smoke and it cannot be expected that they will give up smoking.

tuy thế mà mong. kiện lời răn. gói. sử dụng thẳng. thường xuyên người nghiện thuốc lá người không nghiện thuốc lá người đã bỏ thuốc lá sau khi chết sự bồi vào. trông mong.to aggravate(v) airway(n) resistance(n) habitual(adj) smoker(n) nonsmoker(n) ex-smoker(n) postmortem(adj) application(n) mucosa(n) to admonish(v) technique(n) to utilize(v) frank(adj) statement unquestionably(ad v) tobacco(n) pipe(n) cigar(n) publicity(n) unaware(adj) nevertheless(adv) to expect(v) package(n) warning(n) to impair(v) hazardous overwhelming (adj) / 'ægrƏveit / / / / / / / / / / / / 'εƏwei / ri'zistƏns / hæ'bitjuƏl / 'smoukƏ / 'nƏn 'smoukƏ / 'eks 'smoukƏ / 'poust'mɔ:tƏm / æpli'kei∫n / mju'kousƏ / Əd'mɔni∫ / tek'ni:k / / 'ju:tilaiz / / fræŋk / / 'steitmƏnt / / ʌn'kwet∫ƏnƏbli / / / / / / / / / / / / / tƏ'bækou / paip / si'ga: / pʌb'lisiti / ʌnƏ'wεƏ / nevƏðƏ'les / inks'pekt / 'pækidʒ / 'wɔ:niŋ / im'pεƏ / 'hæzƏdƏs / ouvƏ'welmiŋ / làm nặng thêm.. c¶n trë nghiện nặng. lêi nãi kh«ng cßn nghi ngê thuốc lá tẩu thuốc điếu xì gà sự tuyên truyền rộng rãi không biết.. kỹ thuật dùng. trầm trọng thêm khí đạo sức cản. hầu nh kh«ng cã ngo¹i lÖ 87 . bộc trực lêi tuyªn bè. không hay tuy nhiên. sự đắp vào niêm mạc.. lời báo trước làm suy yếu may rñi ¸p ®¶o. lÊn ¸t Almost without exception …. chờ đợi bao. phương pháp. mµng nhµy khuyên răn.. răn bảo thủ thuật.

... 1. .. Who of them noted relief from coughing? …………………………………………………………………………………... In whom men or women is the incidence of chronic bronchitis less and why? ……………………………………………………………………………………... ………………………………………………………………………………. .... 2.smoke cigarette condensate(n) / kƏn'densƏt / ni-cô-tin II.. 5. How many of them were cigarette smokers? ………………………………………………………………………………….. . What do lung and bronchial tissues obtained from cigarette smokers show? …………………………………………………………………………………. Answer the following questions...... 6...... .. Can it be expected that people will give up smoking because it is harmful? 88 ... ... .. What is one of the major causes of chronic bronchitis? In whom can one observe an increased incidence of respiratory illness? ……………………………………………………………………………………. 7. 8........ How many patients with chronic bronchitis were examined? …………………………………………………………………………………. 4. ... 3. ………………………………………………………………………………. What persons are specially vulnerable to bronchial irritants? ………………………………………………………………………………….

..... ........ .. ... ...... ... my patients noted a striking improvement in coughing..... ............ 89 . .. Having stopped smoking......... ………………………………………………………………………......... ………………………………………………………………………………... 1....... ……………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………........ 5............... The communicable diseases transmitted by the nose and mouth discharges are largely spread by coughing and sneezing.... III... …………………………………………………………………………………….................. It is certain that smoking is associated with chronic bronchitis. …………………………………………………………………………………...... The incidence of chronic bronchitis is less in women because of considerable difference in their past smoking habits......... 2......... Translate into Vietnamese............ but success in stopping smoking is low.. 6.. ................ Smoking is unquestionably harmful....... The rule of making a thorough examination of the chest daily until the diagnosis is clear should be followed in all cases of acute illness.... ......... ……………………………………………………………………………. ...... 4.. 3..

