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Presented by:-

MANJESH KUMAR (12100027)

Guided by:-

Dr. David Peter S.

Introduction Need for video watermarking Video watermarking terminologies Types for video watermarking Desired properties Application of watermarking

An algorithm of video watermarking Attack on watermark Conclusion References

Structure of a Typical Video Watermarking System

Definition: A digital watermark is a digital signal or pattern inserted into a digital document such as text, graphics or multimedia, and carries information unique to the copyright owner.

Video watermarking is an extension of this concept.

Need for video watermarking

Protect copyright of a data. Video Watermarking can help Prove ownership Identify a misappropriating person Trace the video dissemination

Broadcast Monitoring Video watermarking introduces some issues not present in image watermarking Frame averaging, frame dropping, frame swapping

Video watermarking terminologies

Digital Video Payload Perceptibility Robustness Security

TYPES of Video Watermarking

Two types :1. Visible 2. Invisible

Visible watermarks its use : 1. To discourage unauthorized usage. 2. As an advertisement

Visible watermarking algorithm Least Significant Beat (LSB)


Invisible watermarks
Three types of Invisible watermark :
1. 2. 3.

Robust Watermarks Fragile Watermarks Public and Private Watermark

No degradation in the aesthetic quality of the data.

Invisible Robust Video Watermarking Techniques
Spatial Domain Method Frequency Domain Method


Video watermarking ( frame averaging, frame dropping, frame swapping... )

Recoverable from a document Removable by authorized users Low error probability Provide the original information embedded reliably Capacity Invisible


Owner Identification

Proof of Ownership
Transaction Tracking Content Authentication Broadcast Monitoring Device Control

Automatic monitoring of copyrighted material on

the Web

A Generic approach to watermarking digital data

There are 3 main processes involved in watermarking 1. Insertion of a watermark 2. Detection of a watermark

3. Removal of a watermark

Inserting a watermark

It consists of :A watermark insertion unit that uses:a. Original video b. Watermark c. A user key to obtain the watermarked video.

watermark insertion unit The user key , input video and the watermark are passed through a watermark insertion unit.

This results in a watermarked video.

Watermark Extraction Unit Two phases:1. Locating the watermark

2. Recovering the watermark information.

Watermark Detection Unit

Consists of :a. An extraction unit to first extract the watermark. b. Compare it with the original watermark inserted.

c. The output is Yes or No depending on whether the watermark is present.

A watermarking algorithm The LSB technique Lets consider still images.

Each pixel of the color image has three components red, green and blue.

3 bytes for each pixel.

Each color has 1 byte, or 8 bits. Each bits has its own value 2pow(n) .

The LSB technique.

A pixel that is bright purple in color can be shown as X0 = {R=255, G=0, B=255} Another pixel: X1 = {R=255, G=0, B=254}

The Algorithm
1.A raw bitmap image A will be selected from the set of standard test images. Let this be the base image on which the watermark will be added.

2. A raw bitmap image B will be selected from the set of standard test images. This
will be the watermark image which will be added to the base image. 3. The most significant bit henceforth will be mentioned as MSB, of watermark image B will be read and these will be written on the least significant bit, henceforth will be mentioned as LSB, of base image A. 4. Thus, A will be watermarked with B resulting in a combined image C. 5. C therefore will now contain an image A which has its LSBs replaced with the MSBs of B. 6. This technique is used to add an invisible and visible watermark.

Distortions and attacks

Additive Noise.

Compression. Statistical Averaging. Multiple Watermarking. Mosaic Attack

An Algorithm of Invisible Video Watermarking

Raw video watermarking

DWT (Discrete wavelet transform) DCT ( Discrete cosine transform) DFT ( Discrete frequency transform)

Discrete Wavelet Transform Normalized to 256 X 256 pixel size

Perform DWT for each frame

Advantage of DWT

Prevent from frame dropping Prevent from adding noise / another video

Mark with m1

Mark with m3

Mark with m0

Mark with m6

Scene change occur

Watermark Preprocess

Safe from frame averaging Hard to reconstruct the watermark

Place the bitplanes side by side

85 64

0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7

Bit Decomposition


8 bitplanes

0 25 1 6 2 3

17 0

4 5 6 7

m7 0 25 1 6 2 3

17 0

8 bitplanes

4 5 6 7

Total 8 images is obtained

Watermark Embedding
C[i] = C[i] + 1 , if W[j] = 1 C[i] = C[i] , otherwise LL, HH is not watermark




0 256 1 2 3

4 5 6 7

Watermark mi LH1 HH1

Watermark Detection
Mark with m1 Mark with m3 Mark with m0 Mark with m6

1. Video Frame 256 X 256

Scene change occur

3. DWT

2. Detect the scene change

4. Compare DWT result frames

Original video frames

5. Averaging the watermark get from different frames

170 85 64
Watermark mi 7. Get different part of W from different scene and reconstruct the large image 6. Combine 8 bit-planes


0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7
Extracted Original


m0 m1 m2 m3


m4 m5 m6 m7

8. Correlate and verify

Future Direction

Implement and use do experiment on the scheme Identifiable from very short segment of video

Change to blind watermarking scheme


Compression Rescaling Cropping Multiple watermarks

Frame averaging Frame dropping Frame swapping Statistical analysis


Need due to Copyright protection Different from image watermarking Brief review of current technologies DWT-based Video Watermarking Scheme with Scramble Watermark Future Direction

Inadequate for general use Different tools offering this watermarking Set to grow


F. Hartung and M. Kutter, Multimedia watermarking techniques,Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 87, no. 7 , July1999.

I. Cox, J. Kilian, T. Leighton, and T. Shamoon, Secure spread spectrum watermarking

for images, audio and video, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing (ICIP 96), Lausanne, Switzerland, Sept. 1996.

Yeo and M.M. Yeung, Analysis and synthesis for new digital video applications, icip, International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP'97),vol. 1, pp.1,1997.

Ingemar J. Cox, Matthew L. Miller, Jeffrey A. Bloom Digital Watermarking Morgan Kaufmann Publishers ISBN: 1-55860-714-5 Privacy principles for digital watermarking, Ver. 1.0, May 2008. Website: