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11

Naturally Commutating Converters


The converter circuits considered in this chapter have in common an ac voltage supply input and a dc
load output. The function of the converter circuit is to convert the ac source energy into controlled dc
load power, mainly for highly inductive loads. Turn-off of converter semiconductor devices is brought
about by the ac supply voltage reversal, a process called line commutation or natural commutation.
Converter circuits employing only diodes are termed uncontrolled (or rectifiers) while the incorporation of
only thyristors results in a (fully) controlled converter. The functional difference is that the diode conducts
when forward-biased whereas the turn-on of the forward-biased thyristor can be controlled from its gate.
An uncontrolled converter provides a fixed output voltage for a given ac supply and load.
Converters employing a combination of both diodes and thyristors are generally termed half-controlled
(or semi-controlled). Both fully controlled and half-controlled converters allow an adjustable output
voltage by controlling the phase angle at which the forward biased thyristors are turned on. The polarity
of the output (load) voltage of a fully controlled converter can reverse (but the current flow direction is
not reversible), allowing power flow into the supply, a process called inversion. Thus a fully controlled
converter can be described as a bidirectional converter as it facilitates power flow in either direction.
The half-controlled converter, as well as the uncontrolled converter, contains diodes which prevent the
output voltage from going negative. Such converters only allow power flow from the ac supply to the dc
load, termed rectification, and can therefore be described as unidirectional converters.
Although all these converter types provide a dc output, they differ in characteristics such as output ripple
and mean voltage as well as efficiency and ac supply harmonics. An important converter characteristic
is that of pulse number, which is defined as the repetition rate in the direct output voltage during one
complete cycle of the input ac supply.
The general analysis in this chapter is concerned with single and three phase ac supplies feeding
inductive dc loads. A load back emf is used in modelling the dc machine. Generally, uncontrolled rectifier
equations can be derived from the corresponding controlled converter circuit equations by setting the
controlled delay angle to zero. Also purely resistive load equations can be derived by setting
inductance L to zero in the L-R load equations and R-L load equations can be derived from R-L-E
equations by setting E, the back emf, to zero.


11.1 Single-phase uncontrolled converter circuits

11.1.1 Half-wave rectifier circuit with an R-L load

A simple half-wave diode rectifying circuit is shown in figure 11.1a, while various circuit electrical wave-
forms are shown in figure 11.1b. Load current commences when the supply voltage goes positive at t
= 0. It will be seen that load current flows not only during the positive half of the ac supply voltage, 0
t

, but also during a portion of the negative supply voltage, t . The load inductor stored
energy maintains the load current and the inductors terminal voltage reverses so as to overcome the
negative supply and keep the diode forward-biased and conducting. This current continues until all the
inductor energy, Li
2
, is released (i = 0) at the current extinction angle (or cut-off angle), t = .
During diode conduction the circuit is defined by the Kirchhoff voltage equation
2 sin (V)
di
L Ri V t
dt
+ = (11.1)
where V is the rms ac supply voltage. Solving equation (11.1) yields the load (and diode) current

{ }
- / tan
2
( ) sin ( - ) sin e (A)
0 (rad)



= +

t
V
Z
i t t
t
(11.2)
Naturally commutating converters
214










































Figure 11.1. Half-wave rectifier with an R-L load:
(a) circuit diagram and (b) waveforms, illustrating the equal area and zero current slope criteria.


where Z = (R
2
+
2
L
2
) (ohms)
tan / cos = = and L R R Z

( ) 0 (A)
2 (rad)
i t
t


=

(11.3)
The current extinction angle is determined solely by the load impedance Z and can be solved from
equation (11.2) when the current, i = 0 with t = , such that > , that is

- / tan
sin( - ) sin 0 e

+ = (11.4)
This is a transcendental equation which can be solved by iterative techniques. Figure 11.2a can be used
to determine the extinction angle , given any load impedance (power factor) angle
1
tan / L R

= .
The mean value of the rectified current,
o
I , is given by integration of equation (11.2)


0
1
2
2
2
( ) (A)
(1 cos ) (A)

=
=

o
o
V
R
I i t d t
I
(11.5)
vL = 0 = Ldi/dt
current slope = 0

R
current extinction
angle
-VR
R
X =
L
Z =
R
2
+
2
L
2




q=1 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 1
i


Power Electronics
215
2/
= 0.45
while the mean output voltage V
o
is given by


0
2 1
2 2
2 sin (1 cos ) (V)


= = =

o o
V
V V t d t I R (11.6)
Since the mean voltage across the load inductance is zero, = o
o
V I R (see the equal area criterion below).
Figure 11.2b shows the normalised output voltage /
o
V V as a function of L

/

R.
The rms output (load) voltage and current are given by

( ) { }
( ) ( )
2
2
0


1
2
1
2
2 sin sin 2
sin cos sin cos cos 1 1
2 cos 2 cos






(
( = =
(

( ( + +

= = ( ( ` `
( (
) )

rms
rms
V V t d t V
V V
i
R Z
(11.7)
The power delivered to the load resistance is

2
L rms
P i R = (11.8)
The supply power factor, using the rms current in equation (11.7), is

( )
2

power,
apparent power
sin cos
1
cos
2 cos
L
R rms rms rms
rms
P
pf
V i R i R
i V V V



=
= = =
( +

( =
`
(
)
(11.9)















































Figure 11.2. Single-phase half-wave converter characteristics: (a) load impedance angle versus
current extinction angle and (b) variation in normalised mean output voltage V
o
/

V versus L/R.
Naturally commutating converters
216
11.1.1i Inductor equal voltage area criterion
The average output voltage V
o
, given by equation (11.6), is based on the fact that the average voltage
across the load inductance, in steady state, is zero. The inductor voltage is given by
/ (V)
L
v Ldi dt =
which for the circuit in figure 11.1a can be expressed as

/
0
0
( ) ( )
o
i
L
i
t v dt L di L i i

= =

(11.10)
If the load current is in steady state then
o
i i

= , which is zero here, and in general


0 (Vs)
L
v dt =

(11.11)
The inductor voltage waveform for the circuit in figure 11.1a is shown in the last plot in figure 11.1b. The
inductor equal voltage area criterion implies that the shaded positive area must equal the shaded
negative area, in order to satisfy equation (11.11). The net inductor energy at the end of the cycle is zero
(specifically, unchanged since
o
i i

= ), that is, the energy in equals the energy out. This is a useful aid
in predicting and drawing the load current waveform.
It is useful to superimpose the supply voltage v, the load voltage v
o
, and the resistor voltage v
R

waveforms on the same time axis, t. The load resistor voltage, v
R
=

Ri, is directly related to the load
current, i. The inductor voltage v
L
will be the difference between the load voltage and the resistor
voltage, and this bounded net area must be zero. Thus the average output voltage
o o
V I R = . The equal
voltage areas associated with the load inductance are shown shaded in two plots in figure 11.1b.

11.1.1ii - Load current zero slope criterion
The load inductance voltage polarity changes from positive to negative as energy initially transferred into
the inductor, is released. The stored energy in the inductor allows current to flow after the input ac
voltage has reversed. At the instant when the inductor voltage reverses, its terminal voltage is zero, and

/ 0
/ 0
L
v Ldi dt
di dt
= =
= that is
(11.12)
The current slope changes from positive to negative, whence the voltage across the load resistance
ceases to increase and starts to decrease, as shown in figure 11.1b. That is, the Ri waveform crosses
the supply voltage waveform with zero slope, whence when the inductor voltage is zero, the current
begins to decrease. The fact that the resistor voltage slope is zero when v
L
=

0, aids prediction and
sketching of the various circuit waveforms in figure 11.1b, and subsequent waveforms in this chapter.

11.1.2 Half-wave circuit with an R-L load and freewheel diode

The circuit in figure 11.1a, which has an R-L load, is characterised by discontinuous current (i = 0) and
high ripple current. Continuous load current can result when a diode D
f
is added across the load as
shown in figure 11.3a. This freewheel diode prevents the voltage across the load from reversing during
the negative half-cycle of the ac supply voltage. The inductor energy is not returned to the ac supply,
rather is retained in the load circuit. The stored energy in the inductor cannot reduce to zero
instantaneously, so the current is forced to find an alternative path whilst decreasing towards zero.
When the rectifier diode D
1
ceases to conduct at zero volts it blocks, and diode D
f
provides an alternative
load current freewheeling path, as indicated by the waveforms in figure 11.3b.
The output voltage is the positive half of the sinusoidal input voltage. The mean output voltage (thence
mean output current) is


0
1
2
2
2
sin
0.45 (V)

= =
= = =

o o
o o
V
V I R V t d t
V V I R
(11.13)
The rms value of the load circuit voltage v
0
is given by

( )
2

0
1
2
2 sin
0.71 (V)
2

=
= =

rms
V
V V t d t
V
(11.14)
The output ripple (ac) voltage is defined as

2 2
2 2
2 2
2
0.545

| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

= =

Ri rms o
V V
V V V
V
(11.15)
hence the load voltage form and ripple factors are defined as
Power Electronics
217

q=1 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 1

( )
2
2 2
/ / 1
1 1 1.211
= =
= = = =

rms
v rms o v Ri o
o
v
V
V
FF V V RF V V
FF
(11.16)
After a large number of ac supply cycles, steady-state load current conditions are established, and from
Kirchhoffs voltage law, the load current is defined by
2 sin (A) 0
di
L Ri V t t
dt
+ = (11.17)
and when the freewheel diode conducts
0 (A) 2
di
L Ri t
dt
+ = (11.18)


































Figure 11.3. Half-wave rectifier with a load freewheel diode and an R-L load:
(a) circuit diagram and parameters and (b) circuit waveforms.

During the period 0 t , when the freewheel diode current is given by i
Df
= 0, the supply current,
which is the load current, are given by

2
/ tan
( ) ( )
2 2
sin( ) ( sin ) (A)
0
o o
t
t t
V V
i i t I e
Z Z
t

= = + +

(11.19)
for

2
/ tan
/ tan / tan
2 1
sin (A)

+
=

o
V e
I
Z e e

Naturally commutating converters
218

2 2
( ) (ohms)
tan /
Z R L
L R


= +
=
where

During the period t 2, when the supply current i = 0, the freewheel diode current and hence
load current is given by

1
( ) / tan
( ) ( ) (A) 2
o Df o
t
t t i i I e t




= = (11.20)
for

/ tan
1 2
(A)
o o
I I e


=
For discontinuous load current (the freewheel diode current i
Df
falls to zero before the rectifying diode D
1

recommences conduction), the appropriate integration gives the average diode currents as

( ) ( )
( )
/ tan 2
1
/ tan 2
1
2 1 sin
2
1 sin
2

= +
= = +
D
Df o D
V
I e
R
V
I I I e
R
(11.21)
In figure 11.3b it will be seen that although the load current can be continuous, the supply current is
discontinuous and therefore has a high harmonic content.
The output voltage Fourier series (V
o
+

V
1
+

V
n = 2, 4, 6..
) is
( )
( )
. . .
2
2,4,6
2 2 2 2
sin cos
2 1



=
= +

o
n
V V V
v t t n t
n
(11.22)
Dividing each harmonic output voltage component by the corresponding load impedance at that
frequency gives the harmonic output current, whence rms current. That is

( )
2
2
n n n
n
n
V V V
I
Z R jn L
R n L


= = =
+
+
(11.23)
and

2 2
1, 2, 4, 6..

=
= +
rms o n
n
I I I (11.24)

Example 11.1: Half-wave rectifier

In the circuit of figure 11.3, the source voltage is 2402 sin(2 50t) V, R = 10 ohms, and L = 50 mH.
Calculate
i. the mean and rms values of the load voltage, V
o
and V
rms

ii. the mean value of the load current,
o
I
iii. the current boundary conditions, namely I
o1
and I
o2
.
iv. the average freewheel diode current, hence average rectifier diode current
v. the rms load current, hence load power and supply rms current
vi. the power factor
If the freewheel diode is removed from across the load, determine
vii. an expression for the current hence the current extinction angle
viii. the average load voltage hence average load current
ix. the rms load voltage and current
x. the power delivered to the load and supply power factor
From the rms and average output voltages and currents, determine the load form and ripple factors.

Solution
i. From equation (11.13), the mean output voltage is given by

2 2 240V
108V

= = =
o
V
V
From equation (11.14) the load rms voltage is
/ 2 240V/ 2 169.7V = = =
rms
V V

ii. The mean output current, equation (11.5), is

2 2240V
= = 10.8A
10
= =

o
o
V V
I
R R


iii. The load impedance is characterised by
Power Electronics
219

2 2
2 2
( )
10 (2 50Hz 0.05) 18.62
tan /
2 50Hz 0.05H/10 1.57 or 57.5 1rad



= +
= + =
=
= = =
Z R L
L R

From section 11.1.2, equation (11.19)

2
1
2
/ tan
/ tan / tan
/1.57
/1.57 /1.57
2
1
sin
1
2 240V
sin(tan 1.57) = 3.41A
18.62

+
=


o
o
e
V
I
Z
e e
e
I
e e

Hence, from equation (11.20)

1 2
/ tan /1.57
3.41 = 25.22A
o o
I I e e


= =
Since
2
3.41A 0

= >
o
I , continuous load current flows.

iv. Integration of the diode current given in equation (11.20) yields the average freewheel diode current.

1
0 0
1.57
0
/ tan
/1.57rad
( )
1 1
2 2
1 25.22A
25.22A 1.57rad 1 5.46A
2 2
Df Df o
t
t
t I i d t I e d t
e d t e

= =
(
= = =
(


The average input current, which is the rectifying diode mean current, is given by

1
10.8A 5.46A 5.34A = = = = Df s D o
I I I I

v. The load voltage harmonics given by equation (11.23) can be used to evaluate the load current at
the load impedance for that frequency harmonic.
( )
( )
( )
. . .
2
2,4,6
2 2 2 2
sin cos
2 1

=
= +

n
V V V
v t t n t
n


The following table shows the calculations for each frequency component.

harmonic

n
( )
.
2
2 2
1
=

n
V
V
n
(V)

( )
2
2
= +
n
Z R n L
()

=
n
n
n
V
I
Z
(A)

2

n
I
0 (108.04) 10.00 10.80 (116.72)
1 (169.71) 18.62 9.11 41.53
2 72.03 32.97 2.18 2.39
4 14.41 63.62 0.23 0.03
6 6.17 94.78 0.07 0.00
8 3.43 126.06 0.03 0.00

2 2

o n
I I + =

160.67

The rms load current is
.
2 2
1, 2, 4..
160.7 12.68A
=
= + = =
rms o n
n
I I I
The power dissipated in the load resistance is therefore

2 2
10
12.68A 10 1606.7W
rms
P I R

= = =

The freewheel diode rms current is

( )
( )
.
.
2
1
0
2
0
( ) / tan
( ) /1.57rad
1
2
1
25.22A 8.83A
2

=
= =

Df o
t
t
I I e d t
e d t

Naturally commutating converters
220
Thus the input (and rectifying diode) rms current is given by

2 2
1
2 2
12.68 8.83 9.09A
= =
= =
rms rms D s rms Df rms
I I I I


vi. The input ac supply power factor is

1606.7W
0.74
240V 9.09A
out
rms rms
P
pf
V I
= = =



vii. If the freewheel diode D
f
is removed, the current is given by equation (11.2), that is

{ }
{ }
{ }
- / tan
- /1.57
- /1.57
2
2 V
18.62
( ) sin ( - ) sin e
240
= sin ( -1.0) 0.841 e
= 18.23 sin ( -1.0) 0.841 e (A) 0 (rad)

= +

+
+
t
t
t
V
Z
i t t
t
t t

The current extinction angle is found by setting i = 0 and solving iteratively for . Figure 11.2a
gives an initial estimate of 240 (4.19 rad) when = 57.5 (1 rad). That is

- /1.57
0 =sin ( -1.0) 0.841 e

+
gives = 4.08 rad or 233.8, after iteration.

viii. The average load voltage from equation (11.6) is

2 2 240V
2 2
(1 cos ) (1 cos 4.08) 86.0V


= = =
o
V
V
The average load current is
/ = 86.0V/10 = 8.60A =
o o
I V R

ix. The load rms voltage is 169.7V with the freewheel diode and increases without the diode to, as
given by equation (11.7),

{ }
{ }

1
2
1
2
sin 2
240V 4.08 sin 2 4.08 181.6V

( =

( = =

rms
V V

The rms load current from equation (11.7) is decreased to

( )
( )

sin cos 1
2 cos
sin 4.08cos 4.08 1.57 240V 1
4.08 9.68A
18.62 2 cos1.57

( + +

= ( `
(
)
( +

= = ( `

(
)
rms
V
i
Z

Removal of the freewheel diode decreases the rms load current from 12.68A to 9.68A.

x. The load power is reduced without a load freewheel diode, from 1606.7W with a load freewheel
diode, to

2 2
10
9.68 10 937W

= = =
rms
P i R
The supply power factor is also reduced, from 0.74 to

937W
0.40
240V 9.68A
= = =

out
rms rms
P
pf
V I


circuit with freewheel diode circuit without freewheel diode
Load factor
form factor ripple factor form factor ripple factor
FF =
rms
/
ave
RF = FF
2
-1 FF =
rms
/
ave
RF = FF
2
-1
Voltage factor 169.7V/108V

=

1.57 1.21 181.6V/86V

=

2.1 1.86
Current factor 12.68A/10.8A

=

1.17 0.615 9.68A/8.60A

=

1.12 0.517



Power Electronics
221

q=2 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 2
11.1.3 Single-phase, full-wave bridge rectifier circuit

Single-phase uncontrolled full-wave bridge circuits are shown in figures 11.4a and 11.4b. Both circuits
appear identical as far as the load is concerned. It will be seen in part b that two fewer diodes can be
employed but this circuit requires a centre-tapped secondary transformer where each secondary has
only a 50% copper utilisation factor. For the same output voltage, each of the secondary windings in
figure 11.4b must have the same rms voltage rating as the single secondary winding of the transformer
in figure 11.4a. The rectifying diodes in figure 11.4b experience twice the reverse voltage, (22

V), as
that experienced by each of the four diodes in the circuit of figure 11.4a, (2

V).

















































Figure 11.4. Single-phase full-wave rectifier bridge: (a) circuit with four rectifying diodes; (b) circuit
with two rectifying diodes; and (c) circuit waveforms.

