Pape nrlmbers in boldfacerefer to a d€finitioni Da;e nunbers followed by an asterisk indicate an illustration' ihe appendixes and glossary are

not covered bv this ind€x
Asej@ic ridge, 257, 308 Asthenoslhere, 13, 17', 345,415, 443 Acid test, fo! CaCO} 53, 69 Adiondack Moutaim, New York, 481 Aqassiz, L,, 213, 22n-227 Adaniic oce@, history, 19", 4s2 edly hbiory, 15-16 photosynthesisdd, 15' pdmitive, s, 300-301 Atoll, 230 281, 233 Atomi. w€ight, 42, 42 311 Black lmg disease, Boltwood, B. 8,, 41 Bowen, N. L., 33s-336337" Bowen's rcaction series,337-339, Dragg,W. H., 57 Bragg, w' L., 57, 61 Bridal veil FallB. califorlia, 214 Bddt Angel Shale lomation, 35 Bnfron, Count de, 8, 41 Brila.d, Si Edwdd, 422

Alaskm earihqual<e (1904), 434 Alpha (d) !{ticles, 4a Alpitu Mountait Belt, 454, 500

Ameon River, discharg€, 13o AmericaD plate, 17, 20" Balama Islands. ca$onate sedim€nls, 2A4" Grdd Bahama Banl, 205" B@rier islaad, 245', 2't5 Aldes Mountaic, 19, 370 107'. 357 An€le of repose,.1(6-107, AnSstroF unit (A), 52 ADsd{ momenld, 5, 7' Ansula urconJoroitY, 33" Anhydrii€, dePositioD of, 2sro-291 hi6tory of t€rm, 69 Baiholiihs, ori8in, rt9o-4s1 125, Appalachian Moutais, 121-122, 450, 474, 474', Blue Ridge Province, 491 geologicalsection, 491" plate tectonicBdnd, 493' siructu€ and historY, 491-492 Valley and RidSe Protiffe, 491 b\dget, 241-243. 242" lon€shore cureds, 24{F241, 24Olongsho.e ftilt, 2{,-241, 2,ro" m{ine tellaces, 235" rip currents, 242-241, 241" Bedding,27 Beniotr, H., 395 Beta (B) pdtides, ,14 Bitier SprinSslolma1ion, Ausiralia 3o3 BlacL Hdls. South Dalota, 48r, 432Basin aid RanSe ProviEc€,124,466i 494, 496 Basins, 122, ta1, 431'

Calcium .arbonate, 270-236 mcient lim6tones, 246 bioiosical control of precipilation,

chemistly of sedidentation. 27s compensationdepth, 265, 265*,280 equilibriun in oceans,279,279' N@ofossil ooz€, 2at

platforms, 233-206 caledonian Mountain Beli, 461,461" CalListo, Moon ol Jupit€r, 527 P€cambrian age map, 47' Precambrian.ocks or, 47-48 Canadia. Shield, 483,433' Calbonate ion, as nineral blildin€ Carbonale platform, Bahamas,233-280

606
euly history, 1'!1s effe.t of on climate 312-313 hGtorical record ol 312' Cafboni. dcid, in wedth€ring,36, 39 coscadc Mountails, 124,134 Cataclasticrock, 330,33O" Calaclasticiextur€ 334 convection, 21' 321-322 in mantle, 329,329" Convergenljnrctio4 17-13 Coordination nnmber, 59 60, 61' topoeraphicexpressionof, 479 aosociat€d salt mdsh, 1a baFffnSersand. 131,131' bollomset b€ds,130

lunate bars, 131, 1a1' fiinging, 283 Catskill Mountai4, Ncw Yo!k, 293 Challe.€er,H.M.S., 231,231' Chanberlin, T. C., 3, 41 Chamelled Scablands Washi.€ton, 222-223 Chcnical b.ndi.€, 57-61 Chemjcal condensationsequencenodel ol solar lysten .iigin, I Clurchill Province, Canada,47 48 clay (mineml!8ical), 37-33 C.rdierite, clect.on nicrograpb of, 56' Cordillerar Momtain Belt, :124, 47s', 492-499 Early Pal€ozoic,495" history ir central Nevada, 496* MississippiRive., 182r,133r srrlctlre, t8oi. 131' Density curent, 251, See dlso Turbidity

stmcrure and composition 416-,117 dunes,193 203,2oo*, 201', 276 Covalent bonding, 60-61 crater Lake, ore€on, 360,360' evolutton of, 193-10.1 inledace with sho.eline, 196 197 intedor drainag€,106 lo.gitudilal dlaes, 203,203r occurrence,1S3-194, 193" pedinelt evolutior, 1s7' plate tectonics and, 194 interfacial angle, 53 irlemal order, s4 s5 playa lake, 1s6, 276 transversedDes, m! 202"

