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com/zootaxa/ Copyright © 2006 Magnolia Press
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical termite genera Labiotermes Holmgren and Paracornitermes Emerson (Isoptera: Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae)
REGINALDO CONSTANTINO1, AGNO N.S. ACIOLI2, KAREN SCHMIDT1, CAROLINA CUEZZO3, SÉRGIO H.C. CARVALHO1 & ALEXANDRE VASCONCELLOS4
Depto de Zoologia, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília, DF, Brazil. E-mail: email@example.com PPG Entomologia, INPA, Cx. Postal 478, 69011-970 Manaus, AM, Brazil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 3 Instituto Superior de Entomología Dr. A. Willink, Miguel Lillo 205, T4000JFE - San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. E-mail: email@example.com 4 Depto de Botânica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN, Brazil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table of contents
Abstract ............................................................................................................................................. 2 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 2 Material and methods ........................................................................................................................ 3 Genus Labiotermes Holmgren .......................................................................................................... 4 Key to the soldiers of Labiotermes ................................................................................................... 6 Key to the workers of Labiotermes ................................................................................................... 7 Labiotermes brevilabius Emerson & Banks .............................................................................. 8 Labiotermes emersoni (Araujo), new combination .................................................................. 11 Labiotermes guasu Constantino & Acioli, new species .......................................................... 14 Labiotermes labralis (Holmgren) ............................................................................................ 16 Labiotermes laticephalus (Silvestri), new combination .......................................................... 18 Labiotermes leptothrix Mathews ............................................................................................. 21 Labiotermes longilabius (Silvestri) .......................................................................................... 23 Labiotermes oreadicus Constantino, new species ................................................................... 24 Labiotermes orthocephalus (Silvestri), new combination ....................................................... 25 Labiotermes pelliceus Emerson & Banks ................................................................................ 35 Acknowledgments ........................................................................................................................... 38 References ....................................................................................................................................... 40 Appendix. Localities indicated in the lists of material examined and in the distribution maps ..... 43
Accepted by S. Kambhampati: 4 Sept. 2006; published: 23 Oct. 2006
The taxonomy of the South American termite genus Labiotermes Holmgren (sensu novo) is revised, including identification keys to soldiers and workers, and distribution maps for all 10 species. Paracornitermes Emerson is treated as a new synonym of Labiotermes. Two new species are described: L. guasu, from the Amazon rain forest and L. oreadicus, from the Cerrado of central Brazil. Paracornitermes caapora Bandeira & Cancello and P. hirsutus Araujo are placed under the synonymy of L. orthocephalus. The imagos of L. emersoni and L. orthocephalus are described for the first time. The workers of all species are described and illustrated, including the enteric valve armature and the mixed segment. The soldiers of the species previously included in Paracornitermes are redescribed. Key words: Isoptera, Termitidae, Labiotermes, Paracornitermes, revision, new species, new synonymy
Introduction Labiotermes and Paracornitermes are large soil-feeding termites endemic to South America. Most species are subterranean, live in savannas and forests and are relatively difficult to find and collect. The only exception is Labiotermes labralis, which builds a conspicuous arboreal nest and can reach high densities in some parts of the Amazon rain forest. The first species of this group were described by Silvestri (1901; 1903) and placed in the genus Cornitermes Wasmann: C. laticephalus, C. longilabius and C. orthocephalus, all from the Cerrado of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holmgren (1906) described Cornitermes labralis from the Amazon forest of Peru. Later, Holmgren (1912) placed these four species in his new subgenus Labiotermes. Emerson (in Snyder 1949) transferred C. laticephalus and C. orthocephalus from Labiotermes to the new genus Paracornitermes. Araujo (1954) redescribed the genus Paracornitermes and described two new species from Brazil, P. emersoni and P. hirsutus. Emerson & Banks (1965) revised the taxonomy of Labiotermes, describing two additional species: L. brevilabius, from Brazil, and L. pelliceus, from Guyana. Mathews (1977), in a faunistic study on the termites of Mato Grosso, Brazil, redescribed the genera Labiotermes and Paracornitermes and described a new species, L. leptothrix. He also noted the strong similarities between these genera and argued that they should be merged into a single genus. They form a very distinct and homogeneous group of species, with similar morphology and habits. In this paper we revise the taxonomy of Labiotermes and Paracornitermes, including the description of two new species, one from the Cerrado of central Brazil and the other from the Amazon rain forest. Paracornitermes is treated as a synonym of Labiotermes. We describe the workers of all species and the previously unknown imagos of L. emersoni and
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CONSTANTINO ET AL.
L. orthocephalus, and provide identification keys to both soldiers and workers. Soldiers of species previously included in Paracornitermes are redescribed.
Material and methods Drawings were prepared with a camera lucida attached to a stereoscopic microscope. Enteric valves were dissected and examined under a stereoscopic microscope, and, in most cases, also mounted on slides for examination in a compound microscope. The terminology used for imago and worker mandibles follows Sands (1998), and is indicated in Fig. 12A. The left mandible has 4 marginal teeth: M1, M2 (absent or reduced in most Termitidae), M3, and M4 (marginal subsidiary or molar tooth). The right mandible has only 2 marginal teeth: M1 and M2. The left mandible index is the ratio between the distance from A to M1 and the distance from M1 to M3. Terms used for pilosity are comparative. Bristles are stiff hairs with well-marked bases (usually trichoid sensillae). Fine hairs are finer than bristles, usually curved or curly and with inconspicuous bases. Microscopic hairs are very short and only visible with high magnification, usually 40X or more (e.g. in Labiotermes leptothrix). Spines are short conical processes. Measurements presented in Tables 1–3 were taken with a micrometric reticle on the eyepiece of a dissection microscope. A description of these measurements can be found in Roonwal (1970) and his respective numbers are indicated in parentheses: LH: length of head to side base of mandibles (5); WH: width of head without eyes, if present (18); LM: length of left mandible (37); LT: length of hind tibia (85); WP: width of pronotum (68); LP: length of pronotum (65); DE: diameter of eye (48); LO: length of ocellus (55). All available imagos as well as most soldiers were measured; workers were selected for measurement from most samples and all localities. The distribution maps were prepared with the Generic Mapping Tools (Wessel & Smith 1998) based on the material examined and on published records from Silvestri (1903), Holmgren (1906), Emerson (1925), Snyder (1926), Araujo (1954), Emerson & Banks (1965), Mathews (1977), Bandeira et. al. (2003), and Torales et. al. (2005). The records of Labiotermes emersoni and L. longilabius in Paraguay were provided by Y. Roisin (pers. comm.). The list of localities and their respective coordinates are in the Appendix. The following entomological collections are mentioned in this work. AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. DEZA: Dipartimento di Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria dell’Università, Portici, Italy. DSEC: Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil. IFML: Instituto-Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina. INPA: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Brazil. MCSN: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria, Genova, Italy. MPEG: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Brazil.
NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press
MZSP: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. NHRS: Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden. UFVB: Departamento de Biologia Animal, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil. UnB: Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brazil. The list of material examined is sorted by country (uppercase and bold), state or province (italics), and locality. Collection data is listed as follows: castes present (s.= soldier, w.= worker, im.= imago); date; name of the collector; collection and lot number, if any, in parentheses.
Genus Labiotermes Holmgren
Cornitermes (Labiotermes) Holmgren, 1912: 50 Labiotermes Holmgren in Sjöstedt 1926: 150 [part]; Emerson & Banks 1965 [revision]; Mathews 1977: 207–208 [redescription]
Type-species: Cornitermes labralis Holmgren, designated by Sjöstedt (1926: 150). New synonym: Paracornitermes Emerson (in Snyder 1949: 333). Type-species: Cornitermes laticephalus Silvestri, 1901; Mathews 1977: 203–207 [redescription]. Etymology: Holmgren (1912) does not mention the etymology. Based on his diagnosis, the name Labiotermes apparently comes from the Latin word labium, lip, and refers to the enlarged labrum of the soldiers of some species, especially L. labralis. Imago. Head capsule rounded. Eyes medium to large. Ocelli conspicuous. Fontanelle triangular, eliptical or elongate. Postclypeus moderately to strongly inflated; median line conspicuous. Mandibles similar to workers, except that the molar plate is narrow. Antennae with 16–18 articles. Pronotum almost as wide as head with eyes. Tibial spurs 2:2:2. Soldier. Monomorphic or dimorphic. Head capsule large and subrectangular in dorsal view. Frontal tube short, never reaching the labrum. Antennae with 15–16 articles. Labrum long, tongue-shaped, with convex sides and a hyaline tip. Mandibles robust. Left mandible with two marginal teeth, large in some species and vestigial in others. Right mandible with one or two marginal teeth close to its base. Pronotum with strongly raised anterior lobe. Meso- and metanotum with a row of minute spines on lateral margins. Front coxa with or without a lateral projection near base. Front and middle femur with numerous short and thick bristles on dorsal side. Tibial spurs 2:2:2. Worker. Monomorphic. Head capsule light colored. Abdomen very large and transparent, showing dark gut content. Left mandible: left mandible index 0.8–1.4; M1 large and conspicuous; M2 absent; M3 smaller than M1; cutting edge between M1 and M3 sinuous; distance from M3 to M4 more than half the distance from M1 to M3; M4 hidden under the molar prominence in dorsal view. Right mandible: M1 large and conspicuous; M2 small; molar plate wide and concave, without ridges. Antennae with 15–16 articles.