Figure 11.4c shows bridge circuit voltage and current waveforms. With an inductive passive load, (no
back emf) continuous load current flows, which is given by
( ) ( )
/ tan
/ tan
2 2sin
sin 0
1

(
= +
(

t
o
V
i t t e t
Z e
(11.25)
Appropriate integration of the load current squared, gives the rms load (and supply) current:
Naturally commutating converters
222

2 / tan
2
/ tan

1
1 4sin tan
1



(
= + =
(


rms s
V e
I I
Z e
(11.26)
The load experiences the transformer secondary rectified voltage which has a mean voltage (thence
mean load current) of


0
1
2
2 2
sin 0.90 (V)


= = = =

o o
V
V V t d t I R V (11.27)
Since the average inductor voltage is zero, the average resistor voltage equals the average R-L voltage.
The rms value of the load circuit voltage v
0
is

( )
2
2
0
1
2
2 sin (V)

= =

rms
V V t d t V (11.28)
From the load voltage definitions in section 11.10, the load voltage form factor is
1.11
2 2

= = =
rms
v
o
V V
FF
V V
(11.29)
The load ripple voltage is

( )
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
= = 0.435 (V)
RI rms o
V V V
V V V

(11.30)
hence the load voltage ripple factor is

( )
2
2
2 2 2
/ 1
2
1 0.483 /

=
= =

v RI o v
v
RF V V FF
RF
(11.31)
which is significantly less (better) than the half-wave rectified value of 1.211 from equation (11.16).

The output voltages and currents (rms and average) can be derived from the voltage Fourier expansion
form for a half-sine wave:
( )
2
2,4,6
2 2 2 2 2
cos
1



=
= +

o
n
V V
v t n t
n
(11.32)
The first term is the average output voltage, as given by equation (11.27). Note the harmonic
magnitudes decrease rapidly with increased order, namely
2 2 2 2
: : : : ...
15 3 35 63
The output voltage is
therefore dominated by the dc component and the harmonic at 2.
The output current can be derived by dividing each voltage component by the appropriate load
impedance at that frequency. That is

( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
2, 4, 6..


= =

= = =
+
for
o
o
n
n
n
V V
I
R R
V V
n
I n
Z
R n L
(11.33)
The load rms current whence load power and power factor, are given by

2 2
2
2,4

=
= +
=
= =
rms o n
L rms
rms L
rms
n
I I I
P I R
I R P
pf
V I V
(11.34)
Each diode rms current is / 2
rms
I . For the circuit in figure 11.4a, the transformer secondary winding rms
current is I
rms
, while for the centre-tapped transformer, for the same load voltage, each winding has an
rms current rating of I
rms
/ 2. The primary current rating is the same for both transformers and is related
to the secondary rms current rating by the turns ratio.

11.1.3i Single-phase full-wave bridge rectifier circuit with an L-C filter

A with an L-C filter and continuous load current

Table 11.1 shows three typical single-phase, full-wave rectifier output stages, where part c is a typical
output filtering stage used to obtain a near constant dc output voltage.
Power Electronics
223
If it is assumed that the load inductance is large and the load resistance small such that continuous load
current flows, then the bridge average output voltage
o
V is the same as the average voltage across the
load resistor since the average voltage across the filter inductor is zero. From equation (11.32), the
dominant load voltage harmonic is due to the second harmonic therefore the ac current is predominately
the second harmonic current,
, , 2

o ac o
I I . By neglecting the higher order harmonics, the various circuit
currents and voltages can be readily obtained as shown in table 11.1. From equation (11.32) the output
voltage is given by

( )
, 2
2
cos 2
2 2 2 2 2
cos 2
1
2 2 2 2 2
cos 2
3
0.90 0.60 cos 2

= +
= + =

= +
= +
o o o
v t V V t
V V
n t n
n
V V
t
V V t
for
(11.35)
With the filter capacitor across the load resistor, the average inductor current is equal to the average
resistor current, since the average capacitor current is zero.

Table 11.1. Single-phase full-wave uncontrolled rectifier circuits continuous inductor current

2
nd
harmonic
current
average output
current
output power
I
o,2 o
I
P
R
+P
E

Full-wave rectifier circuit


Load circuit
(A) (A) (W)
(a)

R-L

see
section
11.1.3
and
11.3.3
= 0

( )
,2
2
2
2 +
o
V
R L

2 2

=
o
V
R
V
R

2
, o rms
I R
(b)

R-L-E


see
section
11.3.4
= 0

( )
,2
2
2
2 +
o
V
R L

1 2 2

| |
= |
|
\ .
o
V E
R
V
E
R

2
,
+
o o rms
I R I E
(c)

L-R//C


see
section
11.1.3i

,2
2
o
V
L

2 2

=
o
V
R
V
R

2
2
,
=
o o rms
I I R R

With continuous inductor current, the inductor current is

( )
( )
, 2
2
2
2
cos 2
2 0.90 0.60
cos 2 cos 2
3
2

= +
= + = +
+
o o o
o o
i t I I t
V V V V
t t
R Z R
R L
(11.36)
Vs
Is
Io
Vo
Io,dc
Io,ac
L
C R
Vs
Is
Io
Vo E +
L
R
Vs
Is
Io
Vo
L
R
Naturally commutating converters
224
From equation (11.36) for continuous inductor current, the average current must be larger than the peak
second harmonic current magnitude, that is

, 2
2
2
3
>
>
o o
o o
I I
V V
R Z
(11.37)
Since the load resistor must be small enough to ensure continuous inductor current, then 2 > L R such
that ( )
2 2
2
2 2 = + Z L R L . Equation (11.37) therefore gives the following load identity for continuous
inductor current

2
1 2 1 1
1
3
3 3

> = >
L
R
R Z L
that is (11.38)
The load and supply (peak) ac currents are
, , , 2
= =
o ac s ac o
I I I . The output and supply rms currents are

2 2
2 2
, , , , 2
= = + = +
o o
o rms s rms o ac o
I I I I I I (11.39)
and the power delivered to resistance R in the load is

2
,
=
R o rms
P I R (11.40)

B with an L-C filter and discontinuous load current

If the inductor current reduces to zero, at angle , all the load current is provided by the capacitor. Its
voltage falls to V
o
(<2 V) and inductor current recommences when
2 sin
L o
v V t V = (11.41)
at an angle

1
sin
2
o
V
V


= (11.42)
By integrating v

=

L

di/dt for i, the inductor current is of the form
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2 cos cos
L o
i t V t V t
L

= (11.43)
where


. The voltage V
o
is found from equation (11.43) by iterative techniques.


Example 11.2: Full-wave uncontrolled rectifier with an L-C filter and continuous load current

A single-phase, full-wave, diode rectifier is supplied from a 230V ac, 50Hz voltage source and uses an
L-C output filter with a resistor load, as shown in the last circuit in Table 11.1. The average inductor
current is 10A with a 4A rms ripple current dominated by the 100Hz component. Ignoring diode voltage
drops and initially assuming the output voltage is ripple free, determine
i. the dc output voltage, hence load resistance and power
ii. the dc filter inductance and its average voltage, whilst neglecting any capacitor voltage ripple
iii. the dc filter capacitance if its peak-to-peak ripple voltage is 5% the average voltage
iv. diode average, rms, and peak current
v. the supply power factor

Solution
Since
( ) , 2
2 2 4A 10A < <
o rms o
I I , the output current is continuous.
i. The dc output voltage is
o
V = 0.9230V = 207V. Assuming the 207V is ripple free, that is, V
rms
=
V
dc
, then the load resistance and power dissipated are

207V
20.7
10A
207V 10A = 2070W
= = =
= =
o
o
R o o
V
R
I
P V I


ii. The 100Hz voltage component in the output voltage is given by equation (11.35), that is

, 2 2
2 2 2
cos
1
2 2 2
cos 2
3
0.60 230V cos 2 138 cos 2

=
= =
o
V
V n t
n
V
t
t t

Power Electronics
225
which has an rms value of 138/2 = 97.6V. The 100Hz rms current
, 2
/ 2
o
I produced by this
voltage is 4A thus

, 2 , 2
, 2
, 2
2 2
97.6V
38.8mH
2 2 2 50Hz 4A


=
= = =

from
o o
o
o
I V
L
V
L
I

The average inductor voltage is zero.

iii. From part i, the dc output voltage is 207V. The peak-to-peak ripple voltage is 5% of 207V, that is
10.35V. This gives an rms value of 10.35V /22 = 3.66V. From

, 2
, 2 , 2
, 100Hz
, 2
, 2
2
2 2 2
4A
1.7mF
2 2 2 50Hz 3.66V


= =
= = =

o
o o
c
o
o
I
V I
X
C
I
C
V


iv. The diode currents are

2
2 2 2
, , , 2
, 2
/ 2 / 2 10A 4A / 2 10.8A/ 2 7.64A
/ 2 = 10A/2 = 5A
10A 2 4A 15.7A
= = + = + = =
=
= + = + =

D rms o rms o o
D o
D o
o
I I I I
I I
I I I


v. The input and output rms current is

2
2 2 2
, , 2
10A 4A 10.8A = = + = + =
s o rms o o
I I I I
Assuming the input power equals the output power, then from part i, P
o
=

P
i
=2070W. The supply
power factor is

2070W
0.83
230V 10.8A
= = = =

i i
s s
P P
pf
S V I



11.1.3ii Single-phase full-wave bridge circuit with highly inductive load constant load current

With a highly inductive load, which is the usual practical case, virtually constant load current flows, as
shown dashed in figure 11.4c. The bridge diode currents are then square wave 180 blocks of current of
magnitude
o I . The diode current ratings can now be specified and depend on the pulse number p. For
this full-wave single-phase application each input cycle comprises two 180 output current pulses, hence
p=2.
The mean current in each diode is

1
(A) = = D
o o
p I I I (11.44)
and the rms current in each diode is

1
2 / (A) = =
o o D p
I I I (11.45)
whence the diode current form factor is
2 / = = =
D ID D
RF I I p (11.46)
Since the load current is approximately constant, power delivered to the load is

2
2
8
(W)

=
o o o
V
R
P V I (11.47)
The supply power factor is pf

= /
o
V V =

22/, since o
rms
I I = .


11.1.3iii Single-phase full-wave bridge rectifier circuit with a C-filter and resistive load

The capacitor smoothed single-phase diode rectifier circuit shown in figure 11.5a is a common power
rectifier circuit used to obtain unregulated dc voltages. The circuit is simple and cheap but the input
current has high peak and rms values, high harmonics, and a poor power factor.
Naturally commutating converters
226
The capacitor reduces the ripple voltage, so large voltage-polarised capacitance is used to produce an
almost constant dc output voltage. Isolation and voltage matching (step-up or step down) are obtained
by using a transformer before the diode rectification stage as shown in figures 11.4a and b. The resistor
R across the filter capacitor represents a resistive dissipative load.
As the ac supply voltage rises to its extremes each half cycle, as shown in figure 11.5b, a pair of rectifier
diodes D1-D2 or D3-D4, alternately become forward biased at time t = . The ac supply provides load
resistor current and simultaneously charges the capacitor, its voltage having drooped whilst providing
the load current during the previous diode non-conduction period. The capacitor charging current period

c
around the ac supply extremes is short, giving a high peak to rms ratio of diode and supply current.
When all the rectifier diodes are reverse biased at t = because the capacitor voltage is greater than
the instantaneous supply ac voltage, the capacitor supplies the load current and its voltage decreases
with an R-C time constant until t = +. The output voltage and diode voltages, plus load current v
o
/R,
and capacitor current C

dv
o
/dt are defined in Table 11.2.
The start of diode conduction, , the diode current extinction angle, , hence diode conduction period,

c,
are specified by the following equations.
From i
c
+ i
R
= 0 at t = :

( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
cos sin 0
tan tan



+ =
= =
V V
X R
RC RC
(11.48)









































Figure 11.5. Single-phase full-wave rectifier bridge:
(a) circuit with C-filter capacitor and (b) circuit waveforms.
(a)
(b)
iR

t
2
+ o
Vs

ICap
+
c
t
vo
vo
2 V
D1
D3
D1
D3
D2
D4
D2
D4
conducting
diodes
c
vo
D4 D1
D3 D2
Vs
C R
ic iR
vo
iD
is
iD
o
v


Power Electronics
227
Table 11.2. Single-phase, full-wave rectifier voltages and currents

Diodes conducting Diodes non-conducting
v
s
(t)=2Vsint
t t +
Output voltage v
o
(t) 2 sin V t
( ) / tan
2 sin

t
V e
Diode voltage v
D
(t) 0 - 2 sin V t and
( ) / tan
2 sin 2 sin



+
t
V e V t
Capacitor current i
c
(t)
2
cos
V
t
X

( ) / tan 2

t V
e
Z

Resistor current i
R
(t)
2
sin
V
t
R

( )
( )
/ tan 2


=
t
c
V
e i t
Z

Diode bridge current
ID(t)=

ic(t)+ iR(t)
( )
2
sin
cos

+
V
t
R
0


By equating the two expression for output voltage at the boundary t = + gives
( )
( ) / tan
2 sin 2 sin


+
+ = V V e (11.49)
and a transcendental expression for results:

( ) /
sin sin 0


+
=
RC
e (11.50)
The diode current conduction period
c
is given by
=
c
(11.51)
When the diodes conduct, R and C are in parallel and tan = C R .
When the diodes are not conducting, the output circuit current flows in a series R-C circuit with a
fundamental impedance of:

2 2
1

= + = Z R X X
C
and
The resistor average voltage and current are

( ) 1 cos 2
cos

= =

c
R R
V
V I R (11.52)
The maximum output voltage occurs at t = when v
o
=

=
s o
V V =2V, while the minimum output
voltage occurs at the end of the capacitor discharge period when t = and v
o
=

o
V =2Vsin. The
output peak-to-peak ripple voltage is therefore the difference:

( ) 2 2 sin 2 1 sin

= = =
o o o
V V V V V V (11.53)
By assuming , , and a series expansion for the exponent

2 2
2

=
o
V V
V
RC f RC
(11.54)
The ac source current is the sum of the diode currents, that is

1,2 3,4
= = +
s D D R c
i i i i i (11.55)
when < < t . Otherwise i
s
=

0.
Since the capacitor voltage is in steady-state, the average capacitor current is zero, thus for full-wave
rectification, the average diode current is half the average load current.
The peak capacitor current occurs at t = , when the diodes first conduct. From the capacitor current
equation in table 11.2:
2 cos =

c
I V C (11.56)
From table 11.2, the peak diode current occurs at the same time as the peak capacitor current, t = :

( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2 2
2 cos sin cos sin sin


= + + +
= + = + = +

D c R
I i i
V V V V Z
V C
R X R R X
(11.57)
Similar expressions can be derived for the half-wave rectifier case. For the non-conduction period,
=2+. The output ripple voltage is about twice that given by equation (11.54) and the average resistor
voltage in equation (11.52) (after modification), is reduced.


