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**Chapter 9 Sequences and Series of Functions
**

9.1 Pointwise Convergence of Sequence of Functions

Deﬁnition 9.1 A Let {f

n

} be a sequence of functions deﬁned on a set of real numbers E. We say that

{f

n

} converges pointwise to a function f on E for each x ∈ E, the sequence of real numbers {f

n

(x)}

converges to the number f(x). In other words, for each x ∈ E , we have

lim

x→∞

f

n

(x) = f(x).

Example 1) Let

f

n

(x) = x

n

, x ∈ [0, 1]

and let

f(x) =

_

0 if 0 ≤ x < 1

1 if x = 1.

Then {f

n

} converges to f pointwise on [0, 1].

2) Let

g

n

(x) =

x

1 + nx

, x ∈ [0, ∞]

Then {g

n

} converges to g(x) = 0 pointwise on [0, ∞].

3) Let

h

n

(x) =

nx

1 + n

2

x

2

, x ∈ [0, ∞]

Then {h

n

} converges to h(x) = 0 pointwise on [0, ∞].

4) Let

χ

n

(x) =

_

1 if x ∈ [−n, n]

0 otherwise.

Then {χ

n

} converges to χ(x) = 1 pointwise on [−∞, ∞].

Remark. Suppose {f

n

} converges pointwise to f on E. Then given > 0, and given x ∈ E, there exists

N = N(x, ) ∈ I, such that

|f

n

(x) −f(x)| < , for all n ≥ N.

In general N depends on as well as x.

For example, consider the sequence of Example 1 above: f

(

x) = x

n

and f(x) = 0, (0 ≤ x < 1) and f(1) = 1.

If = 1/2, then, for each x ∈ [0, 1], there exists N such that

|f

n

(x) −f(x)| ≤

1

2

. for all (n ≥ N) (∗)

For x = 0 or x = 1 , then (∗) holds with N = 1. For x = 3/4 = 0.75, (∗) holds with N = 3 and for x = 0.9

we need N = 7.

We claim that there is no N for which (∗) hold for all x ∈ [0, 1]. For if there is such an N, then for all

x ∈ [0, 1), (*) implies

x

n

<

1

2

.

In particular we would have

x

N

<

1

2

for all x ∈ [0, 1). Taking limit as x →1

−

we would have 1 ≤ 1/2, which is a contradiction.

If g

n

is as given in Example 2 above :

g

n

(x) =

x

1 + nx

,

then we have

g

n

(x) ≤

1

n

for all x ∈ [0, ∞) and hence for a given > 0 , any N with N > 1/ will imply that

|g

n

(x) −0| < for all n > N and for all x ∈ [0, ∞).

We leave to you to analyze the situations for the sequences in Examples 3 and 4 above.

9.2 Uniform Convergence of Sequence of Functions

Deﬁnition 9.2A Let {f

n

} be a sequence of functions on E. We say that {f

n

} converges uniformly to

f on E if for given > 0, there exists N = N(), depending on only, such that

|f

n

(x) −f(x)| < for all n > N and for all x ∈ E.

If {f

n

} converges to f uniformly to f on E, we write

f

n

→ f uniformly on E.

Remark. 1) Unlike the pointwise converges, in the case of uniform convergence, we note N depends

only on and not on x.

2) If f

n

→ f uniformly on E, then f

n

→ f pointwise on E. The sequence f

n

(x) = x

n

on [0, 1] discussed in

Example 1 of the previous section shows that the converse of the above statement is not true.

Example The sequence

g

n

(x) =

x

1 + nx

converges uniformly to 0 on [0, ∞). It is a good exercise to show whether the sequences of Examples 3 and 4

of the previous section are uniformly convergent or not.

The following corollary is a restatement of the deﬁnition of uniform converges. It is useful to show that a

sequence is not uniformly convergent.

Corollary 9.2B The sequence {f

n

} does not converge uniformly to f on E if and only if there exists an

> 0 such that there is no N > 0 for which

|f

n

(x) −f(x)|, for all n > N for all x ∈ E

holds.

