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WUNPOYU

F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

Chapter 14 : Acid and Alkalis

Acid
-hydrogen-containing substance -gives hydrogen ions as the only positive ion when dissolved in water Acid Hydrochloric acid Chemical Formula HCl Uses -produced by stomach -clean bricks, tiles, concretes, toilet bowl cleaner -car batteries -fertilizers -manufacture detergents and plants -fertilizers -etch copper -vinegar -pickled food -tomato sauce -citrus fruit -flavour in fizzy drinks -found in soft drinks -makes milke sour(yoghurt) -builds up muscles during strenuous exercise

Sulphuric acid

H2SO4

Nitric acid Ethanoic acid

HNO3 CH3COOH

Citric acid Carbonic acid Lactic acid

/ H2CO3 /

LAB USE Mineral acids (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3) -all mineral acids are corrosive -all are strong acids Concentrated acid -acid dissolves in a small amount of water Dilute acid -acid dissolves in a large amount of water

WUNPOYU

F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

PASTPAPER Diluting the concentrated acid -adding concentrated acid slowly in to a large amount of water while slowly stirring WRONG: WATER add to ACID -concentrated acid reacts vigorously with water -gives out large amount of heat -water -> steam -acid droplets spurt out from the container Physical Characteristics of dilute acids A: sour taste (things contain ethanoic/citric acid, __________ and __________) B: corrosive (Hazard Warning symbol) C: electricity conductors/electrolyte -presence of mobile ions D: effect on indicators Indicator Dry litmus paper/litmus solution Methyl orange Phenolphthalein Color Change (from X to X) blue to red red to red (ineffective) orange to red colorless to colorless

Reaction of dilute acids 1. With Metals Metal + acid salt + hydrogen gas e.g. 2. With Metal oxides/Hydroxides Metal oxides + acid salt + water e.g. e.g. and Metal hydroxides + acid e.g e.g

salt + water

WUNPOYU

F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

3. With carbonates/hydrogencarbonates Carbonate + acid salt + carbon dioxide + water e.g e.g

and hydrogencarbonates + acid e.g

salt + carbon dioxide +water

IMPORTANT NOTES -some metals cannot react with acid to form hydrogen ions (H+) except oxidizing agents *Ag (Silver), Au (Gold), Cu (Copper), Hg (Mercury) -some substances react with acid to form insoluble products insoluble product formed on the surface of the reactant *AgCl, PbCl2, PbSO4, BaSO4, CaSO4 (typical)

IONIC EQ.

WUNPOYU

F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

-covalent molecular compound -different acids behave similarly but not the same -they conduct electricity since they all form hydrogen ions in water -they all contain hydrogen -they react with Mg to give hydrogen gas Have same common ion, hydrated hydrogen ion, H+(aq)

Role of water
water must be present for an acid to exhibit acidic properties -water is used to release hydrogen ions from acid molecules Give an example to prove the above statement.

HCl Effect on dry bluelitmus paper Addition of Mg

In water Change to red -Mg dissolves -gas bubbles evolve (hydrogen) -Na2CO3 dissolves -gas bubbles evolve (carbon dioxide)

In methylbenzene Remain blue (no effect) -no reaction

Addition of Na2CO3

-no reaction

CLEAR THAT HYDROGEN IONS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL ACIDIC PROP.

WUNPOYU

F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

Changing physical states of the acid -acid crystals dissolve in water -dissociate to give hydrogen ion e.g.