. on wages that you don't get when you don't go to work. Doctors think that the annual medical cost for lung cancer..... ... IV............ ………………………………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………………………...don't go to work.society money in other ways..... and other illnesses connected to smoking is (3)............ and (7).... .............FILLING Fill in each of the blanks in the passage with only one word from the box.. Great care must be taken to never cough or sneeze in the presence of other persons without first covering the mouth and nose.. ......... between which another wages ed The diseases (1)...........27 to 61 billion pounds are spent each year on sick days when (6). GAP .... 7... 8..... Flies may transmit many diseases by having access to discharges containing infectious microorganisms..work lost at the company when you are sick. to smoking are a big problem...…………………………………………………………………………………….... people who costs connect disease smoking could smoke on from paying back pay money to and 90 ................. (5). And smoking (4) ..... ……………………………………………………………………………….............12 and 35 million pounds.. ………………………………………………………………………………... heart (2).......... …………………………………………………………………………………….....

........... If every one stopped (14) ...................when you add another fifty to one hundred and fifty pounds yearly in insurance cost.......kill fifteen hundred people yearly and injure (11).......... This does not count fire started by cigarettes......ten to two hundred and fifty pounds each year in the lost work and (13)........ woman and child in the UK from one hundred (12)....... (10).....have up to one thousand six hundred and forty pounds more a year... that comes to one hundred and sixty to four hundred and ten pounds........ 91 .......die of cancer at young age and stop (9). a family(15)............ Smoking costs every man..........four thousand........This money counts the wages from people (8).......taxes....

bone and the cornea of the eye. Surgeons take healthy parts from one human body and put them into another. When the donor comes from the patient’s own family. and liver. the body more often does not accept the kidney. Surgeons have performed skin transplants for hundreds of years. doctors are able to replace sick organs with operations. Hindu surgeons in India were probably the first surgeons to transplant skin. There are two kinds of medical transplants: tissue transplants and organ transplants. The surgeon usually uses the patient’s own skin. and they are often successful. A cornea transplant provides a new.Lesson twelve Transplants . Many blind patients can see again because of cornea transplantation cornea is the clear. people with serious burns often have skin transplants. When the donor is not from the patient’s family. outer cover of the eye. Today. Examples of tissue transplants are skin. Some kinds of blindness occur when the cornea becomes cloudy. Organ transplants include kidney. and the rate of success is only 50 percent. lung. These organs are transplants. there is an 80 percent chance of success. Skin and cornea transplants are very common and very successful. heart. clear cornea..C. Skin from other people often does not help.New body parts Today. In 600 B. There are many kidney transplant operations. 92 . The donor kidney may come from someone in the patient’s family.

Heart or lung donors must be people who have died. surgeons used heart and lung machines only during operations. The blood produces antibodies. which kill the new tissue. or does not accept. which keep patients alive during the operation. Consequently. in 1982. Another transplant problem is the danger of infection. Donor organs may come from people who have just died or are still alive and well. Utah. which surgeons used for operations. The third problem is rejection. Barney Clark of Salt Lake city. However. Since then. There are several major problems. tissue from another body. but who had healthy hearts and lungs. surgeons perform them only when the patient is dying. It was nothing like the large heart and lung machines. Rejection of the new tissue or organ is the major reason for the failure of transplant operations. It was a small.All organ transplants are difficult to perform successfully. there have been many successful operations. bacteria enter the body and cause infection. A donor is a person who gives an organ for an operation. the doctor must have a donor. Organ transplants are not easy. The human body naturally rejects. received the first artificial heart. Doctors are developing drugs that will stop rejection and increase the number of successful operations. Until 1982. However. when the operation is successful. It 93 . Clark lived for about four months after the operation with the artificial heart inside him. When surgeons operate. First. plastic pump. It has helped blind people to see again. Kidney and heart transplants are successful due to and lung machines and kidney machines. Dr. A number of patients have lived for more than four years after successful surgery. It has saved people with bad burns. Transplant surgery has helped many people. Patients must use it several times a week. Christian Barnard performed the first heart transplant in 1967 in South Africa. the patient can live an almost normal life. Dr. A kidney machine is a large machine that works like a real kidney because it clears the blood. Dr.