Cleopatra'sN€ed]-", weathoin€ ol 37i Climate ellect of or weatlering, 117 Coal, 239-290, 5-45-546 fields i! the U,S,, 546' Coasral plain, North America. 124 Coast Ran€e,California, 124 Coast Rarg$, Calilomia, 499 Coconino Sandstonelormation, 36, 37' Cocfficientof th€rmal expansion,322 Collision hypolhesis,3 Colo.ado !lalea!, $1, 494,493 4Sg C.lorado Riler drainagebasin, 176r Colunbia Plateaq Oregon and Wash Columbia River basalt, Washington and Con.o.dant conta.ts, 3Z 377 Codormable sncc$sion, 3a-3s Conglomerate, 273' 7a ConnccricurVall€y, rifling ln, 502' Com€rvarion of anguld momentum, 7, Darcy, H. 139-140 Dflwin, Clarles, 39, 23o,233

mesurem€nt of in ocean,259i veloclty d€asuement, 259-260

Dehital njnerals, stability, 119" 2s6" Diag€nesb,295-2s7, Diamond, covalert bondin€ jn, 61 Diatom ooz€,206,237 Differertiation, planets other than Ea.lh, 12 Dip, 470

a
Comtmcy ol interlacial angl€s,p.inci Continental ousl, composition,4:13 Debris-avalanche109-:110 Deccan basalts,Idia, 353 oeep Sea Drillin8 Proj€cr,'t46 Deep-seas€dimentation diatom ooze,2Gq 237 foraminileral ooze,264', 265 radioiarian ooze,266, 237 Discorddt contaci, 37, 37a Disint€Brationconstanl (I), 44

No h America, 249' submarine canyon! 247Contirental rise, 250,251 Contimntal sheif. 246-250 Plate lectonics,243-250 rock assocLatrons, 453 Continental slope, 250-251

rn geosynclines, 490 recent, i! Nofih Ame.ica, 484'

Duclile materials,467

607
gpeirogenl, 430 432,433" effect ot on clinate, 313 Dwyka Tillile, South Afiica 22! .ontrollinE f actors,93. relatiomhip of with elcvaiion, 116 clemical zonation in, 13 14 difrerentiation,11-:12, 12i iron catastlophe,11-12 prinitive convectionpattem, 13 Earth movements,ratc, 23 25 Eadhqua&es,396-403, 43.1 and animal behavior,407 plale bomda es, 4oo' associated desl4ction by, .103403 €]triic rebound theory, 396-397, 300i f aci€s,metanorphic, 7a ftequ€ncy and na8nitude, 3s7-398 ma€nitude determination,397i ma! ol haza.dols regions,406' occurence, 393-401 Faulling '101-402, 47e47s 476' neld recognltion,a77 478 Europa, Moon.f lLrpiter,520 Eustaric sea-levelclange, 273 Evapodles, 73 74, 290 291 an.l Seologicalcvents,308 Ganyn€de, Moon of Jupit.r, 527 523 GarDet.composition,53 Ucikie, Sir Archibald 41 carbor 14 dati.g, 'r4 ljssion track dathg, 43 potassitrmargon datin€, 44 Nbidium-strontnrm datin€, 44 maps, 4(J3471 469', 470* slructure,North Am€rica, 435 503 brack€tineagc of sedimentaryro.ls, 45 .lock relresentation. 43t orrleri.€ ol geologicalelerts, 37-33 Ccolo8icalTioe Scale,40" Geologt, sut.lis.iliin.s of, 4 s .121' Geomagnetism, 420-434, anomalies,42t-433,423", 430', .145446 anonalies and sea-floorspreading, Fossils,in geolosictime, 2s-ljt Iracrional crystallization,336, 367 lraD.iscan Formation Calilornia, a5a lractnre, concoidal s5l

