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Design of Retaing wall Input Height above GL Density of soil, Denity of Concrete Grade of Concrete, fck Grade of Steel,

eel, fy SBC of foundation strata, q0 Coefficient of friction,

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

3 18 25 30 0.5 0 0 18 0.3 20 415 100 0.5

m kN/m3 3 kN/m radians radians radians Mpa Mpa kN/m


2

b5 A

H2 H5 H1

STEM

W1
W2
b2 H3 D H4 TOE H6 E B b3

W4

b4 C HEEL H7

W3
SHEAR KEY b6 b1

Solution 1 Design constants Xu, max d 2 Depth of foundation Density of soil, ymin Keep, H3 Height of wall above its base Hence, H1 3 Dimensions of base "D-E" Ratio b ka ka b1 b1 Base width from sliding condition b1 b1 Base width from from normal practice b1 b1 Keep, b1 Width of Toe slab, b1 Let the thickness of base, H4

0.48

= = = = = =

18 kN/m3 18000 N/m3 2 (q0/) x ((1-sin)/(1+sin)) 0.61728 m 1m 4m

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

1-(q0/(2.2 H1)) 0.37 (1-sin)/(1+sin) 0.33333 0.95 H Sqrt{(Ka/((1-)(1+))} 1.90288 m 0.7 H Ka/(1-) 2.96296 m 0.6 H or 0.4 H 2.4 m 2.4 m 0.9 m H/12 0.3 m

4 Thickness of stem Height, H5 "A-B" Consider 1m length retaining wall Maximum Bending moment @ "B"

3.7 m

M @ "B" Mu Hence effective depth, b3eff Keep, b3eff Total thickness, b3 Using 16 dia bars b5 b5eff Width of Heel, b4 5 Stability of wall Designation W1 W2 W3 W4 Total W = Force, kN 18.5 4.625 18 79.92 121.045

= = = = = = = = = = =

Ka H53/6 50.653 kN-m 5.1E+07 N-mm 7.6E+07 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 159.73 mm 240 mm 300 mm 200 mm 140 mm 1.2 m

Lever arm, m 1.1 0.97 1.2 1.8 MR = = = = 190.3 Ka H1 /2 48


2

Moment @ toe, kN-m 20.35 4.47083 21.6 143.856 190.30 kN-m kN

Total resisting moment MR Earth pressure, P

Check for overturning Overturning moment, M0 F.S. againt overturning =

= = =

64 kN-m 190.30 64 3.0 should be > 2 Hence Safe

Check for Sliding F.S. againt Sliding

= = Hence

W P 1.3 should be > 1.5 Unsafe, Provide shear key

Pressure distribution Net moment, M M

= =

190.3 - 64 126.30 kN-m

Distance X of the pont of application of the resultant, from toe X X= X= Eccentricity, e e b/6 = = = = = = Hence = = M W 126.30 121.045 1.04 m (b1/2) - X 0.16 m 0.4 m No tension

Should be < b1/6

Pressure p1 at toe

(W/b) x (1+(6e/b)) 70.2 kN/m2 Should be less than SBC = 100 kN/m2 Hence Safe (W/b) x (1-(6e/b)) 30.6917 kN/m2

Pressure p2 at heel

= =

Pressure at the junction of stem with toe slab, p = Pressure at the junction of stem with heel slab, p = A

55.4 kN/m2

50.4458 kN/m2

b2 D E

b3 B

b4 C H7 p2 b1 P

p1

6 Design of toe slab Downward weight of slab per unit area Hence net pressure intensity under "D" = Hence net pressure intensity under "E" = Total force = Shear force at E X from "E" Bending moment @ "E" Mu @ "E" H4eff Provide, H4 H4eff = = = = = = = =

70.2 - 7.5 55.4 - 7.5

= = = =

7.5 62.7 47.9 50

kN/m2 2 kN/m kN/m2 kN

0.47 m 23.3955 kN-m 2.3E+07 N-mm 3.5E+07 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 108.555 mm 260 mm 200 mm