Naturally commutating converters
228
Example 11.3: Single-phase full-wave bridge rectifier circuit with C-filter and resistive load

A single-phase, full-wave, diode rectifier is supplied from a 230V ac, 50Hz voltage source and uses a
capacitor output filter, 1000F, with a resistor 100 load, as shown in Figure 11.5a. Ignoring diode
voltage drops, determine
i. expressions for the output voltage
ii. output voltage ripple v
o
and the % error in using the approximation equation (11.54)
iii. expressions for the capacitor current
iv. diode peak current
v. the average load voltage and current
Assuming the output ripple voltage is triangular, estimate
vi. the average output voltage and rms output ripple voltage
vii. capacitance C for v
o
= 2% of the maximum output voltage

Solution
The supply voltage is v
s
=

2230 sin2

50t, which has a peak value of

s
V =

325.3V.
2 50Hz 100 1000F = 31.416 rad = RC
Thus X=1/C

=

3.1831 and Z

=

100.0507.

From equation (11.48) the diode current extinction angle is
( ) ( )
1 1
tan tan 31.416rad 1.6026rad 91.8

= = = = RC

The diode current turn-on angle is solve iteratively from equation (11.50), that is

( )
( )
/
1.603 / 31.416
sin sin 0
sin sin1.603 0


+
+
=
=
RC
e
e

gives = 1.16095 rad or 66.5. The diode conduction period is
c
=

- =1.6026

-1.16095

= 0.44167rad
or 25.3.

i. From table 11.2, the output voltage, which is the capacitor voltage, is given by

( ) ( ) 1.6026rad / 31.416rad 1.6026rad / 31.416rad
( ) 2 sin 325.27V sin
66.5 91.8
( ) 2 230V sin1.6026rad 325.13
91.8 246.5


= =

= =

o
o
t t
v t V t t
t
v t e e
t


ii. The output voltage ripple v
o
is given by equation (11.53), that is
( ) ( ) 2 1 sin 2 230V 1 sin1.16026 26.94V p-p = = =
o
V V
From equation (11.54)

2 2 230V
32.5V
2 2 50Hz 100 1000F
= =

o
V
V
f RC

The approximation predicts a higher ripple: a +21% over-estimate.

iii. From table 11.2, the capacitor current is

( ) ( ) ( ) / 1.16 / 31.4 1.16 / 31.4
( ) 2 cos 2 230V 2 50Hz 1000F cos 102.2 cos
66.5 91.8
2 sin 2230V sin1.16
( ) 3.0
100
91.8 246.5


= = =

= = =


c
c
t RC t t
i t V C t t t
t
V
i t e e e
R
t


iv. The peak diode current is given by equation (11.57):

2
2 cos sin
2 230V
2 230V 2 50Hz 1000F cos1.16026 sin1.16026
100
40.7A 3A 43.7A

= +
= +

= + =

D
V
I V C
R

Power Electronics
229
The peak diode current is dominated by the capacitor initial charging current of 40.7A

v. The average load voltage and current are given by equation (11.52)

( )
( )
1 cos 2
cos
1 cos 0.4417 2 230V
312.3V
cos1.603
312.3V
3.12A
100

= =

= = =

c
R
R
R
V
V
V
I
R


vi. If the ripple voltage is assumed triangular then
(a) The average output voltage is the peak output voltage minus half the ripple voltage, that is

s
V - v
o
= 2230V - 26.9V = 311.8V
which less than that given by the accurate equation (11.53), 312.3V.
(b) If the 26.9V p-p ripple voltage is assumed triangular then its rms value is 26.9/3 =7.8V rms.

vii. Re-arrangement of equation (11.54), which under-estimates the capacitance requirement for
2% ripple, gives

2 1
2 2 2%
2 2%of
1
5, 000F
2 50Hz 100 0.02
= = =

= =

s
o s
V V
C
f R V f R
f R V




11.1.3iv Other single-phase bridge rectifier circuit configurations

Figure 11.6a shows a transformer used to create a two-phase supply (each phase is 180 apart), which
upon rectification produce equal split-rail dc output voltages, V
+
and V

-
. The electrical characteristics
can be analysed as in the case of the single-phase full-wave bridge rectifier circuit with a capacitive C-
filter and resistive load, in section 11.1.3iii. In the split rail case, the rectifiers conduct every 180,
alternately feeding each output voltage rail capacitor. Thus the diode average and rms currents are
increased by 2 and 2 respectively.
The voltage doubler in figure 11.6b can be used in equipment that must be able to operate from both
115Vac and 230V ac voltage supplies, without the aid of a voltage-matching transformer. With the
switch in the 115V position, the output is twice the peak of the input ac supply. The capacitor C
1
charges
through diode D1, and when the supply reverses, capacitor C
2
charges through D2. Since C
1
and C
2
are
in series, the output voltage is the sum V
C1
+V
C2
, where each capacitor is alternately charged (half-wave
rectified) from the ac source V
s
. The other, unused, two diodes remain reverse biased, and are only
necessary if the dual input voltage function is required.
With the switch in the 230V ac position, standard rectification occurs, with the two series capacitors
charging simultaneously every half cycle. In dual frequency applications (110V ac, 60Hz and 230V ac,
50Hz), the capacitance requirements are based on the supply with the lower frequency, 50Hz.














Figure 11.6. Rectifiers: (a) split rail dc supplies and (b) voltage doubler.



(a) (b)
V
+

C +
V
-

C +
Np:1:1
Vs
230V
C1 +
Vo
C2 +
115V/230V
ac
input
Vs
115V
D1









D2
0V
Naturally commutating converters
230
11.2 Single-phase full-wave half-controlled converter

When a converter contains both diodes and thyristors, for example as shown in figure 11.7 parts a to d,
the converter is termed half-controlled (or semi-controlled). These four circuits produce identical load
waveforms, neglecting any differences in the number and type of semiconductor voltage drops. The
power to the load is varied by controlling the angle , shown in figure 11.7e, at which the bridge
thyristors are triggered (after first becoming forward biased). The circuit diodes prevent the load voltage
from going negative, extend the conduction period, and reduce the output ac ripple.
The particular application will determine which one of the four circuits should be employed. For
example, circuit figure 11.7a contains five devices of which four are thyristors, whereas the other circuits
contain fewer devices, of which only two are thyristors. The circuit in figure 11.7b uses the fewest
semiconductors, but requires a transformer which introduces extra cost, weight, and size. Also the
thyristors experience twice the voltage of the thyristors in the other circuits, 22 V rather than 2 V. The
transformer does provide isolation and voltage matching.

























































Figure 11.7. Full-wave half-controlled converters with freewheel diodes:
(a), (b), (c), and (d) different circuit configurations producing the same output; and (e) circuit
voltage and current waveforms and device conduction table.
(e)
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
Df
D1
T1
T2
Circuit
a T1 and T4 D1 T2 and T3 D1

b T1 D1 T2 D1

c T1 and D2 T1 and D1 T2 and D1 T2 and D2

d T1 and D2 D2 and D1 T2 and D1 D1 and D2

q=2 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 2
vo vo
Power Electronics
231
The thyristor triggering requirements of the circuits in figures 11.7b and c are simple since both
thyristors have a common cathode connection. Figure 11.7c may suffer from prolonged shut-down times
with highly inductive loads. The diode in the freewheeling path will hold on the freewheeling thyristor,
allowing conduction during that thyristors next positive cycle without any gate drive present. The extra
diode D
f
in figure 17.11c bypasses the bridge thyristors allowing them to drop out of conduction. This is
achieved at the expense of an extra device, but the freewheel path conduction losses are decreased
since that series circuit now involves only one semiconductor voltage drop. This continued conduction
problem does not occur in circuits 11.7a and d since freewheeling does not occur through the circuit
thyristors, hence they will drop out of conduction at converter shut-down. The table in figure 11.7e
shows which semiconductors are active in each circuit during the various periods of the load cycle.

Circuit waveforms are shown in figure 11.7e. Since the load is a passive L-R circuit, independent of
whether the load current is continuous or discontinuous, the mean output voltage and current
(neglecting diode voltage drops) are



2
2
2
1
sin( ) (1 cos ) (V)
(1 cos ) (A)

= = = +
= = +

o
o
o
o
V
V
R
R
V
V I R V t d t
I
(11.58)
where is the delay angle from the point at which the associated thyristor first becomes forward-biased
and is therefore able to be turned on and conduct. The maximum mean output voltage,

2 2 /
o
V V = (also predicted by equation (11.27)), occurs at = 0.
The normalised mean output voltage V
n
is

/ (1 cos )
n o o
V V V = = + (11.59)
The Fourier coefficients of the 2-pulse output voltage are given by equation (11.171). For the single-
phase, full-wave, half-controlled case, p

=

2, thus the output voltage harmonics occur at n

=

2, 4, 6,

Equation (11.58) shows that the load voltage is independent of the passive load (because the diodes
clamp the load to zero volts thereby preventing the load voltage from going negative), and is a function
only of the phase delay angle for a given supply voltage.
The rms value of the load circuit voltage v
o
is
( )
2

2
1 sin 2
sin (V)




+
= =

rms
V V t d t V (11.60)
From the load voltage definitions in section 11.10, the load voltage form factor is

( )
( )
sin 2
2 1 cos

+
= =
+
rms
v
o
V
FF
V
(11.61)
The ripple voltage is

2 2

Ri rms o
V V V (11.62)
hence the voltage ripple factor is

2
/ 1 =
v Ri o v
K V V FF (11.63)
The load and supply waveforms and equations, for continuous and discontinuous load current, are the
same for all the circuits in figure 11.7. The circuits differ in the device conduction paths as shown in the
table in figure 11.7e. After deriving the general load current equations, the current equations applicable
to the different circuit devices can be decoded.

11.2i - Discontinuous load current, with < and < , the load current (and supply current) is
based on equation (11.1) namely

( )
( )
tan
( ) ( )
2
sin( ) sin (A)
t
s
t t
V
Z
i i t e
t



+
= =

(11.64)
( )
2
2 1
tan



= + =
L
Z R L
R
where and
After t = the load current decreases exponentially to zero through the freewheel diode according to

01
/ tan
( ) ( ) (A) 0

= =
Df
t
t t i i I e t (11.65)
where for t = in equation (11.64)

1
/ tan
2 sin( )(1 )
o
V
Z
e
I





=
Naturally commutating converters
232
The various semiconductor average current ratings can be determined from the average half-cycle
freewheeling current,
F
I , and the average half-cycle supply current,
s
I . For discontinuous load current
( )
( )
( )
/ tan

2
sin sin sin


=
F
V
I e
R
(11.66)
( )
( )
( )
/ tan 2

2
- = cos cos sin sin


= + + o
s F
V
I I I e
R
(11.67)

11.2ii - Continuous load current, with , < and the load current is given by equations similar
to equations (11.19) and (11.20), specifically

tan
/ tan
/ tan
( ) ( )
sin sin( )
2
sin( )
1
(A)

| |
= = +
|

\ .

t
s
t t
e
V
i i t e
Z
e
t
(11.68)
while the load current when the freewheel diode conducts is

01
/ tan
( ) ( ) (A)
0

= =

Df
t
t t i i I e
t
(11.69)
where, for t

=

in equation (11.68)

01
/ tan
/ tan
2
sin sin( )
(A)
1
e
V
I
Z
e


The various semiconductor average current ratings can be determined from the average half cycle
freewheeling current,
F
I , and the average half cycle supply current,
s
I . For continuous load current

( )
( )
/ tan
/ tan
/ tan
sin sin 2
sin 1
1



F
e V
I e
R e
(11.70)

( )
( )
( )
( )

tan
/ tan
/ tan
-
2 1
= cos tan sin sin cos cos
1

=
| |
+ +
|

\ .
o
s F
I I I
V e
e
R e
(11.71)
The device conduction table in figure 11.7e can be used to specify average devices currents, for both
continuous and discontinuous load current.

Table 11.3. Semiconductor average current ratings
Average device current
Bridge circuit
Number
of devices Thyristor Diode
a 4T+1D 1
s
I 2
F
I
b 2T+1D 1
s
I 2
F
I
c 2T+2D
o
I
o
I
d 2T+2D 1
s
I 1
s
I + 2
F
I



For a highly inductive load, constant load current, the supply power factor is pf

=

2

2cos.

Critical load inductance
The critical load inductance, to prevent the current falling to zero, is given by

sin cos

1 cos
crit
L
R

+ +
= +
+
(11.72)
for where

1 1
1 cos
sin sin
2
o
V
V


+
= = (11.73)
The minimum current occurs at the angle , where the mean output voltage V
o
equals the instantaneous
load voltage, v
o
. When the phase delay angle is greater than the critical angle , = in equation
(11.73) yields

sin cos

1 cos
crit
L
R

+ +
= +
+
(11.74)
It is important to note that converter circuits employing diodes cannot be used when inversion is
required. Since the converter diodes prevent the output voltage from being negative, (and the current is
unidirectional), regeneration from the load into the supply is not achievable.
Power Electronics
233
Figure 11.7a is a fully controlled converter with an R-L load and freewheel diode. In single-phase
circuits, this converter essentially behaves as a half-controlled converter.


11.3 Single-phase controlled thyristor converter circuits

11.3.1 Half-wave controlled circuit with an R-L load

The rectifying diode in the circuit of figure 11.1 can be replaced by a thyristor as shown in figure 11.8a to
form a half-wave controlled rectifier circuit with an R-L load. The output voltage is now controlled by the
thyristor trigger angle, . The output voltage ripple is at the supply frequency. Circuit waveforms are
shown in figure 11.8b.
The output current, hence output voltage, for the series circuit are given by

2 sin (V)
(rad)
di
L Ri V t
dt
t


+ =

(11.75)
where phase delay angle and current extinction angle are shown in the waveform in figure 11.8b and
are the zero load (and supply) current points.







































Figure 11.8. Single-phase half-wave controlled converter:
(a) circuit diagram; (b) circuit waveforms for an R-L load; and (c) purely inductive load.

(c)
2- t
0
iL
vo
vT
v
vL
vL

q=1 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 1
Naturally commutating converters
234
Solving equation (11.75) yields the load and supply current

2 2
( - ) / tan
2
( ) {sin( - ) - sin( - ) } (A)
( ) (ohms)
tan /




=
= +
=
t
V
i t t e
Z
Z R L t
L R
where (11.76)
and zero elsewhere.

The current extinction angle is dependent on the load impedance and thyristor trigger angle , and can
be determined by solving equation (11.76) with t = when i() = 0, that is

( - )/ tan
sin( - ) sin( - ) e

= (11.77)
This is a transcendental equation. A family of curves of current conduction angle versus delay angle,
that is - versus , is shown in figure 11.9a. The straight line plot for = is for a purely inductive
load, whereas = 0 is a straight line for a purely resistive load.
The mean load voltage, whence the mean load current, is given by



1
2
2
2
2 sin
(cos cos ) (V)
o
o o
V
V V t d t
V I R



=
= =

(11.78)
where the angle can be extracted from figure 11.9a.
The rms load voltage is

( )
( ) { }

2
2

1
2
1
2
2 sin
(sin 2 sin 2 )



(
=
(

( =

rms
V V t d t
V
(11.79)































Figure 11.9. Half-wave, controlled converter thyristor trigger delay angle versus:
(a) thyristor conduction angle, -, and (b) normalised mean load current.
(a)

Delay angle (degrees)
2V Io
Z
(b)


(a)
straight line =

straight line
= -
Eqn (11.87)
Eqn (11.82)
1/
Power Electronics
235
The rms current involves integration of equation (11.76), squared, giving

( ) sin cos( ) 1
( )
2 cos



( | | + +
= ( |
|
(
\ .
rms
V
Z
I

(11.80)
Iterative solutions to equation (11.77) are shown in figure 11.9a, where it is seen that two straight-line
relationships exist that relate and -. Exact solutions to equation (11.77) exist for these two cases.
That is, exact tractable solutions exist for the purely resistive load, = 0, and the purely inductive load,
= .