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Malpighian tubules inserted in two pairs at the junction of mesenteron and proctodeum. They are generally smaller and have antenna with 15 articles. brevilabius). The following species were previously included in Labiotermes but are clearly unrelated: Cornitermes corniferous Sjöstedt. Soldiers and workers of Labiotermes can be readily identified by the presence of a line of minute spines on the lateral margins of both the meso. with more or less rectangular head capsule. Neither Holmgren (1912) nor Emerson & Banks (1965) presented a diagnosis or formal description of Labiotermes. The most detailed previous descriptions of both genera were those presented by Mathews (1977). Gut morphology (worker). 11) and often shows significant intra-specific variation. Their soldiers are superficially similar to those of Labiotermes. Araujo (1954) redescribed Paracornitermes in a little more detail. The imagos of 4 species of Labiotermes remain unknown. The imagos of both Syntermes and Cornitermes have mandibles with short apical teeth and conspicuous molar ridges. Crop small. Armature with 1–6 ridges of irregular sizes covered with short and straight or long and curved.and metanotum. Remark 2. short frontal tube and strong mandibles. who argued that they should be merged into a single genus. Sjöstedt 1926). and the original description of Paracornitermes was very brief. Enteric valve wide. Front coxa with or without a lateral projection near base. but the worker morphology show a completely different pattern (Sands 1998). They share similar soldiers. Cornitermes rhinoceros Sjöstedt and Ceratotermes valens Silvestri (Holmgren 1912. Snyder (1949) lists these African species in the genus Ceratotermes. The dentition of soldier mandibles. hair-like spines. and the same is true for several species among the related genera. Armitermes and Embiratermes are heterogeneous. Labiotermes belongs to a group which also includes Syntermes. Front and middle femur with numerous short and thick bristles on dorsal side. The new synonymy is justified because these species comprise a relatively small. about the same size as the third (P3 or paunch). The imagos of Syntermes have antennae with 19–21 articles and their tibial spurs are 3:2:2. They can be differentiated by the narrower gap between M3 and M4 on left mandible. between the mesenteric lobes. Meso. probably non-monophyletic genera and the imagos of many species remain unknown. but the mandibles of their imagos are very similar to those of Labiotermes. very uniform and clearly monophyletic group. Tibial spurs 2:2:2.Pronotum with strongly raised anterior lobe. The imagos of Procornitermes are more difficult to distinguish because some species have antennae with 15–16 articles and mandibles without molar ridges. Proctodeum very large. however. Comparisons. can be quite variable between different species of the same genus (Fig. The separation of Paracornitermes from Labiotermes was based only on the larger teeth of soldier mandibles of the former. subfamily Termitinae.and metanotum with a row of minute spines on lateral margins. Remark 1. and similar gut morphology. Procornitermes and Cornitermes. Mixed segment with one large and one small mesenteric lobe (the small one is vestigial in L. Remark 3. The taxonomic position of Ceratotermes is ZOOTAXA 1340 NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 5 . First segment (P1) strongly dilated.
labralis is arboreal.... 2.. 4.g..................... 3 Front coxa without a distinct projection near base (Fig..... laticephalus Frontal tube short with a broad tip oriented upward... but there is no direct observation of damage..... ......... 11I) L...... Economic importance...ZOOTAXA 1340 discussed by Emerson (1952: 481–482). such as Cornitermes spp..... 11A) ..... dimorphic (Fig...... Key to the soldiers of Labiotermes 1... The phylogenetic relations of the mandibulate nasutes are not clear (Donovan et al. they did not mention Paracornitermes nor the other 9 genera of mandibulate nasutes (Armitermes. 6 Left mandible with two conspicuous marginal teeth (Fig..... or sometimes found inside termitaria built by other species... Embiratermes. © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL... Cornitermes and Procornitermes.. they are certainly not structural pests....... 6 Front coxa with a distinct projection on outer margin near base (Fig.. Engel & Krishna (2004) transferred Labiotermes to their new subfamily Syntermitinae.. Since they are humivores............. orthocephalus Cutting margin of apical tooth on left mandible S-shaped (Fig............... but does not reach Central America....... It also occurs in Trinidad. 5 Cutting margin of apical tooth on left mandible C-shaped (Fig.. 3F) .......... with a narrow tip oriented anteriorly......... Macuxitermes.... 4 Frontal tube distinctly conical... the separation of these 4 genera in a new subfamily is not a satisfactory solution... Ibitermes. the removal of these four genera from Nasutitermitinae will not solve any real problem nor improve the classification.... Later... 3.... Labiotermes occurs in most South American countries. 9E) ..... while the nests of the other species are subterranean... Krishna (1963) transferred these three species to the genus Foraminitermes Holmgren. Labiotermes and Paracornitermes have been included in Nasutitermitinae by most previous authors..... 2 Left mandible with vestigial teeth (Fig.. who argues that it is not related to Labiotermes. monomorphic (Fig.. Calderon & Constantino.. Noirotitermes and Rhynchotermes)........... in press).................... 5) ... and according to Miller (1986) they form a paraphyletic group. The absence of records from Ecuador is certainly due to limited sampling............ and Labiotermes related to the other 9 genera of mandibulate nasutes? In any case... Cahuallitermes. Curvitermes. 11B) ....... Procornitermes........ Their workers have large abdomens and particles of mineral soil are easily visible in the gut content. 2) .................. 2000)... L.... In our opinion.............. which also includes Syntermes.. Geographic distribution...... Remark 4..... The nest of L.. However..... with a southern limit near 26S. There are a few records of Labiotermes spp. 11B) . Habits....... Three questions remain unanswered: 1) are the mandibulate nasutes a monophyletic or paraphyletic group? 2) is subfamily Nasutitermitinae monophyletic or polyphyletic including the mandibulate nasutes? 3) how are Syntermes. Cyrilliotermes... present in agricultural systems (e.......... Cornitermes........ All species of Labiotermes are humivores and live either in savannas or forests.
.... L........................... 7F) ...... new species Head with very few hairs.......................... L............. 16). L....... - .........Front coxae with a rounded or conical projection near base (Figs.... front coxa with a small and rounded projection near base ...........Enteric valve with 3 or 6 ridges partially covered with dense............... oreadicus........... 8..95–1............ 16A).......................... brevilabius ZOOTAXA 1340 Key to the workers of Labiotermes Workers of Labiotermes can be readily identified by the presence of a row of short spines on lateral margins of meso........ long hairs (Figs 16C.. 2O.......... - 9. Enteric valve with a single ridge covered with very short spines (Fig. 6) ............................... 7 Head with sparse bristles but without fine or microscopic hairs (Figs..........2mm .... enteric valve with 3 distinct ridges of unequal and 3 vestigial ridges (Fig.. new species ................. head with numerous bristles of variable size (Fig... .... 5 .................. with a sharp point (Fig....... 1.... L.................... sides of head convex and converging towards front.. 16H) ............. 1).................. Head with very few hairs (Fig............ 16C) ......................... Enteric valve with 3 large and one small ridge covered with short spines (Fig. 8J) ................5... L............................... emersoni Head with numerous hairs...... labralis . .. 11A......... 11D).............. new species Head densely covered with microscopic hairs (Fig......... 3) ..... longilabius Labrum about as wide as long.................................. fine hairs ............. 7A) .................... L.......... L.. sides of head nearly straight and parallel........... part of labrum with hyaline border short and with 4 bristles along the line between sclerotized part and hyaline part .......... 2 ........................................................ 7....... 7).......Head with numerous hairs (Fig..... part of labrum with hyaline border elongate and with 2 distinct bristles near tip .. labralis Right mandible with a single marginal tooth (Figs..................... 16H) .......... new species 4.. L............... head with only a few sparse bristles (Fig....... 6 5. 16D) ...... L.......... width of head 0.................... 6. 6A) or with long... 3J.......................... 8G)...... 3G)............ oreadicus. without any projection near base (Figs........................... 3 3.... 4C) and the enlarged abdomen......................... ..................................................................................... 8 Head densely covered with fine long hairs . front coxa with a conspicuous conical projection near base .... brevilabius NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 7 .. pelliceus Head densely covered with microscopic hairs (Fig.......... 9 Labrum clearly longer than wide.... guasu.........and metanotum (Fig.......... Identification to species level usually requires examination of the enteric valve armature (Fig..... 4 2.............. 1A........ guasu.... 6F) .............. .............................. 11G)................. enteric valve with 6 distinct ridges (Fig.. Front coxae rounded........... 1G...................Projection on front coxae without a sharp point (Fig.............. L................................ 4D..... L............... front femur with an irregular row of short spines (Fig........................................ 8) ............................................... leptothrix Right mandible with two distinct marginal teeth (Fig.......... 1G) . L........ front femur without short spines (Fig....... Projection on front coxae conical..
