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Wildfires: from remote sensing analysis to rapid response

(an example from Greenpeace Russia)
Anna Komarova anna.komarova@greenpeace.org
Photos by Maria Vasil’eva, Igor Podgorny, Anna Andreeva, Anna Baskakova, Natalia Maximova

Greenpeace - GIS-Labs
40 offices – only 3 have GIS-Labs;
In Russia: 3 persons in GIS-Lab (since 2012); international projects

GIS-Lab Greenpeace Russia:
Campaign Driven Data Driven

Fukushima Disaster, 2011 March

выполнение запросов кампейнера

выполнение научно-аналитической работы для дальнейшего принятия решений

Projects in GIS-Lab Greenpeace Russia:
• Intact Forest Landscapes: inventory (finished), specification on regional level, change analysis

• Fire analysis • GIS-Arctic and oil spills detection

Projects in GIS-Lab Greenpeace Russia:
GIS, data analysis and operative mapping support for all campaign projects (in addition to listed above): Kids For Forest UNESCO World Nature Heritage

and many other campaign projects – see www.greenpeace.ru

Firefighting project in Greenpeace Russia:
established officially in 2011, but • since 1998 – the model area “Homeland of the Crane”, the North of Moscow region • 2010 – informing the people about fire disaster; assistance to Voluntary Firefighting Team remote sensing data has become the basic source of information since ~2006-08

Firefighting project in Greenpeace Russia:
• The first aim is to ensure public supervision of state firefighting activity • Voluntary firefighting groups (>10)

Firefighting project in Greenpeace Russia:
• monitoring, forecasting and informing people • rapid response (conservation areas, drained peats, radiocontaminated areas)

• analysis of consequences, media coverage, lobbying for changes of forest and fire laws

Remote sensing data (principal sources):
• FIRMS http://earthdata.nasa.gov/data/nrt-data/firms

Remote sensing data (principal sources):
• MODIS http://earthdata.nasa.gov/data/near-real-time-data/rapid-response/modis-subsets; http://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/data/search.html

Remote sensing data (principal sources):
• Landsat http://glovis.usgs.gov/

Monitoring, forecasting and informing people
the goal is to report a real situation, because the state officers usually can’t provide truth (they don’t know sometimes and, more, they are limited by “regulation for lie” (“Регламент лжи”) (Order #386, 29.06.06 by Ministry of Emergency) and requirements of “good statistics”) • day-to-day checking the situation (FIRMS) • news and every-week reviews on www.forestforum.ru • forecasting maps

Fires which didn’t exist…

Monitoring, forecasting and informing people
Treats of Forest Fires in 2011 and Main Results of Forest Fire of 2010, Central Part of European Russia

Orange – large dry pine and mixed forests on sand, green – the largest drained peats, red – fireplaces 2010, blue –windfalls, yellow – contaminated areas after Chernobyl’ disaster, green spots – burned populated places in 2010

Monitoring, forecasting and informing people
• Interactive map of drained peatlands

http://www.forestforum.ru/peatfires.php

www.fires.kosmosnimki.ru

Amur region
according the state information, on the 17 of May – only 2 fires burn in Amur region
http://www.28.mchs.gov.ru/news/detail.php?news=8669

Monitoring, forecasting and informing people
• Interactive map of drained peatlands

Rapid response :
• We always inform the state of region and MOE and try to make them to start putting out the fire; if the state of region can’t manage the situation, we require them to put in force the regime of emergency situation • We take part in extinguishing the fire in conservation areas, drained peats, radiocontaminated areas – where it’s too dangerous to wait for state response • The procedure of fire rapid response was elaborated in 2010

Мониторинг пожаров: FIRMS + Google Планета Земля

Мониторинг пожаров: MODIS

Снимок Modis/Terra (натуральные цвета)

Снимок Modis/Terra (каналы 7-2-1)

http://fires.kosmosnimki.ru/

The procedure of fire rapid response :
Remote sensing (RS) To get information about fire (geoservers, descriptions, official data) To appraise the situation (by satellite images (SI) / by contact with people who live at the region); decision about departure to the fire Preparing the map data Equiping of rapid response group Comparing remote sensing data and observed situation Putting out the fire Rapid response group

Two-way informational exchange (data concerning on spreading the fire during putting out)
Post-fire monitoring, areas’ counting by landing observe and by high-resolution SI