Steel Ast = ((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) Ast = 513.599 mm2 This reinforcement to be provided at bottom face. If alternate bars of stem reinforcement are to be bent & continued in the toe slab, area available = 565.2 mm2 See step 8 Bar dia Spacing Provide 12 # bars @ Check for development length, Ld Providing 50mm clear side cover , actual length available = = = = = = 12 # bars 200 mm 200 C/C at top of heel slab 47 564 mm 850 mm Hence safe 0.12 x 1000 x A /100 276 mm2 8 # bars 182 mm 180 C/C

Distribution reinforcement Bar dia= Spacing Provide 8 # bars @ 7 Design of heel slab 1) Total weight of soil Lever arm @ "B" 2) Total weight of heel slab Lever arm @ "B" 3) Total upward soil reaction Lever arm @ "B" Total force = S.F. at "B" B.M. @ "B" Mu H7eff Provide, H6 H7eff Steel Ast

= = = = =

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

79.92 kN 0.60 m 7.80 kN 0.60 m 48.68 kN 0.55 m 39.04 kN 25.793 kN-m 2.6E+07 N-mm 3.9E+07 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 113.981 mm 260 mm 200 mm

((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) = 569.737 mm2 = 10 # bars = 138 mm 130 C/C at top of heel slab

Bar dia Spacing Provide 10 # bars @

Development length, Ld to the left of "B"

= = = = = = = = = = = =

47 470 500

mm mm

Distribution reinforcement Bar dia= Spacing Provide 8 # bars @ Shear stress, v pt pt c 0.25 0.36 0.5 0.48 0.28486828 0.38674 Corresponding c 8 Reinforcement in stem Revised H5 M

0.12 x 1000 x A /100 276 mm2 8 # bars 182 mm 180 C/C 1.5 x 39.04 x 1000/(1000 x 200) 0.2928 N/mm2 Ast x 100 1000 x d 0.28487

= Hence =

0.38674 N/mm2 Safe 3.74 m

Mu b3eff Provide, b3eff b3 b5 b5eff Ast =

= =

= Ka H53/6 = 52.3136 kN-m = 5.2E+07 N-mm = 7.8E+07 N-mm = Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) = 162.327 mm = 250 mm = 310 mm = 200 mm = 140 mm ((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) 943.711939 mm2

Bar dia= = 12 # bars Spacing = 120 mm Provide 12 # bars @ 100 C/C Astact = 1130.4 mm2 Continue alternate bars in the toe slab to serve as tensile reinforcement there. Discontinue the remaining half bars after a distance of Ld = 47 = 564 mm = 600 mm beyond "B" in the toe slab.

Between "A" & "B" some bars can be curtiled. Consider a section at depth h below the top of the stem. Effective depth at that section is d' = 140 + 29.4117647 h mm (where h in m) 3 Now Ast (H1 /d) or H1 = (Ast d)1/3 1/3 Hence h/H1 = [(Ast' d')/(Ast d)] where Ast' = reinforcement at depth h Ast = reinforcement at depth H1 d' = effective depth at depth h d = effective depth at depth H1 If Ast' = Ast/2, Ast'/Ast = 1/2 Hence h/H1 = [d'/2d]1/3 Substituting d = 250 d' = 140 + 29.4117647 h h = H1 [d'/2d]1/3 h = H1/(2)1/3 h = 2.96844 m Bars should be extended by a distance of 12 = 144 mm or b3 = 250 mm Hence h = 2.70 m Curtail bars at this height below the top Check for shear Shear force = P = 41.9628 kN Ka H52/2 Fu = 62.9442 kN Shear stress, v = 62.9442 x 1000/(1000 x 250) = 0.25178 N/mm2 pt Ast x 100 = 1000 x d pt c = 0.37748 0.25 0.36 0.5 0.48 0.37748478 0.43119 Corresponding c = 0.43119 N/mm2 Hence Safe Distribition & temperature reinforcement Average thk of stem = 255 mm Distribution reinforcement = 0.12 x 1000 x A /100 2 = 306 mm Bar dia= = 8 # bars Spacing = 164 mm Provide 8 # bars @ 160 C/C at inner face of the wall, along its length. For temperature reinforcement, provide 8 mm # bars @ 300 C/C both ways, in outer face.

