=
+
dx x xf R
p
) (
( )
2 / 1
2
) (
(
=
+
dx x f R x R
p p
( )
( )
3
3
) (
p
p
R
dx x f R x
=
+
( )
( )
4
4
) (
p
p
R
dx x f R x
=
+
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
Analytical distributions most frequently used for describing
doping profiles are:
Simple Gaussian or normal distribution
Joined halfGaussian distribution
Pearson type IV distribution
Simple Gaussian or normal distribution 1D model
Makes use of the projected range R
p
and the standard
deviation R
p
:
Has =0 and =3. The approximation of the true profile
is only correct up to first order, since it gives symmetric
profiles around the peak of the distribution.
Range parameters R
p
and R
p
for all the impurity
material combinations are stored in the ATHENAIMP file.
( )
( ) (
(
=
2
2
2
exp
2
) (
p
p
p
R
R x
R
D
x C
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
The model is activated via the GAUSS parameter on
the IMPLANT statement; R
p
(RANGE) and R
p
(STD.DEV)
Other parameter that has to be specified is the dose D
(via the parameter DOSE on the IMPLANT statement)
Pearson distribution 1D model
This is a standard model in SSUPREM4, and is used for
generating asymmetrical doping profiles.
The family of Pearson distribution functions is obtained
as a solution of a differential equation:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
(
(
+
(
(
+
+ + =
+ +
=
2
1 0 2
2 2
2
1 0 2
2 1
2 / 1
0 1
2
2
2
2 1 0
4
2
arctan
4
/ 2
exp
) (
) ( ) (
2
b b b
b R x b
b b b
b b a
b R x b R x b K x f
x b x b b
x f a x
dx
x df
p
b
p p
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
The type of the Pearson distribution depends upon the
sign of the term: D = 4b
0
b
2
 b
1
2
. Only the Pearson IV (D>0)
distribution has the proper shape and a single maximum.
The constants a, b
0
, b
1
and b
2
are related to the
moments of f(x) in the following manner:
The vertical dopant concentration is then proportional to
the ion dose:
This simple model can fail in the case when channeling
effects are important (dual Pearson model has to be used)
( ) ( )
8 12 10 ,
6 3 2
,
3 4
,
3
2
2
1
2 2
0
=
=
=
=
+
=
A
A
b
a b
A
R
b
A
R
a
p p
) ( ) ( x Df x C =
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
The model is activated via the PEARSON parameter on
the IMPLANT statement.
Other parameters that can be specified in conjunction
with the model choice include:
Lattice structure type: CRYSTAL or AMORPHOUS
Implant material type: ARSENIC, BORON, etc.
Implant energy in keV via ENERGY parameter
For dualPearson model, another parameter is
important and describes the screen oxide (S.OXIDE)
through which ion implantation process takes place
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
Twodimensional implant profiles
2D analytical implant models are quite rudimentary and
usually based on a simple convolution of a quasione
dimensional profile C(x, t
mask
(y)) with a Gaussian distribu
tion in the ydirection:
y
 independent of depth (problem)
In the case of an infinitely high mask extending to the
point y = a, the convolution can be performed analytically, to
give:
( )
'
2
'
exp )) ' ( , (
2
1
) , (
2
2
dy
y y
y t x C y x C
y
mask
y
(
(
=
+
MASK
IONS
x (depth)
y (lateral)
=


\

<
=
x
t
y
mask
dt e x erfc
y a
erfc x C y x C
a y x C
a y
y t x C
2
2
) ( ;
2
) ( ) , (
) (
0
)) ( , (
2
1
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
Additional Parameters that need to be specified for 2D
ionimplantation profiles are:
Tilt angle: TILT
Angle of rotation of the implant: ROTATION
Implant performed atall rotation angles: FULLROTATIO
Print moments used for all ion/material combinations:
PRINT.MOM
Specification of a factor by which all lateral standard de
viations for the first and second Pearson distribution are
multiplied: LAT.RATIO1 and LAT.RATIO2
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
(B) Monte Carlo Models
Analytical models can give very good results when applied to
ionimplantation in simple planar structures. For nonplanar
structures, more sophisticated models are required.
SSUPREM4 contains two models for Monte Carlo simulation:
Amorphous material model
crystaline material model
The Monte Carlo model can also deal with the problem of ion
implantation damage:
Damage types: Frankel pairs (Interstitial and Vacancy
profiles), <311> clusters, Dislocation loops
Two models exist for ion implantation damage modeling:
KinchinPease model (for amorphous material)
Crystalline materials model
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
(C) Some examples for analytical models
Implant of phosphorus with a dose of 10
14
cm
2
and Gaussian model used
for the distribution function. The range and standard deviation are speci
fied in microns instead of using table values.
IMPLANT PHOS DOSE=1E14 RANGE=0.1 STD.DEV=0.02 GAUSS
100 keV implant of phosphorus done with a dose of 10
14
cm
2
and a tilt
angle of 15 to the surface normal. Pearson model is used for the distribu
tion function.
IMPLANT PHOSPH DOSE=1E14 ENERGY=100 TILT=15
60 keV implant of boron is done with a dose of 410
12
cm
2
, tilt angle of 0
and rotation of 0. Pearson model for the distribution function is used that
takes into account channeling effect via the specification of the CRYSTAL
parameter.
IMPLANT BORON DOSE=4.0E12 ENERGY=60 PEARSON \
TILT=0 ROTATION=0 CRYSTAL
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
(D) Characteristic values for the ionimplantation process
Dose: 10
12
to 10
16
atoms/cm
2
Current: 1 A/cm
2
to 1 A/cm
2
Voltageenergy: 10 to 300 kV
After the fact annealing: 500 to 800 C
Advantages of the ion implantation process:
Relatively lowtemperature process that can be used at
arbitrary time instants during the fabrication sequence.