soil liquefa.tion, 40.1r stresspaftems, .101 403 travel-iim€ cuve, 400' slickensid€s, 473,4731 East Alrican rilt valley, 477 |yd.oihernal venB, 556 557 Faunal succession 29 31 Electron miooprobc, 69, 337 Elecltor slaring, C0 61 aburdarce ol in Earlh, 13' abundarce ol in n verse, 14 electronicslructu.e, 57, 63 lluorite oystal forn. 5ai Enissior spectrograpi, 6s Ener€y lrom Ea h, 536-552 lossil fuels, 536 537 geothernal, 550-551 d.me, 473-474, 473' ratural gas, 537-5,15 monocllne,4m! 471overturnedfold, 472', a73 reseNes and resonrces, 543 Iecumbenl, 472-. 473 loldirg, 333t, 467 474,46s', ,16s" pldgioclase,333-335, 336r rale ol dissolution in walcr, 851 X-ray difiracLionlattern, 64'

.leposrtronal remanent magneli2ation! dynamo model, 421-422, 422" Earfh as bar ddgnet, 420

polar lrarderin€ cuve, 425' radiomctric mdgnetic tim€ s.dle. 427t rcversalsand extinction. !127 rclersais in ficld, 423,423'. 426 427, 426' reve$al time scale,431' sea Iloor spreddilg 427 433 132-433' lariatiotr in, 422 423 geomorphiccycle, 126 steady-stat€ nodcl of landioro evo-

cEosEcs,263
GeosytrcliDes, 203 293i, 490 2S2 cu€eos,vnclne292-293 . niog€osyncline 292 Gd.Urermalenergy,550-55:1, 55:L' 341i Sradienr,326 320, 3231. C€othonal eradient constraintsuFon, 324

metmorphic, 331,382i toxLc metdlt, 309-310 Eolian, 137, see dlso Wind rule in sedimentaliotr, 264-265 forea.c subduction zon€, 3!0 Fornatior GlrdtigraFhic),30

Gilbert, G. K., 159 Clacial Lake Missonla 223 Glaciauon,Pleistocene, 235

608
fr€e .t Antarctic ice sh€el, 217' causesoi lcc A€es,223-229 .]lqnes, 213, 214' , 22O cortinental, 215 216 crevasses, 212, 212r d€positioral leatures,220 224 drill, 221 efleci of or sea level 226-223 erosion by. 216 213 corfection,436 HimalaXa Mounlai$, 125,501 Holmes, Arthlr, 46, 322,442

internationalgravity formrla, 436 bostatic compemation,435 traveBe acrossthe U.S.,437" Cree.iolse eflect, 312 313,3:12"

Hornfelsic texturc, 333

Grdnd Canyon, 26-27,27', 33', 35', 36' lopo$aphy, 114-115 Grard Caryon Series,32-33 Great Valley, Cdlllomia, 124 Grenville province, Canadd,43 Gios ventre landslide. 1925,107-:l0s Gromdwater, 131,135-143 circulation over nagm., 143' confincd resoroir, 133,139' depth, 137', 133', 1.15147 dGtdce ol Ilow, 140-142 dist burion with depth, 146' 140' intdlace with seawater.13a-13s, pe.ched watef rable, 13s' satumted bnreatic) zone, r37 unsaiuraled (vad.34 zone, 137 water table, 137'. 106 107 CuadalupeMoutains Texas, 232' CuU Coast,United States,124 Atlantic Ocean,164 Gudint Ched, Ontario, 3o3 Gr?snm, deposition ol, 2s0-291

Hot Sprin€s,Arkdsds, 147 Hudsonian orogery, a8 Hution, James,33 39, 3s", 331 Huley, Thomd H., iJs Hydration, importdce ol in weathe. 15:l-152 Hyd.ologic cycle, 130-135, Hy.hology, 12s-154 Sr.undwater, 135-143 hydrologic cycle, 13:l', 152" ly.hologic cycle of the U.S,, 133' nass balan.€, 131.132' steamJlow map. 135' snrfac€runoff, 132-135 swanps and mdshlands, 136i 143 Hydrothqmal energX, Ey&othermal mineral deposits,

