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on Effect of Drying Parameters Moisture Contentand PapainEnzyrneActivity of Dried Papaya

Darwi, Liza Md Sa eh,Ida Idal'u Muhamad Numl Asyikin Zaki*, LizawatiMohamad

BioprccessEngineenngDcpannent ra' unv al Chenicat Enstneeflngdnd Naturdl RasoLi .es 81JlA S\udai.Johol Untv-t.itiTe^notasMataystd Enail: nutsyique@yahoacon, i.lavu@fkkksauln nv

ABSTRACT of thermal strcsses over drying and maintenance Due to the importanceof minimizing to the is of selection properdryingcondition necessary maintain quality relevant compounds, iefruit. The aim of this projectis to studythe effectof dryingparamelers of the processed air velocityand geometryon moisturecontentand papainenzymeactivityof tempeiature, Slices(0.5 x 1.5 x 1 5 cm) and cubes(1.0cm") of papayawere treatedin tray driedpapaya. (40, 50 and 60 "C) and air velocity(0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m/s) Temperature drierat temperature and qualityretentionfor the influencing drying performance was found io be significantly factor played as a both slices and cubes. However,geometrywas the most significant to helpstemperature content,in whichlargersurfaceexposure effecton moisture controlling to compared Slicessufferedhigherwaterloss and enzymedegradation take actionstrongly. through cubes of papaya. Modets obtained for moisture content and enzyme activity 0 with significant R'z= 93 and 0 80 respectively response suiaci methodologywere surface content papain;enzymeactivity;response tray Keywords: drying;papaya;moisture methodology

INTRODUCTION that tropicalfruits as (Caica papayaL.) has been regarded one of the mostvaluable Papaya papainenzyme Dried papayaslices and cubes are vitaminC, beta caroteneand conta]ns content,original the tea to expected be a nutritious drink by maintaining quatityt e. moisture ln concentration. recentyears' much attention taste,color, aroma, nutrientand enzymatic has been given to the quality of dded products Drying is a process in which water is as removedto- halt or slow down the growth of spoilagemicroorganisms, well as the (Vega-Mercado al.' 2001). Tray drying application et occurence of chemical reactions demandhas The consumer the the enhances dryingrate and improves final productquality. (Torringa et products that keepmore of theiro ginalcharactefistics processed for increased factor in improvingdried fruits quality is the moisturecontent' An *, 2OO1). important 'content determinesthe water loss in dried products' in which lower moisture Moisture reporledon Akanbi et al (2005)provideshigherquality in productsprcservation. content of tomato slices, including moisture content at different drying drvino ihamcteristiis and biologically is Anotheraspectto be considered the retentionof nutrients temo'erature. an such as enzymes Papain, enzymefoundin usedfor protein activeingredients by of The stability papainenzymeis also influenced drying in hvdrolvsis medicalapplication. the Therefore, aim of this projectis to sttldythe effectof variousdryingparameters oiocess. air i.e. temperature, velocityand geometryon the qualityof papaya based on moisture and papainenzymeactivity. content

MATERIALS AND METHODS type)were suppliedby MARDI,Pontian. The fruits Matureselectedpapayafruits (Hawaiian and cut into slices (0.1 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm) and cubes (1.0cm).The drying were hand-peeled procedure Dryingwas carriedout using followedPark et al. (2002\with slightmodification. (40,50 and 60 C) and air velocity(0.5, (Armfield different temperature ty dryer UOP8)at air 1.0 and 1.5 m/s). The tray dryer consistsof horizontal flow throughtrays and samples rangeof 15 - 120 minutes. Sampleweightwas takenwithtime interval Analysis loaded it. on The drying of papainenzymeactivitywas then carriedout after dryingprocesscompleted. kineticsand enzyme analysis were studied by observingthe response surface using 5.0. Inc.,USA). Statisiica (Statsoft on The moisture contentwas expressed a dry basisas kg of water per kg of free-moisture by lt was determined an oven method,slightlymodified from solid or kg Hro/kg dry solid. (2000).Papaya at sliceswere placedin oven(Memmert) 100 C for 24 hoursto Funebo al ef moisture contentof the sampleswas calcu,ated as obtainthe dry weight.Time-dependent followsl Moisturecontent = l|ret h'eight dry weight dry weight

proteinassaywas usedto measureamountproteinhydrollzed For papainenzymeanalysis, from the dried papayawas carriedoui using aceione by the enzyme.Enzymeextraction in After24 hours,5mL caseinsubstrate test tube solution ratio59 sample: 10mLacetone. at minutes. Then,2mL extracted enzymesolution was was soakedin 40 C water bathfor'15 3mL tetrachlofoacetyl acid (TCA) to precipitate the added into the test tube, followedby protein. soakedin 40 C waterbath,the samplewas centrifuged After60 minutes hydrolJ,zed was measuredwith spectrophotometer at and optical density of collected supernatant was calculated followsl as activity the samples of 2B0nm. The enzyme U/mg = A x C x10

activity releases tyrosine 40 C that 19 at unit as U whereas; = enzyme defined an enzyme C of W activity enzyme, = concentration enzyme, = sample of for 60 minutes, = standard A the volume. 10 weight mgandconstant represents finalmixture in