.... emersoni Posterior margin of mesonotum with a line of 8 or more hairs (Fig.... Worker (Figs.... 15A–B. 8 Front and middle trocanters with small spines. longilabius.. L..... 16A)..... 12A) Described and illustrated by Emerson & Banks 1965: 24–26.. not examined....1........ laticephalus Labiotermes brevilabius Emerson & Banks Labiotermes brevilabius Emerson & Banks......... 5M)....... Imago (Fig. 8)].... pelliceus Head with numerous short hairs (Figs. Front coxawith a conspicuous lateral conical projection near base.......... Mixed segment with a single.. soldier (Fig.......... 16J) ..2–1. Type-locality: Brazil: São Paulo.. Comparisons... L.......7mm .. 9 Posterior margin of mesonotum with only a few lateral hairs (Fig...... The most similar species is L.... Head capsule and postclypeus with numerous straight bristles...... covered with long............ Additional measurements are presented in Table 2.... 1965: 24–28 [imago (Fig........... The other species are conspicuously larger... leptothrix is also similar.. 8 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL....4......... fine and straight spines (Fig... 13A.ZOOTAXA 6. 10)........ enteric valve with 4–6 ridges covered with straight spines (Fig.................. 9..... orthocephalus Head and body densely covered with fine. 2M)...... longilabius Front and middle trocanters without small spines... 7 Mandibles with very large apical teeth.. - 1340 Enteric valve with 6 distinct ridges of irregular shape.... small lobe vestigial. wide and flat ridge....... but its head is densely covered with microscopic hairs.... L......... covered with minute spines.. head and postclypeus with sparse hairs (Fig..... Pronotum with numerous bristles on anterior lobe and a few bristles on posterior margin..... and projection on front coxa small and rounded............ 21–24] Holotype: soldier (AMNH)... .................. enteric valve with 6 finger-like ridges (Fig. leptothrix Left mandible index less than 1............... 16G) ... L...... 1D–G......... L...... L............. Measurements in Table 3....25–1.. 7. enteric valve with 5 elongate ridges (Fig.... Antenna with 15 articles. Fontes 1998: 374 [gut... left mandible index ca..... length of hind tibia 1.... mesenteric lobe... which has fewer bristles on the head. 8.. Novo Horizonte........7mm . 11A)............... 5M)................ Described by Emerson & Banks 1965: 26–27... labrum more elongate and with a distinct shape of the hyaline tip....... width of head 1.. enteric valve with 6 ridges covered with long and curved spines (Fig... E–G) . L. Mesonotum with a line of bristles on posterior margin... 16F) ....5mm .... 7)........ Soldier (Figs... 2L.............. 2L)........ long hairs (Fig... enteric valve with 4–6 ridges (usually 4) .......................... head and postclypeus with dense hairs (Fig.... Fontanelle large and rounded. Enteric valve with a single. 16B..... 5N). elongate.... 1A–C..... enteric valve with 4–6 ridges ...... 1..... Additional measurements are presented in Table 1............. figs......5–1... length of hind tibia 1. 16I)........
95–1. 4856).25 1.75 1. R...6–0.R. 12. 17. w.55–2..ii.20 Comparisons. Fazenda Rossato: s... R. 01.A. im. Distrito Federal. Paracatu..27 1. Ceará. 01. Material examined BRAZIL.6–0.A.xi. orthocephalus 1.45–1. w.27 1. LT= length of hind tibia.1972.31 1.0 0.00 range 0.55 0. 27. occurring only in the eastern portion of the Cerrado biome.55 0.75–1. im. WH= width of head.1997.2002. R. Constantino (UnB-3139).L. R.1991.27 n 65 46 16 15 1.2 mean 1.63 1.48 0.2–1. 1299).78 LH mean range 1. M.x.15–1.ix.8 2.P. WP range L. DE= diameter of eye. emersoni L.xi. w. w. Constantino (UnB-1278. w..1–1.11 1.viii.76 range 0.49 1.2000.65 1. 28. im.1992..xi. Constantino (UnB-3132). WP= width of pronotum..1998. 01...75 1. im.17 2.60 1.2 0.55–1.xi.35–1.. 27. Parque Nacional Grande Sertão Veredas: s.8–1.3 2. R. Constantino (UnB-3089).15–0.. w. R.95 DE mean 0.1992. Fazenda Susano: s. Guarda-Mor: s.78 0.6–2..A. Araguari: s.. LOc= length of ocelus. emersoni L.v. w. Measurements of imagos of Labiotermes. Geographical distribution. 29. orthocephalus continued..25–0. J. R.9 0. Constantino (UnB-0237.20 0. Constantino (UnB-0002). Araujo (MZSP-5685)..4–0..45–1..53 2.25–0. w. Paracatu.65 1. Araujo (MZSP-6388). but there are also records from urban areas and Eucalyptus plantations.45–1. Goiás. Minaçu.15–1.2001.. Calderon (UnB-4796. Buritis. 4848. im.25 0.7–0..9 1.76 2.6–3.25 0.8–2. R.35 1. Dalponte (UnB-2713).49 LP mean 0. im.. 08.94 ZOOTAXA 1340 0.5 1. Cancello (MZSP-10166).19 0. 0238). 1290.L.3 0. w.x. w. brevilabius L.iv. 17)..2001.. w.. L.35–1. Fazenda São Miguel: s. brevilabius L..2001.1975. N. R. w.75 0.35 1.x.. including some patches of cerrado vegetation in northeastern Brazil (Fig. Most samples come from cerrado vegetation (savanna). Andrade (UnB-2339). 1284.35 1.45 1. Castro (UnB-1779).2001. Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades: s. n= number of specimens measured.1998.0 mean range 1.x..TABLE 1... LP= length of pronotum. R. Minas Gerais. Piauí. E.. WH range L.6 1.. Reserva Ecológica do IBGE: s. w. UHE Serra da Mesa: s.4–0.1994. Gontijo (UnB-2340). labralis L. labralis L. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 9 . 20.05 2.xi. 26.35–2.5 1.. Corrente: s.. 18. s.67 0. Fazenda Água Limpa: s.3 LOc mean 0. The enteric valve armature and the mixed segment are distinct from all other species of Labiotermes. T. brevilabius shows a peculiar geographic pattern.. Constantino (UnB-3258).91 0. 4846.. 26. Bocaiúva: s. LH= length of head. Lagoa Santa: s. 10.M. s. w.20 0. Crato: s.46 LT mean range 0.xi.49 0.94 1.9–1.
3 1.35 0.6 1.2–2. longilabius L.8 2.95 1.1–1.65–4.8 1.8 1.xii.2 1.3–1.25 1.64 1.13 1.1–1.2–1. n= number of specimens measured.4 2. laticephalus 2 L.9 1.25–1.72 2.45 range 1.51 1. brevilabius L.15–2.74 1.2003.ix.10 4.3 2.8–1.85–1.. oreadicus L.8–1.55 2.1976.35–1.8 2.4–3.1 1. WH range L.11 1.95–2. laticephalus 1 L.57 2.79 1. emersoni L. guasu L.26 1.63 2. WP= width of pronotum. L.39 1.1 2.30 1.2003.55–1.71 1.94 3.42 1. R.46 n 95 120 17 204 7 12 42 84 1 166 37 1.5–3. Godoy (UnB-5147.35–1. laticephalus 2 L.41 3.5 0. laticephalus 1 L.05 LH mean 2.4 2.25 1.65–2.01 1. WH= width of head.1–1.5 2. emersoni L.54 1.L.1 1.ZOOTAXA 1340 12.36 1.6 WP mean 1.9–1.0–2.54 2. LH= length of head. Dianópolis.95–2. labralis L.9 1.6–3.6–3.8 2. Measurements of soldiers of Labiotermes.34 4. orthocephalus L.1–3.19 3.35–1.35 10 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL.35–1. guasu L. F.4–2.3 1.. orthocephalus L.55 2.4 3.56 1. 5148).9–3. brevilabius L.2–2.70 1.92 3.67 2.5–1.01 2.0 mean 1. 28.5–2.12 2. LM= length of left mandible. LT= length of hind tibia.7 2. pelliceus continued.95–2.2–1.2–1.4 1.9–3. longilabius L.99 1.5–2.7–2.41 2.75 1. w. .92 2.2–3.55 3.1–3. w. TABLE 2.L.3 1.35–4.6 1.45–1..6 2.. LT range L. oreadicus L.43 2.0–1.84 3.5 LM mean 0.95 1.7–3.08 2.6 1.88 2. laticephalus has two soldiers: major (1) and minor (2).5 1.2–1.85–2.13 3.5 1. pelliceus 1. labralis L.60 2.31 2.7–1.92 range 0. leptothrix L. s. leptothrix L.45 1.8 1.9 1. 25.8 1.3 2.62 1.39 2..05 3.2 1.16 1.00 2.9–2. Fazenda Novo Iguaçu: s.5 3. Araujo (MZSP-7176).80 3.50 2.7 2.ix. D.75 1.6 mean 1.87 range 0.3–3. Tocantins. Bernardo (UnB-5115).0 2.32 2.8 3.35–2.