Coologyof the U S., 226' SlacialedGondwanaland,22s' Greenlandice cap, 216" gourd moraire, 223 hdgD€ valley, 213 214,214*, 215' icebergs, 210", 214 215 ice now h valley glacier,212' keltlc, 223, 223' micrcstruclue, 211morainc. 213, 217', 21e' morement, 211 213 Pleistocene epoch, 221', 225 229 Pleisto.eneglacial periods, 225 sedimentsderived froo, 224 225 striatioN, 214, 213' lermilal moraine, 221 tbnst faulling in, 203" 1 .,221,222' trarolbrmation ol snow, 209" U shapedvalleys, 220,220' vallev, 213 215,214i \a$es, 22, 222', 224-225

Hy&othermal vcnts, 326 Easi Paciic rise. 25s llydrot!€rmal warers, 147 143 EJpsomehic diagram,116-117 ol Edth suriace, 117'

Hadlel, Rille, Moon, 350 Hdlite,54 depositionol, 29o-2s1 Hdmonic tremor, 3ti3 Haiiy, R,, 53 conduction by rock, 10 Earth's irt€rior, 322 330 hGtory ol Eafilt, 320

Icncous .ocks, 331-343 caPsulesummdy, 7a classificalion.7:r', 332-333 333' colrinuous reaction series,333-334 discontinuorc .eaction s€res, 335 mafic minerals, 335 meltin8 and d,vslallization,333-335 pafiial n€lting, 335 cation, 7' skeleton classiff lllite, 33 Index of refraction, 08 529" Io, moon ol iuliler, 523-530,

447", 542 Glomar Chall€rger, 446-447,

sourcesin earth, 320 th€rnal conductivity, 320-321 Bash ard Ran€c Province, 324-325 Canadian Shield, 324 conduction,3zl-321, 321' on corlinents, 323-325 corv€ction. 321 322,321" m€asnr€mert,323,323"

Goldschnidt, v. M., 57 Grdiie, 70, $2r, 331 333 photomimograph.332' radioactil'€ h€at ol 320

Ircn calastrophe,11-12

Si€rra Nevada, 325 trave.se atross plat€, 445 Helnholtz, Hermm von, 41 anomalies,435-$a, 436* Bonguer corection, 436 liermit Shal€ lomation, 36

437-43S lsosis-r, 413 414, 433-434, 413,435 compensation, and Femoscudian ice sheer,436 437 pfftglacial nplilL, 438', 439"

-

609
Jefteys, Sn Ha.old, 442 Joinb, 93, 93i, 474-476 efiect of o! geometry ol int.usions, efrect 01 on weath€Lrg, 476 Jupiter,0. 527 530,523' moons or, 527-530, 529" Jura Moutrtai4, 430" Kaibab lincstone Formarion,36 Kant, ImmaNel, 7, al Kast topocraphJ, P4 142 143 Mmmoth Cave, 123 (€h'in, Lord (william Thohsor), 41 Kenoran orogenyj47 Kinberley dines, Sout! Africa, 36:r Klamath Mounrains, Oreeor and CatjKudl Kadchatta-Aleutian arc, 1s Malgarese nodules,266,272,565,565i Lake Mead, sedinentarion in, 114 compositionof, 13-14,320,367,413 doss section,4-44r stmcftue and compositior, 414 !116 lresition zone, 415-!16 Mds, 5, 521 527,522,, S2S. ol Nofi! Arerica, 124-125 and rcck ryPe, 120 rtructural control of, 120-122 Landslide,107-110, 103' Lapl.ce, Marquis de, 7 l,ate Cretaceousextirction ereit, 303 erosioral fealues, 524t Olympus Mons, s2B' vorcanic activitv 523 Mdshlard as natural reseNoir, r34 13s Mass movemenl, 105-113 Mass speclrometer, 45 Mathcws, D. H., 42S,442 Maldx, in ign€ols roclc, 22 Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 386 rrace €]ementsin, 34:t 342 Msemahc diflerenhdtion,3JS_139. 367 Lineation, dne to meramorltisn. 3s3 Lftnjicatjon, See Diaqenesjs Lithology, g0 lithosphe.e, 16, 17', 415 Loess,203 204,203', 204' Longtudinal Fronle, river, 166, Low-velocity zone (asthenospherel. a1s Lvell, C., 33. 39 Mackin, J. H., 106 Ma8ma. 19, 31, 345r .onposition ofj 340-342 differentiation,336' effect ol pre;sure, 339 34o cfiect of water 339-340 irtusior process,376 ongD, 339 342,345,307 363

