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# Design of Retaing wall Input Height above GL Density of soil, Denity of Concrete Grade of Concrete, fck Grade of Steel,

## eel, fy SBC of foundation strata, q0 Coefficient of friction,

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

## m kN/m3 3 kN/m radians radians radians Mpa Mpa kN/m

2

b5 A

H2 H5 H1

STEM

W1
W2
b2 H3 D H4 TOE H6 E B b3

W4

b4 C HEEL H7

W3
SHEAR KEY b6 b1

Solution 1 Design constants Xu, max d 2 Depth of foundation Density of soil, ymin Keep, H3 Height of wall above its base Hence, H1 3 Dimensions of base "D-E" Ratio b ka ka b1 b1 Base width from sliding condition b1 b1 Base width from from normal practice b1 b1 Keep, b1 Width of Toe slab, b1 Let the thickness of base, H4

0.48

= = = = = =

## 18 kN/m3 18000 N/m3 2 (q0/) x ((1-sin)/(1+sin)) 0.61728 m 1m 4m

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

1-(q0/(2.2 H1)) 0.37 (1-sin)/(1+sin) 0.33333 0.95 H Sqrt{(Ka/((1-)(1+))} 1.90288 m 0.7 H Ka/(1-) 2.96296 m 0.6 H or 0.4 H 2.4 m 2.4 m 0.9 m H/12 0.3 m

4 Thickness of stem Height, H5 "A-B" Consider 1m length retaining wall Maximum Bending moment @ "B"

3.7 m

M @ "B" Mu Hence effective depth, b3eff Keep, b3eff Total thickness, b3 Using 16 dia bars b5 b5eff Width of Heel, b4 5 Stability of wall Designation W1 W2 W3 W4 Total W = Force, kN 18.5 4.625 18 79.92 121.045

= = = = = = = = = = =

Ka H53/6 50.653 kN-m 5.1E+07 N-mm 7.6E+07 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 159.73 mm 240 mm 300 mm 200 mm 140 mm 1.2 m

2

= = =

= = Hence

= =

## 190.3 - 64 126.30 kN-m

Distance X of the pont of application of the resultant, from toe X X= X= Eccentricity, e e b/6 = = = = = = Hence = = M W 126.30 121.045 1.04 m (b1/2) - X 0.16 m 0.4 m No tension

## Should be < b1/6

Pressure p1 at toe

(W/b) x (1+(6e/b)) 70.2 kN/m2 Should be less than SBC = 100 kN/m2 Hence Safe (W/b) x (1-(6e/b)) 30.6917 kN/m2

Pressure p2 at heel

= =

Pressure at the junction of stem with toe slab, p = Pressure at the junction of stem with heel slab, p = A

55.4 kN/m2

50.4458 kN/m2

b2 D E

b3 B

b4 C H7 p2 b1 P

p1

6 Design of toe slab Downward weight of slab per unit area Hence net pressure intensity under "D" = Hence net pressure intensity under "E" = Total force = Shear force at E X from "E" Bending moment @ "E" Mu @ "E" H4eff Provide, H4 H4eff = = = = = = = =

= = = =

## kN/m2 2 kN/m kN/m2 kN

0.47 m 23.3955 kN-m 2.3E+07 N-mm 3.5E+07 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 108.555 mm 260 mm 200 mm

Steel Ast = ((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) Ast = 513.599 mm2 This reinforcement to be provided at bottom face. If alternate bars of stem reinforcement are to be bent & continued in the toe slab, area available = 565.2 mm2 See step 8 Bar dia Spacing Provide 12 # bars @ Check for development length, Ld Providing 50mm clear side cover , actual length available = = = = = = 12 # bars 200 mm 200 C/C at top of heel slab 47 564 mm 850 mm Hence safe 0.12 x 1000 x A /100 276 mm2 8 # bars 182 mm 180 C/C

Distribution reinforcement Bar dia= Spacing Provide 8 # bars @ 7 Design of heel slab 1) Total weight of soil Lever arm @ "B" 2) Total weight of heel slab Lever arm @ "B" 3) Total upward soil reaction Lever arm @ "B" Total force = S.F. at "B" B.M. @ "B" Mu H7eff Provide, H6 H7eff Steel Ast

= = = = =

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

79.92 kN 0.60 m 7.80 kN 0.60 m 48.68 kN 0.55 m 39.04 kN 25.793 kN-m 2.6E+07 N-mm 3.9E+07 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 113.981 mm 260 mm 200 mm

((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) = 569.737 mm2 = 10 # bars = 138 mm 130 C/C at top of heel slab

## Development length, Ld to the left of "B"

= = = = = = = = = = = =

47 470 500

mm mm

Distribution reinforcement Bar dia= Spacing Provide 8 # bars @ Shear stress, v pt pt c 0.25 0.36 0.5 0.48 0.28486828 0.38674 Corresponding c 8 Reinforcement in stem Revised H5 M

