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EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation

Introduction to Silvaco ATHENA Tool and


Basic Concepts in Process Modeling
Part - 1
Instructor: Dragica Vasileska
Department of Electrical Engineering
Arizona State University
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
1. Introduction to Process Simulation
The fabrication process of an integrated circuit consists of
the following main steps:
Epitaxial growth
oxidation, passivation of the silicon surface
Photolithography
diffusion
metalization
A schematic description of a planar process for the fabricati-
on of a pn-junction, consists of the following steps:
1. Epitaxial growth:
Epitaxial
n-layer
p-substrate
High-temperature process (~1000 C)
The amount of dopant atoms
determines the conductivity of the layer
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
2. Oxidation and Photolithography
3. Diffusion and Metalization steps
Epitaxial
n-layer
p-substrate
SiO
2 Diffusion window
Thermal oxidation leads to
formation of oxide layer for
surface passivation
Photolithography allows
proper formation of the
diffusion window
oxidation
Epitaxial
n-layer
p-substrate
photolithography
n-layer
p-substrate
diffusion
p
n-layer
p-substrate
metalization
p
The diffusion process gives
rise to the pn-junction
(takes place at ~1000 C)
Electrical contacts are
formed via the metalization
process
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
The sequence of events that lead to successful fabrication
of the device structure are the following:
Fabricate device
structure
Perform electrical
characterization
Design
condition met?
yes
optimization
Simulation replacing
experimental steps:
no
ATHENA
Process simulation tool
ATLAS
Device simulation tool
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
Physically-based process simulation predicts the structure
that results from specified process sequence
Accomplished by solving systems of equations that describe
the physics and chemistry of semiconductor processes
Physically-based process simulation provides three major
advantages:
it is predictive
it provides insight
captures theoretical knowledge in a way that makes
the knowledge available to non-experts
Factors that make physically-based process simulation
important:
quicker and cheaper than experiments
provides information that is difficult to measure
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
The processing steps that one needs to follow, for example,
for fabricating a 0.1 m MOSFET device, include (in random
order):
Ion implantation process
Diffusion process
Oxidation process
Etching models
Deposition models
In the following set of slides, each of this process is
described in more details with the appropriate statements
and parameter specification.
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
Some historical dates:
- Bipolar transistor: 1947 - DTL - technology 1962
- Monocrystal germanium: 1950 - TTL - technology 1962
- First good BJT: 1951 - ECL - technology 1962
- Monocrystal silicon: 1951 - MOS integrated circuit 1962
- Oxide mask, - CMOS 1963
Commercial silicon BJT: 1954 - Linear integrated circuit 1964
- Transistor with diffused - MSI circuits 1966
base: 1955 - MOS memories 1968
- Integrated circuit: 1958 - LSI circuits 1969
- Planar transistor: 1959 - MOS processor 1970
- Planar integrated circuit: 1959 - Microprocessor 1971
- Epitaxial transistor: 1960 - I
2
L 1972
- MOS FET: 1960 - VLSI circuits 1975
- Schottky diode: 1960 - Computers using
- Commercial integrated VLSI technology 1977
circuit (RTL): 1961 - ...
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
2. Description of the Ion Implantation Process
Ion implantation is the most-frequently applied doping
technique in the fabrication of Si devices, particularly
integrated circuits.
Two models are frequently used to describe the ion
implantation process:
Analytical models:
do not contribute to physical understanding
can be adequate for many engineering appli-
cations because of its simplicity
Statistical (Monte Carlo technique):
first principles calculation (time consuming)
can describe parasitic effects such as:
- lattice disorder and defects
- back scattering and target sputtering
- channeling (important in crystalline mater.)
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
(A) Analytical Models
For all of the analytical models, the real ion distribution in
1D is given the following functional form:
D total implanted dose per unit area
f(x) probability density function, frequency function -
described with the following four characteristic quantities:
Projected range R
p
: Standard deviation R
P
:
Skewness : Excess or kurtosis :
) ( ) ( x Df x C =

=
+

dx x xf R
p
) (
( )
2 / 1
2
) (
(

=
+

dx x f R x R
p p
( )
( )
3
3
) (
p
p
R
dx x f R x


=
+

( )
( )
4
4
) (
p
p
R
dx x f R x


=
+

EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
Analytical distributions most frequently used for describing
doping profiles are:
Simple Gaussian or normal distribution
Joined half-Gaussian distribution
Pearson type IV distribution
Simple Gaussian or normal distribution 1D model
Makes use of the projected range R
p
and the standard
deviation R
p
:
Has =0 and =3. The approximation of the true profile
is only correct up to first order, since it gives symmetric
profiles around the peak of the distribution.
Range parameters R
p
and R
p
for all the impurity-
material combinations are stored in the ATHENAIMP file.
( )
( ) (
(