Remark 1) If f

n

→ f uniformly on E and > 0, then there exists N > 0 such that for all n > N, the

entire graph of y = f

n

(x) lies between the graphs of y = f(x) − and y = f(x) + .

2) If f

n

→ 0 uniformly on E and > 0, then there exists N > 0 such that for all n > N and all x ∈ E,

|f

n

(x)| < . This implies that for all n > N,

sup

x∈E

|f

n

(x)| ≤ and hence lim

n→∞

sup

x∈E

|f

n

(x)| ≤ .

Since > 0 is an arbitrary positive number, we conclude that

If f

n

→0 uniformly on E, then lim

n→∞

sup

x∈E

|f

n

(x)| = 0.

The converse is also true and the proof is an exercise.

Example For the sequence

h

n

(x) =

nx

1 + n

2

x

2

we have

sup

x∈[0,∞)

|h

n

(x)| ≥ h

n

_

1

n

_

=

1

2

and hence lim

n→∞

sup

x∈[0,∞)

|h

n

(x)| = 0.

Thus {h

n

} does not converge uniformly to 0 on [0, ∞).

Theorem 9.2E

f

n

→f uniformly on E if and only if lim

n→∞

sup

x∈E

|f

n

(x) −f(x)| = 0.

Theorem 9.2F (Cauchy Criterion for Uniform Convergence) A sequence {f

n

} converges uniformly

on E if and only if for a given > 0, there exists N > 0 such that for all n ≥ m > N and for all x ∈ E,

|f

n

(x) −f

m

(x)| < .

Theorem 9.2G If {f

n

} is a sequence of continuous functions on a bounded and closed interval [a, b] and

{f

n

} converges pointwise to a continuous function f on [a, b], then f

n

→ f uniformly on [a, b].

9.3 Consequences of Uniform Convergence

Theorem 9.3A If f

n

→ f uniformly on [a, b], if f

n

are continuous at c ∈ [a, b], then f is continuous at c.

Corollary 9.3B If f

n

→ f uniformly on [a, b], if f

n

are continuous on [a, b], then f is continuous on [a, b].

Remark Does f

n

∈ R[a, b] and f → f pointwise on [a, b] imply that f ∈ R[a, b]? The answer is no. For

example, let

A = {r

1

, r

2

, r

3

, · · ·}

be the set of all rational numbers in [0, 1], and let

A

n

= {r

1

, r

2

, · · · , r

n

}.

Let χ

n

be the characteristic function of A

n

and χ be the characteristic of A. Since χ

n

is discontinuous only at

a ﬁnite number of points (where ?), we see that χ

n

∈ R[a, b]. On the other hand, χ is not continuouos at any

point in [0, 1] and hence χ ∈ R[a, b]. Clearly χ

n

→ χ on [0, 1] pointwise.

Theorem 9.3E If f

n

∈ R[a, b] and if f

n

→ f uniformly on [a, b], then f ∈ R[a, b].

Remark In Theorems 9.3A and 9.3E, uniform convergence is suﬃcient. The sequence h

n

(x) =

nx

1+n

2

x

2

for x ∈ [0, ∞), converges to the continuous function h(x) = 0. Recall that the converges is not uniform. The

sequence f

n

(x) = x

n

on [0, 1] can be used to show that uniform convergence is not necessary for theorem 9.3E

(explain).

Remark When does f

n

→ f imply

_

b

a

f →

_

b

a

f? To answer this question, we consider the following

example. Let

f

n

(x) =

_

¸

_

¸

_

2n if

1

n

≤ x ≤

2

n

0 otherwise

Then

_

1

0

f

n

(x) dx =

_ 2

n

1

n

2ndx = 2n

_

2

n

−

1

n

_

= 2 and hence lim

n→∞

_

1

0

f

n

(x) dx = 2.

On the other hand, for ﬁxed x ∈ [0, 1], we can choose an N so that x > 2/N and hence f

n

(x) = 0 for all n ≥ N.

Therefore

f

n

→ 0 pointwise and hence

_

1

0

lim

n→∞

f

n

(x) dx = 0.