1954: 183 [soldier].0–1.2–1. examined.28 1. figs. Labiotermes emersoni (Araujo). head in dorsal view.78 range 0.62 1.15–1.1–1.7–1.45–1. longilabius L.60 0.85 1. guasu L. thorax. E. n= number of specimens measured.7–1. B.55 1.55 1.44 1.35–1.4 1. labralis L.75 1.10 1. leptothrix L.25–1.04 1. WH range L.48 1.7 1. 17–20] Holotype: soldier (MZSP). Fontes 1998: 374 [gut.65 1.85 0. head in profile.9 1.0 mm.45 2.8 1.85 WP mean 0. Measurements of workers of Labiotermes.34 1.6–0.1 1.85–1.32 n 138 257 54 297 70 87 122 10 332 67 ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 1.75 1.5–0.31 range 0. WP= width of pronotum.4 mean 1.0–1. F.25–1.08 1.7–0. C. Worker: D.20 1.95–1.0–2.12 0.64 1.95–1.75 0.15–1.95 0.72 1.6 1. head in profile.7 1.2–1. pelliceus 0. new combination Paracornitermes emersoni Araujo.65–0.4 0.70 1.15–1.95–2.23 2. Scale bars = 1.05 0.2 0.90 0. 11 NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press .35 LT mean 1.55–1.71 1.55–1.25 0.3 1. orthocephalus L.80 1.09–1. G.2 1.16 0.4–1.TABLE 3.52 1.30 1.25 0. emersoni L.7–0.2 1. oreadicus L.45 1.6–0.42 2.15–1. laticephalus L. head in dorsal view.94 0. brevilabius L.4 1. Labiotermes brevilabius.79 0.9 1. thorax. WH= width of head. right front leg. Soldier: A. LT= length of hind tibia.10 1.76 0.
fontanelle conspicuous. The imago of L. 11B). upturned. more hairy and has a more conspicuous frontal tube with narrow tip. distance from A to M1 shorter than the distance from M1 to M3. pronotum with numerous straight. smaller than antennal socket. Pronotum with numerous bristles on anterior lobe and a few bristles on posterior margin. tergites and sternites densely covered with bristles and fine hairs. The soldier of L. fontanelle posterior to line of antennal sockets. and their straight posterior edge. Antenna with 16 articles. 2A–G. robust and curved. elliptical. separated from the lower margin of head capsule by about 1/5 of its diameter. Head capsule with numerous short and straight bristles of unequal size. which is larger (on average. brevilabius. . Left mandible: cutting edge between apical and 1st marginal S-shaped. elliptical. except L. Left mandible: distance from M3 to M4 about the same as distance fromM1 to M3. 16B). brownish. Right mandible: distance from A to M1 about the same as distance from M1 to M2. M3 conspicuously smaller than M1. Front coxa with a lateral conical projection near base. with parallel sides in dorsal view. Soldier (Figs. Eyes oval. Measurements in Table 1. wings densely covered with minute hairs. Head capsule and postclypeus with sparse. tergites and sternites yellowish. about the same size and grouped together near base. Worker (Figs. shorter bristles near margins and a few longer bristles on surface. postmentum with a few bristles on anterior margin. fontanelle yellow. Head capsule subrectangular. have antenna with 17 articles or more. leptothrix is densely covered with very short hairs. laticephalus. Pronotum about the same width as head without eyes. emersoni can be recognized by the shape of the mandibles and the frontal tube. All other known species have larger eyes and ocelli and smaller fontanelle and most. tergites and sternites densely covered with bristles and hairs of variable size. sternites brownish yellow.ZOOTAXA 1340 Type-locality: Brazil: São Paulo. The most similar species is L. 2H–K. Imago (Figs. pronotum and tergites lighter than head capsule. Frontal tube very short. Mesonotum with 4 bristles on posterior margin. about the same size as antennal socket. Top of head in profile almost straight. Comparisons. emersoni can be recognized by the comparatively small apical tooth on both mandibles. pronotum with a row of numerous bristles on anterior margin and few bristles on posterior margin. moderately large. The head of L. Labrum longer than broad. wings transparent. sides convex. ocelli small. Head capsule light brown. Head capsule and postclypeus with numerous straight bristles. 2L–O. sides slightly convex. Head capsule rounded. 15C–D. Antenna with 15 articles. Comparisons. distant from 12 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. Mandibles short. cutting edge between marginal teeth concave. thorax and legs lighter than head capsule. postclypeus brownish yellow. Measurements in Table 2. 13B. straight and long bristles. 12B). M2 small. but there is some overlap). Right mandible with two marginal teeth. Mesonotum and metanotum with deeply emarginate hind margins. Head capsule and labrum brownish yellow. Postclypeus moderately arched in profile.
head in dorsal view. head in dorsal view. I. Antenna with 15 articles. postmentum. but there is some NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 13 . Comparisons. The worker of L. pronotum in dorsal view. emersoni is very similar and difficult to differentiate from L. M. right front leg. head in profile. Front coxa with a lateral conical projection near base. Fontanelle rounded. large lobe elongate. right front leg. Measurements in Table 3. Imago: H. Scale bars = 1. antenna. Labiotermes emersoni. F. J. L. head in profile. C.the middle. B. Worker: L. head in profile. D. pronotum in posterior view. Soldier from Minas Gerais: A. Rarely with 5–6 ridges. small lobe oval.0 mm. Soldier from Rondonia: G. K. proximal part narrow. Enteric valve typically with 4 finger-like ridges of different sizes covered with fine spines. thorax. Mixed segment with two mesenteric lobes. The mandibles and enteric valve are almost identical considering the observed intra-specific variation. ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 2. E. O. pronotum. head in profile. laticephalus. laticephalus is larger on average. N. head in dorsal view. its proximal part very narrow. much smaller.
Jardim Botânico de Brasília: s. The only consistent difference observed is the greater number of hairs on the head and thorax of L... Goodland (MZSP-10827).xii. 22. Curvelo: s.x.. R. Amazonas State.. 512.2000. 18. Pimenta Bueno: s. A. 10. 03. Constantino (MPEG-2617). im.xii. PERU.. Cuezzo (IFML-110). 08.N. 24.1967. Morro da Garça: s.E. São Domingos. w.2004. im.. w.2004.iii.. w. dry forest..2004. A. Rio Manso: s. Paraná. 4422). Soldiers from the western part of its geographic range tend to be smaller.2000. Constantino (UnB-0818). D.vii.. and urban areas.S.. R. 31. w. Araujo (MZSP-4459.J. w. s. w. D. w..1971. Mato Grosso...viii.ix. 4312.. s..L. 13. Fazenda Novo Iguaçu: s.L.. 4380. 13. Bocaiúva: s. D. Cuezzo et al. G.. Benjamin Constant. R. 04-13.. Material examined ARGENTINA. w. 22. Ceará. 25. Diamantina: s.1907.. w.1965. São Paulo. 20...C. im.1980.vii. Constantino (UnB-2421). Río Aguaytía: s. Zool. Pucalpa: s. Araujo (MZSP-5934). Copo. w. Mill (MPEG-1331). Bernardo (UnB-4255..S. R. s. A.ix. Constantino (UnB-2423. Benjamin Constant. Acioli (UnB-5950). Mato Grosso.iii... 509. BRAZIL. Distrito Federal. Fazenda Almas: s. L. A. pasture. 22. 4460).2003.. 5458). A. 4270.x.iii. Araujo (MZSP-4308). Minas Gerais. w. Araujo (MZSP4942). 26. Szumick & F. Goiás. Sumé. 07..x. 26... Costa (UnB-5412. Ruta Nacional 16: s.. (IFML-151). R..1986. 26. Fazenda São João: s. Vasconcellos (DSEC)..1964. It has been reported from the following habitats: cerrado vegetation.iii. Sete Lagoas: s. Parque Nacional Copo: w. D.i. Domingos (UnB-2298). W.x. emersoni occurs in Brazil (Cerrado and Caatinga) and in the Chaco of northern Argentina and Paraguay (Fig.. Fazenda Água Limpa: s. Szumick & F. w. Paraíba. Acioli (UnB-5829). 21-24..viii.iii.L. Alto Garças: s. Nova Aliança.ix.x. 12-18. Chapada dos Guimarães. new species Holotype: soldier. 21. s.L. (MZSP-2016). R. R.vii. Cuezzo (IFML-111). Paratypes: BRAZIL.. w. Chaco. w.2003. 4366.2003.1985. Santiago del Estero.. 4269.L. 29. Szumick & F.1986.2000.2004.viii. G. Tocantins. F.. R.x. Nova Aliança: s.. Labiotermes guasu Constantino & Acioli. H. 22...N. im. Rondonia.2000. It probably occurs also in southern Bolivia... Monte Alto: s. Vasconcellos (DSEC)...1956...2004.2003.. no date.i. 5429. C. w. Iquê-Juruena: s. Vasconcellos (DSEC). Constantino (UnB-3537). Bernardo (UnB-4879.vii. w. Parque Nacional Chaco: s. w. w. Copo. C.1955.iii. A. Dep.ix. part of lot UnB-5829. w. Geographical distribution. 4987). w.N.. Dianópolis..L.1999. A.. 14.S.. w. w.L.. laticephalus.ZOOTAXA 1340 overlap. 14 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. Rio Pardo de Minas: s.. w. 4961. Exp. 25. Acioli Type-locality: BRAZIL.. 23.. 18). 505. Luederwaldt (MZSP-216). 513).ix. C. Crato: s.xii.. São Paulo: s. w. Cuezzo (IFML-109).. w. w. 2518). 508. Poços de Caldas: s. Araujo (MZSP-504.vii. Aiuaba: s.. w.. .. 4978. R. Bernardo (UnB-5027).. w.2003. Amazonas.L.1975. 507. Ucayali. 28. w..1952. 4970. R.. 27-28.2000.2004. 16. Lamas (MZSP-11157).. 0107.
NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 15 . the “ç” was converted to “s”. Measurements in Table 2.0 mm. Frontal tube small. Front coxa without a lateral projection near base.Weyrauch (MZSP-1148). Imago. head in dorsal view. I. Labiotermes guasu. postmentum with numerous bristles on anterior third. Head capsule and labrum brownish yellow. Soldier: A. right front leg. sides converging slightly towards front. B. oriented anteriorly. ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 3. head in dorsal view. 1st marginal larger than 2nd. postmentum. In the latinized form. Etymology: The word guaçu means large in the Tupi language. tergites and sternites densely covered with bristles and fine hairs. F. cutting edge between marginal teeth slightly concave. sides convex. Left mandible: cutting edge between apical and 1st marginal slightly S-shaped. Antenna with 16 articles. new species. head in profile. thorax and legs lighter than head capsule. Mandibles long and strongly curved. J. Top of head in profile slightly convex. pronotum in posterior view. thorax. Scale bars = 1. Soldier (Figs. Labrum longer than broad. C. H. 3A–F. D. 11C). tergites and sternites yellowish. Head capsule subrectangular in dorsal view. E. pronotum in dorsal view. Head capsule with a few short and straight bristles of relatively uniform size. Right mandible with two marginal teeth. anterior margin of pronotum with a row of bristles. Latero-posterior margins of pronotum with small protuberances. head in profile. right front leg. Worker: G. posterior margin with a few bristles. Unknown.
Imago. 48)]. The enteric valve is also distinct from all other species. 3G–J. soldier (Fig. Noirot 2001: 439 [enteric valve. covered with numerous long. Pronotum with numerous bristles on anterior lobe and a few bristles on posterior margin. not examined. . absence of a projection on the front coxa and the very large and sclerotized labrum with two bristles near tip. 657–658 [imago (Fig. Geographical distribution. Latero-posterior margins of pronotum with small protuberancesand a few minute spines like those present on the meso. fig. Fig. soldier. Antenna with 16 articles. 18–19. Emerson 1925: 363–365 (as Cornitermes labralis) [imago. 65]. worker (Fig. Kartabo. N).ZOOTAXA 1340 Comparisons. Holmgren 1912: 50 (Cornitermes subgenus Labiotermes). Comparisons. sparse bristles. Mesonotum with a line of bristles on posterior margin. Holmgren 1909: 175. Fontanelle very large and rounded. with proportionally long mandibles and legs and the head with very few hairs. Sjöstedt 1926: 150 (Eutermes). Soldier (Figs. Additional measurements are presented in Table 2. 15E–F. Labiotermes labralis (Holmgren) Cornitermes labralis Holmgren. guasu is easily recognizable by its large size. The soldier of L. labralis can be recognized by the small number of hairs on the head. The worker of Labiotermes guasu can be recognized by its large size. 47]. Synonym: Labiotermes labralis boreus Emerson (in Snyder 1949: 334). hair-like spines. 14A. 2–4]. Front and middle femur and with numerous thick and short bristles on dorsal side. Additional measurements are presented in Table 1. the small number of hairs on the head and the absence of a projection on anterior coxa. Synonymized by Emerson & Banks 1965: 12. O). P1 conspicuously smaller than P3. nest]. fine. Emerson & Banks 1965: 12 (Labiotermes) [imago. Worker (Figs. The most similar species in external morphology is L. Comparisons. Described by Emerson & Banks 1965: 15–18. 7-D]. P). The soldier of L.and metanotum. Labiotermes guasu is recorded from only 4 localities (Fig. enteric valve (Pl. Front coxa without any projection near base. which is conspicuously smaller. Described and illustrated by Emerson & Banks 1965: 13–15. Type-locality: Peru: Chaquimayo. Head capsule and postclypeus with very few. soldier. Fig. 193 [morphology. labralis. small lobe about half the length of the large one. Type-locality: Guyana. 1906: 553–557. Holotype: soldier (AMNH). Fig. designated by Emerson & Banks 1965: 19 (NHRS). Lectotype: soldier. Enteric valve with 6 elongate ridges of different sizes. 4A–B. Mixed segment with two elongate mesenteric lobes. 13C. 11D). 45). 16 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. Mathews 1977: 207–208 [nest (Pl. The head capsule is also more rounded than in the other species. Measurements in Table 3. 20). all of them in the Amazon region of Brazil and Peru. 16C).
The worker of L. with 3 large ridges and one small. 16D). sparse bristles. Postclypeus with 2 bristles. arboreal nest of irregular shape. dark. Geographical distribution. labralis can be recognized by the small number of hairs on the head and the absence of a projection on anterior coxa. guasu. Pronotum with a row of bristles on anterior margin and no bristles on posterior margin. 4. Head capsule with very few. Measurements in Table 3. The enteric valve is also distinct from all other species. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 17 . However. B. Mesonotum without bristles. The internal surface is sculptured in a peculiar pattern. Worker: C. large one with a broad tip. The distribution is apparently disjunct between the Amazon and the Atlantic forest. L. Antenna with 15–16 articles. ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 4. head in profile. and is also clearly visible in Noirot’s (2001: 439) figure. Mixed segment with two elongate mesenteric lobes. Remarks.Worker (Figs. Front coxa without a lateral projection near base. described and illustrated by Mathews (1977: 208 and plate 45). head in dorsal view. head in profile. Martius & Ribeiro (1996) report a density of 10 nests/ha near Manaus. D. 13D. The most similar species in external morphology is L. Soldier: A. E. 19). L. labralis occurs in the whole Amazon region. 15G–H. 3 large and a very small one. Enteric valve with 4 ridges. The absence of records from Ecuador is probably due to lack of collecting. C. labralis. right front leg. made with a mixture of soil and fecal material. thorax. Scale bar = 1. small lobe about half the length of the large one. the small plate is visible in his figure (page 233. Habits. Mathews (1977: 207–208) mentions only 3 plates in the enteric valve of L.0 mm. labralis occurs only in rainforest. Fontanelle large and oval. It builds a large. which is conspicuously larger. Plate 48). head in dorsal view. covered with short spines. Comparisons. and is also found in Trinidad and in the Brazilian Atlantic forest as far south as 21S (Fig. Labiotermes labralis. 14B.
ii... w.. w.2000...B. Constantino (UnB-2567). 2–3. VENEZUELA.. 01..iii.ZOOTAXA 1340 Material examined BRAZIL.. w. 09. Fazenda Aruanã: s. 17. new combination Cornitermes laticephalus Silvestri. 107).. Ilháus: w. Desneux 1904: 37 (Termes). 27.v.G.x. Manaus.N.ix. w. w. Emerson 1952: 485 (Paracornitermes)[soldier.. Tucurui: s. im...vi... 23-30. San Pedro: s.1968.iv. Holmgren 1912: 50 (Cornitermes subgenus Labiotermes). Oiapoque: s.G...S..R.G. 489). im.xi. Araujo 1954: 183–185 (Paracornitermes) [soldier. 01.. w. Saül: s.. w..1999.1989.ix...2001. w.. Weyrauch (MZSP-1889).. A.. A.1990. 163. D. 2852).2003. Bahia. Bandeira (MPEG-469).. Mazagão: s.G. s.G. A.. Juruena. R.L. 1901: 5. 2849.1974.. Abreu (UnB-2629).. P.vii.L. s. Manaus. Cancello (MZSP-8019). w. w.1993.x.F. Pereira (DSEC-142). Mato Grosso. A. 20.2000.. im... Mill (MZSP10467)... s. Itacoatiara. Constantino (UnB-3331).2002. Apolinário (UnB-3630).. A. 28.. R.. R.i. Ashe (UnB-2848.v. im. R. w.. w.xii. Paragominas: s.xi. 29. Vasconcellos (DSEC).G.. O.. w. PERU. Novo Progresso. 0708.. 19. Acioli (UnB-5518). ...G.viii. Pimenta Bueno: s.E. 27. w. Bernardo (UnB-2728. Guajará-Mirim: s. Serra do Cachimbo: s. w. Manaus: s.1981. Espírito Santo. Anavilhanas: s. 18. Bandeira (MPEG-609).. A.1985. R. Pernambuco. Humaitá: s. im.C..viii..1981. M. Motorema: s. w. w. Snyder 1949: 333 (Paracornitermes)... 08.1997. w. 4]. Porto Trombetas: s.. FRENCH GUIANA. Constantino (MPEG-3176). Bandeira (MPEG-448).E. C. 17. w.1989. A. A. A. 08.. 18 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. no date.x.1993. Amapá.1977.R. w. Areia: s.1978. w.. Amazonas... unknown collector (MZSP-1888). Fig. w.vii. 19. 18.. A. 27. w. Serra dos Carajás: s. E. w. no date. Rondonia. Figs. Howse (MPEG-485.1980. F.1998.1978. im. 21. 16.xi. Vasconcellos (DSEC1216). Cancello (MZSP9811).. w. 260). Mill (MZSP-10463). w. Vilhena: s. Huánuco. Linhares: s.iv.1978. 06. w. 18. 09..1998. A. Parque Nacional da Amazonia: s. Ique-Juruena: s. A. Miura (UnB1593).2002. Reserva Ducke: s. 509).i. w.. Recife: s..G.. Bandeira (MPEG-0628). C... 127 [soldier (Pl.1989. Alto Orinoco... Araujo (MZSP-5460).i. J. J.. Galbiati (UnB-5552). Cachoeira do Arari: s.ix. R. E. Paraíba. 27. Bandeira (MPEG-091. 03. 26.xi... Constantino (MPEG-3179).. Constantino (MPEG3515).2000.v.. Rohden Lignea: s. A.. 13.2001. Silvestri 1903: 61. E.i. w. w. Viçosa: s.. Bandeira (UnB-3536). R. 19. João Pessoa: s.S.. 23.x.. Constantino (MPEG-3682)... w. Rodovia ZF-3: s. Garcia (MZSP-10425)..1997.iv. W..ii. 28. 30.1998. im. im.viii. 21. Caruaru: s. Curiau: s. Bandeira (MPEG-0653). w. Paoletti (UnB-508. Bandeira (MPEG-394). s. R.. im. Fig.M...M Cancello (MZSP). 19. Oriximiná. 2729).. im... R..x. w. J.1990. A. w. Roraima.viii.... H. Amazonas. 10. Coles (UnB-1076). w.iv. Constantino (UnB-3892). w.L. Brandão (MZSP-8709). 5].vii. Taperinha: s.. Vasconcellos (DSEC-1048). im. 01... Labiotermes laticephalus (Silvestri).1979.1980.. Kitade (UnB-2600).vii. R. worker]. Rio Negro: s.1979. Ilha de Maracá: s.ix.1990.. w.2000.D.1978.L. Pará. Tingo María: s. 06. Minas Gerais.ix.G. 20. T. w.1979. Monte Pascoal: s.1978.ix. Constantino (MPEG-3025). Quebrangulo: s. 03.M.. w. w.