9 Design of shear key Let depth of key = a Intensity of passive pressure pp developed in front of the key depends on the soil pp = Kp p Total passive pressure pp = Dsliding force at level D1C1 = pp a = = 166.2 kN/m2 166.2 a (1/3) x (/2) x (H+a)
2

pH or = (1/3) x (/2) x (H+a)2 Weigth of soil between bottom of base and D1C1 = bax = 43.2 a W = 121.045 + 43.2 a F.S. against sliding = 1.5 = W + pp 1.5

pH 1.5 = 1.5127695 a= 0.08 m..Adjust this value till above value = 1.5 However provide minimum a = 0.3 m a = H6 = 300 mm Keep H6 = 300 mm Keep width, b6 = 300 mm

8# @160c/c 8# @300c/c 2.7m 8# @300c/c 12# @200c/c

12# @100c/c 10# @130c/c 8# @180c/c

12# @200c/c

8# @180c/c

Design of Retaing wall Input Height above GL Density of soil, Denity of Concrete Grade of Concrete, fck Grade of Steel, fy SBC of foundation strata, q0 Coefficient of friction,

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

3 18 25 30 0.5 0 0 18 0.3 20 415 100 0.5

m kN/m3 kN/m3 radians radians radians Mpa Mpa kN/m2

b5 A

H2 H5 H1

STEM

PV
W1 W2
b2 b3 E B b4 C HEEL H7

H8

W4

PH

H/3

H3 D H4 TOE H6 SHEAR KEY b6 b1

W3

Solution 1 Design constants Xu, max d 2 Depth of foundation Density of soil, ymin Keep, H3 Height of wall above its base Hence, H1 3 Dimensions of base ka ka "D-E" b b1 b1 Ratio

0.48

= = = = = =

18 kN/m3 18000 N/m3 (q0/) x ((1-sin)/(1+sin))2 0.61728395 m 1m 4m

= = = = = = =

2 2 cos (cos -sqrt(cos - cos )) (cos B (cos +sqrt(cos2 - O)) 2 )) +sqrt(cos2 B- cos2 cos 0.39480588

1-(q0/(2.7 H1)) 0.49 H1 2.18384292 sqrt (Ka cos ) sqrt ((1-)(1+3)) m

Base width from sliding condition b1 b1 Base width from from normal practice b1 b1 Keep, b1 Width of Toe slab, b1 Let the thickness of base, H4

= = = = = = = =

0.7 H Ka/(1-) 4.33512342 m 0.6 H or 0.4 H 2.4 m 2.4 m 1.2 m H/12 0.3 m

4 Thickness of stem Height, H5 "A-B" Consider 1m length retaining wall Earth pressure on stem is p Hence horizontal earth pressure is PH M @ "B" M @ "B" Mu Shear force at "B" FU Hence effective depth, b3eff Keep, b3eff Total thickness, b3 b3eff Using 16 dia bars b5 b5eff Width of Heel, b4 Shear stress, v pt pt c 0.25 0.5 0.25 Corresponding c

3.7 m

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Ka H5 /2 48.6440328 kN P cos 46.26 PH H1/3 57.054 57054000 85581000 PH 46.26 69.39 kN N-mm kN-m N-mm N-mm kN kN

acting at 18 to Horiz.

Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 169.522103 mm 240 mm 300 mm 240 mm 200 mm 140 mm 0.9 m 1.5 x 46.26 x 1000/(1000 x 240) 0.289125 N/mm2 0.25 minimum

0.36 0.48 0.37 = Hence 0.37 N/mm2 Safe

5 Stability of wall Height, H8 Height, H8 Height, H Earth pressure, P Horizontal component PH Vertical component = = = = = = = H5 + b4 tan 3.99 m 4.29 m Ka H /2 65.3944225 kN P cos 62.1937917 kN
2

PV

= = Lever arm, m 1.4 0.97 1.2 1.95 2.4

P sin 20.2079879 kN Moment @ toe, kN-m 25.9 4.47083 21.6 121.464 48.4992 MR = 221.90