Effecl of orocess variables on moislure content contentof fresh papayawas about87.56%.FromFig. f, it is shown Averageinitialmoisture for towardsdryingkinetics either papayaslices of cubes. that air velocityhad no influence that increased temperature in from 40 C to 60 C causedthe it However, can be clearlyseen contentfor both geometryof fruit cut. On the other hand,air velocity reduction moisture of was only aiding the drying process.At the early stage of drying process,the moisture thrcugh the end as the content was rapidly decrease but showed some convergence equilibrium conditionwas showsthat only at the beginningof dryingprocess, gettingto the both air velocityand air tempeEturcstronglyinfluenced dryingrate. However effect was strongerthan the air velocity.This was due to higher the end, air temperature influencing dryingprocess. the Fig. of internal resistance fruitsthat air velocityinsignificantly 2 shows that papaya slices had rapid drying process and suffered higher water loss comparedto cubes. lt can be explainedthat the wider diffusiondifectionsand the lower thicknessfor slices contributedto the ease of water exits and furthermoreaffectedby was retained. Fig. 3 showsthe response surface less moisture consequently, temperature, temperature and the among air velocity, methodology moisturecontent,inferring relation of geometry fruitcut to each other. of

Effectof process variables on papain enzymeactivity optical showsinverse-relation bet\,veen curveof papainenzymeconcentration The standard sudacemethodology Fig.4 showsthe response densityreadingand enzymeconcentration. of papain enzyme activity, inferring the rclation among air velocity, temperatureand geometryof fruit cut to each other. Observingthe responsesurface of papain enzyme to exhibits tremendous as effectcompared othef that temperature it activity, can be inferred variables. As shown in the figure, incrcaseof temperatureresults in the independent in This was due to the sensitivity papain of of degradation enzymeconcentration samples. However,air velocitydid not affect much on the enzymeto heat and high temperature. retention papainenzyme.The papayaslicesand cubes shrankduring drying,therefore of less surface area was exposedto air flow. Comparingthe geometryof fruit cut, slices suffered more papain enzyme loss than cubes, regardingthe surface area of both largersurfacearea,thus more geomekies. Thin breadthsurfaceof papayaslices provided enzyme duringdryjng. lost

4 CONCLUSION From the study, it can be concludedthat dryingair temperatue was the most important factoraffectingthe drying rate and qualityof dried papayafor each geometryof fruit cut. geometry was the mostsignificant factorplayedas a controlling However, effecton moisture and enzymeretention, which largersurfaceexposurehelpstemperaturc take in to content actionstrongly. Papayaslicessufferedhigherwatertossand enzymedegradation compared
t^.' 'h6c ^f h .n .u .

throughresponsesurfacemethodology Modelobtainedfor moisturecontentresponse was (R' as significant = 0.93)and predictive, shownbelow: xl}-ts +1.5890X, Z = 1.2212 -0.1619X, 0.00324,Y. +0.0055XI? + 0.0037 8.r,& - 0.0128xr-rr+ 0.9831

response throughresponse for surfacemethodology Modelobtained papainenzymeactivity (R as was significant = 0.80)and predictive, shownbelow:

l0' z--1 .2 0 t0 . t0 3 6.4282' x, r 0.0307x' ? oX" 6.784"10X.,O.OOO\3X,X, 6 -3 .3 9 1 8 x1 0 Xx4 - 0.01374 9.233x10-'13 +7.9142x10' X

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Centre, UTM Skudai (vot 75146)and The financialsupportfrom Researchlvlanagement gratefullyacknowledged. Department, FKKKSAweTe Bioprocess Engineering

REFERENCES and sorptionisothermof Akanbi,C.T., Adeyemi,R.S. and Ojo, A. (2005).Drying charactedslics (Article Press) in tomaloslicesJournalofFoodEngineering and Skjoldebrand, {2000). ltlicrcwaveheat C. Fqnebo,T., Ahm6, 1., Kidman,S., Langton,I\,4. ! treatmentof apple before air dehydration effectson physicalpropeftiesand microstructure. 46, Journal FoodEngineering, 173-142. of Park, K.J., Bin, A., and Brod, F.P.R. (2002). Drying of pear dAnjou with and wiihoul osmotic 56, Joumalof FoodEngineering, 97-103. dehydration. P. as E.,Scheewe, van den Berg,R. and Bartets, (2001).Osmoticdehydration 1., Toninga,E.,Esveld, drying of mushrooms.Journal of Food before combined microwave-hot-air a pre-treatment 49, . Engineering, 185-191 G.V. {2001). Advances in Vega-Mercado, H., G6ngora-Nieto,I\/.lM. and Barbosa-C5novas, 49, of of dehydration foods.Journal FoodEngineering, 271-289.


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on contentforpapaya and Fig. 1. Effectof temperature air velocity moisture (a) slices, and (b)cubes

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tempeture content drying at on and Fig.2. Effect geometry airvelocity moisture of (a)40 'C and(b)60 "C




Fig.3. Response surface methodology moistuJre for content analysis process with variables (a)airvelocity temperature, geometry temperature, (b) and and and (c)geometry airvelocity and

(b) for Fig. 4. Responsesurface methodology papainenzymeanalysiswith prccessvariables (a) air velocity and and and temperature, (b) geometry temperature