Determination of Densities

Arkel Jed Angelo G. Españar Lassanah Mamadu A. Keita

De La Salle University-Dasmariñas Dasmariñas, Cavite Philippines
ABSTRACT The determination of densities were demonstrated by using: a watch glass, a 10 and 100 ml graduated cylinders, a beam balance, a metric ruler, a block of wood, a marble, a some pebbles. The reagents used in this experiment were: isopropyl alcohol, coconut oil, water, and an unknown liquid sample. In order to get the densities of the liquid samples we used a 10 and a 100 ml graduated cylinder. For water, we used the 100 ml graduated cylinder. We took the weight of the graduated cylinder which was 98.8 g then added 50 ml of water which caused the weight to change to 144.8 g. We subtracted the initial weight of the graduated cylinder, from the weight of the graduated cylinder after water was added. Then using the formula ( ) in where D=Density, M=Mass, and V=Volume we can derive the density of water. This formula simply indicates that in order to derive the density of water we have to divide its mass over its volume. This gave us the conclusion that the experimental density of water is 0.92 g/ml. A similar method was used for the other reagents, only instead of a 100 ml graduated cylinder, a 10 ml graduated cylinder was used. The measurement of the reagent added into the 10 ml graduated cylinder was 5.0 ml. As for the solid items, they were classified into: Regular-Shaped Solids: Rectangular Solid, Spherical Solid. And finally Irregularly-Shaped Objects. Other measuring methods were used for measuring these solid items.

INTRODUCTION Density is used to characterize subs. It is defined as the amount of matter occupying a unit of volume. Density is commonly expressed in g/ml for liquids, g/cmᵌ for solids & g/L for gases. It is also describes the characteristic property of the material. D= Where: D=density M=mass V=volume The mass of a liquid / solid may be taken directly from a balance. Similarly, the volume of a liquid sample may be read from a graduated cylinder. For regular solids like a cube / rectangular solid, their volumes can be calculated using the formula V = Sᵌ & V = lwh respectively. S refers to the length of one of the sides of the cube while l, w, h is for rectangular solids. For irregularly-shaped solids, their volumes are taken using the water displacement method. The irregularly shaped solid is immersed in water & the volume is taken as the volume of the irregularly shaped solid.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Densities Solids Regular (Weigh all) Wooden blocks Thickness Width Length Marble Diameter Circumference Radius Liquids Type of liquid Water Isopropyl alcohol Coconut oil Unknown (Kerosene) Measurement (50 ml) (5 ml) (5 ml) (5 ml) Measure of graduated Cylinder (100 ml) (10 ml) (10 ml) (10 ml) Pebbles -. First we weighed all the solids. . we weighed a clean and dry watch glass and we placed the pebbles there. And then we put the pebbles into the graduated cylinder. We also measured the diameter. After that.immerse ( water displacement method) Irregular Rectangular Spherical -. And lastly. And finally we were able to determine its final volume.weigh -.weigh by difference -. watch glass. metric ruler.5ml unknwn (kerosene). & 50ml of water. pebbles. and determined the mass of the container w/ water. beam balance. We weighed a clean & dry 100ml graduated & added a 50 ml water. & length of the rectangular-shaped solid. we weighed a clean dry 10 ml graduated cylinder and added an amount of 5ml of the liquid samples & weighed them all. The Reagents used for the liquid experiment were 5ml of isopropyl alcohol. width. circumference. block of wood. & radius of the spherical-shaped solid.measure the volume Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of Experimental Procedure The materials that we used were 10 & 100ml graduated cylinders. 5ml coconut oil. Then we measured the thickness. And then we filled the graduated cylinder w/ 30 ml water.

0 ml Known density at 30º C 1 g/ml 0. in which r=radius and h=height.90 g/ml 0. the results show us that in measuring liquids with the same volume. ).1 – Results of Density Measurements of Liquids Experimental Density 0.0 ml 5.62 g/ml Liquids Water Isopropyl Alcohol Coconut Oil Kerosene Mass 46 g 3.3 g 4.96 g/ml 0.8 g 3. .92 g/ml 0.9 g Length 48 cm Width 37 cm Height 36 cm Volume Density In Table 1.80 g/ml 0.3.66 g/ml 0. we can see that the density was derived by using the formula ( we can derive the volume.3 – Results of Density Measurement of a Regular Spherical Solid Regular Spherical Solid Marble Mass 29 g Diameter 70.1 g Volume 50 ml 5. Table 1.2. there is an indication that shows us in measuring rectangular-shaped solids we use the formula V = lwh to get the volume and then divide the mass by the volume to get the density.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1. their mass and density are different.1.2 – Results of Density Measurement of a Regular Rectangular Solid Regular Rectangular Solid Block of wood Mass 33.0 ml 5. And mass over volume will give us the density.2 cm Volume Density In Table 1. Derived from the experiment we notice that the Coconut oil has the greatest mass among the given liquids while the Unknown Liquid Sample has the least mass.81 g/ml Percentage Error 8% 18% -7% 23% In Table 1. Table 1.

4. Joseph L. and Technology De La Salle University-Dasmariñas Dasmariñas.Table 1. This method is called “water displacement method. REFERENCES Samonte. Españar.8 g Volume 2 ml Density 7. Lolibeth V. Architecture. Cavite Philippines Lassanah Mamadu A. In order for us to get the volume of an irregular-shaped solid we had to immerse it in water. 2007 rd Edition C&E Prepared by: Arkel Jed Angelo G. we can see the density was derived by dividing mass over volume..4 g/ml In Table 1. Keita. and Technology De La Salle University-Dasmariñas Dasmariñas. BS Computer Engineering Freshman College of Engineering. Architecture. Figueroa. We subtract the final volume of water from the initial volume of water to derive the volume of the irregular-shaped object. General Chemistry Laboratory Manual 3 Publishing. Inc. Cavite Philippines . BS Computer Engineering Freshman College of Engineering.4 – Results of Density Measurement of an Irregular Solid Irregular Solid Pebble Mass 4.

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