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SUB-COMMITTEE ON STANDARDS OF TRAINING AND WATCHKEEPING 39th session Agenda item 7
STW 39/7/19 12 December 2007 Original: ENGLISH
COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF THE STCW CONVENTION AND THE STCW CODE Specialised Training for Marine Engineers to Operate Steam Propulsion Plants onboard LNG Tankers Submitted by Singapore SUMMARY Executive summary: This document contains information of an innovative training methodology used by the Singapore Maritime Academy to provide specialised training to Marine Engineer Officers to operate steam propulsion plants and other machinery onboard LNG tankers Paragraph 4 STW 38/17
Action to be taken: Related documents: Introduction
1 The Sub-Committee on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping, agreed on the need to review regulation I/12 with a view to include provisions for new and innovative training methodologies and to develop additional competence standards relating to steam engines to operate LNG tankers, in accordance with the following agreed principles of the comprehensive review of the STCW Convention and the STCW Code: .1 .2 not to scale down the existing standards; and to address inconsistencies, interpretations, MSC instructions already issued, outdated requirements and technological advances (STW 38/17, annex 11).
2 Currently, there is a world-wide shortage of marine engineer officers who have been trained and experienced in steam propulsion machinery. With a large number of LNG ships in order books, there is a need to provide trained manpower to operate such ships, particularly, for LNG ships with steam propulsion units using boil off gas from LNG tanks. 3 In support of the above, Singapore Maritime Academy, in consultation and with the approval of the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA), has developed a competency based course using LNG steam-propulsion plant simulation and leveraging on Information and Communications technology to train Marine Engineer Officers holding certificates at management level (STCW regulation III/2) for motorships to operate steam propulsion plants of LNG ships at the watchkeeping level. Details of the course are given in the annex. The course and the assessment at the end of the course are monitored by the MPA to ensure that agreed standards are maintained. Action Required of the Committee 4 The Sub-Committee is invited to note the information provided and take action as appropriate. ***
STW 39/7/19 ANNEX Page 2 ANNEX
Steam Propulsion Training for Marine Engineers to Operate LNG Ships
1. Introduction The presently active world LNG fleet has in excess of 95% in steam propulsion and going through the present order book up to 2010/11, this figure is unlikely to be lowered significantly. There would be a need to provide manpower for at least 280 ships, which will still be running with steam propulsion using boil off gas from the LNG tanks. To meet this industry need, Singapore Maritime Academy in consultation with the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore recently started a training programme, which is catered to train marine engineer officers holding certificates at management level (for motor-ships) to operate steam propulsion plant with additional expertise of LNG gas handling in steam boilers. These officers upon clocking sea service on board steam ships and passing assessment would be issued with appropriate certificate (steam endorsement) at management level. This training programme shifts the emphasis from the traditional, teacher-centred education to student-centred learning activities, by implementing innovative simulation-based course-work. A
Steam Propulsion Simulator from MPRI Ship Analytic1 is used on a framework of competencybased learning integrating knowledge, skill and attitudes (Boon & Klink, 2000). The training programme has been planned with technology infusion, both in learning processes and in conducting the assessments. Main features of the training programme are:o Competency-based framework o Use of LNG steam-propulsion plant simulation o Learner scaffolding with a dynamically-growing knowledgebase o Network-based e-assessment to provide immediate feedback to learners and trainers. 2. An Exploratory Learning Environment Supporting Simulation-based Learning
To provide support in a large domain of knowledge for learners a semantic map approach is suggested by Kayama et al. (2001). Taking a similar approach, the concept maps with embedded resources are provided to support learners in developing skills on a Steam Propulsion Simulator. Development of these maps was carried out using CmapTools from IHMC2 (Novak & Cañas, 2006). Figure 1 shows an example of the training support, where the deconstruction of a major task of activating an LNG tanker from the dry dock to full-away conditions using such a map is shown. The nodes in the map are embedded with learning resources. The numbers in the figure (1), (2)…(20) refer to the simulation exercises.