index mineral, 334-3as of limestone,333 regronal,75, 330,3B!I_BBB shy creavaa€, 74 textures i!, 330-334 Met€orites.532,532. Michi8an Basin, 431,4BB Mictuscole, poluizinB, s6-sz Mid ArlaDric ridge, 17, 2ss,, 17+ ea.thquale nechanism ar, 4oj hydrothermal verts, 326 Migmatite, 337,3BZ{ Milanlorilch, M,, 223 Miller, S. 1,, 300-301 ' Mineral deposits,table ol 56jt s6B Min€ral resources, 552-566, 854. corcelhation tactor, 553 contact netamorphic deposfts,55s exDloralron,564-565 luture !.ospe.ts, 561_566 hy&otherDal, 553-5sB €neo6,1epo8its, 553-559 ard Dlate bounddi€s, ss8t, sss. sedimertary deposits,559-561 aromrc srmcture, 57-64 bohd t!?e !nLl prope.rrFs. b5 .hemrcdt .lasse8 69 chemical properties,63-20 cleavagej 66-67 53,

evolution of, 125-123

hardness,s3, 6s-80 interlacial argle, b3 internal .egularities, E3-56 Mohs scate of hardless, 65-66

Law of colservation of an8uld no Layering.see Stradncation Leacling, jnloftance of in wealhering, 35 Lead, pollntior bt', 310 Leolold, L. 8., :170 evolutionfly hi6tory, 49' external coditions of, 3-4 exh.aler.estrial, 306-307 iDteraclionsol with envirorment, 302-304 origin of ch€mical consrftnents, 300, Precamb an, 302-304, 302,, 3o3i Li€nite, 2m capslle sumrry. 73 €vaporit€ deposition,291 M€.clry (Planet),5, 519-520, 519. lollution by, 309 310

lroPerties of, 64-70 silicate stru.rure, 62

skel€ton classiff cation, 77, Metmo+hism, 19. 330 3s0 clemical chaneesin, 309 390 conracr,341!333,74 dt coDvergent plale boundary, 453 454 facies diaglan, 337.

rrace ekmerts in, 09 van der Waals bonds in, 66-67 Miogeostecline,.1s3, 490 Mississippi tuver, 171 Mohoroviiid dtuconrinuftv,367,419 437 M.nt Pelde,Martinique, 352, 364-365 Moon, 507-519, 509", S11",St2i agesol naterials, 515.

610
Obsidiaq 51, 55', 72 Perch€dwate! tabl€, 136 Peddotite, 70 Pe od (time unit), 40 Pelm€abjLity, 136-137 int€mal activity, 513' int€rnal stNcture, 51a' lular prcvilces, 507 mana, 515 516,510met€orite impacts oD, 510-513 mi@ometeorit$, 513 ongn. 517 le8olith, 513 seisnic activity, 513-519 secmoSraphson! 3s3-395 sbatigiaphy ol 513 515 sudace Frocesses, 510-5n3 Map ol Nofin Ailantic, 254. p.ofile, 253 2s7 Oc€m, dissolred substac€s in, 150* Oceanic circriation, 257-263 upwelli!8, 260 262 oceanic crust, compos ion, 413 Oceanoglaphy,231 263 depth aad a8e ol basins, 444* depth lariation in, 445 early history, 15 measu€ment of deprh, 247- 0 residencetime of constituents, 150151 steady-state comlosition, 140 152 Ogallala formation, Texas and New on contiDetrtal shelvesj 542 distribution in time. 541' formation ol, 53a 539 on ields, 4itg res€Nes,542-544, 541" world dishibutiotr, 539-s42 Phderozoic time scale, :19-40 Photosrathesi!, 15-16, 15r, 90, 30tt-306 Pirr€o,225

dilf€r€ntiation ol 516 Edth tides md. $1

aseisnic ridges, 257

Moutain bnildilg, 454-4s6 at co4verSent plate margins, 454 Old Failhful Geye€r,wyooDS. 362fadtblock, 490, 499r solid solution in, 61-62 Oltrpu Mons, Mars, 361

variaijon in fotu and odgi!, a98i Mt. Etm, Ituty, 34S Mt. Monadnock, New Haopslire, 126 Mt. Newb€.ry, Oregon,353 Mt. St. Helens, 21, 72, 134,351,359i, 365-366, 366' Muav limestorc Fornalion, 3s-36 Mrd,274-275