Designation W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 = PV Total

Force, kN 18.5 4.625 18 62.289 20.207988 W = 123.62199

Total resisting moment MR Check for overturning Overturning moment, M0 F.S. againt overturning =

221.9

kN-m

= = =

88.9371221 kN-m 221.90 88.9371221 2.5 should be > 2 Hence Safe

Check for Sliding F.S. againt Sliding

= = Hence

W P 1.0 should be > 1.5 Unsafe, Provide shear key

Pressure distribution Net moment, M M

= =

221.9 - 88.9371220988394 132.96 kN-m

Distance X of the pont of application of the resultant, from toe X X= X= Eccentricity, e e b/6 = = = = = = Hence = = M W 132.96 123.621988 1.08 m (b1/2) - X 0.12 m 0.4 m No tension (W/b) x (1+(6e/b)) 67.5 kN/m2 = Hence Safe (W/b) x (1-(6e/b)) 35.4846746 kN/m2

Should be < b1/6

Pressure p1 at toe

Should be less than SBC 100 kN/m2

Pressure p2 at heel

= =

Pressure at the junction of stem with toe slab, p = Pressure at the junction of stem with heel slab, p =

51.5 kN/m2

47.4904216 kN/m2

b2 D E

b3 B

Ka H5 C

Ka H8 H7 p2 P

p1 b1

6 Design of toe slab Downward weight of slab per unit area Hence net pressure intensity under "D" = Hence net pressure intensity under "E" = Total force = Shear force at E Fu X from "E" Bending moment @ "E" Mu @ "E" H4eff Provide, H4 H4eff Shear stress, v pt pt c 0.25 0.36 0.5 0.48 0.3 0.394 Corresponding c = = = = = = = = = = =

67.5 - 7.5 51.5 - 7.5

= = = = =

7.5 60 44 62 93.6

kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN kN

0.63 m 39.36 kN-m 39360000 N-mm 59040000 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 140.80265 mm 300 mm 240 mm 93.6 x 1000/(1000 x 240) 0.39 N/mm2 0.3 minimum

= Hence

0.394 N/mm2 Safe

Steel Ast = ((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) Ast = 727.437498 mm2 This reinforcement to be provided at bottom face. If alternate bars of stem reinforcement are to be bent & continued in the toe slab, area available = 1130.4 mm2 See step 8 Bar dia Spacing Provide 12 # bars @ Check for development length, Ld Providing 50mm clear side cover , actual length available = = = = = = Hence Distribution reinforcement Bar dia= Spacing Provide 8 # bars @ 7 Design of heel slab 1) Total weight of soil Lever arm @ "B" 2) Total weight of heel slab Lever arm @ "B" 3) Total force due to vertical component of earth pressure = = = = = 12 # bars 100 mm 100 C/C at top of heel slab 47 564 mm 1150 mm safe

0.12 x 1000 x A /100 324 mm2 8 # bars 155 mm 150 C/C

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

62.29 0.45 6.75 0.45

kN m kN m

Lever arm @ "B" 4) Total upward soil reaction Lever arm @ "B" Total force = S.F. at "B" Fu B.M. @ "B" Mu H7eff Provide, H6 H7eff Steel Ast

Ka (H5+H8) b4 tan sin 2 2.47 kN 0.46 m 37.34 kN 0.43 m 34.17 kN 51.26 kN 16.200581 kN-m 16200581 N-mm 24300871.5 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 90.3334459 mm 350 mm 290 mm

((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) = 236.197916 mm2 = = 360 mm2 8 # bars

Astmin Bar dia

Spacing Provide 8 # bars @

= 140 mm 130 C/C at top of heel slab

Development length, Ld to the left of "B"

= = = = = = = = = = = =

47 376 400

mm mm

Distribution reinforcement Bar dia= Spacing Provide 8 # bars @ Shear stress, v pt pt c 0.15 0.18 0.15 0.18 0.12413793 #DIV/0! Corresponding c 8 Reinforcement in stem Revised H5 Shear force at "B" = PH bending moment @ "B" Mu b3eff Provide, b3eff b3 b5 b5eff Ast =