0.12 x 1000 x A /100 276 mm2 8 # bars 182 mm 180 C/C 1.5 x 39.04 x 1000/(1000 x 200) 0.2928 N/mm2 Ast x 100 1000 x d 0.28487

= Hence =

## Mu b3eff Provide, b3eff b3 b5 b5eff Ast =

= =

= Ka H53/6 = 52.3136 kN-m = 5.2E+07 N-mm = 7.8E+07 N-mm = Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) = 162.327 mm = 250 mm = 310 mm = 200 mm = 140 mm ((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) 943.711939 mm2

Bar dia= = 12 # bars Spacing = 120 mm Provide 12 # bars @ 100 C/C Astact = 1130.4 mm2 Continue alternate bars in the toe slab to serve as tensile reinforcement there. Discontinue the remaining half bars after a distance of Ld = 47 = 564 mm = 600 mm beyond "B" in the toe slab.

Between "A" & "B" some bars can be curtiled. Consider a section at depth h below the top of the stem. Effective depth at that section is d' = 140 + 29.4117647 h mm (where h in m) 3 Now Ast (H1 /d) or H1 = (Ast d)1/3 1/3 Hence h/H1 = [(Ast' d')/(Ast d)] where Ast' = reinforcement at depth h Ast = reinforcement at depth H1 d' = effective depth at depth h d = effective depth at depth H1 If Ast' = Ast/2, Ast'/Ast = 1/2 Hence h/H1 = [d'/2d]1/3 Substituting d = 250 d' = 140 + 29.4117647 h h = H1 [d'/2d]1/3 h = H1/(2)1/3 h = 2.96844 m Bars should be extended by a distance of 12 = 144 mm or b3 = 250 mm Hence h = 2.70 m Curtail bars at this height below the top Check for shear Shear force = P = 41.9628 kN Ka H52/2 Fu = 62.9442 kN Shear stress, v = 62.9442 x 1000/(1000 x 250) = 0.25178 N/mm2 pt Ast x 100 = 1000 x d pt c = 0.37748 0.25 0.36 0.5 0.48 0.37748478 0.43119 Corresponding c = 0.43119 N/mm2 Hence Safe Distribition & temperature reinforcement Average thk of stem = 255 mm Distribution reinforcement = 0.12 x 1000 x A /100 2 = 306 mm Bar dia= = 8 # bars Spacing = 164 mm Provide 8 # bars @ 160 C/C at inner face of the wall, along its length. For temperature reinforcement, provide 8 mm # bars @ 300 C/C both ways, in outer face.

9 Design of shear key Let depth of key = a Intensity of passive pressure pp developed in front of the key depends on the soil pp = Kp p Total passive pressure pp = Dsliding force at level D1C1 = pp a = = 166.2 kN/m2 166.2 a (1/3) x (/2) x (H+a)
2

pH or = (1/3) x (/2) x (H+a)2 Weigth of soil between bottom of base and D1C1 = bax = 43.2 a W = 121.045 + 43.2 a F.S. against sliding = 1.5 = W + pp 1.5

pH 1.5 = 1.5127695 a= 0.08 m..Adjust this value till above value = 1.5 However provide minimum a = 0.3 m a = H6 = 300 mm Keep H6 = 300 mm Keep width, b6 = 300 mm

## 12# @100c/c 10# @130c/c 8# @180c/c

12# @200c/c

8# @180c/c

Design of Retaing wall Input Height above GL Density of soil, Denity of Concrete Grade of Concrete, fck Grade of Steel, fy SBC of foundation strata, q0 Coefficient of friction,

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

## m kN/m3 kN/m3 radians radians radians Mpa Mpa kN/m2

b5 A

H2 H5 H1

STEM

PV
W1 W2
b2 b3 E B b4 C HEEL H7

H8

W4

PH

H/3

## H3 D H4 TOE H6 SHEAR KEY b6 b1

W3

Solution 1 Design constants Xu, max d 2 Depth of foundation Density of soil, ymin Keep, H3 Height of wall above its base Hence, H1 3 Dimensions of base ka ka "D-E" b b1 b1 Ratio

0.48

= = = = = =

## 18 kN/m3 18000 N/m3 (q0/) x ((1-sin)/(1+sin))2 0.61728395 m 1m 4m

= = = = = = =

2 2 cos (cos -sqrt(cos - cos )) (cos B (cos +sqrt(cos2 - O)) 2 )) +sqrt(cos2 B- cos2 cos 0.39480588