Transplant surgery has helped many people.v) artificial (adj) naturally (adv) / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / trænsplænt / trænsplæn'tei∫n / 'ti∫u: / 'kɔ:niƏ / 'dounƏ / risipiƏnt / æk'sept / 'kɔnsƏkwentli / infek∫n / ridʒek∫n / 'æntibɔdi / 'feiljƏ / dju: tu: / mƏ'∫i:n / pʌmp / a:tifi∫l / 'næt∫ƏrƏli / cÊy ghÐp sù cÊy ghÐp m« gi¸c m¹c ngêi hiÕn. Kidney and heart machines keep patients alive during operation. The first skin transplant was in 600 BC. but doctors are finding new ways to solve them. kÕt qu¶ lµ sù nhiÔm trïng sù ®µo th¶i kh¸ng thÓ sù thÊt b¹i nhê. ngêi cho ngêi nhËn chÊp nhËn bëi vËy.has saved the lives of people who have kidney and heart diseases. There are problems with transplant surgery. b. bëi m¸y b¬m nh©n t¹o tù nhiªn II. 94 .n) transplantation (n) tissue (n) cornea (n) donor (n) recipient (n) accept (v) consequently (adv) infection (n) rejection (n) antibody (n) failure (n) due to (adv) machine (n) pump (n. d. c. There will certainly be more successful transplant surgery in the future. WHAT IS THE MAIN IDEA ? Put a circle in front of the main idea of “Transplants New Body Parts” a. WORD STUDY transplant (v. Organ and tissue transplants help sick people in many ways. I.

An artificial heart is a machine. ……6. The first skin transplant was in the United States. ……9. donor d. ……5. transplant 95 . go back to the reading for more context. Do not look at the reading. ……7. There will never be an artificial heart. HAVE YOU UNDERSTOOD THESE WORDS IN CONTEXT ? Circle the meaning for the underlined words. a.III. a.. Some kinds of blindness occur when the cornea becomes cloudy. real b. …. clear c. not clear d. HAVE YOU UNDERSTOOD THE READING ? Write T by the true statements and F by the false statements. All transplant operations are successful. 1.. protect c. ……3. ……8. Do not use your dictionary. clear cornea. If you are not sure. treat 2. Transplants save people’s lives. A transplant gives the blind person a new. prevent b.2. mechanical c. ……4. Donor organs are always artificial. Machines cause problems for transplant operations. People with bad burns have skin transplants. happen d. old b. new 3. Surgeons transplant many parts of the body. a. ……1. Heart and lung machines keep patients alive during operations. A cloudy cornea causes blindness. ……10. A blind person who has a successful cornea transplant can see again.. IV.

a... awake 9.... Surgeons perform many operations to transplant parts of the body...... a. educate c.. now b. do 5. a. few b. Dr... checks c. a. Circle the time expression that goes with the verb.... two 8... not many d...... Barnard performed the first heart transplant . or d..... The human body rejects. causes b. two years ago c.4... but b. or does not accept. does not accept b. gives d. Transplant surgery has helped many people. a. many c.. tissue from another person.. Because cornea transplants are usually successful. happy d. since 1980 d. a. a.. Organ transplants are not always successful.... surgeons perform them only when the patient is dying. accepts d........ now ago d. there have been a number of them.. Doctors are finding ways to solve these problems. so V. Heart and lung machines keep heart patients alive during operations.. Pay attention to the verb and its tense. five years ago c...... living b. keeps 7... 1.. dead c... assist b. until now b.. injures 6.. does not eject c.. a. Consequently.... a. since 1967 2. now 96 .. and c. A lung transplant provides the patient with a new lung. harm d. about twenty years c. until now 3. TIME EXPRESSIONS Read the following sentences...

. The donor kidney may come from someone in the patient’s family. now c. now b.... The first skin transplant was in India.. since 1982 5.. a. now 97 .... when the donor organ is not from someone in the same family. a. a.. 1. in the past d... can... After successful cornea transplants.. Both b and c 4. the body often rejects it... are able to c.. In the future b.. There will be more surgery in the future. Barney Clark received the first artificial heart.. It is a good idea c. is necessary d. Read the following sentences and guess the meaning of the modals. a. 2600 years ago VI. It is not possible b..... It is not necessary d. It is necessary d... last year 4. It is not possible b.. must. MODALS May.. in 1982 b.. always d. do not 2. Both b and c 3... try to b. A modal works with verbs to add meaning to the verb. It is necessary c..... It is not possible c.... a.b. sometimes c. It is possible d.. and will are modals. There must be a donor for a heart transplant. a. blind patients can see again. since 600 d....