0.12 x 1000 x A /100 384 mm2 8 # bars 131 mm 130 C/C 1.5 x 34.17 x 1000/(1000 x 290) 0.17674138 N/mm2 Ast x 100 1000 x d 0.12413793

= Hence =

0.18 N/mm2 Safe 3.65 m


2

= =

= Ka H5 /2 = 48.6440328 kN = 59.9943071 kN-m = 89.9914607 kN-m = 89991460.7 N-mm = Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) = 0.17383543 mm = 260 mm = 320 mm = 210 mm = 150 mm ((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) 1046.53945 mm2

Bar dia= = 12 # bars Spacing = 108 mm Provide 12 # bars @ 100 C/C Astact = 1130.4 mm2 Continue alternate bars in the toe slab to serve as tensile reinforcement there. Discontinue the remaining half bars after a distance of Ld = 47 = 564 mm = 600 mm beyond "B" in the toe slab.

Between "A" & "B" some bars can be curtiled. Consider a section at depth h below the top of the stem. Effective depth at that section is d' = 150 + 30.1369863 h mm (where h in m) Now Ast (H3/d) 1/3 or H = (Ast d) 1/3 Hence h/H5 = [(Ast' d')/(Ast d)] where Ast' = reinforcement at depth h Ast = reinforcement at depth H5 d' = effective depth at depth h d = effective depth at depth H5 If Ast' = Ast/2, Ast'/Ast = 1/2 Hence h/H5 = [d'/2d]1/3 Substituting d = 260 d' = 150 + 30.1369863 h 1/3 h = H5 [d'/2d] h = H5/(2)1/3 h = 2.89701 m Bars should be extended by a distance of 12 = 144 mm or b3 = 260 mm Hence h = 2.60 m Curtail bars at this height below the top Check for shear Shear force = P = 48.6440328 kN Ka H52/2 Fu = 72.97 kN Shear stress, v = 72.97 x 1000/(1000 x 260) = 0.28065385 N/mm2 pt Ast x 100 = 1000 x d pt c = 0.403 0.25 0.36 0.5 0.48 0.40 0.44 Corresponding c = 0.44320728 N/mm2 Hence Safe Distribition & temperature reinforcement Average thk of stem = 265 mm Distribution reinforcement = 0.12 x 1000 x A /100 2 = 318 mm Bar dia= = 8 # bars Spacing = 158 mm Provide 8 # bars @ 150 C/C at inner face of the wall, along its length. For temperature reinforcement, provide 8 mm # bars @ 300 C/C both ways, in outer face.

9 Design of shear key Let depth of key = a Intensity of passive pressure pp developed in front of the key depends on the soil pp = Kp p Total passive pressure pp = Dsliding force at level D1C1 = pp a = = 130.443852 kN/m2 130.443852 a (1/3) x (/2) x (H+a)2

pH or = (1/3) x (/2) x (H+a)2 Weigth of soil between bottom of base and D1C1 = bax = 43.2 a W = 103.414 + 43.2 a F.S. against sliding = 1.5 = W + pp 1.5

pH 1.5 = 1.5009279 a = 0.1765 m..Adjust this value till above value = 1.5 However provide minimum a = 0.3 m a = H6 = 300 mm Keep H6 = 300 mm Keep width, b6 = 300 mm

8# @150c/c 8# @300c/c 2.6m 8# @300c/c 12# @200c/c

12# @100c/c 8# @130c/c 8# @150c/c

12# @100c/c

8# @130c/c

Permissible shear stress Table tv in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


100As

bd
< 0.15

0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75
3.00 and above

M-15 0.18 0.22 0.29 0.34 0.37 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

Permissible shear stress in concrete v N/mm2 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.47 0.49 0.50 0.52 0.52 0.49 0.51 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.51 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.51 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.62 0.51 0.57 0.6 0.62 0.63

Refer IS 456-2000 fy Xu, max d 250 0.53 415 0.48 500 0.46