Theorem 9.3G If f

n

∈ R[a, b] and if f

n

→ f uniformly on [a, b], then

_

b

a

f →

_

b

a

f.

Remark Let f

n

(x) =

x

n

n

on [0, 1] and let f(x) = 0. Then f

n

→ f uniformly but f

n

(1) = 1 while f

(1) = 0.

Thus

lim

n→∞

f

n

(x) = f

(x)

does not hold at x = 1.

Theorem 9.3I If f

n

(x) exists for each n and each x ∈ [a, b], if f

n

is continuous on [a, b], if {f

n

} convegres

uniformly to f on [a, b], and if {f

n

} convegres uniformly to g on [a, b], then g = f

.

9.4 Convergence and Uniform Convergence of Series of Functions

Deﬁniton 9.4A Let {u

n

} be a sequence of functions and let s

n

(x) =

n

k=1

u

k

(x) be the nth partial sum

of the inﬁntie series

∞

k=1

u

k

(x). We say

∞

k=1

u

k

converges pointwise to f on E if s

n

→ f pointwise on E. In

this case we write

∞

k=1

u

k

= f pointwise on E

Example Let u

k

= x

k

, −1 < x < 1 and let f(x)

x

1−x

. Then

∞

k=1

u

k

= f pointwise on (−1, 1).

Deﬁniton 9.4B We say that

∞

k=1

u

k

converges to f uniformly on E if s

n

→ f uniformly on E. We write

∞

k=1

u

k

= f uniformly on E

Theorem 9.4C If

∞

k=1

u

k

= f uniformly on E, and if {u

k

} is continuous on E, then f is continuous on E.

Exnaple Let

u

n

(x) = x(1 −x

n

), (0 ≤ x ≤ 1, n = 0, 1, 2, · · ·), and let f(x) =

_

1, if 0 < x ≤ 1

0, if x = 0.

Then

u

n

= f pointwise on [0, 1].(Verify this) Clearly f is not continuous at x = 0 while u

n

is continuous

for each n.

Theorem 9.4E (Weierstrass M-Test) If {u

k

} is a sequence of continuous functions such that |u

k

(x)| ≤

M

k

for all x ∈ E and if

M

k

is convergent, then

∞

k=1

u

k

= f uniformly on E

Notation if {a

k

} and {b

k

} are two sequences, and if a

k

≤ b

k

, we write

∞

k=1

a

k

<<

∞

k=1

b

k

Thus Weierstrass’ Theorem states that

if

∞

k=1

u

k

<<

∞

k=1

M

k

< ∞, then, for some functionf,

∞

k=1

u

k

= f uniformly on E

Example Since

∞

n=1

sin(nx)

n

2

<<

∞

n=1

1

n

2

< ∞,

Weierstrass’Theorem implies that

∞

n=1

sin(nx)

n

2

converges uniformly on R.

Theorem 9.4F If the power series

∞

k=0

a

k

x

k

converges for x = x

0

(with x

0

= 0), then the power series

converges uniformly on [−x

1

, x

1

] for any x

1

∈ [0, |x

0

|].

Theorem 9.4G Let {u

k

} is a sequence of continouous nonnegative functions on [a, b] and if

∞

k=0

u

k

convgres pointwise to a continuous function f on [a, b], then

∞

k=1

u

k

= f uniformly on [a, b].

9.5 Integration and Diﬀerentiation of Series of Functions

Theorem 9.5A Let {u

k

} be sequence of fucntions in R[a, b]. and suppose

∞

k=1

u

k

= f uniformly on

[a, b]. Then f ∈ R[a, b] and

_

b

a

f(x) dx =

_

b

a

_

∞

k=1

u

k

(x)

_

dx =

∞

k=1

_

_

b

a

u

k

(x) dx

_

Theorem 9.5B If {u

k

} is diﬀerentiable on [a, b], if {u

k

} is continuous on [a, b], if

u

k

= f uniformly,

and if

u

k

converges uniformly on [a, b], then

∞

k=1

u

k

(x) = f

(x)

Example 1)

1 −x + x

2

−x

3

+ · · · =

1

1 + x

uniformly on (0, 1)

implies that for any y ∈ (0, 1),

_

y

0

1dx −

_

y

0

xdx +

_

y

0

x

2

dx −

_

y

0

x

3

dx + · · · =

_

y

0

1

1 + x

dx

from which we conclude that

y −

y

2

2

+

y

3

3

−

y

4

4

+· · · = log(1 + y).