## 1-(q0/(2.7 H1)) 0.49 H1 2.18384292 sqrt (Ka cos ) sqrt ((1-)(1+3)) m

Base width from sliding condition b1 b1 Base width from from normal practice b1 b1 Keep, b1 Width of Toe slab, b1 Let the thickness of base, H4

= = = = = = = =

0.7 H Ka/(1-) 4.33512342 m 0.6 H or 0.4 H 2.4 m 2.4 m 1.2 m H/12 0.3 m

4 Thickness of stem Height, H5 "A-B" Consider 1m length retaining wall Earth pressure on stem is p Hence horizontal earth pressure is PH M @ "B" M @ "B" Mu Shear force at "B" FU Hence effective depth, b3eff Keep, b3eff Total thickness, b3 b3eff Using 16 dia bars b5 b5eff Width of Heel, b4 Shear stress, v pt pt c 0.25 0.5 0.25 Corresponding c

3.7 m

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Ka H5 /2 48.6440328 kN P cos 46.26 PH H1/3 57.054 57054000 85581000 PH 46.26 69.39 kN N-mm kN-m N-mm N-mm kN kN

acting at 18 to Horiz.

Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 169.522103 mm 240 mm 300 mm 240 mm 200 mm 140 mm 0.9 m 1.5 x 46.26 x 1000/(1000 x 240) 0.289125 N/mm2 0.25 minimum

## 0.36 0.48 0.37 = Hence 0.37 N/mm2 Safe

5 Stability of wall Height, H8 Height, H8 Height, H Earth pressure, P Horizontal component PH Vertical component = = = = = = = H5 + b4 tan 3.99 m 4.29 m Ka H /2 65.3944225 kN P cos 62.1937917 kN
2

PV

## = = Lever arm, m 1.4 0.97 1.2 1.95 2.4

P sin 20.2079879 kN Moment @ toe, kN-m 25.9 4.47083 21.6 121.464 48.4992 MR = 221.90

Designation W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 = PV Total

## Force, kN 18.5 4.625 18 62.289 20.207988 W = 123.62199

Total resisting moment MR Check for overturning Overturning moment, M0 F.S. againt overturning =

221.9

kN-m

= = =

= = Hence

= =

## 221.9 - 88.9371220988394 132.96 kN-m

Distance X of the pont of application of the resultant, from toe X X= X= Eccentricity, e e b/6 = = = = = = Hence = = M W 132.96 123.621988 1.08 m (b1/2) - X 0.12 m 0.4 m No tension (W/b) x (1+(6e/b)) 67.5 kN/m2 = Hence Safe (W/b) x (1-(6e/b)) 35.4846746 kN/m2

## Should be < b1/6

Pressure p1 at toe

## Should be less than SBC 100 kN/m2

Pressure p2 at heel

= =

Pressure at the junction of stem with toe slab, p = Pressure at the junction of stem with heel slab, p =

51.5 kN/m2

47.4904216 kN/m2

b2 D E

b3 B

Ka H5 C

Ka H8 H7 p2 P

p1 b1

6 Design of toe slab Downward weight of slab per unit area Hence net pressure intensity under "D" = Hence net pressure intensity under "E" = Total force = Shear force at E Fu X from "E" Bending moment @ "E" Mu @ "E" H4eff Provide, H4 H4eff Shear stress, v pt pt c 0.25 0.36 0.5 0.48 0.3 0.394 Corresponding c = = = = = = = = = = =

## 67.5 - 7.5 51.5 - 7.5

= = = = =

7.5 60 44 62 93.6

## kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN kN

0.63 m 39.36 kN-m 39360000 N-mm 59040000 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 140.80265 mm 300 mm 240 mm 93.6 x 1000/(1000 x 240) 0.39 N/mm2 0.3 minimum

= Hence

## 0.394 N/mm2 Safe

Steel Ast = ((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) Ast = 727.437498 mm2 This reinforcement to be provided at bottom face. If alternate bars of stem reinforcement are to be bent & continued in the toe slab, area available = 1130.4 mm2 See step 8 Bar dia Spacing Provide 12 # bars @ Check for development length, Ld Providing 50mm clear side cover , actual length available = = = = = = Hence Distribution reinforcement Bar dia= Spacing Provide 8 # bars @ 7 Design of heel slab 1) Total weight of soil Lever arm @ "B" 2) Total weight of heel slab Lever arm @ "B" 3) Total force due to vertical component of earth pressure = = = = = 12 # bars 100 mm 100 C/C at top of heel slab 47 564 mm 1150 mm safe

## 0.12 x 1000 x A /100 324 mm2 8 # bars 155 mm 150 C/C

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

## 62.29 0.45 6.75 0.45

kN m kN m

Lever arm @ "B" 4) Total upward soil reaction Lever arm @ "B" Total force = S.F. at "B" Fu B.M. @ "B" Mu H7eff Provide, H6 H7eff Steel Ast