Ophiolite suite. 454 452r, 453 Original continuity, pdNiple of, 23 O.Einsl horizoltality, principle of, 2a orogeric b€lts, 4Bo, 4go'

Plate tectoniB, 16-21, 441 462 a8e of ocean bdins, 451 dalyzing plate motiom, !t49-as1 Andes Molntaim and, '156 b.eakup of Panga€a, 453'-459" Md continental history, 451 continertal malgitr, 443 convergence zonesi 441 converSent boundaries, 453-454 and displacedteuains, 456 div€rged bonnddj€s, !151-452 dive.gent magin, 17N &iviDg mec&dism, 401-462, 462. and esrth history, 451-461 geometry of plate motiotr, 447-451 Himalayas dd, 456 history of concept. {41 443 and magr€tic anomaLies, 447 443 mid-ocean ridges, 44s and dountain building, 454-456 ed ocean deprh, 4!r5 opening of Atletic, 443r paired m€tamorphic belts, 454 Paleozoichistory, 457' and Phanerozoicesrth history, 456461 plate boundaries,443 plale collisiols, 455' 4i€ ol piaie notion, 4,15-447,4rt6" and rock assemblages, 451.454 stnct!.e and evolution of plates, 443-445 subduction,445,445*, 453*,455' tranBfom faults, 44q 447 triple junctions, 44a-449, 448r, 449,

folmation of, 533-53s world dist.ibltion, 53s-442

cycl€ in atnosphere dd oceans,3OCt evolution of in atmosphere, 304-306, 301' and evolution ol 1ife. 304' botopes, and paleotempe4iure, 70 in sedinents, $a-239 Ozdk Moutains, Missoxri ad Arlan-

Nebuld hypothesis,Z 7i

Newtor, Sir Isaac,41,

3 Paleocurelt map, 272 Paleogeo$aphy,30, 270 Poleo-ocedoSralhy, 262 263 PaleotenperatueB,oxygen isotopes,225 Palisad€sSill, New Yo*, 337.s37{ Paneaea, 441,456-460, 17, 10' breakup, 4€0 Pdama basalts, Br&il dd Pdaguay, 353

Coastal Plair, 4ss-502 Conri!€Dial Shelf, 499-502 oroSenic belts, 4€9-499 regional structues of, 485-503 stable interior, 43&43s tectonic features,435' North American plate, 25' Nuclear energy,54t-54S,548r breede! reactor, 549 uranium resery$, 543-549 Nm]els (of etenent). a2

sill, 377'

647
lake Tanganyika,122 123 sill, 377 River deposits, ailuvial fan, 167 Porphyloblasts,334,334" bare lev€i, 165 166,166braided stread, 163 channel d€posils,171" chdnel latterns, 163-171 discharye,163,103', 164', 174" drailage bruin, 175', 176' f@odir]€, 172-\74, 773' floodplain, 169', 171-174 intedace:wiih lake o. ocean, 179' longitudinal profrl€, 1€4,165', 166' meand€rin8,169', 171', 170' naldal lev€e, 171, 172" Point bar, 1611,170,170', 171' Sea-floorspreading,1Z 17" 235 eustatic chang€s, sea 1e!e1, nnde ardenie, 351-352 tuffs, 351 accumulaiion and burial, 291-295 ch.mical, B, 2m, 27a-291 Sravel and conSloderate,272 274 mud md shale, 274-27s dilision by grain siz€, 271 i.Jerenceol ori€in ftom shape,271 sardsrote, a, 12, 271-272

Precambrianljme, age of rocks, 46-43 Project IAMOUS, 2ss

San Francjs.o edthquake ol 1s06,20, 396r, 44 San Joaclin Vall€y, Calilornia 205

233 oriSin in sediments, Plaoclastic delosits, 350-352

wiih rings and nooE

530-

slspended sedimelt, 164'