His wound and skin are almost completely insensitive. he does not cry or moan or complain. Sometimes this state passes off within a few hours. barely palpable and intermittent. but is indifferent to everything and does not ask for anything. or answers them under his breath.Lesson thirteen SHOCK Shock is one of the severest complications of wounds. An enormous part in the development of shock is played by physical overstrain. insomnia. the patient displaying a sign of sensation only by contraction of the facial muscles. The problem of the genesis of shock is solved on the basis of I. intoxication. in a hardly audible whisper. grave operations and wide . Pavlov’s teaching. cooling. and so on). hemorrhage. Pirogov. exhaustion and starvation. injuries. emotional experience. his body being cold and his face pale as those of a corpse.spread burns. The stimulation transmitted to the central nervous system at first excites and then depresses the vitally important centers. etc. P. and sometimes it persists unchanged until death. The essence of shock and its genesis are not known well enough as yet. The following is a description of shock made by the famous surgeon N. Experimental data and clinical observations warrant the assumption that the nervous system plays the leading role in this affection. Shock is particularly dangerous under war conditions because it ends fatally in many cases. his respiration being also barely noticeable. He either answers no questions at all. 98 . his eyes are immovable and he gazes into the distance. considerable importance being attached in the mechanism of its development to exhaustion of the cerebral cortex under the influence of the harmful action of the stimuli (pain. “You see a wounded soldier without an arm or leg lying stockstill at the dressing station. His pulse is like a thread.

As the result. vascular tone diminishes. không để ý bất động nhìn chằm chằm phía xa. nguồn gốc dựa trên thí nghiệm thực nghiệm cho phép.including the vasomotor ones. sự co (thuộc) mặt biến mất. sợi chỉ mạch anh ta chỉ còn là mạch chỉ nhỏ. thực chất căn nguyên. đằng xa xác chết chỉ. mất đi vẫn vẫn không đổi bản chất. the internal vessels in the abdominal cavity dilate and accumulate a lot of blood. để lộ ra sự co rút . đảm bảo giả thuyết. qua hơi thở có thể nghe thấy tiếng nói thầm thể hiện . I. so that the peripheral arterial system is drained of blood hence the blood pressure drops and shock develops. sèc không nhúc nhích. thừa nhận / 'ɔ:dibl / / 'wispƏ / / dis'plei / / kƏn'træk∫n / / 'fei∫Əl / / pa:s / / pƏ 'sist / / 'esns / /'dʒenisis / /esk peri'mentl / / 'wɔrƏnt / / Ə'sʌmp∫n / 99 . WORD STUDY shock (n) stock-still (adj) to moan (v) indifferent (adj) immovable (adj) to gaze (v) distance (n) corpse (n) thread (n) his pulse is like a thread under his breath audible (adj) whisper (n) to display (v) contraction (n) facial (adj) to pass off (v) to persist (v) to persist unchanged essence (n) genesis (n) experimental (adj) to warrant (v) assumption (n) / ∫ɔk / / 'stɔk'stil / / moun / / in'difƏrƏnt / / im'mu:vƏbl / / geiz / / 'distƏns / / kɔ:ps / / red / choáng. rên rỉ thờ ơ. bất động rên.

