As a staple diet of many people in Northern and Central India, Roti plays a very important part of our cuisine. In fact, Roti has become a generic name for bread in India. ‘Roti’ the most basic food of India is a fascinating subject. We can find that with the mixing of grain, water, salt and other ingredients, one can produce a variety of breads out of them and each having its unique individuality. With more than a thousand years of blending foreign culture with its own, India has developed a unique range of ‘Rotis’ made of whole wheat flour. These are called by distinctive names such as ‘Chapati’, ‘Phulka’, ‘Paratha’ or ‘Puri’ etc. Indians not only use wholewheat flour (atta) in breads but other grains like maize (makkai), millet (jowar), milo (bajra), lentils (dals) and even rice is widely consumed for making breads. Again most varieties can be eaten plain or stuffed. Means of Making Indian Breads 1) Tandoor: Naan, Tandoori roti, Khameeri roti, etc. 2) Concave Tava: Fulka, Paratha, Makkai-ki-roti, etc. 3) Kadhai: Poori, Bhatura, Kachori, etc. 4) Conventional Oven: Bakarkhani, Sheermal, etc. With the help of above mediums, we are using 5 methods of cooking for making bread: Deep frying, Shallow frying, Baking, Tandoor, and Broiling. BREADS FROM NORTH: 1. 2. 3. PHULKA : Common roti made from atta flattened and griddled on a hot tava. MAKKAI KI ROTI: Slightly thicker than Paratha. This roti is made from Maize and is the size of chappathi. ROTI : Atta bread traditionally made in a clay tandoor, griddled or cooked on live charcoal fire. Variations possible are innumerable: LAAL ROTI- with beetroot. ROGANI ROTI- with saffron. PIAZ KI ROTI- contains chopped onions, green chillies and mint leaves. PUDINA ROTI- Stuffed mint paste. LASSAN ROTI- Garlic roti. SHEHAD KI ROTI- Honey roti( honey is added to the dough ) AMRITSAR KA PARATHA: Each layer of this Paratha, a layer of flour and ghee is applied. The rolling is different from that of a Paratha. MUGHLAI PARATHA: The soft dough is shaped into round balls and then flattened ghee is applied and then folded. This is done for a couple more times. It is presses into a square and brushed with eggs and the corners are turned towards the center. Cooked on a hot griddle. KHASATA ROTI: These are Crisp and have a flavor of cumin which is incorporated during the dough making process. They are made just as Parathas. SHAHI ROTI: Made all over Northern India, especially U.P. A very rich Roti stuffed with a paste of almonds & ghee
16. sesame seeds and poppy seeds and baked in a Tandoor. green chillies. This is then rolled and cooked like a chapathi. ROOMALI ROTI: Soft dough is made.
13.soda. Proven for 8 hours. garlic and yoghurt. KASHMIRI ROTI: Also called taktaki. Here a dough is made with flour.P. It takes hardly on minute to cook and should be folded like a hand kerchief. coriander & 1 tsp of Ghee or oil. parsley. brushed with melted ghee/ butter and saffron solution. Sprinkle with poppy seeds. 21. 19. rice flour. eggs. TAFTAN: Leavened bread with rice flour. SHAHJAHANI NAAN: Naan stuffed with cooked mixture of garlic.Abheek Pramanick
8. SHEER MAL: smooth dough with flour. BANJARA ROTI: It is a crispy roti made with bajri flour. KHANDARI NAAN: Naan stuffed with nuts. rolled out to the size of Puri. 12. double cream. SADA KULCHA: Leavened bread of Punjab. swung in the air and cooked in a heated inverted griddle.dry fruits & paneer. Then rolled into a circle and rolled out 3 times. fresh coriander leaves. Variations possible are many . Cooked in a griddle with little fat. raisins. coated with a paste of rice flour and ghee. asafoetida and carum and the liquid used is milk. khoya.depending on creativity: BADAMI NAAN : sesame seeds and almonds are sprinkled on top. BIRAHI PARATHA: This paratha dough is stuffed with chick pea dough. The traditional method of making Baqarkhani is by DUM cooking. turmeric powder. then flattened. curd and butter. yoghurt and eggs from U. Here soft dough is made with flour. It can be made perfectly under hot grills and Tandoor. Here wheat four is sifted along with pepper and aniseeds. 10. the rounds are flattened. The dough is rolled thick. KHAMEERI is naan leavened with yeast.(Roomal= handkerchief) BAQARKHANI: It is a richer version of sheer maal. ghee and yeast mixture.
