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Chemical Periodicity

Arkel Jed Angelo G. Espaar Lassanah Mamadu A. Keita

De La Salle University-Dasmarias Dasmarias, Cavite Philippines


ABSTRACT The topic is the chemical periodicity. When elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic number, their physical & chemical properties recur periodically. This periodicity stems from the valence electronic configurations of the elements. This arrangement of elements in the order of increasing atomic number with the elements having similar properties, and are placed in vertical columns as known in the periodic table. Electrons that belong to the same group often exhibit similarities in their physical & chemical properties because they have the same type of arrangement of electrons at the periphery of their atoms. Elements found in the same horizontal row have the same number of energy levels but cannot be expected to behave chemically in similar ways. And the reagents used were L C , N C , C , MgC , CaC , BaC , distilled water, C, Si, Sn, Pb, MgO, CaO. Our experiment demonstrated that N C , C are soluble and the L C , MgC , CaC , BaC are insoluble. And the MgO and CaO are base compounds.

INTRODUCTION The periodic table makes it easier to find elements since they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. When elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic number, their physical & chemical properties recur periodically. The alkali metals, group IA, are reactive elements that have a 1 valence configuration of ns . Alkaline-earth metals, group IIA, have a valence electron configuration of 2 ns . Electrons that belong to the same group often exhibit similarities in their physical & chemical properties because they have the same type of arrangement of electrons at the periphery of their atoms. Elements found in the same horizontal row have the same number of energy levels but they cannot be expected to behave chemically in similar ways. We can also notice that as an element goes down in a certain group the element gets harder and heavier. This also means that its physical and chemical structure changes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS The materials that we used were: test tubes, 10 mL graduated cylinder, spatula and litmus paper. While the reagents used were L C , N C , C , MgC , CaC , BaC , distilled water, C, Si, Sn, Pb, MgO, and CaO. The reagents were divided into three groups. These groups are; Group IA and IIA Element, Some Group IVA Elements, and finally Some Group IIA Metal Oxide. Group IA and IIA Element consists of the reagents: L C , N C , C MgC , CaC , and BaC . For this group, a small amount of each reagent was placed in a different test tube. Then the physical state, color, and appearance of each were identified. Lastly, their solubility was tested in 10mL of water.

Some Group IVA Elements consists of the reagents: C, Sn, Si, and Pb. For this group, a small amount of each reagent was also placed in different test tubes. Then their physical state, color, and appearance were also tested. Some Group IIA Metal Oxide consists of the reagents: MgO and CaO. For this group, a small amount of each reagent was placed in different test tubes and 10mL was added to each sample. Then each sample was tested with litmus paper. After this a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between the oxides and water was written. Figure 1 below illustrates how the experiment was conducted.

Samples

Group IA and IIA Elements L C MgC N C CaC C BaC C

Some Group IVA Elements Sn Si Pb

Some Group IIA Metal Oxides MgO CaO

Use spatula

Place a small amount of each sample in different test tubes

Identify:
(Except for Some Group IIA Metal Oxides)

- The physical state - Color - Appearance Group IA and IIA Elements - Test the solubility in 10 mL water Some Group IIA Metal Oxides - Add 10 mL - Test with litmus paper - Write balanced chemical equations for the reaction between the oxides and

Record all extracted data


Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of Experimental Procedure

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1.1 Results for Group IA and Group IIA Elements

Compound L C N C C MgC CaC BaC

Physical State
Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid

Color
White White White White White White

Appearance
Small, like powder Small, like powder Small granules Small, like powder Small, like white cement Small, like powder

Solubility in Water
Insoluble Soluble Soluble Insoluble Insoluble Soluble

In Table 1.1, the results show us that in Group IA and Group IIA: the physical state of all elements are solid, their color is white, they have similar appearances, and the compounds: L C , MgC , and CaC are insoluble, while the rest are soluble.

Table 1.2 Results for Some Group IVA Elements Compound C Sn Si Pb Physical State
Solid Solid Solid Solid

Color
Black Silver White Dark Gray

Appearance
Small Ganules Small Balls Small, like powder Small, Sticky Pieces

In Table 1.2, the results show us that in Some Group IVA Elements, may have the same physical state as a solid but still has many differences in color and appearance.

Table 1.3 Results of Some Group IIA Metal Oxides Solubility in Water
Insoluble Insoluble

Compound MgO CaO

Reaction to Blue Litmus Paper


None None

Reaction to Red Litmus paper


Red turned to blue Red turned to blue

In Table 1.3, the result show us that in Some Group IIA Metal Oxides, the samples that were tested were both insoluble in water and their reaction to the red litmus paper was that they turned blue. This reaction to the red litmus paper indicates that these samples are both bases. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction between the oxides and water can be written as: MgO

= Mg(OH)2 = Ca(OH)2

Cao

With the results of the experiment that was conducted we can conclude that elements of the same group have similarities in their physical and chemical properties because they have the same type of arrangement in their electrons at the periphery of their atoms. Hence, elements vertically placed in the periodic table have similar properties. While elements placed horizontally, although having the same number of energy levels cannot be expected to behave chemically in similar ways.

REFERENCES Samonte, Joseph L.; Figueroa, Lolibeth V. General Chemistry Laboratory Manual 3 Publishing, Inc. 2007
rd

Edition C&E

Prepared by: Arkel Jed Angelo G. Espaar, BS Computer Engineering Freshman College of Engineering, Architecture, and Technology De La Salle University-Dasmarias Dasmarias, Cavite Philippines Lassanah Mamadu A. Keita, BS Computer Engineering Freshman College of Engineering, Architecture, and Technology De La Salle University-Dasmarias Dasmarias, Cavite Philippines