chủ đạo teaching (n) / 'ti:t∫iŋ / học thuyết exhaustion (n) / ig' zɔ:st∫n / tình trạng kiệt sức cerebral (adj) / 'seribrƏl / (thuộc) não cortex (x) / 'kɔ:teks / vỏ não. sự đói. 100 . giảm to drain (v) / drein / làm kiệt. tích luỹ hence / hens / do đó to drop (v) / drɔp / sụt. vỏ influence (n) / 'influƏns / ảnh hưởng under the influence do ảnh hưởng to attach importance to coi trọng intoxication (n) / in tɔksi'kei∫n / sự làm nhiễm độc overstrain (n) / ouvƏs'trein / sự g¾ng qu¸ søc starvation (n) / sta: 'vei∫n / sự đói ăn.leading (adj) / 'li:diŋ / chính. II. dẫn lưu he either answers no questions at all: anh ta hoặc không trả lời câu hỏi nào cả to see a wouded soldier… lying stock. rút hết.still : nhìn thấy một người lính bị thương nằm bất động. Answer the following questions. sự thiếu ăn cooling (n) / 'ku:liŋ / sự giảm thể nhiệt insomnia (n) / in'sɔmniƏ / sự mất ngủ emotional (adj) / i'mou∫Ənl / xúc động experience (n) / iks'piƏriƏns / sự trải qua emotional experience sự xúc động mạnh stimulation (adj) / stimu'lei∫n / sự kích thích to transmit (v) / trænz'mit / truyền to excite (v) / ik'sait / kích thích to express (v) / di'pres / ức chế vitally important tối quan trọng vasomotor (adj) / 'veizou'moutƏ / vận mạch vascular (adj) / 'væskjulƏ / (thuộc) mạch vascular tone trương lực mạnh to dilate (v) /dai'leit / làm giãn to accumulate (v) / 'kju:mjuleit / tích lại. quan trọng.

....... ......... 3..... ... 10.................. By whom was the description of shock made? …………………………………………………………………... On what basis is the problem of the genesis of shock solved? …………………………………………………………………............................... 7.............................................. 9.. What assumption do experimental data warrant? ……………………………………………………………………….... When is shock particularly dangerous? …………………………………………………………………………...... .............. ......... 5..... 8.... .... ... When does this state of the patient pass off? And what may occur if it does not? ……………………………………………………………………………....... ..................... How does it end in many cases? …………………………………………………………………….. What is the clinical picture of a patient in shock like? …………………………………………………………………................. 2......... ............................................................................. What do we call shock? ………………………………………………………………………. 101 . How does the patient display a sign of sensation? ……………………………………………………………………........ 6. 4.. .................... …..................... What stimuli may cause shock? ……………………………………………………………………....1... ..............

... .. II........ The mass being rather large and tender.... His wound and skin are almost completely insensitive.. ……………………………………………………………………………… 4. The patient’s eyes are immovable and he gazes into the distance. He either answers no questions at all.... ……………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1.. she no longer was troubled by the left sided symptoms. ............. the patient displaying a sign of sensation only by contraction of the facial muscles... Can you describe the mechanism of the development of shock? …………………………………………………………………........ ……………………………………………………………………………… 102 ... his respiration being also barely noticeable........ ..... ……………………………………………………………………………. Translate in to Vietnamese.... ..... …………………………………………………………………………………….. laparotomy was indicated. or answer them under his breath... . 5. The patient’s symptoms having been explained to her..... ……………………………………………………………………………………..11.... 3. . 2. his body being cold and his face pale as those of corpse. ………………………………………………………………………………….. . ……………………………………………………………………………….

.. . The development of shock (to be attached)………………to exhaustion of the cerebral cortex..... and emotional experience......... he does not cry or moan when examined... 2.... hemorrhage. Some palpable mass in the epigastria having been revealed at the physical examination.........pale as that of corpse................ giảm thể nhiệt..6...... The barium meal having showed signs of a large mass displacing the stomach to left......... laparotomy was indicated............ ……………………………………………………………………………………. đói ăn... The patient’s wound and skin (to be)…………..... almost completely insensitive.............. 8. 4.. His pulse is like a thread and barely palpable.... ................ an enormous part in its development is played by physical overstrain.. his face (to be) …………... Complete the following sentences....... Phần lớn choáng phát triển là do gắng quá sức... ...... the surgeon made a second X-ray examination. Grippe is a highly communicable and rapidly spreading disease. ……………………………………………………………………………….... 1...... …………………………………………………………………………… 7....... starvation......... mất ngủ.......... Translate in to English. also barely noticeable......... his respiration (to be)………....... V...... A wounded soldier in shock is lying stock-still..... especially children.. 1..................... 103 ... all ages being liable to it.. 3. IV..................... ......... ……………………………………………………………………………………...