11.3.1i - Case 1: Purely resistive load. From equation (11.76), Z = R, 0 = , and the current is given
by

2
( ) sin( ) (A)
and
V
i t t
R
t


=
=
(11.81)
The average load voltage, hence average load current, are



1
2
2
2
2 sin
(1 cos ) (V)
o
o o
V
V V t d t
V I R

=
= = +

(11.82)

The rms output voltage is

( )
( ) { }

2
2

1
2
1
2
2 sin
sin 2 )



(
=
(

( = +

rms
V V t d t
V
(11.83)
Since the load is purely resistive, /
rms rms
I V R = and the voltage and current factors (form and ripple) are
equal. The power delivered to the load is
2
o rms
P I R = .
The supply power factor, for a resistive load, is P
out
/V
rms
I
rms
, that is

sin 2
-
2 4
pf


= + (11.84)


11.3.1ii - Case 2: Purely inductive load. Circuit waveforms showing equal inductor voltage areas are
shown in figure 11.8c. From equation (11.76), Z = L, = , and the current is given by

( ) ( )
( )
2
( ) sin( ) - sin - (A)
2
= cos - cos and 2

=
=
V
i t t
L
V
t t
L
(11.85)
The average load voltage, based on the equal area criterion, is zero

2-

1
2
2 sin 0
o
V V t d t

= =

(11.86)
The average output current is

( )
2

1
2
2
2
{cos - cos }
cos sin
o
V
L
V
L
I t d t

=
( = +

(11.87)
The rms output current is derived from

( )
( )( )

2
2

1
2
2
cos - cos
1 3
2 cos 2 sin 2
2

(
=
(

( | |
= + +
( |
\ .

rms
V
I t d t
L
V
X
(11.88)
The rms output voltage is
Naturally commutating converters
236

( )
( ) { }

2 2
2

1
2
1
2 sin
sin 2 )

(
=
(

( = +

rms
V V t d t
V
(11.89)
Since the load is purely inductive, 0
o
P = and the load voltage ripple factor is undefined since 0. =
o
V
By setting = 0, the equations (11.81) to (11.89) are valid for the uncontrolled rectifier considered in
section 11.1.1, for a purely resistive and purely inductive load.

11.3.1iii - Case 3: Back emf E and R-L load

With a load back emf, current begins to flow when the supply instantaneous voltage exceeds the back
emf magnitude E, that is when

1
sin
2
E
V


= (11.90)
When current flows, Kirchhoffs voltage law gives
2 sin
di
V t Ri L E
dt
= + + (11.91)
which yields

( ) ( ) ( )
tan tan
2 2
sin sin
and
t
V E V E
i t t e e
Z R Z R
t



| |
= |
|
\ .

(11.92)
The extinction angle is found from the boundary condition i(t)

=

i()

=

0, for

>

.
The load power is given by

2
o L rms
P I R I R = + (11.93)
while the supply power factor is given by

2
o rms L
rms rms
I R I R P
pf
V I V I
+
= = (11.94)
The solution for the uncontrolled converter (a half-wave rectifier) is found by setting

= .


Example 11.4: Half-wave controlled rectifier

The ac supply of the half-wave controlled single-phase converter in figure 11.8a is v = 2 240 sint. For
the following loads
Load #1: R = 10, L = 0
Load #2: R = 0 , L = 10
Load #3: R = 7.1, L = 7.1
Determine in each load case, for a firing delay angle = /6
the conduction angle =

-

, hence the current extinction angle
the dc output voltage and the average output current
the rms load current and voltage, load current and voltage ripple factor, and power
dissipated in the load
the supply power factor

Solution
Load #1: Z = R = 10, L = 0
From equation (11.76), Z = 10 and 0 = .
From equation (11.81), = for all , thus for = /6, = - = 5/6.
From equation (11.82)

2
2
2
2
(1 cos )
(1 cos / 6) 100.9V
o o
V
V
V I R

= = +
= + =

The average load current is

2
2
/ (1 cos ) 100.9V/10 =10.1A.

= = + =
o o
V
R
I V R
Power Electronics
237
The rms load voltage is given by equation (11.83), that is

( ) { }
( ) { }

1
2
1
2
sin 2 )
240V / 6 sin / 3 167.2V



(
= +

(
= + =

rms
V V

Since the load is purely resistive, the power delivered to the load is

2 2 2
/ 167.2V /10 2797.0W
/ 167.9V/10 16.8A
= = = =
= = =
o rms rms
rms rms
P I R V R
I V R

For a purely resistive load, the voltage and current factors are equal:

2
167.2V 16.8A
1.68
100.9V 10.1A
1 1.32
= = = =
= = =
i v
i v
FF FF
RF RF FF

The power factor is

2797W
0.70
240V 16.7A
= =

pf
Alternatively, use of equation (11.84) gives

/6 sin /6
- 0.70
2 4


= + = pf

Load #2: R = 0 , Z = X = L = 10
From equation (11.76), Z = X =10 and = .
From equation (11.85), which is based on the equal area criterion, = 2 - , thus for = /6,
= 11/6 whence the conduction period is = = 5/3.
From equation (11.86) the average output voltage is
0V
o
V =
The average load current is

( )
( )
2
240 2
10
cos sin
5 / 6 cos / 6 sin / 6 14.9A

( = +

( = + =

o
V
L
I

Using equations (11.88) and (11.89), the load rms voltage and current are

{ }
( )( )
{ }

3
2
1
240V sin 236.5V
6 3
240V 1
2 cos 2 sin 37.9A
6 3
10

(
= + =
(

(
= + + =
(

rms
rms
V
I


Since the load is purely inductive, the power delivered to the load is zero, as is the power factor,
and the output voltage ripple factor is undefined. The output current ripple factor is

2
37.9A
2.54 2.54 1 2.34
14.9A
= = = = = whence
rms
i i
o
I
FF RF
I


Load #3: R = 7.1, L = 7.1
From equation (11.76), Z = 10 and = .
From figure 11.9a, for / 6 = = and , = =195 whence = 225.
Iteration of equation (11.77) gives = 225.5 = 3.936 rad
From equation (11.78)

2
2
2
2
(cos cos )
240
= (cos30 cos 225 ) 85.0V
o o
V
V I R

= =

=

The average load current is

/
= 85.0V/7.1 = 12.0A
o o
I V R =

Alternatively, the average current can be extracted from figure 11.9b, which for = and
Naturally commutating converters
238
/ 6 = gives the normalised current as 0.35, thus

2
0.35
2240V
0.35 = 11.9A
10
o
V
I
Z
=
=



From equation (11.80), the rms current is

( )
( )
240V
10
sin cos( ) 1
( )
2 cos
sin 3.93 cos( 3.93)
1 6 6
(3.93 ) 18.18A
6
2 cos





( | | + +
= ( |
|
(
\ .
( | |
+ +
( |
= =
( |
|
(
\ .
rms
V
Z
I


The power delivered to the load resistor is

2 2
18.18A 7.1 2346W = = =
o rms
P I R
The load rms voltage, from equation (11.79), is

( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) { }

1 1
6 6
1
2
1
2
(sin 2 sin 2 )
240V 3.94 (sin 2 3.94 sin 2 ) 175.1V



(
=

(
= =

rms
V V


The load current and voltage ripple factors are

2
2
18.18A
1.515 1 1.138
12.0A
175.1V
2.06 1 1.8
85V
= = = =
= = = =
i i i
v v v
FF RF FF
FF RF FF


The supply power factor is

2346W
0.54
240V 18.18A
= =

pf



11.3.2 Half-wave half-controlled

The half-wave controlled converter waveform in figure 11.8b shows that when < t < , during the
positive half of the supply cycle, energy is delivered to the load. But when < t < 2, the supply
reverses and some energy in the load circuit is returned to the supply. More energy can be retained by
the load if the load voltage is prevented from reversing. A load freewheel diode facilitates this objective.
The single-phase half-wave converter can be controlled when a load commutating diode is incorporated
as shown in figure 11.10a. The diode will prevent the instantaneous load voltage v
0
from going negative,
as with the single-phase half-controlled converters shown in figure 11.7.
The load current is defined by equation (11.17) for t and equation (11.18) for t 2 + ,
namely:

2 sin (A)
0 (A) 2
di
L Ri V t t
dt
di
L Ri t
dt


+ =
+ = +
(11.95)
At t = the thyristor is commutated and the load current, and hence freewheel diode current, is of the
form of equation (11.20). As shown in figure 11.10b, depending on the delay angle and R-L load time
constant (L/R), the load current may fall to zero, producing discontinuous load current.

The mean load voltage (hence mean output current) for all conduction cases, with a passive L-R load, is



1
2
2
2
2
sin
(1 cos ) (V)
o
o o
V
V V t d t
V I R

=
= = +

(11.96)
Power Electronics
239

vR
vL

vo = v = vL+vR vo = 0 = vL+vR
is i
vL = vR
for t >

q=1 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 1
which is half the mean voltage for a single-phase half-controlled converter, given by equation (11.58).
The maximum mean output voltage, 2 / o V V

= (equation (11.13)), occurs at = 0. The normalised


mean output voltage V
n
is
/ (1 cos )
o n o
V V V

= = + (11.97)
The Fourier coefficients of the 1-pulse output voltage are given by equation (11.171). For the single-
phase, half-wave, half-controlled case, p

=

1, thus the output voltage harmonics occur at n

=

1, 2, 3,

The rms output voltage for both continuous and discontinuous load current is

( )
( ) { }

2
2

1
2
1
2
2 sin
sin 2 )



(
=
(

( = +

rms
V V t d t
V
(11.98)






























Figure 11.10. Half-wave half-controlled converter:
(a) circuit diagram and (b) circuit waveforms for an inductive load.


11.3.2i - For discontinuous conduction the load current is defined by equation (11.76) during thyristor
conduction

( )
( )
tan
01
/ tan
/ tan
/ tan
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
sin( ) sin (A)
2 sin( ) (1 )
= (A)
2
t
s
Df
t
t
t t
t t
V
i i t e
Z
t
i i I e
V e
e
Z
t

+
= =

= =


`

)
+
(11.99)

The average thyristor current is
1 o
I R


Naturally commutating converters
240
( ) ( )
2 / tan
cos cos sin sin
2


= + +
T
V
I e
R
(11.100)

while the average freewheel diode current is
( ) ( )
/ tan
sin
sin sin
2


= =
o T Df
V
I I I e
R
(11.101)

11.3.2ii - For continuous conduction the load current is defined by

tan
01
/ tan
2 / tan
/ tan
/ tan
/ tan
/ tan
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin sin( )
2
sin( ) ( )
1
(A)
sin sin( )
2
= (A)
1
2

+
| |
= = +
|

\ .

= =


)
+
t
s
Df
t
t
t t
t t
e
V
i i t e
Z e
t
i i I e
e
V
e
Z e
t
(11.102)
The advantages of incorporating a load freewheel diode are
the input power factor is improved and
the load waveform is improved (less ripple) giving a better load performance

11.3.3 Full-wave controlled rectifier circuit with an R-L load

Full-wave voltage control is possible with the circuits shown in figures 11.11a and b. The circuit in figure
11.11a uses a centre-tapped transformer and two thyristors which experience a reverse bias of twice the
supply. At high powers where a transformer may not be applicable, a four-thyristor configuration as in
figure 11.11b is suitable. The voltage ratings of the thyristors in figure 11.11b are half those of the
devices in figure 11.11a, for a given converter input voltage.
Load voltage and current waveforms are shown in figure 11.11 parts c, d, and e for three different phase
control angle conditions.
The load current waveform becomes continuous when the phase control angle is given by

1
tan / (rad) L R

= = (11.103)
at which angle the output current is a rectified sine wave. For > , discontinuous load current flows as
shown in figure 11.11c. At = the load current becomes continuous as shown in figure 11.11d,
whence = + . Further decrease in , that is < , results in continuous load current that is always
greater than zero (no zero current periods), as shown in figure 11.11e.

11.3.3i - , - > < , discontinuous load current
The load current waveform is the same as for the half-wave situation considered in section 11.3.1, given
by equation (11.76). That is

{ } ( - ) / tan 2
( ) [sin( - ) - sin( - ) ] (A)
< (rad)
t V
Z
i t t e
t



=

(11.104)
The mean output voltage for this full-wave circuit will be twice that of the half-wave case in section
11.3.1, given by equation (11.78). That is



1
2
2
sin
= (cos - cos ) (V)
o o
V
V I R V t d t



= =

(11.105)
where can be extracted from figure 11.9. The average output current is given by /
o o
I V R = and the
average and rms thyristor currents are o I and / 2
rms
I , respectively.

The rms load voltage is

{ }

2 2

1
1
2 sin
( ) (sin 2 sin 2 )



(
=
(

(
=
(

rms
V V t d t
V
(11.106)
Power Electronics
241
The rms load current is

( ) sin cos( ) 1
( )
cos



( | | + +
= ( |
|
(
\ .
rms
V
Z
I

(11.107)
The load power is therefore
2
.
rms
P I R =
















































Figure 11.11. Full-wave controlled converter:
(a) and (b) circuit diagrams; (c) discontinuous load current; (d) verge of continuous load
current, when = ; and (e) continuous load current.


11.3.3ii - , - = = , verge of continuous load current

When
-1
tan / L R = = , the load current given by equation (11.104) reduces to
Vo

q=2 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 2
Naturally commutating converters
242

2
( ) sin( ) (A)
(rad)


=
+ for
V
i t t
Z
t
(11.108)
and the mean output voltage, on reducing equation (11.105) using = +, is given by

2 2
cos (V)
o
V
V

= (11.109)
which is dependent on the load such that
-1
tan / L R = = . From equation (11.106), with = ,
the rms output voltage is V, I
rms
= V/Z, and power = cos
rms
VI .

11.3.3iii - < , - = , continuous load current

Under a continuous load current conduction condition, a thyristor is still conducting when another is
forward-biased and is turned on. The first device is instantaneously reverse-biased by the second device
which has been turned on. The first device is commutated and load current is instantaneously
transferred to the oncoming device.
The load current is given by

{ }
/ tan
( - ) / tan 2 2sin( - )
1
( ) [sin( - ) - ]



=
t V
Z e
i t t e (11.110)
This equation reduces to equation (11.108) for = and equation (11.25) for

=

0.
The mean output voltage, whence mean output current, are defined by equation (11.109)

2 2
cos (V)
o o
V
V I R

= =
which is uniquely defined by . The maximum mean output voltage, 2 2 /
o
V V

= (equation (11.27)),
occurs at = 0. Generally, for > , the average output voltage is negative, resulting in a net energy
transfer from the load to the supply.
The normalised mean output voltage V
n
is
/ cos
o n o
V V V

= = (11.111)
The rms output voltage is equal to the rms input supply voltage and is given by

( )
2
2

2
1
sin
rms
V V t d t V

+
= =

(11.112)
The ac component harmonic magnitudes in the load are given by

( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2 1 1 2cos 2
2 1 1 1 1

| |
= + |
|
+ +
\ .
n
V
V
n n n n
(11.113)
for n even, namely n = 2, 4, 6
The load voltage form factor, (thence ripple factor), is

2 2 cos

=
v
FF (11.114)
The current harmonics are obtained by division of the voltage harmonic by its load impedance at that
frequency, that is

( )
2
2
n n
n
n
V V
I
Z
R n L
= =
+
(11.115)
Integration of equation (11.110), squared, yields the load rms current (or equation (11.26) for

=

0)

( )
( )
( )
( )

2
2 / tan / tan
/ tan / tan
2sin 2sin 1
tan 1 4 sin sin 1
1 1





(
| | | |

(
= + | | `
| |
(
\ . \ .
)
rms
V
I e e
Z e e
(11.116)
Thyristor average current is
o
I , while thyristor rms current rating is / 2
rms
I . The same thyristor current
rating expressions are valid for both continuous and discontinuous load current conditions.
For a highly inductive load, constant load current, the supply power factor is ( )
2
1 cos pf


= +
.


Critical load inductance
The critical load inductance, to prevent the load current falling to zero, is given by
( )
2 2
cos sin cos
2cos
crit
L
R


| |
= + + +
|
\ .
(11.117)
Power Electronics
243
for where

1 1
2cos
sin sin
2
o
V
V


= = (11.118)
The minimum current occurs at the angle , where the mean output voltage V
o
equals the instantaneous
load voltage, v
o
. When the phase delay angle is greater than the critical angle , substituting = in
equation (11.117) gives
tan
crit
L
R

= (11.119)


Example 11.5: Controlled full-wave converter continuous conduction

The fully controlled full-wave, single-phase converter in figure 11.11a has a source of 240V rms, 50Hz,
and a 10 50mH series load. If the delay angle is 45, determine
i. the average output voltage and current, hence thyristor mean current
ii. the rms load voltage and current, hence thyristor rms current and load ripple factors
iii. the power absorbed by the load and the supply power factor
If the delay angle is increased to 75 determine
iv. the load current in the time domain
v. numerically solve the load current equation for , the current extinction angle
vi. the load average current and voltage
vii. the load rms voltage and current hence load ripple factors and power dissipated
viii. the supply power factor

Solution
The load natural power factor angle is given by
( )
-1 -1
tan / tan 2 50 50mH/10 57.5 =1 rad = = = L R
Since ( ) 45 57.5 < < , continuous load current flows, which is given by equation (11.110).

