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SOCIETY AND CULTURE Sociological Perspectives and Socialization: Agents of Socialization, Psychological Theoretical Background, Sociological Approach to Socialization

Section: IA05410 Group No: 2 Group Leader: Hernandez, Janna-Marie Nicole L. Group Members: 1) Dajao, Jessica E. 2) Dawa, Carolyn L. 3) de Guzman, Eliemary A. 4) Dela Cruz, Nia Karla F. 5) Estrada, Mary Rose Diliwal B. Presentor: Dajao, Jessica E. Topic: Sociological Perspectives Erving Goffman Dramaturgy Dramaturgy or Dramaturgical Analysis Erving Goffman (1922-1982) He developed the dramaturgy (or dramaturgical analysis). Dramaturgy (or Dramaturgical Analysis) Analyzing social life in terms of drama in the stage. 2 Types of Frames or Settings (that affect our behaviors): 1. Front stage Where performances are given. 2. Back stage Places where we can retreat and let our hair down. Role Performance The ways which someone performs a role within the limits that the role provides; showing a particular style or personality. Role Conflict Conflicts that someone feels between roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role. Role Strain Conflicts that someone feels within a role. Impression management (or Presentation of Self) Erving Goffmans term for a persons

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Estrella, Kersey Lyn B. Gloria, Mark Ronald M. Lopez Jr., Edgardo S. Macalalad, Alvin Jason A.

effort to create specific impressions in the minds of others. Sign-vehicles The term used by Goffman to refer to how people use social setting, appearance, and manner to communicate information about the self. 3 Types of Sign-Vehicles: 1. Social Setting The place where the action unfolds. 2. Appearance How we look when we play our roles. 3. Manner The attitudes we show while we play our roles. Teamwork The collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly. Face-saving Behavior (or tact) Techniques used to salvage a performance that is going sour.

Presentor: Dawa, Carolyn L. Topic: Sociological Perspectives George Herbert Meads Role Taking Process Role Taking Process George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) Extended Cooleys insight by linking the idea of self-concept to the role taking (the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to

understand the world from that persons point of view). According to Mead (1934), in the early months of life, children do not notice that they are separate from other. However, they do begin to see a mirrored image of themselves in others. Shortly after birth, infants start to notice the faces of those around them, especially the significant others (are those people whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self) whose faces start to have meaning because they are associated with experience. Mead (1934) divided the self into the I (the subjective element of the self and represent the spontaneous and unique traits of each person) and me (the objective element of the self which is composed of the internalized attitude and demands of other members of society and individual awareness of those demands). 3 Stages of Self Development 1. Preparatory- The stage where children imitate the people around them. 2. Play stage- The stage where children pretend to take the roles of specific people. 3. Game stage- The stage where children learn the demands and expectations of roles.

According to Charles Horton Cooley, we use our interactions with others as a mirror of our own thoughts and actions; our sense of self depends on how we interpret what others do and say. Cooley made us aware of the mutual interrelationship between individual and society namely, that society shapes people and people shapes society. For Cooley, self and society are merely two sides of the same coin: Self and society go together, as phrases of a common whole. I am aware of the social groups in which I live as immediately and authentically as I am aware of myself.

Presentor: Macalalad, Alvin Jason A. Topic: Sociological Perspectives Functionalist Perspective Functionalist Perspective Also known as functionalism or structural functionalism. Based on the assumption that society is a stable orderly system. Characterized by societal consensus, whereby the majority of members share a common set of values, beliefs, and behavioural expectations. Societies develop social structures, or institutions that persist because they play a part in helping society survive. As Durkheim noted, rapid social change and a more specialized division of labor produce strains in society that lead to breakdown in these traditional institutions. Talcott Parsons is the most influential contemporary advocate of the functionalist perspective while it was further refined by Robert K. Merton, who distinguished between manifest (recognized in a social unit) and latent (hidden and remain unacknowledged) functions of social institutions. Dysfunctions are the undesirable consequences of any element of a society.

Presentor: Gloria, Mark Ronald M. Topic: Sociological Perspectives Charles Horton Cooleys Looking Glass Self Theory Looking-glass Self Theory Refers to the way in which a persons sense of self is derived from the perception of others. Three - Step Process: 1. We imagine how our personality and appearance will look to other people. 2. We imagine how other people judge the appearance and personality that we think we present. 3. We develop a self-concept.

Presentor: Estrella, Kersey Lyn B. Topic: Sociological Perspectives Conflict Perspective Social Conflict Theory View society as comprised of social relation characterized by inequality and changes. Continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources among competing social groups. Social arrangements benefit some groups at the expense of others. Branches of Social-Conflict Perspective 1. Neo-Marxist Approach - Focuses on classes as a prime source of social change. 2. Racial Ethnic Inequalities 3. Feminist Perspective - Focuses on gender issues; the oppression of women in social system should be eliminated. a) Liberal Feminism - Lack of opportunity and education for women. b) Racial Feminism - Male domination is the most important and violence is one of the key methods in controlling women.

thus when a person in a group do not share the same interpretation for a certain symbol like others, confusion results. In other words, group life takes its shape as people interact with one another.

Presentor: Lopez Jr., Edgardo S. Topic: Agents of Socialization Agents of Socialization Persons, groups, or institutions that teach what is needed to know in order to participate in the society. The most pervasive agents of socialization are the following: 1) Family The most important agent of socialization in all societies. Primary locus for the procreation and socialization. Agent for the emerging sense of self, beliefs and values acquisition and learning about the larger dominant culture and the primary. This is where we acquire our specific social position in our society. According to Melvin Kohn, families socialize their children somewhat differently based on race, ethnicity, and class. 2) School From a functionalist perspective, schools are responsible for (1) socialization, or teaching students to be productive members of society; (2) transmission of culture; (3) social control and personal development; (4) the selection, training, and placement of individuals on different rungs in the society. While, conflict theories assert that students have different experiences in the school systems depending on their social class, their racial-ethnic background, the neighborhood in which they live, gender, and other factors. Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis stated much of what happened in school amounts to teaching a hidden curriculum.