Substances effervesce in water A. Fizzy drink Tablets -contain solid citric acid Recall the eq:

-when solid citric ionizes in water, it forms hydrogen ions -react with sodium hydrogencarbonate (Na2CO3) Give the eq:

Then ionic eq:

There is effervescence and carbon dioxide gas is given off. B. Baking powder -contain sodium hydrogencarbonate(Na2CO3) Give the eq:

-carbon dioxide makes the cake rise to become softer

WUNPOYU

F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

Basicity of acid
The basicity of an acid is the maximum number of hydrogen ions produced by an acid molecule when put into the water. Acid
Hydrochloric acid( Nitric acid( Nitrous acid( Ethanoic acid( Sulphuric acid( Sulphurous acid( Carbonic acid( Oxalic acid( Phosphoric acid( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

EQ

Basicity Monobasic

Dibasic

Tribasic

Corrosive Nature of Concentrated Acid


-Highly corrosive = eat away other substances -Attach skin, stain it yellow -Safety glasses, plastic gloves

Conc. acid HCl

Hazard warning symbol Corrosive Volatile

Reasons -1M, high acidity -gives out white fume in air -gives acid mist and strong odour in air -18M, oxidizing and dehydrating -high boiling point -16M -oxidizing -gives strong odour and acid mist in air -Decompose to brown nitrogen dioxide EQ:

H2SO4 HNO3

Corrosive, oxidizing X volatile Corrosive, oxidizing Volatile

Sped up by light Kept in brown bottle

WUNPOYU

F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

More details on concentrated acids


Conc. HCl ; dilute HCl -react similarly, but conc react at a faster rate -acidity of conc HCl increases, concentration increases -highly corrosive = high concentration of hydrogen ions Conc. H2SO4 -colorless oily liquid -highly corrosive is due to its dehydrating and oxidizing property -quickly dehydrates the skin, causing severe burns Conc. HNO3 -colorless (initially) , may turn to yellow on storage -keep on brown bottles to cut off the light which can speed up the decomposition -highly corrosive = oxidizing -attacks the skin readily and stains it yellow by oxidization

Bases
-a compound which reacts with acid to give salt and water only. Alkali -a soluble base which dissolves in water to give hydroxide ions as the only anions Base Sodium hydroxide Ammonia Calcium hydroxide Aluminium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Chemical formula NaOH NH3 Ca(OH)2=lime water Al(OH)3 Mg(OH)2 Uses -household oven cleaner -drain cleaner -household windows cleaner =neutralize acidity in soil -Milk of magnesia -ingredients in antacids

LAB USE -sodium hydroxide (NaOH) -calcium hydroxide (lime water) (Ca(OH)2) -aqueous ammonia (NH3) -potassium hydroxide (KOH) **NOTES** Only KOH, NaOH, NH3 are soluble Others are insoluble Physical characteristics A. Bitter taste B. Soapy feel

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F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

C. Electrical conductor/electrolyte =presence of mobile ions D. Effect on indicators Indicator Litmus paper Methyl orange Phenolphthalein Color change From blue to blue From Red to blue Orange to yellow Colorless to red

Role of water
-dissolve in water to give hydroxide ion as the only anion -water is essential to present the alkaline properties

Chemical Reactions
1. With acid Acid + Alkali e.g. ionic eq: 2. Alkali + non-metal oxides e.g. 3. Alkali + ammonium compound e.g. ionic eq: 4. Reaction with metal ions -only KOH, NaOH, NH3 are soluble, others are insoluble -Alkali + salt1 salt2 + metal hydroxide With NaOH Metal ions Ca2+ Mg2+ Color ppt Metal hydroxide Ionic eq carbonate + water salt +water

ammonia + water + salt

WUNPOYU

F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

Al3+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Pb2+ Cu2+ Ag2+ Excess NaOH -formation of soluble complex salt -Aluminate ion -Zincate ion -Plumbate ion -all are colorless except Cu, Ag, Fe(II),Fe(III) With aqueous ammonia solution -all the same except calcium ion Xgive ppt (no reaction) -concentration of OH- ions in ammonia is low Excess NH3 -dissolve to form soluble complex salt -Zn: colorless -Cu: Dark Blue -Ag: colorless

Dissociation
*insoluble + water soluble e.g:

Ionization
*soluble + water OHe.g.

WUNPOYU

F5 Acids and Alkalis

Chemistry

PASTPAPER Action of NaOH on chickens foot -meat=soft, dissolves -temperature increases -smaller -translucent When stirring with a glass rod: Conclusion

Addition Notes -test

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