{ } (1.31 - ) / 1.56
/ 1.56
- / 1.56
2 240V 2 sin(1.31 -1)
( ) [sin( - 1) - ]
18.62 1
18.2 [sin( - 1) - 1.62 ]



=

=
t
t
i t t e
e
t e


i. The average output current and voltage are given by equation (11.109)

2 2 2 2
cos cos 45 152.8V
/ 152.8V/10 15.3A
o o
o o
V V
V I R
I V R

= = = =
= = =

Each thyristor conducts for 180, hence thyristor mean current is of 15.3A = 7.65A.

ii. The rms load current is determined by harmonic analysis. The voltage harmonics (peak magnitude)
are given by equation (11.113)

( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2 1 1 2cos 2
2, 4, 6,..
2 1 1 1 1

| |
= + = |
|
+ +
\ .
for
n
V
V n
n n n n

and the corresponding current is given from equation (11.115)

( )
2
2
n n
n
n
V V
I
Z
R n L
= =
+

The dc output voltage component is given by equation (11.109).


harmonic
n
V
n
( )
2
2
n
Z R n L = +
n
n
n
V
I
Z
=

2

n
I
0 (152.79) 10.00 15.28 (233.44)
2 55.65 32.97 1.69 1.42
4 8.16 63.62 0.13 0.01
6 3.03 94.78 0.07 0.00

2 2

o n
I I + =

234.4
Naturally commutating converters
244

From the calculations in the table, the rms load current is

2 2
+ 234.4 15.3A = = =
rms o n
I I I
Since each thyristor conducts for 180, the thyristor rms current is
1
2
of 15.3A = 10.8A
The rms load voltage is given by equation (11.112), that is 240V.

2 2
2 2
15.3A
1.0 1 1.00 1 0.0
15.3A
240V
1.57 1 1.57 1 1.21
152.8V
= = = = = =
= = = = = =
rms
i i i
o
rms
v v v
o
I
FF RF FF
I
V
FF RF FF
V


iii. The power absorbed by the load is

2 2
15.3A 10 2344W = = =
L rms
P I R
The supply power factor is

2344W
0.64
240V 15.3A
= = =

L
rms rms
P
pf
V I



iv. When the delay angle is increased to 75 (1.31 rad), discontinuous load current flows since the
natural power factor angle ( )
-1 -1
tan / tan 2 50 50mH/10 57.5 1rad = = = L R is exceeded. The load
current is given by equation (11.104)

{ } (1.31 - ) / 1.56
- / 1.56
2 240V
( ) [sin( - 1) - sin(1.31 -1) ]
18.62
18.2 [sin( - 1) - 0.71 ]

=
t
t
i t t e
t e


v. Solving the equation in part iv for t = and zero current, that is

- / 1.56
0 sin( - 1) - 0.71

= e
gives = 4.09 rad or 234.3.


vi. The average load voltage from equation (11.105) is

2 240V
(cos 75 - cos 234.5 ) 90.8V
90.8
9.08A
10

= =
= = =

o
o
o
V
V V
I
R


vii. The rms load voltage is given by equation (11.106)
{ }

1
240V (4.09 1.31) (sin8.18 sin 2.62) 216.46V

(
= =
(

rms
V
The rms current from equation (11.107) is
( )
( )

V
18.62
sin 4.09 1.31 cos(1.31 1 4.09) 240 1
4.09 1.31 13.55A
cos1
( | | + +
= = ( |
|
(
\ .
rms
I
The load voltage and current form and ripple factors are

2 2
2 2
13.55A
1.49 1 1.49 1 1.11
9.08A
216.46V
2.38 1 2.38 1 2.16
90.8V
= = = = = =
= = = = = =
rms
i i i
o
rms
v v v
o
I
FF RF FF
I
V
FF RF FF
V

The power dissipated in the 10 load resistor is

2 2
13.55 10 1836W = = =
rms
P I R

viii. The supply power factor is

1836W
0.56
240V 13.55A
= = =

L
rms rms
P
pf
V I





Power Electronics
245
11.3.4 Full-wave, fully-controlled circuit with R-L and emf load, E

An emf source and R-L load can be encountered in dc machine modelling. The emf represents the
machine speed back emf, defined by E k = . DC machines can be controlled by a fully controlled
converter configuration as shown in figure 11.12a, where T
1
-T
4
and T
2
-T
3
are triggered alternately.
If in each half sine period the thyristor firing delay angle occurs after the rectified sine supply has fallen
below the emf level E, then no load current flows since the bridge thyristors will always be reverse-
biased. Thus the zero current firing angle

is:

( )
1
sin / 2 (rad) <

= < for E V (11.120)


where it has been assumed the emf has the polarity shown in figure 11.12a. With discontinuous output
current, load current cannot flow until the supply voltage exceeds the back emf E. That is

( )
1
sin / 2 (rad) 0<

= < for E V (11.121)


Load current can always flow with a firing angle defined by

(rad)

(11.122)
The load circuit current can be evaluated by solving
2 sin (V)
di
V t L Ri E
dt
= + + (11.123)
The load voltage and current ripple are both at twice the supply frequency.

11.3.4i - Discontinuous load current
The load current is given by

{ }
{ } ( - ) / tan 2
E E
2 2
( ) [cos sin( - ) - - cos sin( - ) ]
(rad)


= +
< +
t V
V V
R
i t t e
t
(11.124)
For discontinuous load current conduction, the current extinction angle , shown on figure 11.12b, is
solved by iterative techniques for i(t=) = 0 in equation (11.124).

{ }
{ } ( - ) / tan E E
2 2
cos sin( - ) - - cos sin( - ) 0

+ =
V V
e (11.125)
The mean output voltage can be obtained from equation (11.105), which is valid for E = 0.
For any E, including E = 0

( )

1
2
2
2 sin
cos cos ( ) (V)
0 (rad)




= +
| |
= + +
|
\ .
< <

o
o
V E
V
V V t E d t
V (11.126)
The current extinction angle is load-dependent, being a function of , Z, and E.

Since o o
V E I R = + , the mean load current is given by

2
2
cos cos ( ) (A)
0 (rad)
o
o
V E V E
R R V
I



| |
= =
|
\ .
< <
(11.127)
The rms output voltage is given by

2
2 2

2
(1 ) (sin 2 sin 2 ) (V)



| |
= +
|
\ .
rms
V
V V E (11.128)
The rms voltage across the R-L part of the load is given by

2 2
RLrms rms
V V E = (11.129)
The total power delivered to the R-L-E load is

2
= +
o o rms
P I R I E (11.130)
where the rms load current is found by integrating the current in equation (11.124), squared, etc.


11.3.4ii - Continuous load current
With continuous load current conduction, the load rms voltage is V.
The load current is given by
Naturally commutating converters
246

{ } ( - ) / tan
/ tan
E
2 2 sin( - )
( ) [sin( - ) - 2 ]
cos 1
(rad)



= +

+
t V V
Z
i t t e
e
t
(11.131)
The periodic minimum current is given by
( ) ( )
/ tan
/ tan
2 1 2
sin sin tanh
1 tan



| | +
= =
|

\ .
V e E V E
I
Z e R Z R
(11.132)






















































Figure 11.12. A full-wave fully controlled converter with an inductive load which includes an emf
source: (a) circuit diagram; (b) voltage waveforms with discontinuous load current; (c) verge of
continuous load current; and (d) continuous load current.


For continuous load current conditions, as shown in figures 11.12c and 11.12d, the mean output voltage
is given by equation (11.126) with =
T1





T3
T2





T4

q=2 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 2


Power Electronics
247

( )
2
1
2 sin
2
cos (V)

+
= = +
=

o
o
V
V V t d t E I R
(11.133)
The average output voltage is dependent only on the phase delay angle (independent of E). The mean
load current is given by

2 2
cos (A)
2
o
o
V E V
R R
E
I
V

| |
= =
|
\ .
(11.134)
The power absorbed by the emf source in the load is
o
P I E = , while the total power delivered to the R-L-
E load is
2
= +
o o rms
P I R I E .
The output current and voltage ripple is at multiples of twice the supply frequency. The output voltage
harmonic magnitudes for continuous conduction, given by equation (11.113), are

( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2 1 1 2cos 2
2, 4, 6, ..
2 1 1 1 1

| |
= + = |
|
+ +
\ .
n
V
V n
n n n n
for (11.135)
The dc component across the R-L ( and resistor) part of the load is

. 2 2
cos
o R L o
V V E
V
E

=
=
(11.136)
The ac component of the output voltage is

2
2
2
2 2 cos
1

| |
= = |
|
\ .
o
ac rms
V V V (11.137)
and the output voltage form factor is

2 2 cos

=
v
FF (11.138)
Thyristor average current is
o
I , while thyristor rms current rating is / 2
rms
I . These same two thyristor
expressions are valid for both continuous and discontinuous load current conditions.

Critical load inductance

From equation (11.132) set to zero (or i

=

0 in equation (11.131)), the boundary between continuous and
discontinuous inductor current must satisfy
( )

sin tanh
tan 2

| |
>
|
\ .
R E
Z V
(11.139)

Inversion

If the polarity of the back emf E is reversed as shown in figure 11.13a, waveforms as in parts b and c of
figure 11.13 result. The emf supply can provide a forward bias across the bridge thyristors even after the
supply polarity has gone negative. The zero current angle


now satisfies <


< 3/2, as given by
equation (11.120). Thus load and supply current can flow, even for > .
The relationship between the mean output voltage and current is now given by

o o
V E I R = + (11.140)
That is, the emf term E in equations (11.120) to (11.139) is appropriately changed to -

E.
The load current flows from the emf source and if

>

, the average load voltage is negative. Power is
being delivered to the ac supply from the emf source in the load, which is an energy transfer process
called power inversion. In general

0 90 0 0 0
90 180 0 0 0

< < > > >


< < < < >
rectification
inversion
o o o
o o o
V P i
V P i









Naturally commutating converters
248



































Figure 11.13. A full-wave controlled converter with an inductive load and negative emf source:
(a) circuit diagram; (b) voltage waveforms for discontinuous load current; and (c) continuous load
current.


Example 11.6: Controlled converter continuous conduction and back emf

The fully controlled full-wave converter in figure 11.11a has a source of 240V rms, 50Hz, and a 10,
50mH, 50V emf opposing series load. The delay angle is 45.
Determine
i. the average output voltage and current
ii. the rms load voltage and the rms voltage across the R-L part of the load
iii. the power absorbed by the 50V load back emf
iv. the rms load current hence power dissipated in the resistive part of the load
v. the load efficiency, that is percentage of energy into the back emf and power factor
vi. the load voltage and current form and ripple factors

Solution

From example 11.5, continuous conduction is possible since ( ) 45 57.5 < < .
i. The average output voltage is given by equation (11.133)

2
2 240
2
cos
2
cos45 152.8V
o
V
V

= =

The average current, from equation (11.134) is
T1





T3
T2





T4

q=2 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 2

Power Electronics
249

152.8V 50V
10.28A
10
o
o
V E
R
I

= = =



ii. From equation (11.112) the rms load voltage is 240V. The rms voltage across the R-L part of the load
is

2 2
2 2
240V 50V 234.7V
RLrms rms
V V E =
= =


iii. The power absorbed by the 50V back emf load is
10.28A 50V 514W
o
P I E = = =

iv. The R-L load voltage harmonics (which are even) are given by equations (11.135) and (11.136):

( ) ( ) ( )( )
.
2 2
2 2
cos
2 1 1 2cos 2
2 1 1 1 1

=
| |
= + |
|
+ +
\ .
o R L
n
V
V E
V
V
n n n n

The harmonic currents and voltages are shown in the table to follow.


harmonic

n
V
n

( )
( )
2
2
= +
n
Z R n L


( )
=
n
n
n
V
I
Z
A


2

n
I
0 102.79 10.00 10.28 105.66
2 60.02 32.97 1.82 1.66
4 8.16 63.62 0.13 0.01
6 3.26 94.78 0.04 0.00

2 2

o n
I I + =

107.33

From the table the rms load current is given by

2 2
+ 107.33 10.36A = = =
rms o n
I I I
The power absorbed by the 10 load resistor is

2 2
10.36A 10 1073.3W = = =
L rms
P I R

v. The load efficiency, that is, percentage energy into the back emf E is

o o
o o
514W
100 32.4
514W 1073.3W
= =
+

The power factor is

514W+1073.3W
0.64
240V 10.36A
= = =

L
rms rms
P
pf
V I


vi. The output performance factors are

2 2
2 2
10.36A
1.011 1 1.023 1 0.125
10.28A
240V
1.57 1 1.57 1 1.211
152.8V
= = = = = =
= = = = = =
rms
i i i
o
rms
v v v
o
I
FF RF FF
I
V
FF RF FF
V

Note that the voltage form factor agrees with that obtained by substitution into equation (11.138), 1.57.







Naturally commutating converters
250
11.4 Three-phase uncontrolled converter circuits

Single-phase supply circuits are adequate below a few kilowatts. At higher power levels, restrictions on
unbalanced loading, line harmonics, current surge voltage dips, and filtering require the use of three-
phase (or higher - polyphase) converter circuits. Generally it will be assumed that the output current is
both continuous and smooth. This assumption is based on the dc load being highly inductive.

11.4.1 Half-wave rectifier circuit with an inductive R-L load

Figure 11.14 shows a half-wave, three-phase diode rectifier circuit along with various circuit voltage and
current waveforms. A transformer having a star connected secondary is required for neutral access, N.
The diode with the highest potential with respect to the neutral conducts a rectangular current pulse. As
the potential of another diode becomes the highest, load current is transferred to that device, and the
previously conducting device is reverse-biased and naturally (line) commutated. Note that the load
voltage, hence current never reaches zero, when the load is passive (no opposing back emf).













































Figure 11.14. Three-phase half-wave rectifier:
(a) circuit diagram and (b) circuit voltage and current waveforms.
2
3

2
3

2
3

N
a
c
b



t

q=3 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 3
Power Electronics
251
In general terms, for an n-phase p-pulse system, the mean output voltage is given by

/
/
2
2
cos (V)
2 /
sin( / )
= (V)
/

=

p
o
p
V
V t d t
p
p
V
p
(11.141)
For a three-phase, half-wave circuit (p = 3) the mean output voltage, (thence average current) is

5 / 6
2
/ 6 3
1
2 sin
3
2 1.17 (V)
/ 3

= =
= =

o o
V I R V t d t
V V
(11.142)
The rms load voltage is

( )
2
5 / 6
2
2
/ 6 3
2
1
sin 1.19


= =

rms
V V t d t V (11.143)

The load form factor is
1.19 /1.17 1.01
rms
FF
V
V V V
V
= = = (11.144)

ac voltage across the load
RF = ripple factor =
dc voltage across the load

1 0.185 = =
rms V
V
(11.145)
The diode conduction angle is 2/n, namely . The peak diode reverse voltage is given by the
maximum voltage between any two phases, 32 V = 6 V.
From equations (11.44), (11.45), and (11.46), for a constant output current,
o o rms
I I = , the mean diode
current is

1 1
3
(A) D o o
n I I I = = (11.146)
and the rms diode current is

3
1 1 1
(A) = =
o o D o rms n n
I I I I (11.147)
The diode current form factor is
/ 3 = =
D ID D
FF I I (11.148)



























Figure 11.15. Three-phase zig-zag interconnected star winding:
(a) transformer connection and (b) phasor diagram of transformer voltages.
R-L

q=3 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 3
Naturally commutating converters
252

q=3 r =1 s =2
p= qx r x s
p= 6
ab ac bc ba ca ca

6,1 1,2 2,3 3,4 4,5 5,6
i a = iD1 - i D4

i b = iD3 - i D6

i c = iD5 - i D2
source
voltages

output
voltage

a b c
If neutral is available, a transformer is not necessary. The full load current is returned via the neutral
supply. This neutral supply current is generally not acceptable other than at low power levels. The
simple delta-star connection of the supply in figure 11.14a is not appropriate since the unidirectional
current in each phase is transferred from the supply to the transformer. This may result in increased
magnetising current and iron losses if dc magnetisation occurs. This problem is avoided in most cases
by the special interconnected star winding, called zig-zag, shown in figure 11.15a. Each transformer limb
has two equal voltage secondaries which are connected such that the magnetising forces balance. The
resultant phasor diagram is shown in figure 11.15b.

As the number of phases increases, the windings become less utilised per cycle since the diode
conduction angle decreases, from for a single-phase circuit, to for the three-phase case.
















































Figure 11.16. Three-phase full-wave bridge rectifier:
(a) circuit connection and (b) voltage and current waveforms.