2)

1 + x + x

2

+ x

3

+ · · · =

1

1 −x

uniformly on (0, 1)

implies that for all x ∈ (−1, 1),

1 + 2x + 3x

2

+ 4x

3

+ · · · =

1

(1 −x)

2

.

Theorem 9.5C If the power series

∞

k=0

a

k

x

k

convegres to f(x) on [−b, b] for some b > 0, then for any

x ∈ [−b, b],

f

(x) =

∞

k=1

ka

k

x

k−1

.

Corollary 9.5D

If f(x) =

∞

k=0

a

k

x

k

, then f

(n)

(x) =

∞

k=n

k(k −1)(k −2) · · · (k −n + 1)a

k

x

k−n

.

Example (A Continuous Nowhere Diﬀerentiable Function)

Let f

0

(x) = the distance from x to the nearest integer. (Thus f

0

(0.45) = 0.45 and f

0

(3.67) = 0.33)

Deﬁne f

k

(x) = f

k

(10

k

x) and

F(x) =

∞

k=0

f

k

(x)

10

k

.

Then F is continouos everywhere and diﬀerentiable nowhere.

Example Another example of everywhere continuous and nowhere diﬀerentiable function is due to

Weierstrass and is given by

G(x) =

∞

k=0

cos (3

n

x)

2

n

.

Taking limit as x → 1 we would have 1 ≤ 1/2. we note N depends only on and not on x. For if there is such an N . such that |fn (x) − f (x)| < for all n > N and for all x ∈ E. we write fn → f uniformly on E. for all n > N for all x ∈ E Example The sequence . 2 In particular we would have 1 xN < 2 − for all x ∈ [0. then fn → f pointwise on E. gn (x) = The following corollary is a restatement of the deﬁnition of uniform converges. ∞).2 Uniform Convergence of Sequence of Functions Deﬁnition 9. any N with N > 1/ will imply that gn (x) ≤ |gn (x) − 0| < for all n > N and for all x ∈ [0.2B The sequence {fn } does not converge uniformly to f on E if and only if there exists an > 0 such that there is no N > 0 for which |fn (x) − f (x)|. 2) If fn → f uniformly on E. then for all x ∈ [0. Remark. 1). ∞) and hence for a given > 0 . It is useful to show that a sequence is not uniformly convergent. We leave to you to analyze the situations for the sequences in Examples 3 and 4 above. 1] discussed in Example 1 of the previous section shows that the converse of the above statement is not true. depending on only. there exists N = N ( ).2A Let {fn } be a sequence of functions on E. Corollary 9. 1 + nx 1 n for all x ∈ [0. If gn is as given in Example 2 above : gn (x) = then we have x . in the case of uniform convergence. 9.We claim that there is no N for which (∗) hold for all x ∈ [0. which is a contradiction. holds. ∞). We say that {fn } converges uniformly to f on E if for given > 0. 1). (*) implies 1 xn < . 1) Unlike the pointwise converges. If {fn } converges to f uniformly to f on E. The sequence fn (x) = xn on [0. x 1 + nx converges uniformly to 0 on [0. 1]. It is a good exercise to show whether the sequences of Examples 3 and 4 of the previous section are uniformly convergent or not.