the material available for this study was limited and only one sample had two distinct soldier sizes. Comparisons. Enteric valve with 4 finger-like ridges of unequal sizes covered with fine spines. sides convex. Frontal tube small but conspicuous. Pronotum with numerous bristles on anterior lobe and a few bristles on posterior margin. Cuiabá. head narrower. 16E). Labrum wider than long.. small lobe oval. Head capsule with numerous short and straight bristles of variable size.ii. Rio Manso: s. Constantino (UnB-1638. 1673). not examined. 11E). Measurements in Table 3.. Head capsule subrectangular in dorsal view.1958. Labiotermes laticephalus has been recorded from relatively few localities (Fig. Based on the measurements. W.1999. tergites and sternites densely covered with bristles and fine hairs. 01. Major soldier (Figs. they fall into two nonovelaping groups. 19. postmentum with a few short bristles near anterior margin. antenna with 15 articles. Zanuto (MPEG-2311). 1669. Unknown. Right mandible with two marginal teeth. Silvestri (1903: 61) mentions two sizes of soldiers. much smaller. emersoni. Head capsule and labrum brownish yellow. Antenna with 15–16 articles. (2005) report its occurrence in northern Argentina. oriented anteriorly. Geographical distribution. Worker (Figs. posterior margin with two bristles. converging towards front..vii. 12–17. conical. 13E. Fazenda Água Limpa: s.ii. 5L–O. with narrow tip. Mato Grosso. Top of head in profile nearly straight. bristles more numerous on the head. 5G–K). its proximal part very narrow. anterior margin of pronotum with a row of bristles.1985. M.1992. R. 14C. Goiás. M. proximal part narrow. See L. Front coxa with a conspicuous lateral conical projection near base. w. 1663. Mesonotum with a line of 8 or more bristles on posterior margin. most of them in Cerrado biome of Brazil. Mandibles short and robust. Antenna with 15 articles.Syntypes: soldiers and workers (DEZA. Anápolis: s. Front coxa with a lateral conical projection near base. Left mandible: cutting edge between apical and 1st marginal S-shaped. with parallel sides. Imago. cutting edge between marginal teeth concave.v. Lima (UnB1256). Fontanelle large and rounded. Kempf (MZSP-4685).. Smaller than major soldier.. thorax and legs lighter than head capsule. Cuiabá: s. Mixed segment with two mesenteric lobes. See L. Torales et al. Distrito Federal. 15I–J. Santo Antônio do ZOOTAXA 1340 NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 19 . Measurements in Table 2. 20). Type-locality: Brazil: Mato Grosso. Head capsule and postclypeus with numerous bristles. MCSN). large lobe elongate. Measurements in Table 2. emersoni. tergites and sternites yellowish. w. Minor soldier (Figs. However... Material examined BRAZIL. w. sides convex. 5A–F. Chapada dos Guimarães. about the same size and grouped together near base. Comparisons. Remarks. 10. while the others had only one size.W.
J. 20 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. Constantino (UnB-3084). Large soldier: A. w. FIGURES 5. no date. F. postmentum.C. N. I.. B. E. head in profile.. head in dorsal view. M..0 mm. Small soldier: G. Trager (MZSP-8595). 27. pronotum in dorsal view. D. w. Minas Gerais. head in profile. Fazenda Rossato: s. thorax. J. Corumbá: s. head in dorsal view. w.1984. right front leg.2001. Labiotermes laticephalus.. Bordi (MZSP-213). O. . 26. head in profile. Scale bars = 1. pronotum in dorsal view. C. pronotum in posterior view.x. Paracatu. Mato Grosso do Sul. head in dorsal view. Worker: L. pronotum in posterior view.. H. right front leg.ZOOTAXA 1340 Leverger: s.. K. R. postmentum.x.
brevilabius. 21). these hairs are only visible with magnification of 40X or higher and adequate light. Comparisons. Goiás. Front coxa with a lateral hump near base.. enteric valve armature (Pl. Labiotermes pellisetaceus is a nomen nudum which appears in figure captions in Mathews (1977). 148). 14D. Measurements in Table 3. Amazonas. Additional measurements are presented in Table 2.Labiotermes leptothrix Mathews Labiotermes leptothrix Mathews. 15K–L. leptothrix is easily recognizable by the presence of numerous microscopic hairs on the head capsule. leptothrix occurs in the northern part of the Cerrado biome (Fig. However. Remark 1. Humaitá: s. 49)] Labiotermes pellisetaceus nomen nudum. Material examined BRAZIL. leptothrix was published in the same book is irrelevant. plate 49) states that the enteric valve of L. 207. 149. G. Mixed segment with two elongate mesenteric lobes. The soldier of L. Head capsule and postclypeus with numerous bristles. examined. Antenna with 15 articles. Described and illustrated by Mathews (1977: 208–209). Type-locality: Brazil: Mato Grosso. Mesonotum with a line of bristles on posterior margin.2003. Fontanelle large and rounded. Pronotum with numerous bristles on anterior lobe and a row of bristles on posterior margin. The worker of L. The most similar species are L. 16F). 262 [figure captions only] ZOOTAXA 1340 Holotype: imago.vii. 1999). longilabius and L.C. 6C–F. 6A–B. 1977: 208–210 [imago (Fig. Remark 2. Mathews (1977: 234. Described by Mathews (1977: 209). obviously as a result of an error. Costa (UnB-4784). leptothrix has 6 finger-like plates (ridges). which has 5 ridges.. Most records are from cerrado vegetation. Enteric valve with 5 finger-like ridges of unequal sizes. leptothrix can be recognized by the very large apical teeth on both mandibles and the enteric valve armature. not 6. L. soldier (Fig. but Mathews (1977: 210) also found it in a valley forest. 01. Mathews 1977: 201. The name itself should be accompanied by a description or definition that states in words characters that are purported to diferentiate the taxon. Comparisons. This name is not available and therefore is not to be treatead as a real synonym. which lack these microscopic hairs and have different labra. However. Imago. The association of a name with illustrations alone does not satisfy the requirements of article 13 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN. All specimens we examined had 5 ridges. w. Xavantina. Soldier (Figs. small lobe about one third the length of the large one. Geographical distribution. 13F. female (MZSP). 259. Worker (Figs. 160). large lobe with narrow tip. The fact that the original description of L. his own illustration shows only 5 ridges. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 21 . covered with fine spines. 11F).
D. 891). 24–25. Worker: C.. thorax. F. w.. w. 15. Araujo (MZSP-6574. Araujo (MZSP-6536). Scale bars = 1.vii.L. 236). Bernardo (UnB-4021. R. Soldier: A..0 mm. head in profile. D. w. Mimoso: s. E.. head in dorsal view.ii. thorax. Minaçu. Chapada dos Guimarães. 25. head in profile...i. R. Rondonia.ii. right front leg..2000. . R. 21. B. Constantino (UnB-849. R. R. w.1976.viii. FIGURES 7. Labiotermes leptothrix. right front leg.2003.1976. w. Constantino (UnB-235. head in dorsal view. w. F. D.. 4067). Labiotermes longilabius.. 10.. 22 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. 16–17. Fazenda Paraná: s. Chapada dos Guimarães: s. B. 6608). Mato Grosso. Rio Manso: s. FIGURES 6. Scale bars = 1. R.L. Chaves (UnB-1946).1999.L. Pimenta Bueno: s. Worker: C.ii.. Soldier: A.1997. Cuiabá: s.1999. E. head in dorsal view.ZOOTAXA 1340 Alvorada do Norte. head in profile. head in dorsal view..0 mm.ii. Constantino (UnB-2524).. 24.. head in profile. w. Serra da Mesa: s.