Power Electronics
253
11.4.2 Full-wave rectifier circuit with an inductive load

Figure 11.16a shows a three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit where no neutral is necessary and it will be
seen that two series diodes are always conducting. One diode (one of D
1
, D
3
, or D
5
, at the highest
potential) can be considered as being in the feed circuit, while the other (one of D
2
, D
4
, or D
6
, at the
lowest potential) is in the return circuit. As such, the line-to-line voltage is impressed across the load.
Given no two series diodes conduct simultaneously, there are six possible diode pair combinations. The
rectifier circuit waveforms in figure 11.16b show that the load ripple frequency is six times the supply.
Each diode conducts for and experiences a reverse voltage of the peak line voltage, 2

V
L
.

The mean load voltage is given by twice equation (11.142), that is

2 / 3
/ 3 3
3
2 2
1
2 sin (V)
3
1.35
/ 3
o o L
L L
V I R V t d t
V V V




= =
= = =

(11.149)
where V
L
is the line-to-line rms voltage (V
L
=3V).
Generally the peak-to-peak ripple voltage for n-phases is 2 2 cos V
n

.

Table 11.3. Three-phase full-wave uncontrolled rectifier circuits

6
th
harmonic
current
average output
current
output power
I
o, 6 o I P
R
+P
E

Full-wave rectifier circuit


load circuit
(A) (A) (W)
(a)


R-L

see
section
11.4.2i

( )
, 6
2
2
6 +
o
V
R L
o
V
R

2
, o rms
I R
(b)


R-L-E

( )
, 6
2
2
6 +
o
V
R L

o
V E
R

2
,
+
o o rms
I R I E
(c)


R-L-C

, 6
6
o
V
L

o
V
R

2
2
,
=
o o rms
I R I R


Vs
Is
Io
Vo
Io,dc
Io,ac
L
C R
Vs
Is
Io
Vo E +
L
R
Vs
Is
Io
Vo
L
R
Naturally commutating converters
254
The output harmonics of a p-pulse voltage output are

2
2
2 2
sin
1
1
2
1
1
n
p
an
n
p
o
V
V
p
n
p
V
n

(

=

(

(11.150)
where n

=

mp and m

=

1,

2,

3, and V
o
is the mean output voltage given by equation (11.141).
The output voltage harmonics for p

=

6 are given by

( )
2
6
1
L
o n
V
V
n
=

(11.151)
for n = 6, 12, 18, ..
The rms output voltage is given by

.
2 / 3
2
/ 3

1
2 sin
2 / 6
3 3
1 1.352
2
rms L
L L
V V t d t
V V

| |
=
|
\ .
= + =

(11.152)
Generally, for a p-pulse rectifier output, the rms output voltage is

2
1 sin
2
rms L
p
V V
p

= + (11.153)

The load voltage form factor = 1.352/1.35 = 1.001 and the ripple factor = form factor -1 = 0.06.


11.4.2i Three-phase full-wave bridge rectifier circuit with continuous load current

If it is assumed that the load inductance is large, then (even with a load back emf), continuous load
current flows and the dominate load current harmonic is due to the sixth harmonic current, that is
let
, ,6
=
o ac o
I I . By neglecting the higher order harmonics, the various circuit currents and voltages can be
readily obtained as shown in table 11.3. From equations (11.149) and (11.151) the output voltage is
given by

( )
( )
, 6
2
2 2
2 2
cos 6
3 3 2
cos 6
1
3 3 2
cos 2
35
1.35 0.077 cos 2

= +
= + =

= +
= +
o o o
L L
L L
L L
v t V V t
V V n t n
n
V V t
V V t
for
(11.154)
The fundamental voltage, hence current, V
o
/R, is therefore much larger than the sixth harmonic current,
V
o,6
/

Z
6
, that is
, 6
>

o o
I I . The load and supply ac currents are
, , , 6
= =
o ac s ac o
I I I . The output and supply
rms currents are

2 2
2 2
, , , , 6
= = + = +
o o o rms s rms o ac o
I I I I I
I
(11.155)
and the power delivered to resistance R in the load is

2
,
=
R o rms
P I R (11.156)

11.4.2ii Three-phase full-wave bridge circuit with highly inductive loads constant load current

For a highly inductive load, that is a constant load current:
the mean diode current is

1 1
3
(A) D o o
n I I I = = (11.157)
and the rms diode current is

3
1 1 1
(A) = =
o o D rms o rms n n
I I I I (11.158)
and the power factor for a constant load current is

3
0.955 pf

= = (11.159)
Power Electronics
255
The rms input line currents are

2
3
=
L rms o rms
I I (11.160)
The diode current form factor is
/ 3 = =
D ID D rms
FF I I (11.161)
The diode current ripple factor is

2
1 2
ID ID
RF FF = = (11.162)
A phase voltage and current are given by
2 sin
a
v V t = (11.163)

( ) ( ) 2 3
sin 1 sin 1
sin 6, 12, 18, ..
1 1
o a
n t n t
i I t n
n n

( +
= + + = (
+
(

(11.164)
with phases b and c shifted by . That is substitute t in equations (11.163) and (11.164) with t.
Each load current harmonic n produces harmonics n+1 and n-1 on the input current.
The total load instantaneous power is given by
( )
2
cos
3 2
1
o
n t
p t V I
n

| |
=
|

\ .
(11.165)
The apparent power is
3
L s rms
S V I = (11.166)

Example 11.7: Three-phase full-wave rectifier

The full-wave three-phase rectifier in figure 11.16a has a three-phase 415V 50Hz source (240V phase),
and a 10, 50mH, series load. During the problem solution, verify that the only harmonic that need be
considered is the sixth.
Determine
i. the average output voltage and current
ii. the rms load voltage and the ac output voltage
iii. the rms load current hence power dissipated and power factor
iv. the load power percentage error in assuming a constant load current
v. the diode average and rms current requirements

Solution
i. From equation (11.149) the average output voltage and current are

1.35 1.35 415V 560.447V
560.45
56.045A
10
= = = =
= = =

o o L
o
o
V I R V
V V
I
R


ii. The rms load voltage is given by equation (11.152)
1.352 1.352 415V = 560.94V
rms L
V V = =
The ac component across the load is

2 2
2 2
560.94V 560.447V 23.52V
=
= =
ac rms o
V V V


iii. The rms load current is calculated from the harmonic currents, which are calculated from the
harmonic voltages given by equation (11.151).

harmonic
n

( )
2
6
1
L
n
V
V
n
=


( )
2
2
n
Z R n L = +
n
n
n
V
I
Z
=

2

n
I
0 (560.45) 10.00 56.04 (3141.01)
6 32.03 94.78 0.34 0.06
12 7.84 188.76 0.04 0.00
Note the 12
th
harmonic current is not significant
2 2

o n
I I + =

3141.07

Naturally commutating converters
256
The rms load current is

.
2 2

3141.07 56.05A
rms o n
I I I = +
= =


The power absorbed by the 10 load resistor is

2 2
56.05A 10 31410.7W
L rms
P I R = = =
The power factor is

31410.7W
0.955
3 2
3 415V 56.05A
3
= = = =

L L
rms rms L L
P P
pf
V I V I

This power factor 0.955 is as predicted by equation (11.159),
3

, for a constant current load.



iv. The percentage output power error in assuming the load current is constant is given by

2 2
o
o
2 2
56.045A 10 31410.1W
1 1 1 1 0
56.05A 10 31410.7W

= = =


o L
L rms
I R P
P I R

v. The diode average and rms currents are given by equations (11.157) and (11.158)

1 1
3 3
1 1
3 3
56.045 18.7A
56.05 23.4A
= = =
= = =
D
o
D rms o rms
I I
I I




11.5 Three-phase half-controlled converter

Figure 11.17a illustrates a half-controlled converter where half the devices are thyristors, the remainder
being diodes. As in the single-phase case, a freewheeling diode can be added across the load so as to
allow the bridge thyristors to commutate and decrease freewheeling losses. The output voltage
expression consists of 2V 33/2 due to the uncontrolled half of the bridge and 2V 33 cos /2
due to the controlled half which is phase-controlled. The half-controlled bridge mean output is given by
the sum, that is

2 2
3 3 3
(1 cos ) (1 cos )
2 2
2.34 (1 cos ) (V)
0 (rad)


= + = +
= +

=
o L
o o
V V V
V
V I R
(11.167)
At = 0,

o V = 2 V 33/ = 1.35 V
L
, as in equation (11.46). The normalised mean output voltage V
n
is

/ (1 cos ) o
n o
V V V = = + (11.168)

The diodes prevent any negative output, hence inversion cannot occur. Typical output voltage and
current waveforms for a highly inductive load are shown in figure 11.17b.

11.5i -
When the delay angle is less than the output waveform contains six pulses per cycle, of alternating
controlled and uncontrolled phases, as shown in figure 11.17b. The output current is always continuous
(even for a resistive load) since no output voltage zeros occur. The rms output voltage is given by

( ) ( ) { }
( )
2 2 2 / 3 2 / 3
2 2
/ 3 / 3

3
2 sin 2 sin
2
3 3
1 1 cos 2
4
/ 3



+
+
= +
| |
= + + |
|
\ .


for
rms L L
L
V V t d t V t d t
V (11.169)

11.5ii -
For delay angles greater than the output voltage waveform is made up of three controlled pulses per
cycle, as shown in figure 11.17c. Although output voltage zeros result, continuous load current can flow
through a diode and the conducting thyristor, or through the commutating diode if employed. The rms
output voltage is given by
Power Electronics
257

( )
( )
2
2

2
3
sin
2
3
sin 2
2
/ 3


=
| |
= +
|
\ .

rms L
L
V V t d t
V
for
(11.170)


















































Figure 11.17. Three-phase half-controlled bridge converter: (a) circuit connection; (b) voltage and
current waveforms for a small firing delay angle ; and (c) waveforms for large.

R-L

q=3 r =1 s =2
p= qx r x s
p= 6
Naturally commutating converters
258

q=3 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 3
The Fourier coefficients of the p-pulse output voltage are given by

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
cos 1 cos 1
2 2
2 1 1 1
sin 1 sin 1
2
2 1 1
n
n
n n
V
a
n n n
p
n n
V
b
n n
p

( +

= + (
+
(

( +
= (
+
(

(11.171)
where n

=

mp and m

=

1, 2, 3, .. For the three-phase, full-wave, half-controlled case, p

=

6, thus the
output voltage harmonics occur at n

=

6, 12,

11.6 Three-phase controlled thyristor converter circuits

11.6.1 Half-wave circuit with an inductive load

When the diodes in the circuit of figure 11.14 are replaced by thyristors, as in figure 11.18a, a three-
phase fully controlled half-wave converter results. The output voltage is controlled by the delay angle .
This angle is specified from the thyristor commutation angle, which is the earliest point the associated
thyristor becomes forward-biased, as shown in parts b, c, and d of figure 11.18. (The reference is not the
phase zero voltage cross-over point). The thyristor with the highest instantaneous anode potential will
conduct when fired and in turning on will reverse bias and turn off any previously conducting thyristor.
The output voltage ripple is three times the supply frequency and the supply currents contain dc compo-
nents. Each phase progressively conducts for periods of , displaced by , as shown in figure 11.18b.




































Figure 11.18. Three-phase half-wave controlled converter:
(a) circuit connection; (b) voltage and current waveforms for a small firing delay angle ; (c) and (d)
load voltage waveforms for progressively larger delay angles.
Power Electronics
259
The mean output voltage for an n-phase half-wave controlled converter is given by (see example 11.8)

/
/
2
2
cos
2 /
sin( / )
cos (V)
/
n
o
n
V
V t d t
n
n
V
n


=
=

(11.172)
which for the three-phase circuit considered with continuous load current gives

3
2
3
cos 1.17 cos 0 / 6
2
o o
V I R V V

= = = (11.173)

For discontinuous conduction, the mean output voltage is
( ) ( )
3
2
3
1 cos / 6 / 6 5 / 6
2
o o
V I R V

= = + + (11.174)

The mean output voltage is zero for = . For 0 < < , the instantaneous output voltage is always
greater than zero. Negative average output voltage occurs when > as shown in figure 11.18d.
Since the load current direction is unchanged, for > , power reversal occurs, with energy feeding
from the load into the ac supply. Power inversion assumes a load with an emf to assist the current flow,
as in figure 11.13. If > no reverse bias exists for natural commutation and continuous load current
will freewheel.

The maximum mean output voltage

o V = 2V 33 /2 occurs at = 0. The normalised mean output


voltage V
n
is

/ cos
n o o
V V V = = (11.175)
With an R-L load, at V
o
= 0, the load current falls to zero. Thus for > , continuous load current does
not flow for an R-L load.

The rms output voltage is given by

( )
2 / 3
2
/ 3

1 3
6 8
2
3 2
3
sin ( )
2
sin2
rms
V V t d t
V

=
| |
= +
|
\ .

(11.176)


11.6.2 Half-wave converter with freewheel diode

Figure 11.19 shows a three-phase, half-wave controlled rectifier converter circuit with a load freewheel
diode, D
f
. This diode prevents the load voltage from going negative, thus inversion is not possible.



















Figure 11.19. A half-wave fully controlled three-phase converter with a load freewheel diode.




q=3 r =1 s =1
p= qx r x s
p= 3
Df
Naturally commutating converters
260
11.6.2i - < /6. The output is as in figure 11.18b, with no voltage zeros occurring. The mean output
voltage (and current) is given by equation (11.173), that is

3 3
2 cos 1.17 cos (V)
2
0 / 6 (rad)
o o
V I R V V


= = =

(11.177)
The maximum mean output V
o
= 2V 33/2 occurs at = 0. The normalised mean output voltage, V
n
is
given by

/ cos o
n o
V V V = = (11.178)
The Fourier coefficients of the 3-pulse output voltage are given by (11.171). For the three-phase, half-
wave, half-controlled case, p

=

3, thus the output voltage harmonics occur at n

=

3, 6, 9,

11.6.2ii - > /6. Voltage zeros occur and the negative portions in the waveforms in parts c and d of
figure 11.18 do not occur. The mean output voltage is given by
( )

/ 6
2
2
sin
2 / 3
1 cos( / 6 (V)
2 / 3
/ 6 5 / 6
o o
V
V I R t d t
V

= =
= + +

(11.179)
The normalised mean output voltage V
n
is

/ [1 cos( / 6)]/ 3 o
n o
V V V = = + + (11.180)
The average load current (with an emf E in the load) is given by

o
o
V E
I
R

= (11.181)
These equations assume continuous load current.

11.6.2iii - > 5/6. A delay angle of greater than 5/6 would imply a negative output voltage, clearly
not possible with a freewheel load diode.


11.6.3 Full-wave, fully-controlled circuit with an inductive load

A three-phase bridge is fully controlled when all six bridge devices are thyristors, as shown in figure
11.20a. The frequency of the output ripple voltage is six times the supply frequency and each thyristor
always conducts for . Circuit waveforms are shown in figure 11.20b. The mean output voltage for
both inductive and resistive loads is given by

( )

/ 6
3 2
3
2
3
sin / 6
3
cos 2.34 cos (V)
0 2 / 3



+
+
= +
= =

o
V V t d t
V V (11.182)
which is twice the voltage given by equation (11.173) for the half-wave circuit, but for a purely resistive
load, equation (11.182) becomes

( )
3
2
3
1 cos / 6 (V)
/ 3 2 / 3


( = + +


o
V V
(11.183)
The average output current is given by / o o
I V R = in each case. If a load back emf exists the average
current becomes

o
o
V E
I
R

= (11.184)
The maximum mean output voltage

o V = 2V 33/ occurs at = 0. The normalised mean output V


n
is

/ cos o
n o
V V V = = (11.185)
For delay angles up to , the output voltage is at all instances non-zero, hence the load current is
continuous for any passive load (both resistive and inductive). Beyond the load current may be
discontinuous (always discontinuous for a resistive load). For > the current is always
discontinuous for passive loads and the average output voltage is less than zero.

Power Electronics
261








































Figure 11.20. A three-phase fully controlled converter:
(a) circuit connection and (b) load voltage waveform for four delay angles.


For continuous load current, the load current is given by
( )
( )
( )
6
tan
3tan
3 2 3 2
sin sin
6
1
t
V E V e
i t t
Z R Z e


+ +

= + +

(11.186)
The maximum and minimum ripple current magnitudes are

( )
( )
6
tan
3
tan
3 2 3 2
sin sin
2
1
V E V e
I
Z R Z
e



= + +

(11.187)
at t = +n for n = 0, 6, 12, ..