continenral divide, 174 deDdritic drainage pattert, 17G-177 drainage basi$, 174-175 Quarrz areDite, 99-100 dystalline lorns, 55' radial drainagepatten, 178 rectancula! .hainaS€patt€rn, 170 supeposed streame,17s trellis draina8e Patiern, 1% Radiation, inft ared, 312 Radioactivedecay,10', 42-44 Radioactivewaste disPosal,314 oi ea.ly Edth, 10-11 Radiolarian ooze, 26G,237 Radiometric dating, 43, 44 14C, 4344. 225 calibrating tle shati$aPhic of 8loudwaler flow, 14o sourcesof error, 45-46 134' Rain shadow, 1:|2-134, Rechdge, of $oundwater, 137 Redwall I-imestone lormation, 36 Reef,230' and spreadirg !at€, 43s Reid, H. 1., 396 Relativ€ humidity, 130 Reli€f, 114 Respiration,36 Rhjne aiaben, 477, 477Salton Sea, California, 375 San Andr€as Fault, 1s-20, m', 25, 2s'' 406",434 RocLy Mounlaitr, 124 PresenttoPography,493 Ross lce shelf, Antdctica, 216 Rlbey, w' H., 143-149 Russim platlom, 43s

S€dimenta.y deposits injng upward alluvial cycle, 276 ri]l 276 Sedidentary €rvnorments, 2t5-273 beach ad bar, 277

''acidic" ald 'basic, 70 classificatio!, 70-74, 53 lelBic and manq m identiffcation flow chdt, 76"

slalow marihe, 277 Sedimerta.y facies, 277 Sedimeniaryparlicles,oriSit, 95-96 Sedjment@yrocks, 73

time

oetdorplic,

74 31-32

respons€to stress,467 sedjmeniary, 72-74

74 relative abundances, sk€letoncltusification, 77' sedinentary st clues, 153-160 assymerdcalripples, 15s doss beddhg, 159,160' oscillation ripples, 159 1€o, 161",153, 159', 130" tough doss-beddin8,161" sedinenlation, 269-295 o! continentalplatforms, 293-294 and cufenl strenSth,271 263-266 d€ep-sea, eolid. 270 and tectotics, 29s Sedimenlatio! rat€, deep sea, 264

RiJt vall€y, 122-123

2m Sebmic atratiSraphy, de$ity-d€pth relations in Earth. 412" in der€rminationof thiclaess ol oulemos! 700km, 415" pa$s of P-waves and S-waves, 410r patls ol rbough Earth's inierjor, 4o9'

production of, 82-33 relation ol io climate, 97-98 solar ene.gy,549-550

Superior province, Canada,.47 Supernova,I Supe.position,grinciple of, 23 a! natual reseftoir, 134 135

anSular mom€ntum i!, 5 cheoical composition,0 chemical condeEation sequelce model of origin, I density of planets, 5-6 planetary .oiation. 5 rec€rt theorjes ol oriSin, 3-9 Sorby, H., 56 Sorling Gedidentaly), 72 Space composition of interstella larticle6, 3 detuity of malier, I Spect$scopy, of Sur, 0 spheloidal weathe.ing. see weathering sialacmire, 123,200,236'

Syometry, in minemloSy, 56 syst€n (tim+lock unit), 40

whole-Eart! nodes, 411" whole Ea.rh oscilations, 410 3sg deep earihquakes, 394,393 395,39s" SejsmoSraph, Earth s core, 403-410 and Edth stuctuE, 410-417 sebmic waves, 40&410 Shadow zone, seismic,4oB 410 Sh1le, 2s, 72, 274-275 ShaFl€y,H., 307 SheetinS, joints, 93 in

Tapeats Sa!ftton€ Fomation, 35 Tectonic valley, 122-123 Tenperatue, history of in Earth, 11" Temple Butte limqtone Fordalion, 35 36 Terreshlal pla@ts, 5-6 The.nonucled reaction, 3 'fides, 243-245, 243', 2dA', , and distanceb€tw€enEdth and efrect of o! Edth's rotatioD !ate, 244-245

St€no, N,, 23, 29 30, 53 Srlati8raphicseq!€nce,30 St.atigraphiclime scale,27-23,39-40 bed load, 152 157', 1€0' compete.ce, 15t, 157" Silica d€position,207 oxySenand silid.n in, 61 silica tetrahedron,61 sill, 3z 239" topoSraplic, 233 2ag Sill€n, L, G., 14s Sllodowska-Curie,M., 41 laminar flow, 155', 155 measu.emelt of disclarge, 157 panicle movement, 156-153 relation belween comlet€nce and r€lation between Srah Bizeand saltatjon, 117,157, 1m" setiling velocity, 157 shootilg Jlow, ,53, 156" sbeaming flow, 156, 156r Smith, W., and shati8raphic codela Snowflakes,crystal lom, 55' Soddy, F., 41 157* slsp€nded load, 156-157, tubulenl flow, 156, 156' stromatolites, 2354,302-303, 303" Subductjon, and Appalachian Moun Soil, s6-93 Snbduction zon€, 19, 21', 250' eanlquakes at, 403 Submdine canyons, 2'16 Sundq sedimentdy, 233-289 dlainage patte.B, 173'