Ka (H5+H8) b4 tan sin 2 2.47 kN 0.46 m 37.34 kN 0.43 m 34.17 kN 51.26 kN 16.200581 kN-m 16200581 N-mm 24300871.5 N-mm Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) 90.3334459 mm 350 mm 290 mm

## Development length, Ld to the left of "B"

= = = = = = = = = = = =

47 376 400

mm mm

Distribution reinforcement Bar dia= Spacing Provide 8 # bars @ Shear stress, v pt pt c 0.15 0.18 0.15 0.18 0.12413793 #DIV/0! Corresponding c 8 Reinforcement in stem Revised H5 Shear force at "B" = PH bending moment @ "B" Mu b3eff Provide, b3eff b3 b5 b5eff Ast =

0.12 x 1000 x A /100 384 mm2 8 # bars 131 mm 130 C/C 1.5 x 34.17 x 1000/(1000 x 290) 0.17674138 N/mm2 Ast x 100 1000 x d 0.12413793

= Hence =

## 0.18 N/mm2 Safe 3.65 m

2

= =

= Ka H5 /2 = 48.6440328 kN = 59.9943071 kN-m = 89.9914607 kN-m = 89991460.7 N-mm = Sqrt(Mu/Ru b) = 0.17383543 mm = 260 mm = 320 mm = 210 mm = 150 mm ((0.5 x fck x b x d)/fy)x(1-SQRT(1-((4.6xMu)/(fckxbfxd^2))) 1046.53945 mm2

Bar dia= = 12 # bars Spacing = 108 mm Provide 12 # bars @ 100 C/C Astact = 1130.4 mm2 Continue alternate bars in the toe slab to serve as tensile reinforcement there. Discontinue the remaining half bars after a distance of Ld = 47 = 564 mm = 600 mm beyond "B" in the toe slab.

Between "A" & "B" some bars can be curtiled. Consider a section at depth h below the top of the stem. Effective depth at that section is d' = 150 + 30.1369863 h mm (where h in m) Now Ast (H3/d) 1/3 or H = (Ast d) 1/3 Hence h/H5 = [(Ast' d')/(Ast d)] where Ast' = reinforcement at depth h Ast = reinforcement at depth H5 d' = effective depth at depth h d = effective depth at depth H5 If Ast' = Ast/2, Ast'/Ast = 1/2 Hence h/H5 = [d'/2d]1/3 Substituting d = 260 d' = 150 + 30.1369863 h 1/3 h = H5 [d'/2d] h = H5/(2)1/3 h = 2.89701 m Bars should be extended by a distance of 12 = 144 mm or b3 = 260 mm Hence h = 2.60 m Curtail bars at this height below the top Check for shear Shear force = P = 48.6440328 kN Ka H52/2 Fu = 72.97 kN Shear stress, v = 72.97 x 1000/(1000 x 260) = 0.28065385 N/mm2 pt Ast x 100 = 1000 x d pt c = 0.403 0.25 0.36 0.5 0.48 0.40 0.44 Corresponding c = 0.44320728 N/mm2 Hence Safe Distribition & temperature reinforcement Average thk of stem = 265 mm Distribution reinforcement = 0.12 x 1000 x A /100 2 = 318 mm Bar dia= = 8 # bars Spacing = 158 mm Provide 8 # bars @ 150 C/C at inner face of the wall, along its length. For temperature reinforcement, provide 8 mm # bars @ 300 C/C both ways, in outer face.

9 Design of shear key Let depth of key = a Intensity of passive pressure pp developed in front of the key depends on the soil pp = Kp p Total passive pressure pp = Dsliding force at level D1C1 = pp a = = 130.443852 kN/m2 130.443852 a (1/3) x (/2) x (H+a)2

pH or = (1/3) x (/2) x (H+a)2 Weigth of soil between bottom of base and D1C1 = bax = 43.2 a W = 103.414 + 43.2 a F.S. against sliding = 1.5 = W + pp 1.5

pH 1.5 = 1.5009279 a = 0.1765 m..Adjust this value till above value = 1.5 However provide minimum a = 0.3 m a = H6 = 300 mm Keep H6 = 300 mm Keep width, b6 = 300 mm

12# @100c/c

8# @130c/c

## Permissible shear stress Table tv in concrete (IS : 456-2000)

100As

bd
< 0.15

0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75
3.00 and above

M-15 0.18 0.22 0.29 0.34 0.37 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

Permissible shear stress in concrete v N/mm2 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.47 0.49 0.50 0.52 0.52 0.49 0.51 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.51 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.51 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.62 0.51 0.57 0.6 0.62 0.63

Refer IS 456-2000 fy Xu, max d 250 0.53 415 0.48 500 0.46