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Water Treatment Water :- water is natures most abundant and useful compound of the many essential elements for

the existence of human beings ,animals and plants thereby water is rated to be one of the greatest importance is it is essential for lives of both animals and plants but it is also occupies a unique position in industry probably its most important use as an energy material is in the steam generation. Water is also used as a coolant in power and chemical plants in addition to it water is widely used in other fields such as production of steam, paper, atomic energy, textiles, chemicals, ice , drinking, bathing, washing, irrigation, fire fighting and for air conditioning etc. Sources:- there are different sources of water: (i) (ii) Surface water:- it includes rain water, sea water, lake water etc . Surface water is probably the purest form of water. Underground water:- Apart of rain water which reaches the surface of the earth percolates into earth as this water generally run downward, it comes in contact with number of minerals present in soil and dissolves some of them water continues its downwards journey till it needs a hard rock when it retards upward and it may even come out in the form of stream . Spring and well water:- In generally clear in appearance due to its filtering action of soil but contains more of dissolved salts, thus water form the sources contains more hardness using underground water of high organic purity. Effect of water on rocks and minerals When water flows over or percolates through the ground rock or solid, it gets contaminated due to following physical and chemical changes. 1. Dissolution:- Minerals constituents of rocks like NaCl, gypsum etc readily dissolves in water and collects in it. 2. Hydration:- Some minerals like anhydrides (CaSO4), olivine etc. readily undergoes hydration leading to the formation of products of increased volume and leading to disintegration of such minerals bear a rock. CaSO4 + 2H2O Hydration

(iii)

CaSO4.2H2O Mg2SO4 + xH2O MgSO4.xH2O Action of dissolved oxygen:- Oxidation and hydration reactions are brought by dissolved oxygen. 2Fe3O4 +1/2 O2 3Fe2O3.2H2O Oxidation FeS2 + 2H2O + 7O2 2FeSO4 + 2H2SO4
Hydration Hydration

Action of dissolved carbon dioxide:- Convert inorganic insoluble carbonates of Ca, Mg, Fe into soluble bicarbonates CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Ca(HCO3)2 MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O Mg(HCO3)2

Convert rocks forming silicates and aluminum silicates, silicates of Na, K, Ca Fe into soluble carbonates, bicarbonates and silica. K2Al2O3.6SiO2 + CO2 + 2H2O Al2O3.SiO22H2O + K2CO3 + 4SiO2 Characteristics imparted by impurities in water:(i) Physical impurity in water (ii) Chemical impurity in water (I) Physical Impurities:- Color. Taste, turbidity, odour etc. Color: color in water is caused by metallic substances like sources of Fe, Mg, Mn, human materials, tannins, wheat, protozoa, algae, industrial effluents etc. variation in color of water from same source serves as indices of quality of water. Usually a yellowish color indicates the presence of chromium and appreciable amount of organic matter, yellowish red color indicates iron, red- brown color indicates presence of p- block metals Turbidity: it is due to colloidal, extremely fine suspension such as clay slit finely divided matters organic and inorganic micro organisms like planktons. Turbidity expresses the optical density. Insoluble substances which scatter light rather than to transmit in straight line. It depends not only on quantity of insoluble substance And also on size, shape, refractive index and turbidity in water can be eliminated by sedimentation followed by coagulation, filtration Taste: it is usually interlinks with odour. However in waste water taste is not accompanied by odour. Thus presence of dissolved produces taste but not odour. Bitter taste can be due to the presence of iron, Al, Mn, sulphates or excess of lime, soapy taste can be due to the presence of large number of bicarbonates, plateble taste is due to presence of dissolved gases like CO2, minerals and minerals in water.