Shiprock, New M€xico, s61 232 See dlso Beaches Shorelines. drowned .iver valleY, 236landforms, 2s4-235 Siera Nevada, 124, 134, 379, 494, 496, 493

Titan, moon of Saturn, 531 Topographicmap, 113 eflect of on climate, 117 efrect of or weath€iJl8, 116 mature and old age, 126' worldwide dist burion, 116-117 Toroweap Fomation, 36 Transfolm fault, 19-20,1s' Transelession, 35. 2ra and spreadilg rate, 489 Trmition elements, 5S

Tsudi, 365, 404", 4o5 T!da, 2€6 Tttl,72 Tubidft*, 272,2S3,390,453 453 Tdbidity current, 252', 251-253, depmition by, 251-253,

Unco.formity, 31, 37, 32* Unconsolidatedmaterial, 10o Uniformitdianism, principle of, 38 najor landfons, 12a' physio€xaphic provinc*, 436"-437 ech€maticsection,433" Uplift, md erosioD,116-

INDEX ladioactive decay of, 43 dishibntion in crust, 146' disbibutio! in natulal !$eNois, 143" loss into space,130 X-ray difiractioD, 57, 61 Xjay fluo.escence, 69 Zagros Momtains, hm, 122" zeolite, 336 as wat€! soft€ner,145i saltaiion tramPofr by, 189' sandblstinS by, 1s1-192

UraEid,

Usher, tuchbbhoP iam4, 40

Valley and idge iopography, 122" vall€y, v-shap€d, 11+115 Van der Waals bond, 61 atmosphere, 36, 520 surjace featdes, 5?,0 Vine, !, t., 42s, 442 Vishnu f oroation, 32-33 Water table. see Groundwater, water Volcanic phenomena colunnar jointing, 350' at converSence zon@, 370 fissure enptions, 353-355 iood basall 352,354" ard Seothelnal €n€r8y, 373 global pattern, 366-370 global lepres€ntation,363' hot 6prings,362-303 ignimbrite, 355,355" jnhaptat€, 363-370 373 bnar, 361-062, nude sdedtes, 352", 361 at oced ridges,363 phreatic explosion, 352,353', 373 Volcdi. rocks, 34s-3s2,see olso P'IoWave-cul tenace, 2s4 elfect of siorns on, 239' effect of wid on, 233i rcflaction. 237' , 235, 239', 2&" , swell, 236 and wilds, 233-239 Weatl€ring, 15, 30, 91-103, 33i carbon dioxide in, 36 cdbonic acid in, 36 chemiffI 31, 10G101 climate and, 117-118 coltrollitg factoB, s3' globai scale,100-101. importance ot water, a3i4 oi nafic minerals, 90 91

quality, 143-149 souce ot Earth, 15 of, 93 themal exldion

coludar joiltins, 3t0 lala cales (tube), 35t) lava flows, 347-350 paloeho€, 342 343" pillow lava, 349,349'

caldera, 35S-3m.360" central vent (PiPe), 356 cinder cone, 357,35ar 35s codposite cone Gtrato-votcano), diatreme, 361, 361' global dist bution, 346' Mont Pelde,352,36!F365 Mr, S!. Helens, 365 363,306' Bhield,356,350* volcanic dome, 3sa von Lau€, M., 57, 64

rate of nechanical and chenical, 113-119 as sedim€nt souce, 99 100 and solrce rock8, 95-96 spheroidal,94r,05 topo8ralhic facto$ iq 100', 116 veSetationand. 117-113 Wibo.. I. T,, 363, 442, 456

desqt lavement, 191 dust t.ansport by, 189-190 elosion by, 191-1S2 fiosted sand, 190-191 global patteln, 188' pariicl€ saltation. 189 la.ticl€ hansport, 137 192