6)]. Front and middle trocanters and tibias with numerous short and thick bristles.iii. w.. 05. 19).2003.ii. Araujo (MZSP-6675.2003. Bernardo (UnB-4047.v. Fig. Amaral (UnB-4481). Imago.A. L. longilabius occurs in Brazil and Paraguay (Fig.. The worker of L. large lobe oval. Enteric valve 6 finger-like ridges of unequal sizes.L.ix. Front coxa with a rounded hump near base. 13. 16-G). 28. 16. Araujo (MZSP-3930).2004. w. Cuiabá: s. Costa (UnB4512).viii. Described and illustrated by Emerson & Banks 1965: 22–23. Fig. ZOOTAXA 1340 Syntypes: Imagos. Fontanelle large and rounded. worker (Pl. Curvelo: s. Additional measurements are presented in Table 2.x... 1641).C.. See L.iii. 18. Jaraguá: s. R. Constantino (UnB-1635.. covered with fine spines. Chapada dos Guimarães. Fazenda Paraná: s. s. Paraná. Bálsamo: s. 127 [imago (text Fig. w. 27. Described and illustrated by Emerson & Banks 1965: 20–22.Labiotermes longilabius (Silvestri) Cornitermes longilabius Silvestri.. Fig... 11G). Mixed segment with two mesenteric lobes. G. 105)]. w. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 23 . Alvorada do Norte. Head capsule and postclypeus with numerous bristles. The enteric valve is also distinct (Fig. w. workers (DEZA. Bernardo (UnB-4981)... Mato Grosso. Araujo (MZSP-5786). 5471).L. Pl.xi. soldier (Pl. 7C–F.2000. Mesonotum with a few bristles near lateral sides. R. leptothrix. 16G). In all other species. D. 15M–N. w.viii..1972. and most records are located in the Cerrado biome.. Pronotum with numerous bristles on anterior lobe and a row of bristles on posterior margin.2003. 24. Costa (UnB-5386. Worker (Figs. brevilabius and L. R. w.1999. R. 27–28. w. 13–18. w. soldier.1953. 103).. K.vii. D. not examined. AMNH and MCSN). Desneux 1904: 37 (Termes). Antenna with 15 articles. Material examined BRAZIL. 6679). D. R.. Minas Gerais.L.2003. Holmgren 1912: 50 (Cornitermes subgenus Labiotermes). w. Santo Antônio de Goiás: s. 25. small lobe very small and narrow. Goiás. São Paulo.1977. w. 5). Diniz (MZSP-8115).. 7A–B.. Emerson & Banks 1965: 20–24 (Labiotermes) [imago (Fig. Espírito-Santo (UnB-1818). w. 14. 4049). Araujo (MZSP-5930). Francisco Sá: s. Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira: s.1976. 11–12. Tocantins. Measurements in Table 3. Rio Manso: s. soldier (Fig.. 13G. Fazenda São João: s.L. Comparisons. 105). Geographical distribution.. R.ix.... longilabius can be recognized by the presence of short and thick bristles on the front and middle trocanters. Piracicaba: s.v.L. Cuiabá. Type-locality: Brazil: Mato Grosso.1975. Comparisons.L.. 1901: 5. Silvestri 1903: 59–60. 25. Soldier (Figs. these spinelike bristles are present only on the femur and coxa..
R. head in profile. . In this case. 20). cutting edge between marginal teeth slightly concave. Imago. with parallel sides in dorsal view. about the same size. 8A–F. H.0 mm. Mandibles moderately elongate and robust. head in dorsal view. 27. Serra da Mesa (Fig. Head capsule and labrum brownish yellow. right front leg. new species Holotype: soldier. Labrum wider than long. new species. pronotum in posterior view. oreadicus means inhabitant of the Cerrado. 1340 FIGURES 8. Antenna with 16 articles. Constantino Type-locality: Brazil. tergites and sternites yellowish. Labiotermes oreadicus. Goiás State. thorax. Top of head convex in profile. 11H). I. Head capsule subrectangular.ZOOTAXA Labiotermes oreadicus Constantino. E. Unknown. postmentum. The word comes from the Latin oreadis and the Greek oreias. Head capsule with numerous short and straight bristles of relatively uniform size. Paratypes: workers. D.ii. thorax and legs lighter than head capsule. Etymology: Oréades corresponds to the Cerrado biome in the classification proposed by the German botanist von Martius. F. sides convex. Soldier (Figs. J. C. right front leg. pronotum in dorsal view. postmentum with numerous bristles on anterior 24 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. upturned. Worker: G. mountain nymph. with broad tip. head in dorsal view. Right mandible with two marginal teeth. B. Soldier: A. same data as holotype (UnB-241).1997. Scale bars = 1. head in profile. Left mandible: cutting edge between apical and 1st marginal slightly S-shaped. Front coxa without a lateral projection near base. Frontal tube short but conspicuous. part of lot UnB-241.
13H. Mixed segment withtwo mesenteric lobes. 16H). small lobe narrow and elongate. Measurements in Table 2. Front coxa without any projection near base. Mesonotum with a line of bristles on posterior margin. but their heads have very few bristles. labralis lack this projection. Mesonotum and metanotum with deeply emarginate hind margins. Measurements in Table 3. Comparisons. guasu and L. and 3 vestigial ridges with long hairs. Worker (Figs. very large. ZOOTAXA 1340 Labiotermes orthocephalus(Silvestri). Ilha de Maracá. Syntypes: soldiers and workers (DEZA. Monte Azul. 12D). only L. 2–5). Head capsule rounded. Antenna with 15–16 articles. MCSN). 106). The mandibles and postmentum of L. 1954: 187 [soldier]. 16H). examined. guasu. elliptical. worker (Fig. mesonotum with metanotum with tergites and sternites densely covered with bristles and fine hairs. type-locality: Brazil: Minas Gerais. type-locality: Brazil: Roraima. Cuiabá. 15O–P. 11H). oreadicus can be recognized by its large size and the absence of a projection on the front coxa. Postclypeus moderately arched in profile. distance from A to M1 about the same as distance from M1 to M3. Left mandible: distance from M3 to M4 shorter than distance from M1 to M3. 8G–J. examined. larger than antennal socket. Holotype: soldier (MZSP). Mathews 1977: 205 [soldier]. oreadicus are distinct (Fig. except L. and long hairs. Desneux 1904: 38 (Termes). Snyder 1949: 333 (Paracornitermes). fine. Fig. Enteric valve armature with 3 distinct ridges of unequal sizes covered with dense. Fontanelle large and rounded. New Synonyms: Paracornitermes hirsutus Araujo. 1992: 424 [soldier (Figs. 9J–M. 4]. large with a very narrow part closer to the mesenteron and an oval distal part. Araujo 1954: 183–185 (Paracornitermes) [soldier. Among all other species. not examined. It is also much larger than most other species. The workers of L. Head capsule and postclypeus with numerous bristles. Holotype: soldier (INPA). almost touching the lower margin of head capsule. Silvestri 1903: 60–61 [soldier (Pl. 1. pronotum with many bristles on margins and surface. The enteric valve of L. Eyes nearly rounded. Holmgren 1912: 50 (Cornitermes subgenus Labiotermes). Fig.half. Pronotum wider than head without eyes. 1)]. which has very few bristles on the head. Paracornitermes caapora Bandeira & Cancello. worker]. 14E. 1901: 5. Type-locality: Brazil: Mato Grosso. new combination Cornitermes orthocephalus Silvestri. ocelli large. M3 NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 25 . Comparisons. Pronotum with numerous bristles on anterior lobe and a row of bristles on posterior margin. oreadicus is distinct (Fig. fontanelle small and inconspicuous. Imago (Figs.
right front leg.ZOOTAXA 1340 conspicuously smaller than M1. Head capsule brown. pronotum. I. Measurements in Table 1. postclypeus. 26 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. E. pronotum in dorsal view. FIGURES 9. head in profile. Imago: J. head in dorsal view.0 mm. B. H. head in dorsal view. Scale bars = 1. postclypeus and pronotum densely covered with straight bristles. head in profile. head in dorsal view. K. head in profile. Soldier from Minas Gerais: G. tergites and sternites densely covered with bristles and hairs of variable size. C. Worker: N. pronotum in posterior view. Soldier from Mato Grosso: A. M2 small. P. brownish. antenna. wings transparent. . Right mandible: distance from A to M1 longer than distance from M1 to M2. Antenna with 17–18 articles. pronotum. Head. right front leg. D. O. thorax. pronotum and tergites light brown. M. head in profile. wings densely covered with minute hairs. head in dorsal view. Labiotermes orthocephalus. postmentum. F. L. Q. sternites brownish yellow.