. 104 .......... Lesson fourteen CPR CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation............... ........... .............. Choáng là một trong những biến chứng trầm trọng nhất sau những ca ®¹i phÉu thuËt......... …………………………………………………………………………………..... Pulmonary is a medical word for lungs. ....Pavlov... …………………………………………………………………………………. Cardio is a medical word for heart.... To resuscitate means to bring back to life..………………………………………………………………………………… …...................I.. 2.............. sau khi bị bỏng rộng hoÆc bị chấn thương.....……………………………………………………………………………… 3............. Trạng thái choáng đã được nhà phẫu thuật nổi tiếng N.......Pirogov mô tả... 4........P............................................................ … …………………………………………………………………………………….......Vấn đề căn nguyên của choáng đã được giải quyết trên cơ sở häc thuyết của I.................... ................ CPR starts someone’s lungs and heart functioning again after they have stopped......................

there may be no symptoms at all. feel weak. If CPR is started immediately. it may bring the person back to life. Air enters the nose and mouth and moves through the airway to the lungs. Any ordinary person can do it. or a person stops breathing. the heart may stop suddenly and the person stops breathing. You push on the heart with your hands to make it start beating again. it picks up the oxygen and carries it to the cells throughout the body. It is equally amazing that this magic is not done by today’s high technology. and feel like vomiting. 105 . When the heart stops beating. A heart attack occurs when the heart cannot get enough oxygen. No oxygen is taken into the body. One of the symptoms of a heart attack is a feeling of pressure and tightness or aching in the center of the chest. There are several situations where CPR is needed. You use your own lungs to breathe into the patient’s mouth and start his or her lungs working. It can be used when a person has a heart attack and the heart stops. However. CPR can start the process moving again. it leaves carbon dioxide as a waste material. It lasts longer than two minutes. The lungs are at either side of the heart. The heart is a large muscle that pumps blood through the arteries. be short of breath. As the blood moves through the lungs. The heart muscle cells that are supplied with oxygen by that artery die because they stop receiving oxygen. this whole process stops. It is located in the center of the chest behind the breastbone.It is an amazing idea that there is a cure for sudden death. and the lungs breathe it out through the airway. At the same time that the blood picks up the oxygen. bringing oxygen into the body. and it may come and go. The person having a heart attack may also starts sweating. and the blood doesn’t move through the arteries. It is as easy as that. This usually happens because one of the two arteries to the heart has become narrow or completely blocked.

Or it might mean giving first aid and then taking the patient to a doctor. the person dies immediately. You should receive instruction in a class where you practice in front of the teacher until you do it correctly. An ordinary can take a first aid class and learn what to do until the patient receives professional help. These are the three most common causes of sudden death when CPR can be used. or as soon as possible. When you give CPR. or dying in the water. Someone in a burning building may breathe in too much smoke and not get any oxygen into the lungs. or if you plan to work with electricity. A person trained in CPR can help a person start to breathe after clearing the water of the airway. If enough electricity enters the body.Electric shock is another situation where CPR can be used. CPR can resuscitate the person. As you know. The professionals can use their equipment to take charge of the patient. CPR can keep a person alive until he or she reaches a hospital. but you shouldn’t learn it from a book. You continue alternating these two actions. If someone in your family has heart trouble. You have to know how to do it quickly and well. if you go swimming a lot. CPR is easy to learn. Some people have an intense reaction to certain drugs or to the sting of a bee or some other insect. you breathe directly into the patient’s mouth. This might mean helping someone until an ambulance comes. Then you press on the heart in the center of the chest. and the heart and lungs stop functioning. It can also be caused if lightning strikes a person. An electric shock usually happens to someone who has been working carelessly with electricity. It is necessary to start CPR immediately when a person stops breathing. there will be permanent brain damage. if the brain is without oxygen for four minutes. Children can also drown when they are left alone near a swimming pool. There are others less common. which happens most often in the summer when many people go swimming. you 106 . CPR is an example of first aid. A third situation is drowning.

