Status of Neem in Senegal
Neem was introduced in the year 1994 into Senegal. Since its introduction, it has spread throughout the country, primarily through the government’s reforestation programs, and can be found along roads and in public spaces, as well as in villages. The current biomass in Senegal is estimated to be anywhere between 10-20 million trees, primarily located in the regions of Louga, Dourbel, Kaolack, Fatick, Thies, Tambacounda, and Kolda, however the trees can be found in most parts of the country.
Production and potential of Neem in Senegal Senegal has the potential for a significant amount of neem production, which is currently being under-utilized. A single tree can produce an average of 50-100 kilos of seeds a year, and this would be more for a large tree. Even with a conservative estimate of availability of an average of 15 million trees in the country, this would indicate that Senegal could produce closer to 1 million tons of neem seeds per year.
It is estimated that a single village can produce between 1-4 tons of dried seeds per year, and this number increased to 7-20 tons if a groupement (several villages, approximately a 10 km radius) works together to collect the seeds. One ton of un-dried seed will yield about 800 kilos once dried.
Neem Production Locations in Senegal Neem is available and grows throughout Senegal, but the zones marked A, B, C, and D (Fig.1) are the primary production areas. Approximately 80-90% of neem trees in the country are located in these 4 zones. Figures 1 & 2 will give the locations of the availability of neem in Senegal.
Map of Senegal showing areas of neem availability
.1.2.Fig. Political Map of Senegal for comparison with Fig.
international organizations and donors promoting the sub sector. Research organizations. Asiyla Gum Company for example).
In-country processors of neem. in addition to the occasional informal local trader). specific data on neem exports at present.Neem Exports from Senegal There are records of about 20tons of neem seeds were exported by an USA based company to be used as a plant health improving material. There is another company producing pesticides exports neem to West African countries. and exporters of neem (such as Gantec). There are no significant groups of planters or producers because there are no systematic plantations of neem.
Public sector institutions. However. both Senegalese and foreign (Senchim. Some other discussions suggest also the ad –hoc quantities of neem exports to Europe etc. Asiyla Gum and small scale processors
Exporters of seeds and processed products
. The women collectors often organized as groups (GIES) are organized also as federations or associations of women’s groups (who act as traders. NGOs and universities engaged in research work using neem as experiments.
Associations supported by the first lady of the country are also engaged in producing and promoting neem products mainly in organic agriculture
Processors – Shenchim . there are no published.
Participants of the Senegal neem industry The different actors involved in the Senegal neem trade chain are mainly as follows:
Individual women and women’s groups (groupements) who operate as collectors.
and neem could be used domestically to improve their yields and quality. a
. by the local population. and therefore unutilized. mainly by purchasing neem seeds or products for research and testing. There also seems to be a lack of information at the exporter level. with the shells. and the Department for Rural Development have also been involved in the sector. or clean. as they have more control over the quality of the oil. The processors and exporters prefer to process at their plants in Dakar or abroad. such as a liter of locally produced neem oil. part of the Ministry of the Environment. and in fact many women’s groups remove the kernel from the shell. dried seeds. The Local market by organic agriculture producers is in the increase. is still largely unknown. either as a natural pesticide or as a fertilizer. 1 USD = 487 CFA) and in some areas it had even gone in to 150CFA. But there are three different ways of processing the seeds post-harvest. neem-cake. However. The prices set and received at all levels vary greatly.
Neem’s utility as an agricultural product. The typical price for a kilo of cleaned. and other products produced. even within a single low technology product. It is clear that market information is not well known at the producer level. . dried seeds is 100 CFA (XOF) (Communaute Financiere Africaine franc. many villages grow produce in their local and village gardens for sale. the Department for the Protection of Vegetables. who has been using neem as part of its reforestation campaign. as some exporters are paying double what others are. one of the main actors is the Direction des Eaux et Forets. Other government agencies. whereas the exporters have indicated that they prefer the seeds with the shells. for the same product. such as the Department of Horticulture. and is responsible for many of the plantings in the country. dry seeds with the shells.From The public sector.
Market Scenario of Neem seeds in Senegal
The available tradable quantity of neem in Senegal is quite Significant. It is also this agency which has been involved directly with assisting some of the women’s groups in this area. Senchim. The export market for neem is primarily interested in clean.
After collection of the seeds. sometimes as individuals. when they first began providing training to women’s groups on how to make the soap. Some women have obtained small loans or plan to obtain loans to purchase improved equipment for pressing neem oil.)
Neem production comes primarily from public plantings. does sell to large plantations. In local processing. or else prepared for export. or it may be used domestically. It is important to wait until the seeds are ripe. The local traders are often unreliable or Corrupt. Efforts to sell the soap in other cities met with only limited success.
The Neem Value chain in Senegal (Fig.
At the post-harvest level. but more often through a women’s group or collective. The government also provides trees to citizens interested in planting neem. but their products may be financially out of reach for many rural farmers.