=
2
2
2
exp
2
) (
p
p
p
R
R x
R
D
x C
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
The model is activated via the GAUSS parameter on
the IMPLANT statement; R
p
(RANGE) and R
p
(STD.DEV)
Other parameter that has to be specified is the dose D
(via the parameter DOSE on the IMPLANT statement)
Pearson distribution 1D model
This is a standard model in SSUPREM4, and is used for
generating asymmetrical doping profiles.
The family of Pearson distribution functions is obtained
as a solution of a differential equation:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
(
(

+
(
(

+

+ + =
+ +

=
2
1 0 2
2 2
2
1 0 2
2 1
2 / 1
0 1
2
2
2
2 1 0
4
2
arctan
4
/ 2
exp
) (
) ( ) (
2
b b b
b R x b
b b b
b b a
b R x b R x b K x f
x b x b b
x f a x
dx
x df
p
b
p p
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
The type of the Pearson distribution depends upon the
sign of the term: D = 4b
0
b
2
- b
1
2
. Only the Pearson IV (D>0)
distribution has the proper shape and a single maximum.
The constants a, b
0
, b
1
and b
2
are related to the
moments of f(x) in the following manner:
The vertical dopant concentration is then proportional to
the ion dose:
This simple model can fail in the case when channeling
effects are important (dual Pearson model has to be used)
( ) ( )
8 12 10 ,
6 3 2
,
3 4
,
3
2
2
1
2 2
0
=

=
=

=
+
=
A
A
b
a b
A
R
b
A
R
a
p p


) ( ) ( x Df x C =
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
The model is activated via the PEARSON parameter on
the IMPLANT statement.
Other parameters that can be specified in conjunction
with the model choice include:
Lattice structure type: CRYSTAL or AMORPHOUS
Implant material type: ARSENIC, BORON, etc.
Implant energy in keV via ENERGY parameter
For dual-Pearson model, another parameter is
important and describes the screen oxide (S.OXIDE)
through which ion implantation process takes place
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
Two-dimensional implant profiles
2D analytical implant models are quite rudimentary and
usually based on a simple convolution of a quasi-one
dimensional profile C(x, t
mask
(y)) with a Gaussian distribu-
tion in the y-direction:

y
- independent of depth (problem)
In the case of an infinitely high mask extending to the
point y = a, the convolution can be performed analytically, to
give:
( )
'
2
'
exp )) ' ( , (
2
1
) , (
2
2
dy
y y
y t x C y x C
y
mask
y

(
(


=
+

MASK
IONS
x (depth)
y (lateral)

=
|
|

\
|

<
=

x
t
y
mask
dt e x erfc
y a
erfc x C y x C
a y x C
a y
y t x C
2
2
) ( ;
2
) ( ) , (
) (
0
)) ( , (
2
1

EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
Additional Parameters that need to be specified for 2D
ion-implantation profiles are:
Tilt angle: TILT
Angle of rotation of the implant: ROTATION
Implant performed atall rotation angles: FULLROTATIO
Print moments used for all ion/material combinations:
PRINT.MOM
Specification of a factor by which all lateral standard de-
viations for the first and second Pearson distribution are
multiplied: LAT.RATIO1 and LAT.RATIO2
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
(B) Monte Carlo Models
Analytical models can give very good results when applied to
ion-implantation in simple planar structures. For non-planar
structures, more sophisticated models are required.
SSUPREM4 contains two models for Monte Carlo simulation:
Amorphous material model
crystaline material model
The Monte Carlo model can also deal with the problem of ion
implantation damage:
Damage types: Frankel pairs (Interstitial and Vacancy
profiles), <311> clusters, Dislocation loops
Two models exist for ion implantation damage modeling:
Kinchin-Pease model (for amorphous material)
Crystalline materials model
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
(C) Some examples for analytical models
Implant of phosphorus with a dose of 10
14
cm
-2
and Gaussian model used
for the distribution function. The range and standard deviation are speci-
fied in microns instead of using table values.
IMPLANT PHOS DOSE=1E14 RANGE=0.1 STD.DEV=0.02 GAUSS
100 keV implant of phosphorus done with a dose of 10
14
cm
-2
and a tilt
angle of 15 to the surface normal. Pearson model is used for the distribu-
tion function.
IMPLANT PHOSPH DOSE=1E14 ENERGY=100 TILT=15
60 keV implant of boron is done with a dose of 410
12
cm
-2
, tilt angle of 0
and rotation of 0. Pearson model for the distribution function is used that
takes into account channeling effect via the specification of the CRYSTAL
parameter.
IMPLANT BORON DOSE=4.0E12 ENERGY=60 PEARSON \
TILT=0 ROTATION=0 CRYSTAL
EEE 533 Semiconductor Device and Process Simulation
(D) Characteristic values for the ion-implantation process
Dose: 10
12
to 10
16
atoms/cm
2
Current: 1 A/cm
2
to 1 A/cm
2
Voltage-energy: 10 to 300 kV
After the fact annealing: 500 to 800 C
Advantages of the ion implantation process:
Relatively low-temperature process that can be used at
arbitrary time instants during the fabrication sequence.