Presentor: Hernandez, Janna-Marie Nicole L. Topic: Sociological Perspectives Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Society is the sum of the interactions of people and groups. This approach is based on the micro-level analysis. Explains that our thoughts and behavior are shaped by social interactions with others. The origin of this perspective can be trace to George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer who first coined the term symbolic interactionism. Focus on the process of interaction and the part that symbol play in giving meaning to human communication. Symbolic interaction occurs when people communicate through using symbols (facial expressions, language, posture, tone of voice, and other symbolic gestures). Each persons interpretation of a given situation becomes his or her subjective reality

3) Peer Groups Group of people who are linked by common interest, equal social position, and usually similar age. Contributes to the sense of belonging and self-worth. Peer groups provide children and adolescents with some degree of freedom. Reflects the larger culture and serve as a conduit for passing on culture to young people. 4) Mass Media Composed of large scale communications that use print or electronic means to communicate with large number of people. The media function as socializing agents through: (1) inform us about events; (2) introduce us to a wide variety of people; (3) provide an array of viewpoints on current issues; and (5) they entertain us by providing us the opportunity to live vicariously.

Presentor: de Guzman, Eliemary A. Topic: Psychological Theoretical Background Psychosexual Development, Psychosocial Development and Cognitive Development Psychological Theories Describes how a positive process of socialization occurs. A. Psychosexual Development By Sigmund Freud. Parts of the personality develop as it moves through a series of psychosexual stages which represents the fixation of libido on different erogenous zone (body parts). Stages of Psychosexual Development
1. 2. 3. Oral Stage (Birth to 1 year) Anal Stage (1 to 3 years) Phallic Stage (3 to 6years) Erogenous Zone: Mouth Erogenous Zone: Anus Erogenous Zone: Genitals (Elements of Personality: Id, Ego, Superego)-Psychoanalytic Development: Focuses on unconscious forces within individuals. Erogenous Zone: No Erogenous Zone (sexual feelings are inactive) Erogenous Zone: Maturing Sexual Interest/Genitals

B. Psychosocial Development By Erik Erikson. Focuses on sense of self. 8 Stages of Development: 1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to age 1) hope 2. Autonomy vs. Doubt (age 1 to 3) will 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (age 3 to 5) Purpose 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (age 6 to 11) - competence 5. Identity vs. role confusion (age 12 to 18) fidelity 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (age 18 to 35) love 7. Generativity vs. self-absorption (age 35 to 55) care 8. Integrity vs. Despair (maturity to old age) wisdom C. Cognitive Development By Jean Piaget. Focuses on the aspect of Intelligence. 4 Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor (0 2 yrs.) Object permanence 2. Preoperational (2 7 yrs.) Egocentrism 3. Concrete Operational ( 7 11 yrs.) Conservation 4. Formal Operatiaonal ( 11 yrs +) Manipulate ideas in head Presentor: Estrada, Mary Rose Diliwal B. Topic: Psychological Theoretical Background Stages of Moral Development and Gender and Moral Development A. Stages of Moral Development Proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg; conducted through a series of studies in which children, adolescents, and adults were presented with moral dilemmas that took the form of stories. Classified moral reasoning into three sequential levels: 1. Preconventional Level (age seven to ten) Childrens perceptions are based on punishment and obedience. 2. Conventional Level (age ten through adulthood) People are most concerned


Latency Stage (6 to puberty) Genital Stage (18yrs onwards)


with how they are perceived by their peers and with how one conform to rules. 3. Postconventional Level (few adults reach this stage) People view morality in terms of individual rights; moral conduct is judged by principles based on human rights that transcend government and laws. B. Gender and Moral Development Psychologist Carol Gilligan stressed that men became more concerned with law and order but the women analyzed social relationships and the social consequences of behavior. Gilligans argument that people make moral decisions according to both abstract principles of justice and principles of compassion and care is an important contribution to our knowledge about moral reasoning.

1. Microsystem Face-to-face interaction with the childs parents, siblings and other immediate family members. 2. Mesosystem Interactions with family members are influenced by interactions of those family members. 3. Exosystem Relates to how the immediate family members are influenced by another setting. 4. Macrosystem Involves how interaction with the child is affected by all the components of the larger society.

Presentor: Dela Cruz, Nia Karla F. Topic: Sociological Approach to Socialization Self-concept Totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves. Four components are: physical self, active self, social self and psychological self. Self-identity Perception about what kind of person we are is being formed. The interpretation and evaluation of these messages are the key phases of social construction of our identity. Social Interactionists: Cooleys Looking-Glass The way in which a persons sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others. Meads Role-Taking The process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that persons point of view. Ecological Perspectives Four Systems of Ecological System Theory:

Sources: Sociology (9th edition) by Richard T. Schaefer Published by McGraw Hill, 2005. Sociology in Our Times (7th edition) by Diana Kendall Published by Cengage Learning, 2007. The Basics of Sociology by Kathy S. Stolley Published by Greenwood Press, 2005. Sociology: Discovering Society (2nd Edition) by Jean Stockard Published by Wadsworth Thomson Learning, 2000. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach (6th Edition) by James M. Henslin Published by Allyn & Bacon, 2002. Sociology (13th Edition) by John J. Macionis Published by Pearson, 2010.