Greenpeace rapid response

Greenpeace rapid response

Greenpeace rapid response

Greenpeace rapid response

Greenpeace rapid response

Analysis of consequences, media coverage, lobbying for changes of forest and fire laws
• 2010

http://gis-lab.info/qa/fires-greenpeace.html

OSM

+

FIRMS

http://fires.kosmosnimki.ru

http://www.fire.uni-freiburg.de/GFMCnew/2010/08/17/20100817_ru.htm

OSM

+

Иркутская область - MODIS

3,736 млн. га, из них ~ 500 тыс. - не лесные

http://gis-lab.info/qa/fires-greenpeace.html

Analysis of consequences, media coverage, lobbying for changes of forest and fire laws
• Mapping of burned area: 2011 – 8,9 mln ha MODIS (state report: 1,8 mln ha)

MODIS Subsets, 721

http://earthdata.nasa.gov/data/near-real-time-data/rapid-response/modis-subsets

27/09/2010

17/09/2011

We estimate the burned areas, because official statistic is mendacious: official data for 2011 is 5 time less then area been estimated using satellite images (1,8 mln ha and 9 mln ha). FIRMS helps to find burned areas through the large territory of Russia

blue points are FIRMS data, red line marks burned area

• • • • • • •

Архангельская область Республика Коми Амурская область Забайкальский край Иркутская область Хабаровский край Красноярский край

• • • • • •

Якутия Бурятия Челябинская область ХМАО Свердловская область ЯНАО

Analysis of consequences, media coverage, lobbying for changes of forest and fire laws
mln ha

Official data are very understated
25 20

Confidence Level of Natural Fires Data

billion ha

15 10 5 0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Russia statistics Global Fire Monitor Center/Sukachev Forest Institute

2012: blue lines – VEGA (http://vega.smislab.ru/pre ss/fireobzor.shtml) red – Rosleskhoz green - MOE

Analysis of consequences, media coverage, lobbying for changes of forest and fire laws
• Change of laws we need: restore of forest guard and the status of forest rangers, reduction of “paper circulation” in forestry, abrogation of law about licensing of firefighting and a number of another ones

www.forestforum.ru Orange blocks are forest guard staff (the number of people), green blocks – other staff of forestry sector (bureaucracy as first)

Peats seems to be the principal problem
• The most dangerous type of fire, because it’s hidden disaster • They start to burn in spring because of grass fires – not because of spontaneous ignition – and spread to the vast areas • They may be fixed by FIRMS only because of grass fire – and it’s impossible later, still to the disaster • We noted some cases of false marked FIRMS-points on the exploited peatbogs – we need a detail images for distinguish

Точка на карте forestforum

FIRMS + GoogleEarth

MODIS

Underground fire

Extinguishing the peat fire – burning is going on

Обнаружение:
• Дистанционными методами – если от травы • От травы \ точечное возгорание • Весна \ лето: возможность самовозгорания • Детальная съемка и землепользование: кавальеры \ разработка

Открытый ресурс
Свойства

• • • • • • •

Независимый Архивные данные + скачать Слои landuse и др. Экспорт карты (как в Google Earth) Прогнозирование! Возможность добавления точек Высокое разрешение?

Открытый ресурс
• • • •

• • •

Свойства Независимый Архивные данные + скачать Слои landuse и др. Экспорт карты (как в Google Earth) Прогнозирование! Возможность добавления точек Высокое разрешение?

• •

• •

Зачем? Госорганам – незачем скрывать пожары Статистика (оценка площади и ошибки) Ориентирование Для торфяников – эффективность и безопасность

Summary
• Remote sensing analysis is developed enough for work against wildfires; since 2008 our work based on RS. • We need not so much technology development of RS as expansion of RS use, first – by state and MOE. • The principal reason of fire disasters – destruction of forest management practice and extensive lie and concealing of information by government. • So the point is to eradicate the state lie. The role of RS – the officers would understand that it’s vain to conceal, because the objective information is widespread. • Than, the RS data would be taken into account for the state statistic reports. • The high-resolution and as updated as it’s possible SI are very required, first of all for extinguishing of peat fires. • SI and SI-based structures are required not for detection of fires, but for forecasting also.

Thanks for attention
GIS-Lab, Greenpeace Russia Leningradsky prospect 26 b.1, Moscow, 125040 +7(495)988-74-60 ext. 303, 312 Anna Komarova anna.komarova@greenpeace.org +7(903)626-95-55