1] and hence χ ∈ R[a. · · ·} be the set of all rational numbers in [0. r3. Thus {hn } does not converge uniformly to 0 on [0.3B If fn → f uniformly on [a. b]. This implies that for all n > N . b]. then f is continuous at c. 1]. 1] pointwise. |fn (x) − fm (x)| < . rn }. Let χn be the characteristic function of An and χ be the characteristic of A.∞) n→∞ x∈E lim sup |fn (x)| = 0. Remark Does fn ∈ R[a. if fn are continuous on [a. b].∞) 1 1 = n 2 and hence lim sup |hn (x)| = 0. b]. b] and {fn } converges pointwise to a continuous function f on [a. let A = {r1 . then The converse is also true and the proof is an exercise. b]. we conclude that If fn → 0 uniformly on E. r2 . For example. if fn are continuous at c ∈ [a. the entire graph of y = fn (x) lies between the graphs of y = f (x) − and y = f (x) + . Corollary 9. b]. 2) If fn → 0 uniformly on E and > 0. b] imply that f ∈ R[a.2G If {fn } is a sequence of continuous functions on a bounded and closed interval [a. b]. |fn (x)| < . and let An = {r1 . .Remark 1) If fn → f uniformly on E and > 0. b]. b] and f → f pointwise on [a. Since χn is discontinuous only at a ﬁnite number of points (where ?). b]? The answer is no. b]. then f is continuous on [a. Theorem 9. Since > 0 is an arbitrary positive number. then fn → f uniformly on [a. · · · . ∞). then there exists N > 0 such that for all n > N and all x ∈ E. Example For the sequence hn (x) = we have sup |hn (x)| ≥ hn x∈[0. On the other hand. n→∞ x∈E Theorem 9.3A If fn → f uniformly on [a. Clearly χn → χ on [0.3 Consequences of Uniform Convergence Theorem 9. sup |fn (x)| ≤ x∈E and hence n→∞ x∈E lim sup |fn (x)| ≤ . there exists N > 0 such that for all n ≥ m > N and for all x ∈ E.2E fn → f uniformly on E if and only if lim sup |fn (x) − f (x)| = 0. 9.2F (Cauchy Criterion for Uniform Convergence) A sequence {fn } converges uniformly on E if and only if for a given > 0. we see that χn ∈ R[a. Theorem 9. nx 1 + n 2 x2 n→∞ x∈[0. r2 . χ is not continuouos at any point in [0. then there exists N > 0 such that for all n > N .

We write uniformly on E . nx Remark In Theorems 9. b] and if fn → f uniformly on [a.4B We say that uk = f pointwise on (−1. 1]. The sequence fn (x) = xn on [0. Remark When does fn → f imply example. b] and if fn → f uniformly on [a. b].3E (explain). lim f (x) n→∞ n = f (x) Theorem 9. then b b f → a a f. if {fn } convegres uniformly to f on [a. Then ∞ Deﬁniton 9. xn n on [0. b]. k=1 ∞ k=1 uk converges to f uniformly on E ∞ uk = f k=1 if sn → f uniformly on E. Remark Let fn (x) = Thus does not hold at x = 1. b]. 1] and let f (x) = 0. b].3A and 9. we can choose an N so that x > 2/N and hence fn (x) = 0 for all n ≥ N . if fn is continuous on [a. ∞). We say ∞ uk converges pointwise to f on E if sn → f pointwise on E.3E. Then fn → f uniformly but fn (1) = 1 while f (1) = 0. converges to the continuous function h(x) = 0. 1 n→∞ 0 n n 0 n On the other hand.3G If fn ∈ R[a. we consider the following if 1 n 2n 0 ≤x≤ 2 n fn (x) = Then 1 otherwise 1 1 2 − =2 and hence lim fn (x) dx = 2. uniform convergence is suﬃcient. 1).3E If fn ∈ R[a. Recall that the converges is not uniform. Let b a f → b a f ? To answer this question.4 Convergence and Uniform Convergence of Series of Functions Deﬁniton 9. 1] can be used to show that uniform convergence is not necessary for theorem 9. then f ∈ R[a. b]. for ﬁxed x ∈ [0. The sequence hn (x) = 1+n2 x2 for x ∈ [0.Theorem 9. Therefore 1 fn → 0 pointwise and hence lim fn (x) dx = 0. 9.4A Let {un } be a sequence of functions and let sn (x) = n uk (x) be the nth partial sum k=1 of the inﬁntie series ∞ uk (x). In k=1 k=1 this case we write ∞ uk = f pointwise on E k=1 x Example Let uk = xk . −1 < x < 1 and let f (x) 1−x .3I If fn (x) exists for each n and each x ∈ [a. then g = f . and if {fn } convegres uniformly to g on [a. b]. b]. fn (x) dx = 2 n 2n dx = 2n 0 n→∞ Theorem 9.