. BAIDA PARATHA: This is stuffed with a mixture of Eggs. ginger. salt. BHATURA: Deep fried leavened bread of Punjab made with maida . 14. tomato. LACHHA PARATHA: Here the dough is made into rope.milk. Given the shape of the tear drop and topped with ghee / butter. broken cashew nuts. BHOPALI ROTI: Equal quantity of wheat flour and rice flour mixed with ground cumin seeds. ghee and salt. Naan sprinkled with saffron. sour curd. salt. It is mainly from UP. paneer. 18. NAAN: Leavened bread of North India. kheema. chopped green chilli. it is made from maida and ghee and can be
11. salt and pepper. PURI PATIALA: This is a Patiala style of puri. proved again until double in size. cut into rounds and then deep fried. soda bicarb /yeast. warm milk and water to make a soft dough. salt. 17. AMRITSAR KI LUCHI: Deep fried crispy bread from Punjab. half cooked and be rolled and ghee is applied in between every layer while rolling. saffron. ROGHNI NAAN: Roghni means red. 9.
24. 29 . It is cooked like parathas. It is stuffed with a mixture of ground moong dal. coriander. ANDEY KI ROTI: Also known as Bombay ki roti. both the sides are brown. Two thin breads are sandwiched. ROTLI: Gujarathi preparation. deep fried. Garam masala rolled into a circle of phulka size and shape. 1 tsp salt. green chillies and fresh coriander. gifted by migrants from Baghdad. two separate roti's can be seen. onion and coriander. Served with nariyal chutney. 26. The uniqueness of the roti is in its folding. sweetened with caster sugar with the flavor of cardamom. 38 BERMI ROTI: Seen in Jodhpur Part of Rajasthan.. This is stuffed into the paratha rolled and shallow fried on a hot griddle until. 32 . 33 . PUNJABI LACHA PARATHA: This is made like paratha with lots and lots of oil. 34 . KHAKRA: Crispy roti from Gujarat. This is stuffed with a mixture of peas. traditional fuel is ‘Kandha’ (dried cowdung fire) DOPPATRI ROTIS: They are very popular in Malwa area. onion seeds and asafetida. GOBI KA PARATHA: It is a Bombay speciality. It is a unique style of cooking. green chillies and turmeric powder.
BREADS FROM WEST: 28 . baked
. This roti is from Gujarat area. 31 . YEHUDI ROTI: Jewish roti. green chillies. 1 tsp salt. chillies. NARGISI PURI: stuffed with a mixture of mashed eggs. Here garam masala is added to the dough. PHEFRE: Rajasthani farmers bread. Refined flour bread . Rotlees are thinner and softer than Chapattis. Eaten with pickle..Abheek Pramanick
stuffed with a variety of fillings. black pepper. MASALA ROTI: Thick roti stuffed with a masala containing chopped tomatoes.3" diameter flattened with palm. cumin seeds. It is griddled on one side and then cooked on direct flame.
SWEET WARQI ROTI: It is a sweet Roti. POORI /PURI: Deep fried atta bread . PALAK KI PURI: From Indore with the flavor of spinach and spices. DAL-PURI: Stuffed with a mixture of cooked dal with cardamom and cumin seeds. chilli. Thick piece of dough is palm flattened round. 23. MALAI ROTI: It is a delicacy of Punjab. 35 . 25. 37 . Varieties are: BERMI PURI: The dough is same as Bermi roti. It is stuffed with minced meat /vegetable Kheema. this roti is carried by them for meals as Khakhra's remain for a long time. chilli and salt. METHI NI BHAKRI: This is a traditional gujarathi roti using bajra flour/ wheat flour. GADAI ROTI: One of the popular breads of UP. onions and ginger. chopped fenugreek leaves. But when pulled apart. onions. They are soft and thin like chapaìthies. 30 . coriander. coriander leaves and mint leaves. It is rolled and baked in an oven at 140 degrees for 30 mts. Here cauliflower is grated and mixed with lime juice. griddled to colour & steamed further. 36 . chilli powder. When people travel. garlic. potatoes. 27. baked on thava. Deep fried.
COORGI ROTI: Snow white rice flour roti of coorg. 42 . 47 . here pieces of dough are cut into squares and dropped into cooked dal and re-cooked and given a tadka. Here coconut is added along with the dough. BARODA DAL DHOKLI: Baroda style. spinach. Cooked. Served mainly with veg. It can be stuffed with kheema or potato. green chillies and coriander leaves. chilli powder. Notable variation is Oothappam which is more thicker and smaller in radius than Dosai. coriander powder. onions. Batter of rice and spilt black gram. 44 . steamed in special moulds.
. sprouted moong dal and coriander leaves and made like chapathi. TIKKAR: Peasants bread of Malwa. Served with sambar and coconut chutney. salt. DHOHDHA: Barley flour bread. AATE KA PURA: Savoury wheat flour pan cake of Maharashtra. /meat dishes. 46 . 41 . 53. MASALA BHAATI: The dough shaped into rounds and dry roasted in a charcoal fire of dry cowdung. onions. It is served hot with dal /kadi. Dough is made of rice puree. and usually served with grilled meat. mixed with lots of chopped garlic. MISSIE ROTI: It is made from wheat four. 48 . . urad dal (3:1). Fenugreek flavoured batter is made with ground rice. It is a leavened bread. Cook in a griddle until brown specks appear on both sides.
PAKWAN: It is a popular dish of Sindh.Abheek Pramanick
. chillipowder and turmeric added on. pricked using a fork and deep fried. Also known as ‘FRANKIES’. it is flattened to round disc. A Sindhi speciality with green chilli. 43 . onions and cumin seeds.