. cleaned. and within the local area. and how it was effective for skin ailments.3. The trees are planted primarily by the government as part of their reforestation programs. where there may be some trade. they may be processed locally. There has been a number of technical assistance efforts since which have trained more women on how to make this product. from its nurseries.producer of commercial neem agricultural products in Senegal. This activity is carried out by women in the villages. the primary activity is collection of the seeds. which is then used domestically. Currently the only market for pharmaceutical neem products (primarily soap) is the local village market. and the kernels are pressed for oil. about 15 years ago. the purpose of processing neem oil is to make soap. the shells removed. In almost all cases. etc. the market quickly diminished as more women learned how to make the soap themselves. the seeds are dried. The production of neem soap was spurred by donor projects. or when they fall to the ground. although there are some home garden plantings and wild trees.
In some cases. and also sell their products within Senegal. the exporters reject the neem after it has been purchased (if the moisture content is too high. One exporter tracked the village that each bag of neem came from. as the women will sometimes need to purchase large quantities of neem from surrounding villages in order to fill the client’s order. and then packaged. The machinery for processing neem for oil comes from India. the shells may be removed first. Many exporters will provide training to their suppliers on how they would like the neem to be collected. and the quality. In Senegal. for example). and also processors who will press neem for oil by order.
There are no set quality standards for neem in Senegal. Senchim’s products are very well known.
To prepare the seeds for export. they are dried. and the packaging may differ slightly (rice sacks and onion sacks were the most common packaging used). They current export to most of West Africa. for future reference. dried. whether the shell is removed or not) or the moisture content. and thus lose money.
. there may be micro-finance institutions involved. and then ship internationally. Depending upon the client. as well as a few countries in other parts of Africa. They typically also have a local hire that will collect the product in that area. and packaged. a Senegalese firm engaged in the production of neem-based agricultural products. including fertilizer and pesticide.
There are processors in Dakar which process only for their own exports. In this case. those who process neem for their use in other products. the leadership from the women’s groups or associations will transport the seeds directly to the processor or exporter in Dakar. International exporters arrange their own transportation to pick up the seeds from a central town or village to take to Dakar. either on a tarp or on a drying table. and found to be effective by large farmers. which is typically based on how processed the seed is (for example.
The regional market is dominated by Senchim. but some of the exporters of neem have their own standards. In some cases.
Fig. etc.3. such as oil (for cosmetic input. Neem is exported either as dried seeds.). or as a semi-finished product. Currently there is interest in neem as both an agricultural and pharmaceutical product in these markets.
The international market outside of Senegal is focused on the United States and Europe. Export & Local market chains of neem seeds in Senegal
and in fact has become available to the villages because of its dual use as an excellent tree for reforestation and preventing desertification. and process the neem in their own factory.Unique Characteristics of the Neem Value Chain in Senegal
First of all. an exporter may act as their own local trader.
Alternatively. after having received very specific training on post-harvest practices. and seeds. and will then work only with those villages for the next few years.
Another aspect of the neem value chain is that many actors play multiple roles. quality. as many villages lose their clients after only a few short years. They often provide particular training to those villages. process the neem. or processing. and is typically working with a specific village or set of villages. leaves. There is very little communication and information shared between the suppliers/producers and the buyers/exporters. As a result of this inconsistency.
. For example. although the only product being processed or sold in Senegal at this time is the seeds. It is also interesting that each buyer of neem has their own suppliers. provide training to their suppliers. the neem is now only produced if there is a specific order to be filled. bark. this also leads to inconsistency. and the suppliers do not seem to have knowledge of why a client begins or ends their relationship with them. and also transport and trade the neem in Dakar.
Another interesting characteristic of the value chain is that the primary resource is freely available. Nearly all parts of the neem tree can be utilized – the wood. a woman in a village may act as the collector. carry out post-harvest activities. provide their own transportation. this is a product that is not yet or always recognized for its economic value – a large amount of the seeds are currently going waste. which may not necessarily be transferable to the next client. Unfortunately.
gantecinc.com Dr. Kolda.blogspot. SARL. Assistant General Director Cell: 639 97 36 Email: ndiaymad@hotmail. Status report on global neem usage. Peter Forster & Gereald Moser (2000) 3. Senegal Tel : +221 879 14 44 Dr. Abdoulaye Dieye.org
References: 1. Route de Rufisque BP 21236 Dakar. Neem Value Chain: Senegal USAID (2007) 2. Mob.com
PCV Constantinos Kokkinos Health and Environmental Education Agent Niandouba. Cedar Creek.sn Mamadou Ndiaye. President Cell: 989859 3954 rcraric@aol. Midland. MI 48642 Tel: 989 631 9300 www. Suite N. Doudou D. Sipres II villa No. Faye (founder and Executive Director) Africa Bound Corporation (ABC) 340 Jones Rd.com Ken Holzhei.com gniklaw. General Director Cell: 639 97 25 Direct Line: 867 47 18 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Senchim Km 13. : (512) 294-1732 Email: ddfaye@africabound. Senegal Tel: 867 47 16 Fax: 867 47 15 Tapas Ranjan Mohanty. Phone/Fax: (512)321-9911.com Richard Olsen. USA.Contact information
Asiyla Gum Company. Several Web links
. Ashman Road.sn
Gantec 4520 E. Technical Director Tel : +221 879 14 50 Email : abdieye@ics. Texas 78612. 192 Dakar. Director of African Operations Cell: 989 737 2406 ken@holzhei. Senegal +221 77 67 20 266 cgkokkinos@gmail.
Azadirachtin content of neem kernels in samples from various origins (2000)
Global market value of dried neem seeds in US$ (2000)