(http://www.shipanalytics.com/MS/LSS_steam.asp) Details of CmapTools from IHMC available at: http://cmap.ihmc.us/
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Figure 1 Providing scaffolding through concept map It is expected that as the learners go through these sequential tasks on the steam-propulsion simulator, they access the resources; they would pick up the essential knowledge and proficiency required for the task at-hand. They will also be able to assess themselves using the built-in eassessment components. 3. Resource-based Support for Training on the Steam Propulsion Simulator Strategies for flexible learning should include effective organisation and representation of knowledge. Localisation of knowledge using concept mapping tools can provide resources for self-regulated resource-based learning (Tergan and Haller, 2003). Concept mapping tools support situational relevance on spatial representations, which could breakdown complex learning tasks into manageable learning objects, with their own resources. Graphical representations in concept maps enhance cognitive process of managing knowledge and information in resource-based learning and problem solving environments (Cox, 1999). In self-regulated learning, availability of increasing volume of digital information many times leads to cognitive overload. Additionally, conceptual and navigational disorientation is common among learners while surfing the Internet for making sense in an un-familiarised domain (Tergan et al., 2006). Concept maps used in the case study provide localized resources and thus address the problem well. An example of resources in the concept map is shown in the Figure 2.
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Figure 2. Resources for Safety Devices - doc files, ppt files and media files Considering that a learning system is not complete without a fitting assessment arrangement, we spent considerable resources to develop on-demand online assessments. The next section provides some details of this assessment system, which was created using ExamView suite3 from FSCreations. 4. Computer-mediated Assessments to Scaffold Learning Computer-mediation can help provide on-demand online tests with immediate feedback. In the course there are specific on-demand online tests. The Figure 3 shows the process of developing an online network-based objective type of question. The software suite ExamView is suitable for both non-numeric and numeric online questions. Assessments were arranged in formative mode with low stakes, which means, the learners were encouraged to attempt these assessment even when they were unsure of the solutions. The immediate feedback from the server provides the grade achieved, the right answer and its rationale. Hence, the assessment system served somewhat like Skinner’s teaching machine, used so successfully in programmed learning4.
Figure 3 Assessment Development using ExamView Suite
STW 39/7/19 ANNEX Page 5 The learners were given 10 to 12 online formative assessments per week to self-evaluate their progress. At the end of the course, there was also an online summative assessment, which was served to establish the grade of the learner and was also used by the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore as a precursor for the issuance of certification. The Figure 4 shows some of the formative assessment on the server and a part of one assignment.
Figure 4 Formative Assessment and Scores on Server As all the details of student performances are recorded, the difficulties in understanding of a part of the content are immediately highlighted and necessary actions could be taken by the facilitator. The digital assessment and scores are recorded in the server and creates a good transparent means of developing student portfolios (ExamView has built-in facility for generating student progress report). The student portfolios will provide the potential employers a clear picture of the course coverage and also all stake holders could provide feedback on coverage, thereby allowing the provision for critical evaluation of course content and progressive improvement of the course structure. 5. Conclusion The paper described a technology-infused approach for a Certificate of Competency Course for engineers required for steam propulsion plants in LNG carriers. The future work would involve the development of knowledge and skill statements for these functional areas and their subsections. Assessment strategies will then be finalized for the Operational Level as well as the Management Level. More details of the course could be obtained from: Mr Kalyan Chatterjee, Lecturer, Singapore Maritime Academy, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org References
STW 39/7/19 ANNEX Page 6 Boon, J., M. van der Klink (2000). Scanning the concept of competencies, how major vagueness can be highly functional, Open University of the Netherlands, 2000. Cox R. (1999). Representation construction, externalised cognition and individual differences. Learning and Instruction, 9, 343-363. Kayama, M. & Okamoto, T. (2001). A Knowledge based Navigation System with a Semantic Map Approach for Exploratory Learning in Hyperspace. ETS Journal. Volume 4. Number 2, pp 96-103. Novak, J. D. & A. J. Cañas. (2006). The Theory Underlying Concept maps and How to Construct Them. Technical Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, 2006. Revised September 24, 2007.
Tergan, S.-O. & Haller, H. (2003). Organization, representation, and localization of knowledge with mapping tools. Paper presented at the 10th Biennial Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction. University of Padova, Padova / Italy (August 26-30, 2003). Retrieved from: http://heikohaller.de/literatur/Tergan_Haller_2003.pdf Tergan, S., Keller, T., Gräber, W. & Neumann, A. (2006). Concept Map-based Visualization of Knowledge and Information in Resource-Based Learning. In C. Crawford et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2006 (pp. 2425-2429). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. _____