Then un = f pointwise on [0.4C If Exnaple Let ∞ k=1 uk = f uniformly on E. un (x) = x(1 − xn ). x1] for any x1 ∈ [0.(Verify this) Clearly f is not continuous at x = 0 while un is continuous for each n. we write ∞ ∞ ak << k=1 k=1 bk ∞ Thus Weierstrass’ Theorem states that ∞ ∞ if k=1 uk << k=1 Mk < ∞. then ∞ ∞ k=0 ∞ uk uk = f uniformly on [a. then. b]. |x0|].4G Let {uk } is a sequence of continouous nonnegative functions on [a. b]. k=1 . Theorem 9. 2 2 n n=1 n=1 n ∞ uk = f uniformly on E Example Since Weierstrass’Theorem implies that sin(nx) n2 n=1 converges uniformly on R. Theorem 9. for some functionf.Theorem 9. 1. and let f (x) = 1. n = 0.4E (Weierstrass M-Test) If {uk } is a sequence of continuous functions such that |uk (x)| ≤ Mk for all x ∈ E and if Mk is convergent. Theorem 9. 2. if x = 0. then the power series k=0 converges uniformly on [−x1. if 0 < x ≤ 1 0. 1]. b] and if convgres pointwise to a continuous function f on [a. then ∞ uk = f k=1 uniformly on E Notation if {ak } and {bk } are two sequences. and if {uk } is continuous on E. k=1 ∞ sin(nx) 1 << < ∞.4F If the power series ∞ ak xk converges for x = x0 (with x0 = 0). (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. then f is continuous on E. and if ak ≤ bk . · · ·).

y y y 1 1+x y 0 uniformly on (0. then for any ∞ f (x) = k=1 kak xk−1 . 2 3 4 1 1−x uniformly on (0. b]. then f (n) (x) = k=n k(k − 1)(k − 2) · · · (k − n + 1)ak xk−n .5C x ∈ [−b.45 and f0(3.9. Example Another example of everywhere continuous and nowhere diﬀerentiable function is due to Weierstrass and is given by ∞ cos (3n x) .5B If {uk } is diﬀerentiable on [a. Then f ∈ R[a.5A Let {uk } be sequence of fucntions in R[a.67) = 0. 1) 1 .5 Integration and Diﬀerentiation of Series of Functions ∞ k=1 Theorem 9.33) Deﬁne fk (x) = fk (10k x) and ∞ fk (x) F (x) = . 1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + · · · = Theorem 9. b] for some b > 0.5D ∞ ∞ If f (x) = k=0 ak xk . Corollary 9. If the power series ∞ k=0 ak xk convegres to f (x) on [−b. and suppose [a. Example (A Continuous Nowhere Diﬀerentiable Function) Let f0(x) = the distance from x to the nearest integer. if {uk } is continuous on [a. (1 − x)2 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · = implies that for all x ∈ (−1. b]. Theorem 9. 1) y 0 1dx − 0 0 xdx + 0 x2dx − x3dx + · · · = 1 dx 1+x from which we conclude that y− 2) y2 y3 y4 + − + · · · = log(1 + y). 1). b] and b b ∞ ∞ b a uk = f uniformly on f (x) dx = a a k=1 uk (x) dx = k=1 uk (x) dx uk = f uniformly. if and if uk converges uniformly on [a. (Thus f0(0. b]. 1). then ∞ uk (x) = f (x) k=1 Example 1) 1 − x + x2 − x3 + · · · = implies that for any y ∈ (0. b]. 10k k=0 Then F is continouos everywhere and diﬀerentiable nowhere. G(x) = 2n k=0 .45) = 0. b]. b].

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