( )
( )
3
tan
3 2 3 2 1
sin sin
3
1
V E V
I
Z R Z
e



= + +

(11.188)
at t =

-


+n

for n = 0, 6, 12, ..

With a load back emf the critical inductance for continuous load current must satisfy 0 I

= in equation
(11.188), that is

q=3 r =1 s =2
p= qx r x s
p= 6
Naturally commutating converters
262
( )
( )
/ 3tan
1
3
sin
sin
1 3 2
R E
Z e V




(
+ +
(


(11.189)
where tan / L R = .

The rms value of the output voltage for a purely resistive load is given by

( )
2 / 2
2
/ 6

3 3
2
2
3 2
3
3 sin ( )
1 cos 2
rms
V V t d t
V

| |
=
|
\ .
= +

0 / 3 (11.190)
and
( )
3 3
2 4
3 2 1 sin 2 / 3
rms
V V


= / 3 2 / 3 (11.191)

The normalise voltage harmonic peak magnitudes in the output voltage, with continuous load current,
are

( ) ( ) ( )( )
.
.
1
2
2 2
3 3 1 1 2cos 2
2
1 1 1 1

| |
= + |
|
+ +
\ .
L n
V V
n n n n
(11.192)
for n = 6, 12, 18

The harmonics occur at multiples of six times the fundamental frequency.

For discontinuous load current, at high delay angles, when the output current becomes discontinuous
with an inductive load, the output current is given by
( )
( ) ( )
6 6
tan tan
3 2
sin sin 1
6 3
t t
c
V E
i t t e e
Z R
t





+ +
= + +
+
( (
( (
(11.193)
where
c
is the conduction period, which is found by solving the transcendental equation formed when in
equation (11.193), i(t = ++
c
) = 0. The average output voltage can then be found from

( ) ( )
3 3 2 3
cos cos
3 3 3
o c c
V E
V



= + + +
( (

(11.194)

11.6.3i Resistive load
For a resistive load, the load voltage harmonics for p pulses per cycle, are given by

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
cos 1 cos 1
2 2
2 1 1 1
sin 1 sin 1
2
2 1 1
n
n
n n
V
a
n n n
p
n n
V
b
n n
p

( +

= (
+ +
(

( +
= (
+
(

(11.195)
for n

=

pm and m

=

1, 2, 3, .. The harmonics occur at multiples of six times the fundamental frequency,
for a 6

-

pulse (p

=

6) per cycle output voltage.

11.6.3ii Highly inductive load constant load current

As with a continuous load current, with a constant load current the input current comprises
alternating polarity blocks of current, with each phase displaced relative to the others by ,
independent of the thyristor triggering delay angle. At maximum voltage hence maximum power output,
the delay angle is zero and the phase voltage and current fundamental are in phase. As the phase
angle is increased, the inverter output voltage, hence power output is decreased, and the line current
block of current (fundamental) shifts by with respect to the line voltage. Reactive input power
increases as the real power decreases. At = , the output voltage reduces to zero, the output power
is zero, and the current blocks in the ac input are shifted with respect to the line voltage,
producing only VArs from the ac input. When the delay angle is increased above , the inverter dc
output reverses polarity and energy transfers back into the ac supply (inversion), with maximum inverted
power reached at = , where the reactive VAr is reduced to zero, from a maximum at = .
For a highly inductive load, that is a constant load current:
the mean diode current is
Power Electronics
263

1 1
3
(A) = = Th
o o
n I I I (11.196)
and the rms diode current is

3
1 1 1
(A) = =
o o Th rms o rms n n
I I I I (11.197)
The diode current form factor is
/ 3 = = Th
ITh Th rms
FF I I (11.198)
The diode current ripple factor is

2
1 2
ITh ITh
RF FF = = (11.199)
The rms input line currents are

2
3
=
L rms o rms
I I (11.200)
A phase voltage is given by
2 sin
a
v V t = (11.201)
with phases b and c shifted by . That is substitute t with t.
From equation (14.34), the line current harmonics are
( )
1
3
4 1
cos for odd
o
i I n n
n

=
i
(11.202)
The rms fundamental input current is

1
2
3
o rms
I I

= (11.203)
The supply fundamental apparent power, S
1
, active power P and reactive power Q, are given by

1 1
1 1
1 1
3
cos
sin
rms
S VI
P P S
Q Q S

=
= =
= =
(11.204)
The supply apparent power is constant for a given constant load current, independent of the thyristor
turn-on delay angle.
The power factor for a constant load current is

1
2
3 3 cos
3 cos 3
cos
2 2
3 3
3 3

= = =

o rms
rms rms
o o rms rms
V I
V I
pf
V I V I
(11.205)

Converter shut down is best achieved regeneratively by increasing (and controlling) the delay angle to
greater than such that the output voltage goes negative, which results in controlled power inversion
back into the ac supply. If triggering pulses to all the thyristors are removed, the dc current decays
slowly and uncontrolled to zero through the last pair of thyristors that were triggered.


Example 11.8: Three-phase full-wave controlled rectifier with constant output current

The full-wave three-phase controlled rectifier in figure 11.20a has a three-phase 415V 50Hz source
(240V phase), and provides a 100A constant current load.
Determine:
i. the average and rms thyristor current
ii. the rms and fundamental line current
iii. the apparent fundamental power S
1

If 25kW is delivered to the dc load, calculate:
iv. the supply power factor
iv. the dc output voltage, hence the converter phase delay angle
v. the real active and reactive Q
1
ac supply power
vi. the delay angle range if the ac supply varies by 5% (with 25kW and 100A dc).

Solution
i. From equations (11.196) and (11.197) the thyristor average and rms currents are

1 1 1
3 3 3
1 1
3 3
100A 33 A
100A 57.7A
o Th
o Thrms
I I
I I
= = =
= = =

Naturally commutating converters
264

ii. The rms and fundamental line currents are

1
2 2
100A = 81.6A
3 3
2 2
3 3 100A = 78.0A

= =
= =
L rms o rms
o rms
I I
I I


iii. The apparent power is

1 1
3 3 415V 78A = 56.1kVA
rms
S VI = =

iv. The supply power factor, from equation (11.205), is

25kW
0.426
3 3 415V 81.6A
= = =

L
rms rms
P
pf
V I

v. The output voltage is

power
25kW
250V dc
100A
o
o
V
I
= = =
Thyristor delay angle is given by equation (11.182), that is

2.34 cos
415V
250Vdc 2.34 cos
3

=
=
o
V V

which yields a delay angle of = 1.11rad = 63.5

vi. For a constant output power at 100A dc, the output voltage must be maintained at 250V
dc independent of the ac input voltage magnitude, thus for equation (11.182)

( )
( )

( )
1
1
1
250Vdc
cos
2.34 415 5%
3
250Vdc
cos 1.08rad 61.9
2.34 415 5%
3
250Vdc
cos 1.13rad 64.9
2.34 415 5%
3

=

= = =

= = =
+























Figure 11.21. A full-wave three-phase controlled converter
with a load freewheeling diode (half-controlled).


q=3 r =1 s =2
p= qx r x s
p= 6
Power Electronics
265



2 s i n V n
n

2 s i n V n
n

(a)












(b)

p
0

+
p

rectify
invert
2
p


2
sin
V
p
p

+
2
sin
V
p
p


11.6.4 Full-wave converter with freewheel diode

Both half-controlled and fully controlled converters can employ a discrete load freewheel diode. These
circuits have the voltage output characteristic that the output voltage can never go negative, hence
power inversion is not possible. Figure 11.21 shows a fully controlled three-phase converter with a
freewheel diode D.
The freewheel diode is active for > . The output is as in figure 11.20b for < . The
mean output voltage is

3
2
3
cos 2.34 cos (V)
0 / 3 (rad)
o o
V I R V V


= = =

(11.206)
The maximum mean output voltage

o V = 2V 33/ occurs at = 0.
The normalised mean output voltage V
n
is given by

/ cos o
n o
V V V = = (11.207)
while

( ) ( )
3
2
3
1 cos / 3 (V)
/ 3 2 / 3 (rad)
o o
V I R V


= = + +

(11.208)
The normalised mean output, V
n
, is

( ) / 1 cos / 3 o
n o
V V V = = + + (11.209)
while

0 (V)
2 / 3 (rad)
o
V

=

(11.210)

In each case the average output current is given by / o o
I V R = , which can be modified to include any load
back emf, that is, ( ) / o o
I V E R = .

































Figure 11.22. A half-wave n-phase controlled converter:
(a) output voltage and current waveform and (b) transfer function of voltage versus delay angle .
Naturally commutating converters
266
Example 11.9: Converter average load voltage

Derive a general expression for the average load voltage of an p-pulse controlled converter.

Solution
Figure 11.22 defines the general output voltage waveform where p is the output pulse number per cycle
of the ac supply. From the output voltage waveform
( )
/
/
2
2
2
1
cos
2 /
sin( / ) sin( / )
2 /
2sin( / ) cos
2 /


+
+
=
= +
=

n
o
n
V V t d t
p
V
p p
p
V
p
p

2
sin( / ) cos
/
cos (V)

=
=
o
o
V
V p
p
V

where
for p = 2 for the single-phase (n

=

1) full-wave controlled converter in figure 11.11.
for p = 3 for the three-phase (n

=

3) half-wave controlled converter in figure 11.18.
for p = 6 for the three-phase (n

=

3) full-wave controlled converter in figure 11.20.



11.7 Overlap

In the previous sections of this chapter, impedance of the ac source has been neglected, such that
current transfers or commutates instantly from one switch to the other with higher anode potential, when
triggered. However, in practice the source has inductive reactance X
c
and current takes a finite time to
fall in the device turning off and rise in the device turning on.
Consider the three-phase half-wave controlled rectifying converter in figure 11.18a, where it is assumed
that a continuous dc load current, I
o
, flows. When thyristor T
1
is conducting and T
2
(which is forward
biased) is turned on after delay , the equivalent circuit is shown in figure 11.23a. The source
reactances X
1
and X
2
limit the rate of change of current in T
1
as i
1
decreases from I
o
to 0 and in T
2
as i
2
increases from 0 to I
o
. These current transitions in T
1
and T
2
are shown in the waveforms of figure
11.23d. A circulating current, i, flows between the two thyristors. If the line reactances are identical, the
output voltage during commutation, v

, is mid-way between the conducting phase voltages v


1
and v
2
, as
shown in figure 11.23b. That is v

= (v
1
+ v
2
), creating a series of notches in the output voltage
waveform as shown in figure 11.23c. This interval during which both T
1
and T
2
conduct (i 0) is termed
the overlap period and is defined by the overlap angle . Ignoring thyristor voltage drops, the overlap
angle is calculated as follows

2 1
2 / v v Ldi dt =
With reference t = 0 when T
2
is triggered
( )
2 1
3 3 2 sin
L phase
v v v v V t = = = +
where V is the line to neutral rms voltage.
Equating these two equations
( ) 3 2 2 / sin Ldi dt V t = +
Rearranging and integrating gives
( ) ( )
3 2
( ) cos cos
2

= +
V
i t t
L
(11.211)
Commutation from T
1
to T
2
is complete when i = I
o
, at t = , that is
( ) ( )
3 2
cos cos (A)
2
o
V
I
L

= + (11.212)
Figure 11.23b shows that the load voltage comprises the phase voltage v
2
when no source inductance
exists minus the voltage due to circulating current v

(= (v
1
+ v
2
)) during commutation.


Power Electronics
267



























































Figure 11.23. Overlap: (a) equivalent circuit during overlap; (b) angle relationships; (c) load voltage for
different delay angles (hatched areas equal to IoL; last overlap shows commutation failure); (d) thyristor
currents showing eventual failure; and (e) voltage across a thyristor in the inversion mode, >90.
V = (v1 + v2)
0 +
+

0






v3-1
2 VLL
recovery angle = tq

VT3
(b)








(e)


















(c)















(d)


commutation
voltage
commutation
voltage
Naturally commutating converters
268
The mean output voltage
o
V

is therefore
5 / 6 / 6
2
/ 6 / 6
1
2 / 3
o o
v V V
v d t v d t

+ + +
+ +
=
(
=
(




where v

= (v
1
+ v
2
)


( )
( ) { }
5 / 6
/ 6
/ 6
/ 6
2
3
2
2
sin
3
2
sin sin
o
V t d t
V
V t t d t






+
+
+ +
+
(
+
(
=
(
+ +
(



( ) ( )
3
3 2 2
3 3
cos cos cos
2 2 2
o
V V V



= (11.213)
( )
3
2
3
cos cos
4
o
V V

( = + +

(11.214)
which reduces to equation (11.173) when = 0. Substituting cos - cos ( + ) from equation (11.212)
into equation (11.213) yields

3
2
3 3
cos
2 2
o o
V V LI



= (11.215)
3
2

=
o o o
V V LI that is (11.216)
The mean output voltage V
o
is reduced or regulated by the commutation reactance X
c
= L and this
regulation varies with load current magnitude I
o
. Converter semiconductor voltage drops also regulate
(decrease) the output voltage.
The component 3L/2 is called the equivalent internal resistance. Being an inductive phenomenon, it
does not represent a power loss component.
As shown in figure 11.24, the overlap occurs immediately after the delay . The commutation voltage,
v
2
- v
1
,

is 3 2 V sin . The commutation time is inversely proportional to the commutation voltage v
2
-
v
1
.
For rectification, as increases from zero to , the commutation voltage increases from a minimum of
zero volts to a maximum of 3 2 V at , whence the overlap angle decreases from a maximum of

at = 0 to a minimum of

at .
[For inversion, the overlap angle decreases from a minimum of

at to a maximum of

at , as
the commutation voltage reduces back to zero volts.]
From equation (11.212), with =
2 3 sin(2 / )
o
arc LI V

=
The general expressions for the mean load voltage
o
V

of an n-pulse, fully-controlled converter, with


underlap, are given by
( )
2
sin cos cos
2 /

( = + +
o n
V
V
n
(11.217)
and

2
sin cos / 2
/

=
o c o n
V
V nX I
n
(11.218)
where V is the line voltage for a full-wave converter and the phase voltage for a half-wave converter and
the plus sign in equation (11.218) accounts for inversion operation.
Effectively, as shown in figure 11.25, overlap reduces the mean output voltage by nfLI
0
or as if were
increased. The supply voltage is effectively distorted and the harmonic content of the output is
increased. Equating equations (11.217) and (11.218) gives the mean output current
( ) ( )
2
sin cos cos (A)
o
c
n
V
I
X

= + (11.219)
which reduces to equation (11.212) when n = 3.
Harmonic input current magnitudes are decreased by a factor ( ) sin / n n .
The single-phase, full-wave, converter voltage loss is 2LI
o
/ and the overlap output voltage is zero.


Power Electronics
269







































Figure 11.24. Overlap for current commutation from thyristor 1 to thyristor 2, at delay angle .





















Figure 11.25. Overlap regulation model: (a) equivalent circuit and (b) load plot of overlap model.
I
o

Vo


n

2


V/sin/ncos
nX/2
I
o
=0, = 0
from equation 11.180
Vo

=

n

2


V/sin/ncos
Vo

=0, =
from equation 11.184
I
o
=

22

V/Xsin/ncos
Vo


I
o

slope =
-nX/2
0
(a) (b)
Mean
output
voltage
Load currrent
equation
(11.211)

= 90
i1
i1
i2
i1
i1
i2
i2
i2
rectifying
Vo > 0

= 0

= 60

= 135




v
v1
v2
(v1+v2 )
vo
Inverting
Vo < 0
2 3V
L

2 3
2
V
L


i(t)
t


Io
Io
Io
Io
Io
Io
Io
Io
v2-v1
Naturally commutating converters
270
11.8 Overlap - inversion

A fully controlled converter operates in the inversion mode when > 90 and the mean output voltage is
negative and less than the load back emf shown in figure 11.23a. Since the direction of the load current
I
o
is from the supply and the output voltage is negative, energy is being returned, regenerated into the
supply from the load. Figure 11.26 shows the power flow differences between rectification and inversion.
As increases, the returned energy magnitude increases. If plus the necessary overlap exceeds t
= , commutation failure occurs. The output goes positive and the load current builds up uncontrolled.
The last commutation with in figures 11.23c and d results in a commutation failure of thyristor T
1
.
Before the circulating inductor current i has reduced to zero, the incoming thyristor T
2
experiences an
anode potential which is less positive than that of the thyristor to be commutated T
1
, v
1
- v
2
< 0. The
incoming device T
2
fails to stay on and conduction continues through T
1
, impressing positive supply
cycles across the load. This positive converter voltage aids the load back emf and the load current
builds up uncontrolled.
Equations (11.217) and (11.218) are valid provided a commutation failure does not occur. The
controllable delay angle range is curtailed to
0
The maximum allowable delay angle

occurs when

+ = and from equations (11.217) and (11.218)


with + = gives

1
cos 1 (rad)
2 sin /
o
XI
V n


= <
`
)
(11.220)
In practice commutation must be complete rad before t = , in order to allow the outgoing thyristor to
regain a forward blocking state. That is + + . is known as the recovery or extinction angle, and
is shown in figure 12.23e. The thyristor recovery period increases with increased anode current and
temperature, and decreases with increased voltage.
