BREADS FROM SOUTH: 49 . It is complete meal and more roties are served. CEYLONESE ROTI: This is from Chennai region of India. Bengal gram flour. chillies and coriander and rolled like a Swiss roll. 39 . Leavened bread. METHI THEPLA: Dough is a mixture of wheat flour and jowar /Bajra flour with fenugreek. 52. Dough is made from Atta. It is made like chapathi. Cooked like chapathies. Cooked like Chapathi. When cooked they are cleaned and put into a bowl filled with ghee. IDLI: Traditional breakfast from South India. KATHI ROLL OF NIZAM: Specialty of Calcutta where the roti is stuffed with a mixture of mash potatoes. MAH KI ROTI: This roti is from MP. 40 . coriander leaves and lime juice. It is a thick roti made of wheat and corn flour. dry in a tava.
50. 51. DOSAI: South Indian bread. BAFLA: It is a rotis cooked first in lentil soup and then dry roasted. 45 . tomatoes.
63. 62. 65. OROTTI: chapatti made from a dough of mashed cooked rice . is steamed in bamboo mould lined with turmeric leaves . sandwiched. steamed and served with stew.5 kg) and is served as an offering. BATHUWAY KI ROTI: This from Bihar. 57. 58.
55. DHAKAI PARATHA: It is shallow fried flaky bread of Bengal (Dhakka).toddy fermented and prepared in special ‘chatty’(concave cast iron moulds). PATTIRI: Rice flour chapattis from Malabar served with mutton/chicken stew. Authentic kerala breakfast. 59. chickpea stew. 70. PUTTU: Kerala steamed breakfast preparation sandwiched with fresh coconut. AKKI ROTI: coorgi version of OROTTI. IDDIAPPAM or STRING HOPPERS: strands of rice noodle.chilli). KANCHIPURAM IDDLI: Famous from sri devaraja temple in kanchipura.weighs 3 pounds(1. THALIYA PUTT: Steamed cake of rice grains (thari) and coconut milk. This uses spinach as a stuffing and uses warm water for kneading. BREADS FROM EAST: 67. Here the way in which it becomes flaky is unique. turmeric colored and tempered. aniseeds and ghee is mixed to make dough. Each iddli. ( bathuway= spinach) PHULKO LUCHI: It is puffed.moong)and vegetables(onion. dal flour. Accompaniment could be ripe bananas. SEMOLINA IDDLI: Variation of idli with rava.Abheek Pramanick
54.cut along the radius and then folded into a cone and pressed down. NOOLPUTTU: Coorgi version of IDDIAPPAM. 56. 69. 66.urud. 61.chenna. curd & soda. garlic . deep fried bread of Bengal made with refined flour (with 10% fat incorporated into dough) RADHABALOBHI LUCHI: Deep fried of West Bengal made from a dough containing atta. Made from rice.
. It is rolled into rounds. KADUMPUTTU: Steamed dumplings of rice grains ( ‘thari’) and coconut milk. ADAI: Pancake rich with wide variety of cereals (rice. dusted with rice flour .Specialty of Tamilnadu. PESARAATTU: Andra ‘s dosai made out of green gram savoured with chutney.Dutch pancakes made with rice . 64.often had with mutton stew. green gram or fish curry. APPAM or HOPPERS: Kerala Christian breakfast. wheat or ragi.
Uttapam. 1) Indian snacks are generally consumed in the evenings. Snacks of Northern Region: Golgappa. Dahi Bhalley. Ghugni. Dahi Vada. Dahi Puri. Snacks of Southern Region: Mysore Bonda. 2) Most of such snacks are less expensive than a regular meal and sold by hawkers on carts. Chilla. 5) Many of snacks are prepared right in front of the customers. Papdi Chaat. Matra Kulcha. Mughlai Paratha. This is the reason it is known as street food. Vada Pav. 3) It is also known as Comfort food because it does not require a complicated service. Andhra Chilli Bhaji. Usal Pav. Bhaja. Choley Bhaturey.Abheek Pramanick
The concept of fast food is not limited to the western countries but is quite prevalent in India also. Aloo ki tikki. A variety of ingredients are used in different permutations and combinations. Chop. 6) Almost the entire range of Indian snacks is still vegetarian. It can be eaten in bowls fabricated out of leaves or even paper cups and plates. 4) Each state has its own set of snacks or street food. Idli. Many snacks do not require a formal seating and it can be eaten sitting in a car or even standing next to the vendor. Pakora. Khaandvi
. The unique thing about Indian snacks is that it rarely appears on the dinner table or as main meal. Bhel Puri. Kachori. Dhokla. Samosa. 7) Southern snacks owe their popularity to the vast number of Udupi restaurants around the country. Dosa. Fruit Chaat. Kathi Roll. Medu Vada Snacks of Eastern Region: Jhal Muri. Singhara. Momos Snacks of Western Region: Pav Bhaji.