I. If there are no classes where you live. It can give you the chance to save someone’s life. ®èt 107 .v) / stiŋ / (thuéc) tim (thuéc) phæi sù lµm håi sinh lµm tØnh l¹i kinh ng¹c phÐp kú diÖu kü thuËt h« hÊp. In fact. ask the Red Cross or a nearby hospital to organize a class. and so do some university student health centers. CPR is worth learning. Where can you learn it? The Red Cross has CPR classes. WORD STUDY cardio (adj) pulmonary (adj) resuscitation (n) to resuscitate (v) amazing (adj) magic (n) technology (n) to breathe (v) artery (n) breastbone (n) airway (n) oxygen (n) carbon dioxide (phr) / 'ka:diƏ / / 'pʌlmƏnƏri / / risʌsi 'tei∫n / / ri 'sʌsiteit / / Ə 'meiziŋ / / 'mædʒik / / tek 'nɔlƏdʒi / / bri:ð / / 'a:tƏri / / 'brestboun / / 'eƏwei / / 'ɔksidʒƏn / / 'ka:bƏn daiɔksaid / heart attack (phr) / ha:t Ə'tæk / to block (v) / blɔk / to sweat (v) / swet / electric shock (phr) / i 'lektrik ∫ɔk / lightning (n) / 'laitniŋ / to strike (v) / straik / to drown (v) / draun / intense reaction / in'tens riæk∫n / (phr) sting (n. in case they ever need it.should learn CPR. thë ®éng m¹ch x¬ng øc khÝ ®¹o khÝ «xy khÝ cacbon ®i«xit ®au tim lµm t¾c v· må h«i có ®iÖn giËt tia chíp. many hospitals teach it. everyone should learn it. sÐt ®¸nh chÕt ®uèi ph¶n øng m¹nh ch©m.

.You don't have to be a doctor or a nurse. of the heart is to pump blood through the arteries... Volcanoes are……………....... 2. VOCABULARY Complete each sentence with one word or phrase from the box...... The heart is directly behind the…………........... gi÷ cho ai sèng / 'ɔ:ltƏneit / II. Children should wear a life preserver when they are around water so they can't . 7........ 3........... 4. Village people often have to ………………water by hand....... (phr) to keep sb alive (phr) to alternate (v) / 'fʌŋk∫n / / prƏ 'fe∫Ənl / / t∫a:dʒ / / Ə 'laiv / cã chøc n¨ng nhµ chuyªn m«n chÞu tr¸ch nhiÖm vÒ. The. 108 ....... resuscitatio n ambulance breastbone so located first aid process in case pump react drown process strike lungs function reaction chest shock take charge so 1.. Anyone can learn to give.thay phiªn.... Hail and snow are formed by a similar……………… 5..... lu©n phiªn permanent brain damage (phr) : tæn th¬ng n·o vÜnh viÔn to give sb the chance to do smt : t¹o cho ai c¬ héi ®Ó lµm g× to save someone's life : cøu sèng tÝnh m¹ng cho ai to function (v) professional (n) to take charge of. in chains and clusters... 6.

. painful ... value h...... location great deal i. 14........... 4........................ An electric. blur miserable d... b....of arranging food for the party.. j.. A strong..... is used to take patients to a hospital.......... 10.. at a a............ 1....................... The...... ....... .................. of studying understand the person who wrote it....... 11.... unhappy k... forever contagious ..... Handwriting analysis handwriting in order to is a ...... 12.............. 15..... 13..... The R in CPR stands for.. g. III.......... sometimes times l.to a drug can kill a person.... sunrise .you need it later. 9.... worth . can kill a person..... catching ........... teenager 109 .8.. bad dream c........................ a lot .............are in the chest and . VOCABULARY REVIEW: SYNONYMS Match the words that mean the same..... 2. m................ You cannot save up sleep ahead of time. An . e.... .............. mixed up n....is the heart....... vision f... 3........... ... Edward volunteered to . 5.

10..... 7..6.. ..5... 9........ confused ......3. ................. sore ....... adolescent .1.............2.7.....6......... ..... Resuscitation is a medical word.. ...... .. A common situation when CPR is needed is with an intense reaction 110 .4...... ...... Sudden death can be cured only by using today's technology...... 11... CPR can help a person with sleep apnea.................... TRUE(t) / FALSE(f) / NO INFORMATION(ni). .... nightmare . 8.... .......... ........... CPR can be used in cases of drowning..... ..... . dawn .. ... position .......... .............. 12.... .. The arteries take carbon dioxide out of the lungs......... permanently ........ IV.................. Carbon dioxide enters the lungs through the airways..........