Figure 11.26. Controlled converter model showing: (a) rectification and (b) inversion.


Example 11.10: Converter overlap

A three-phase full-wave converter is supplied from the 415 V ac, 50 Hz mains with phase source
inductance of 0.1 mH. If the average load current is 100 A continuous, determine the supply reactance
voltage drop, the overlap angle, and mean output voltage for phase delay angles of (i) 0 and (ii) 60.
Ignoring thyristor forward blocking recovery time requirements, determine the maximum allowable delay
angle.

Solution
Using equations (11.217) and (11.218) with n = 6 and V = 415 V ac, the mean supply reactance voltage

4 2
6
2 2 50 10 10
2 2
3V
o
n
v f LI


= =
=

i. = 0 - as for uncontrolled rectifiers. From equation (11.218), the maximum output
voltage is
i

>

0
vs >

0
0

<


<


i
vs
+
+
+
i

>

0
vs <

0


<


<


i
vs
+
(a) (b)
power
out
power
in
power
in
power
out
rectification
inversion
Power Electronics
271

6
2
sin cos / 2
2 /
2 415
sin cos 0 3V 557.44V
2 / 6
o c o n
V
V nX I
n

= =

From equation (11.217)

( )
| |
2
sin / cos cos
2 /
2 415
557.44 sin / 6 1 cos
2 / 6
8.4
o
V
V n
n

( = + +

= +
= that is

ii. = 60

6
2
2
sin cos / 2
2 /
415
sin cos 60 3V 277.22V
2 / 6
o c o n
V
V nX I
n

= +

= =

( )
( )
2
2
sin / cos cos
2 /
415
277.22 cos 60 cos 60
2 / 6
0.71
o
V
V n
n

( = + +

( = + +

= that is

Equation (11.220) gives the maximum allowable delay angle as

1
-4 2
-1
2
2
cos 1
sin /
25010 10
= cos -1
415
171.56 and 557.41V
o
o
X I
V n
V



=
`
)

`
)
= =




11.9 Summary

General expressions for n-phase converter mean output voltage, V
o


(i) Half-wave and full-wave, fully-controlled converter
2
sin( / )
cos
/
o
n
V V
n

=
where V is
the rms line voltage for a full-wave converter or
the rms phase voltage for a half-wave converter.
cos cos = , the supply displacement factor
From LHopitals rule, for n, V
o
=

2

V

cos

(ii) Full-wave, half-controlled converter
( ) 2
sin( / )
1 cos
/
o
n
V V
n

= +
where V is the rms line voltage.
(iii) Half-wave and full-wave controlled converter with load freewheel diode
2
sin( / )
cos 0 /
/
o
n
V V n
n

= < <

( )
2
1 cos /
/ /
2 /
o
n
V V n n
n

+ +
= < < +


the output rms voltage is given by
Naturally commutating converters
272

( )
cos 2 sin 2 /
1 /
2 /
cos 2 2 /
/
4 2 / 4 /




= + +

= + + >
rms
rms
n
V V n
n
n n
V V n
n n

where V is
the rms line voltage for a full-wave converter or
the rms phase voltage for a half-wave converter.
n = 0 for single-phase and three-phase half-controlled converters
= for three-phase half-wave converters
= for three-phase fully controlled converters

These voltage output characteristics are shown in figure 11.27 and the main converter circuit
characteristics are shown in table 11.4.











































Figure 11.27. Converter normalised output voltage characteristics as a function of firing delay angle .





Power Electronics
273
11.10 Definitions






average output voltage average output current
rms output voltage rms output current
peak output voltage peak output current
o o
rms rms
V I
V I
V I




rms
v v
o rms
rms
i i
rms
o
V
V
FF CF
V V
I
I
FF CF
I
I

= = = =
= = = =
= =

Load voltage form factor Load voltage crest factor


Load current form factor Load current crest factor
dc load power
Rectification efficiency
ac l
rectifier
Loss
o o
rms rms
V I
V I
=
+
oad power + rectifier losses


( )
2 2
2
2

2 2 1
2
1
1

=
= = =

= =
(
= +
(

effective values of ac (or )


Waveform smoothness =Ripple factor
average value of (or )
where
similarly the current ripple factor is
Ri
v
o
rms o
v
o
Ri an bn
n
V V I
RF
V I V
V V
FF
V
V v v
R
2
1

= =
= for a resistive load
Ri
i i
o
i v
I
F FF
I
RF RF



11.11 Output pulse number

Output pulse number p is the number of pulses in the output voltage that occur during one ac input
cycle, of frequency f
s
. The pulse number p therefore specifies the output harmonics, which occur at p

x

f
s
, and multiples of that frequency, mpf
s
, for m

=

1, 2, 3, ...

The pulse number p is specified in terms of
q the number of elements in the commutation group
r the number of parallel connected commutation groups
s the number of series connected (phase displaced) commutating groups

Parallel connected commutation groups, r, are usually associated with (and identified by) intergroup
reactors (to reduce circulating current), with transformers where at least one secondary is effectively star
connected while another is delta connected. The rectified output voltages associated with each
transformer secondary, are connected in parallel.

Series connected commutation groups, s, are usually associated with (and identified by) transformers
where at least one secondary is effectively star while another is delta connected, with the rectified output
associated with each transformer secondary, connected in series.





The mean converter output voltage V
o
can be specified by
2 sin cos
o
q
V s V
q

= (11.221)

For a full-wave fully-controlled single-phase converter, r

=

1, q

=

2, and s

=

1, whence p

=

2

q=3 r =2 s =2
p= qx r x s
p= 12
Naturally commutating converters
274

2 2
2
1 2 sin cos cos
2
o
V
V V




= =
For a full-wave, fully-controlled, three-phase converter, r

=

1, q

=

3, and s

=

2, whence p

=

6

3 2
3
2 2 sin cos cos
3
o
V
V V




= =




Reading list

Dewan, S. B. and Straughen, A., Power Semiconductor Circuits, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1975.

Sen, P.C., Power Electronics, McGraw-Hill, 5
th
reprint, 1992.

Shepherd, W et al. Power Electronics and motor control, Cambridge University Press, 2
nd
Edition 1995.

http://www.ipes.ethz.ch/
Power Electronics
275

Table 11.4. Main characteristics of controllable converter circuits


11.8a 11.11a 11.10b 11.7 11.18a 11.19a 11.17a
11.10a 11.7 11.19 11.21 11.17a
Naturally commutating converters
276
Problems

11.1. For the circuit shown in figure 11.28, if the thyristor is fired at =
i. derive an expression for the load current, i
ii. determine the current extinction angle,
iii. determine the peak value and the time at which it occurs
iv. sketch to scale on the same t axis the supply voltage, load voltage, thyristor voltage,
and load current.








Figure 11.28. Problem 11.1.


11.2. For the circuit shown in figure 11.29, if the thyristor is fired at

=

determine
i. the current extinction angle,
ii. the mean and rms values of the output current
iii. the power delivered to the source E.
Sketch the load current and load voltage v
o
.










Figure 11.29. Problem 11.2.


11.3. Derive equations (11.19) and (11.20) for the circuit in figure 11.3.

11.4. Assuming a constant load current derive an expression for the mean and rms device current
and the device form factor, for the circuits in figures 11.4 and 11.7.

11.5. Plot load ripple voltage K
RI
and load voltage ripple factor K
v
, against the thyristor phase delay
angle for the circuit in figure 11.7.

11.6. Show that the average output voltage of a n-phase half-wave controlled converter with a
freewheel diode is characterised by

1
1 1
n n
2
2
sin( / )
cos (V)
/
0 - /
1 cos
(V)
2 /

o
o
n
n
V V
n
n
V V
n


=
< <
+ +
=
< < +


11.7. Show that the average output voltage of a single-phase fully controlled converter is given by

2 2
cos
o
V
V

=
Assume that the output current I
o
is constant.
Prove that the supply current Fourier coefficients are given by
Power Electronics
277

4
sin
4
cos
o
n
o
n
I
a n
n
I
b n
n

=
=

for n odd.
Hence or otherwise determine (see section 12.6)
i. the displacement factor, cos
ii. the distortion factor,
iii. the total supply power factor .
Determine the supply harmonic factor, , if
/
h
I I =


where I
h
is the total harmonic current and I

is the fundamental current.



11.8. Show that the average output voltage of a single-phase half-controlled converter is given by
( )
2
1 cos
o
V
v

= +
Assume that the output current I
o
is constant.
Determine i. the displacement factor, cos
ii. the distortion factor,
iii. the total supply power factor, .
Show that the supply harmonic factor, (see problem 11.7), is given by

( )
( )
1
4 1 cos

(
=
(
+
(



11.9. Draw the load voltage and current waveforms for the circuit in figure 11.10a when a freewheel
diode is connected across the load. Specify the load rms voltage.

11.10. A centre tapped transformer, single-phase, full-wave converter (figure 11.11a) with a load
freewheel diode is supplied from the 240 V ac, 50 Hz supply with source inductance of 0.25 mH.
The continuous load current is 5 A. Find the overlap angles for
i. the transfer of current form a conducting thyristor to the load freewheel diode and
ii. from the freewheel diode to a thyristor when the delay angle is 30.

1
1
2
2
cos 1 2.76 ;
cos cos 0.13
o
t d
o
t d
LI
V
LI
V



= =
`
)


= =
`
)


11.11. The circuit in figure 11.8a, with v = 2 V sin(t + ), has a steady-state time response of
{ }
/
2
( ) sin( ) sin( )
Rt L
V
i t t e
Z


= +
where is the trigger phase delay angle after voltage crossover and
1
tan ( / ) L R

=
Sketch the current waveform for = and Z with
i. R >> L
ii. R = L
iii. R << L.
[(2 V/R) sin(t + ); (V/R) sin t; (V/L) (sin t - cos t + 1)]

11.12. A three-phase, fully-controlled converter is connected to the 415 V supply, which has a
reactance of 0.25 /phase and resistance of 0.05 /phase. The converter is operating in the
inverter mode with = 150 and a continuous 50 A load current. Assuming a thyristor voltage
drop of 1.5 V at 50 A, determine the mean output voltage, overlap angle, and available recovery
angle.
[-485.36 V -3 V -5 V -11.94 V = -505.3 V; 6.7; 23.3]

11.13. For the converter system in problem 11.12, what is the maximum dc current that can be
accommodated at a phase delay of 165, allowing for a recovery angle of 5?
[35.53 A]
Naturally commutating converters
278
11.14. The single-phase half-wave controlled converter in figure 11.8 is operated from the 240 V, 50 Hz
supply and a 10 resistive load. If the mean load voltage is 50 per cent of the maximum mean
voltage, determine the (a) delay angle, , (b) mean and rms load current, and (c) the input
power factor.

11.15. The converter in figure 11.10a, with a freewheel diode, is operated from the 240 V, 50 Hz
supply. The load consists of, series connected, a 10 resister, a 5 mH inductor and a 40 V
battery. Derive the load voltage expression in the form of a Fourier series. Determine the rms
value of the fundamental of the load current.

11.16. The converter in figure 11.7a is operated from the 240 V, 50 Hz supply with a load consisting of
the series connection of a 10 resistor, a 5 mH inductor, and a 40 V battery. Derive the load
voltage expression in the form of a Fourier series. Determine the rms value of the fundamental
of the load current.

11.17. The converter in figure 11.19 is operated from a Y-connected, 415 V, 50 Hz supply. If the load is
100 A continuous with a phase delay angle of /6, calculate the (a) harmonic factor of the
supply current, (b) displacement factor cos , and (c) supply power factor, .

11.18. The converter in figure 11.19 is operated from the 415 V line-to-line voltage, 50 Hz supply, with
a series load of 10 + 5 mH + 40 V battery. Derive the load voltage expression in terms of a
Fourier series. Determine the rms value of the fundamental of the load current.

11.19. Repeat problem 11.18 for the three-phase, half-controlled converter in figure 11.17.

11.20. Repeat problem 11.18 for the three-phase, fully-controlled converter in figure 11.20.

11.21. The three-phase, half-controlled converter in figure 11.17 is operated from the 415 V, 50 Hz
supply, with a 100 A continuous load current. If the line inductance is 0.5 mH/phase, determine
the overlap angle if (a) = /6 and (b) = .

11.22. Repeat example 11.1 using a 100Vac 60Hz supply.

11.23. A fully controlled half-wave rectifier has a resistive 30 and a 240V ac 50Hz voltage source.
(a) If the delay angle = 60, determine:
i. the average voltage across the load resistor
ii. the power absorbed by the load resistor
iii. the ac source power factor.
(b) If the average load current is 5A determine
i. the average voltage across the load
ii. the power absorbed by the load
iii. the supply power factor.

11.24. A fully controlled half-wave rectifier has a 240V ac 50Hz source and a series R-L load of R =
20 and L = 50mH. If the delay angle is = 60, determine
i. an expression for the load current
ii. the average load current
iii. the power absorbed by the load
iv. the supply power factor

11.25. A single phase uncontrolled rectifier has a 24 resistive load a 240V ac 50Hz supply. Determine
the average, peak and rms current and peak reverse voltage across each rectifier diode for
i. an isolating transformer with a 1:1 turns ratio
ii. centre-tapped transformer with turns ratio 1:1:1.

11.26. A single phase bridge rectifier has an R-L of R = 20 and L = 50mH and a 240V ac 50Hz
source voltage. Determine:
i. the average and rms currents of the diodes and load
ii. rms and average 50Hz source currents
iii. the power absorbed by the load
iv. the supply power factor
Power Electronics
279
11.27. An electromagnet is modelled by a series R-L circuit with R=10 and L=100mH, and supplied
from a 50Hz 240V ac voltage source.
i. when supplied from a full-wave uncontrolled rectifier, the average current must be
20A to active the magnetic field. What series resistance must be added to
increase the average current to 20A?
ii. when supplied from a full-wave fully-controlled converter, what delay angle will
produce the necessary average current of 20A to activate the electro-magnet?

11.28. A single-phase, full-wave uncontrolled rectifier has a back emf E
b
in its load. If the supply is
240Vac 50Hz and the series load is R = 20, L = 50mH, and E
b
= 120V dc, determine:
i. the power absorbed by the dc source in the load
ii. the power absorbed by the load resistor
iii. the power delivered from the ac source
iv. the ac source power factor
v. the peak-to-peak load current variation if only the first ac term of the Fourier
series for the load current is considered.

11.29. Show that the power factor for a fully-controlled single-phase full-wave converter with a purely
resistive load is given by



= +
sin2
1
2
pf

11.30. A fully controlled single-phase full-wave bridge converter has a 60 resistive load and a 240V
ac 50Hz voltage source. If the firing delay angle is = 60, determine:
i. the average load current
ii. the rms load current
iii. the rms source current
iv. the ac source power factor

11.31. A fully controlled single-phase full-wave bridge converter has an R-L load of 50 and 50mH
and is supplied from a 240V ac 50Hz voltage source. Determine the average load current if:
i. = 15
ii. = 75

11.32. A three-phase uncontrolled rectifier is supplied from a 50Hz 415V ac line-to-line voltage source.
If the rectifier load is a 75 resistor, determine
i. the average load current
ii. the rms load current
iii. the rms source current
iv. the supply power factor.

11.33. A three-phase uncontrolled rectifier is supplied from a 50Hz 415V ac line-to-line voltage source.
If the rectifier load is a series R-L circuit where R = 10 and L = 100mH, determine:
i. the average and rms load currents
ii. the average and rms diode currents
iii. the rms source and power current
iv. the supply power factor.

11.34. A three-phase, fully-controlled, converter is supplied from a 3.3kV ac 50Hz source. If the load is
a 110 resistor determine:
i. the delay angle which results is an average load current of 20A
ii. the amplitude of the first voltage harmonic (at 300Hz)

11.35. A three-phase, fully-controlled, converter is supplied from a 3.3kV ac 50Hz source. If the R-L
load is R = 100 and L=100mH, and the delay angle is = 30, determine:
i. the average load current
ii. the amplitude of the first current harmonic (at 300Hz)
iii. the rms phase current from the ac voltage source.
Naturally commutating converters
280
Blank