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-36 AND BHANGALI-01 WELL, EASTERN POTWAR, PAKISTAN
Omer Kamal Shah
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad
2011 ii .
Islamabad 2011 iii . Bahria University.2-D SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION AND PETROPHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF BHANGALI FIELD ON THE BASIS OF SEISMIC LINES OX-S88-20. EASTERN POTWAR. Honours (Geophysics) By Omer Kamal Shah Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences. OX-S88-23 & OX-S88-36 AND BHANGALI-01 WELL. PAKISTAN A thesis submitted to Bahria University.Sc. Islamabad in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.
Umar Kamal Shah of B. Bahria University. Islamabad. Miss. Saqib (Internal Supervisor) ________________________________ Dr. Honours (Geophysics) from the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences. Honours (Geophysics) and we find it of sufficient standard to fulfill the partial requirements for the degree of B.Sc.E&ES) ________________________________ External Examiner ________________________________ iv .FINAL APPROVAL OF THESIS This is to certify that we have read the thesis submitted by Mr. M. Zafar (HOD. Sarah Akram (External Supervisor) ________________________________ Mr.Sc.
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH. THE MOST BENEFICIENT. THE MOST MERCIFUL v .
DEDICATED TO MY GRAND PARENTS (May their souls rest in peace) vi .
3.2.1 2.1.2 2.2.2 Eocene Nammal Formation Sakeser Formation Permian Cambrian Khewra Sandstone Kussak Formation 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 22.214.171.124 2.2 2.3.3 Objectives of Research 1.4 Data Obtained for Interpretation Chapter # 2 STRATIGRAPHIC SEQUENCE 07 09 09 09 10 10 Tobra Formation Dandot Formation Warchha Formation Sardhai Formation 10 11 07 2.2 2.3 126.96.36.199.3 2.1 Pre-Cambrian Sedimentary Rocks 2.1 2.2 2.2 Paleozoic Sedimentary Rocks 2.1 188.8.131.52.3 Paleogene Sedimentary Rocks Paleocene Hangu Formation Lockhart Limestone Patala Formation vii .184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 2.3.1 18.104.22.168 2.2 Physiography 1.1 xi xii INTRODUCTION Introduction to the Study Area 04 05 05 01 01 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Chapter # 1 22.214.171.124.1 2.
4 PETROLEUM GEOLOGY 22 22 22 23 23 23 Source Rocks Reservoir Rocks Traps Burial History Eastern Salt Range/Potwar Plateau 22 Indus Basin Chapter # 5 126.96.36.199 4.2.1 Geophones 26 viii .1.3 4.1 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 2.4 2.1 Pliocene Chorgali Formation 15 15 Murree Formation Kamlial Formation Chinji Formation 16 16 14 Neogene Sedimentary Rocks 15 15 16 Nagri Formation Chapter # 3 3.2.1 4.1.2 SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION 24 25 26 Vibroseis 24 Seismic Energy Sources for Reflection Shooting Seismic Detectors 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.4.1 Miocene 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 5.1 5.3 2.2 2.4.1 3.2 REGIONAL TECTONIC SETTING 19 17 Geological Structure of the Salt Range Tectonic Setting of Eastern Salt Range/ Potwar Plateau 3.2.2 Basement Offsets 20 Fault-Propagation Folds 21 19 Chapter # 4 4.1 4.
1 Log Interpretation Flow Chart 8.1.8 Bulk Volume of Water (BVW) 8.1.2 Raw Log Curves 8.1 7.1.5 7.3 Spread Geometry 27 Chapter # 6 6.6 SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION 31 32 33 37 37 39 40 31 2-D Seismic Data Interpretation of Line O/881-CW-06 Reflection Selection Fault Identification Base Map Time-Contour Map Average Velocity Graph Depth Section Chapter # 8 PETROPHYSICAL EVALUATION 42 43 43 43 43 44 46 48 51 52 8.1 7.5.3 Zone of Interest 8.6 Porosity Calculation 8.4 Lithology 8.4 7.1.7 Saturation of Water 8.1 SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING 28 28 Processing Sequence Chapter # 7 7.5 Volume of Shale 8.1.2 7.3 7.1.9 Reserves Estimation CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDICES 53 54 60 ix .
Figure 6: Interpreted Seismic Section of lines OX-S88-24. 50 51 52 45 47 48 49 02 03 29 30 34 35 36 38 41 x . Figure 9: Depth Contour Map of Upper Eocene (Chorgali Formation). Figure 14: Graph Showing comparison between Sw and Depth. Figure 2: Base Map showing the seismic lines of the study area. Figure 17:Chart Showing the Reserves Etimation Unit. Figure 5: Interpreted Seismic Section of lines OX-S88-20. Figure 15: Graph Showing Sw with Porosity. Figure 12: Graph Showing Porosity Vs.LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: The generalized structural map of Salt Range/ Potwar Foreland Basin. Figure 13: Graph Showing Sw with Depth. Depth. Figure 16: Graph Showing BVW with Porosity. Figure 8: Time Contour Map of Upper Eocene (Chorgali Formation). Figure 3: Flow Chart showing the various stages of Seismic Processing. Figure 10: Flow Chart showing the Workflow of Petrophysical Evaluation. Figure 7: Interpreted Seismic Section of lines OX-S88-36. Figure 4: Flow Chart showing the Processing Sequence. 42 Figure 11: Graph Showing Vsh and Depth.
OX-S88-23 & OX-S88-36. Table 6: The Zone of Interest .LIST OF TABLES Table 1: General Stratigraphy of Salt Range/Potwar Foreland Basin. 27 39 43 26 25 08 xi . OX-S88-23 & OX-S88-36. Table 5: The picked TWTs & Velocities to Calculate Average Velocities. Table 3: Receiver Parameters of lines OX-S88-20. Table 4: Spread Parameters of lines OX-S88-20. OX-S88-23 & OX-S88-36. Table 2: Acquisition Parameters of lines OX-S88-20.
in the area of Bhangali (Eastern Salt Range/Potwar Plateau). These average velocities were then used to find the depths of the formation for the depth contour map of the Upper Eocene Chorgali Formation. OX-S88-23. OX-S88-36 and Bhangali-01 well. favourable for drilling. was shot by Occidental of Pakistan Inc. were used to find the average velocities of the Upper Eocene Chorgali Formation and the Pre-Cambrian basement. Salt probably moved into these anticlines due to compressional movements. where the depth of the Upper Eocene formation was almost 3600m. xii . A fault was marked which continued along the Pre-Cambrian basement. given in the velocity windows on the seismic section. The seismic velocities (Vrms). The direction of the dip lines is NorthWest to SouthEast and that of the strike line is SouthWest to NorthEast. The interpreted seismic sections and the contour maps showed that the area was structurally deformed due to salt decollement and compressional tectonic movements. The TWT picked from the seismic section was posted on the base map to make a time contour map of the Upper Eocene Chorgali Formation. Traps for hydrocarbons were developed in the anticlines as they truncated against the basement fault. Two more thrust faults were marked which show a fault-propagating fold in the form of the anticline of Bhangali. Well data of Bhangali-01 was used to mark the thicknesses of the individual formations and to perform petrophysical evaluation.ABSTRACT The seismic lines OX-S88-20. as it was continuing throughout the area. Two prominent reflectors namely Chorgali Formation and Basement were marked on the seismic section on the basis of observed reflection events. The Bhangali anticline was the prospective zone and was the primary targets for oil exploration. obtained from Directorate General of Petroleum Concessions (DGPC).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xiii .