..... ......... COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS... What are the three most common situations where CPR is needed? .............. 1...... 2.............................................. 4................................................................................ What is the first aid? .. 3...... First aid is an example of CPR..................... What professionals work with patients? ............................................ ............10.... How can CPR prevent brain damage? ................. What are the symptoms of a heart attack? .................9........ 6.................... Håi søc tim phæi ®îc thùc hiÖn ®Ó cøu sèng ngêi bÞ ®ét tö vµ bÊt kú ai còng cã thÓ lµm ®îc............................. ......... ...................................................................... ........................... ................................... 5........8.................. . V............. .. VI.....to an insect sting....... ... TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH....................................................................... What is the function of the lungs? .. 1........................................................ You should call an ambulance before you start CPR............................................. 111 ..................... Everyone should get a book about CPR and learn how to do it.................................................................................................

................................................................................................... ............. 3. Håi søc tim phæi dÔ häc................................................................................................................................................... b¹n cÇn thay ®æi gi÷a hµ h¬i trùc tiÕp vµo miÖng bÖnh nh©n vµ Ðp lªn tim ë gi÷a lång ngùc cña bÖnh nh©n.................................. 2............. Cµng cã nhiÒu ngêi kh«ng chuyªn nghµnh y biÕt tiÕn hµnh ®îc håi søc tim phæi th× cµng tèt......................................................................................... B¹n kh«ng nªn häc qua s¸ch vë mµ b¹n nªn tiÕp thu sù híng dÉn cña gi¸o viªn...................................................................... Sau ®ã b¹n ph¶i luyÖn tËp cho ®Õn khi b¹n cã thÓ tiÕn hµnh mét c¸ch nhanh chãng vµ chuÈn x¸c.. .............................................................................................................................. do ®iÖn giËt hay bÞ chÕt ®uèi cÇn ph¶i ®îc tiÕn hµnh håi søc tim phæi ngay lËp tøc................................................................................................................... ... ... .................................................. 4........................... ......................... 5............ Khi tiÕn hµnh håi søc tim phæi..................................... .. ............................. ........ ......................................... .................................................... ............................ ............. ............................................................................................. 112 ......................... . ..................................................... Mét ngêi bÞ ®ét tö do ®au tim......................................................................................................

such as sunburn.Lesson 15 : NATURAL MEDICINE Doctor in India and China are famous for their knowledge of medicine plants. He was the first pharmacist to extract a drug from a plant. such as the opium poppy or the outside bark of the cinchona tree from South America. pharmacists and physicians are studying drugs from different plants to treat cancer. Mint or ginger teas often relax people. They travel to many places. where there are 113 . were common. which is a natural treatment for headaches. but healers in many countries all over the world use natural medicine. aloe is good for skin. scientists have extracted natural drugs from many plants. and anthropologists. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a program to study natural medicines in many countries. One kind of scientist who specializes in collecting medicinal plants is the ethnobotanist. For hundreds of years. biologists. Scientists want to learn more about medicinal plants and their uses. Friedrich Sherburne took morphine from the opium poppy . Scientists have studied medicinal plants and used. Ethnobotanist study groups of people and their medicines. Natural medicines. Many different kinds of scientists. There is new interest in natural medicine all over the world. the knowledge to make synthetic drugs for some natural drugs that are not always common or easy to get. pharmacists recognized their value and began to study them. from the cinchona bark. Then in the 1800s. Since then. For example. such as South America and Africa . native healers used plants to help the sick. Many modern drugs come from a few of thousands of plants with medicinal uses. At the present. They found aspirin in willow bark tea. It helps minor burns. Camomile and sage teas are good for stomach problems. Many of these natural drugs are effective in the treatment of cancer. In 1803s. which is a treatment for malaria. are studying medicinal plants. scientists extracted quinine. such as physicians. Later.

thousands of medicinal plants. Then th ethnobotanist bring the plants back to the laboratory where other scientists extract and study the drugs in them. These studies are helping doctors find new cures for many diseases. They live with the native people and learn how the people use these plants. WORD STUDY aloe (n) /’ælou/ 114 .

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