sides slightly convex. Head capsule densely covered with bristles of variable size. about the same size and grouped together near base. The imago of L. Measurements in Table 2. small lobe rounded and inflated. laticephalus and L. emersoni. and a more conspicuous fontanelle. 15Q–S. mandibles with large marginal teeth and cutting edge of apical tooth of left mandible evenly curved. Left mandible: cutting edge between apical and 1st marginal concave. Mixed segment with two mesenteric lobes. cutting edge between marginal teeth concave. orthocephalus is distinct (see description above and Fig. 11I). Remarks. orthocephalus. P. Antenna with 15 articles. hairs on the head and pronotum. as well and all the other diagnostic characters. relatively long. pronotum with many bristles. orthocephalus occurs in the Cerrado. The imagos of L. Comparisons.Comparisons. The imagos are identical. and in Amazonia (Fig. orthocephalus is the most similar species are L. Araujo (1954) based his description of P. L. Mesonotum with numerous bristles near posterior margin. Head capsule subrectangular. Worker (Figs. orthocephalus from Mato Grosso. the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Head capsule and postclypeus with numerous straight bristles. 22). orthocephalus can be recognized by its large size. Soldiers from Goiás are intermediate and there is a clear East-West gradient of soldier size and number of hairs on soldier head. The soldier of L. The imagos of all other known species have fewer or shorter hairs. 9A–I. with nearly parallel sides in dorsal view. Top of head in profile almost straight. postmentum with numerous bristles on anterior half. Frontal tube conspicuous. robust and curved. hirsutus on samples from Minas Gerais. coxa with a prominent conical projection. 9N–Q. fontanelle about the same line as antennal sockets. which have larger and more hairy soldiers than typical L. caapora was described based on a single sample with a few soldiers and several workers. Labrum longer than broad. brevilabius have antenna with 16 articles. The enteric valve armature of L. P. Antenna with 15 articles. Mandibles short. large lobe oval. Geographical distribution. hirsutus is clearly an eastern geographical form of L. orthocephalus can be recognized by its large size. Soldier (Figs. thorax and legs lighter than head capsule. Right mandible with two marginal teeth. tergites and sternites yellowish. Fontanelle large and rounded. Pronotum with numerous bristles on anterior and posterior lobes. proximal part very narrow. 14F. ZOOTAXA 1340 NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 27 . 16I). Enteric valve with 6 ridges of unequal size and irregular shape. oriented anteriorly. Front coxa with a conspicuous lateral conical projection near base. Measurements in Table 3. Comparisons. hairy head. inconspicuous fontanelle and numerous. emersoni and L. sides convex. Soldier mandibles show considerable intraspecific variation. 13I. The worker of L. Head capsule and labrum brownish yellow. 16I). tergites and sternites densely covered with bristles and fine hairs. covered with fine spines. which are in the same size range and have a conical projection on the front coxa. Front coxa with a lateral conical projection near base.
.. 01. 01.1999..i. Material examined BRAZIL.. w..ZOOTAXA 1340 Compared to larger series from several localities.ix.. 07–09.vi.1961.. Bernardo (UnB-4040. R.ii. 23–28. Goiás. IQUSP (MZSP-8424).1976. the differences mentioned in its original description are not consistent and soldiers from its type series are nearly identical to some soldiers of P. w. Rondonia. 17.2003. Lenko (MZSP-8096). Parque Nacional das Emas: s. Worker: C. H. K. orthocephalus from central Brazil. R. R. Vilhena: s..L. Ceará. 06. R.M.. w. Araujo (MZSP-6636).1976. Fazenda Paraná: s. Alvorada do Norte. 20. Minaçu. Reichardt (MZSP-2018).0 mm. 4329.. 31. head in dorsal view.. w. Scale bar = 1. D. Kitayama (MZSP-7064).. Juruena: s.1976. w. w.viii..1974. Constantino (UnB-3429). head in profile. K. w. 01. 25. Constantino (UnB-0782). A. Mato Grosso do Sul. D.. R..1954. 239.xii.1993. Espírito Santo... Constantino (UnB-234. 02–05. R.1990.L.. Araujo (MZSP-4190). Utiariti: s. .. R. w.. Monte Alto: s. 28.. Brasília: s.. Chapada dos Guimarães.L. FIGURES 10. Constantino (UnB-684. w... 28 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL.2003. w. Labiotermes pelliceus. 4325. Mato Grosso. w.1966. Vila Velha: s... Bernardo (UnB-4278. 26. Campo Grande: s. Vasconcellos (DSEC).2002. Humaitá: s. Bahia.viii. Chapada dos Guimarães: s. Soldier: A. Eunápolis: s.v.L..1998.iv.vii. w. Amazonas. D. R. R. Araujo (MZSP-6568).L. w.ii. São Domingos. Crato: s. w. Distrito Federal. 06. Cancello (MZSP-9810). 20. B. Rio Manso: s.ii... w. Serra da Mesa: s.2004.1997... 691.1984. w.x..ii. w. im. head in profile. thorax.ix. Araujo (MZSP-2019).1986.L.. 17. 4058).xi. E.viii.1971. IQUSP (MZSP9289). R.. right front leg. 4361). 31.ii. Cuiabá: s. 10.. 240). Costa Rica: s. w. Linhares: s. F. Rebio Sooretama: s. 12.. E. head in dorsal view.L. Araujo (MZSP-5566). 4300. Constantino (MPEG-3802)...i.
L. emersoni. E. L. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 29 . new species. L. new species. Soldier mandibles. L. D. L. Labiotermes brevilabius. L. guasu. C. L. laticephalus. A. H. G. orthocephalus. pelliceus. L. F. oreadicus. Scale bars = 0.5 mm. leptothrix. B. J.ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 11. longilabius. L. labralis. I.
5 mm.1966. Bom Sucesso: s. w.. paratypes of P. w. w.x. Araujo (MZSP-6092. 16. FIGURES 12.A. 12–17. caapora.. 06. Ilha de Maracá: s. Roraima. second and third marginal teeth. . labralis. R.. Teófilo Otoni: s.. Paranã. emersoni... Castro (UnB-1785). 30 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. D. L.ZOOTAXA 1340 692. R. 2019). R. D.i.L. R. 4947. 18. im. Francisco Sá: s. C.xi. im.xii. Araujo (MZSP-5781. 01.xi. im. 11.xi.L.. Araujo (MZSP-377..2003. Bocaiúva: s. Montes Claros: s.... Bandeira (INPA222). Araujo (MZSP-5610..G. Imago mandibles. N.. MPL= molar plate. Bernardo (UnB4874.1975. w.. Minas Gerais. B. w. 6180).L. L. Seropédica: s. 6234).R.1972. w. A = apical tooth. 26.vii. R. w. Araujo (MZSP-6247). orthocephalus. Capitão Eneias: s. R. Constantino (UnB-2127). Rio de Janeiro.L.1975. Labiotermes brevilabius.xi. Araujo (MZSP-6143).. 5641). Araujo (MZSP-7262). 4922.. w. Rio de Janeiro: s.1998.. M1–3 = first.. A. A.L. Curvelo: s.1975. 15. w.2001.L. R. w.L. 726).L. MPR= molar prominence.L. Tocantins. 4966).vii. L.. 13. 4905. Rio Pomba: s.. 22. 12.1972. R.x..vii.ix.. Fazenda São João: s. R. M4 = subsidiary marginal tooth (= molar tooth).1972.1987. Araujo (MZSP-5793).. w.1976. 26...Scale bars = 0..
J. Scale bars = 0. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 31 . I. L. C. oreadicus. Labiotermes brevilabius. L. L. G. new species. labralis. L. longilabius. guasu.ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 13. D. B. L. E. laticephalus. new species. H. emersoni. L. leptothrix. L. orthocephalus. Worker mandibles. L. A. pelliceus. F.5 mm. L.
E. C.ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 14. Labiotermes guasu. labralis. L. ventral and left view. oreadicus. D. . L.0 mm. leptothrix. P2= enteric valve. orthocephalus. L. R= rectum. B. A. L. Gut morphology of workers in situ. respectively. new species. 32 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. new species. F. M= mesenteron. laticephalus. P1=first proctodeal segment. Scale bars = 1. P3= third proctodeal segment (paunch). L.
L. E–F.ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 15. new species. emersoni. orthocephalus. Mixed segment of workers. L. C–D. T–U. new species. O–P. G–H. leptothrix. Labiotermes brevilabius. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 33 . M–N. For each species. laticephalus.0 mm. L. L. I–J. L. the first drawing corresponds to the large mesenteric prolongation (visible from ventral view) and the second corresponds to the small mesenteric prolongation (on opposite side). K–L. A–B. L. labralis. L. Q–S. L. guasu. L. Scale bars = 1. oreadicus. pelliceus. longilabius.
L. Labiotermes brevilabius. L. L. C. F. orthocephalus. leptothrix. L. oreadicus. D. emersoni. . L. G. L. longilabius. I. L.ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 16. new species. L. E. B. guasu. A. labralis. Enteric valve armature of workers. L. laticephalus. H. 34 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. J. new species. pelliceus.
The soldier of L. 3–4. Kovoor 1969: 198–207 [gut morphology. Soldier (Fig. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 35 . The double circle indicates the type-locality. pelliceus can be easily recognized by the dense fine hairs on the head capsule. Type-locality: Guyana: Itabu Creek. Additional measurements are presented in Table 2. Figs. not examined. Fig. 11J). II-3 ].Labiotermes pelliceus Emerson & Banks Labiotermes pelliceus Emerson & Banks. Imago. Described by Emerson & Banks (1965: 28–30). Figs. ZOOTAXA 1340 Holotype: soldier (AMNH). 1965: 28–30 [soldier. Pl. Comparisons. Unknown. 10A–B. 9]. FIGURES 17. I-3. Geographic distribution of Labiotermes brevilabius.
Enteric valve with 6 finger-like ridges of unequal size. . (Figs. Geographic distribution of Labiotermes emersoni. covered with long and curved spines. 21). Worker. 10.ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 18. Its enteric valve is distinct from all other species. small lobe more than half the length of the large one. It seems to occur only in the rainforest. 13J. Front coxa with a blunt lateral projection near base. postclypeus and pronotum densely covered with bristles and fine hairs. Measurements in Table 3. 16J) Head. Mesonotum with a line of numerous bristles on posterior margin. 15T–U. pelliceus can be recognized by the dense fine hairs on the head and body. most of them in Brazilian Amazonia. Geographical distribution. The worker of L. 36 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. Comparisons. Labiotermes pelliceus has been recorded from relatively few localities (Fig. Fontanelle large and rounded. Mixed segment with two elongate mesenteric lobes. Antenna with 15 articles. The double circle indicates the type-locality.
R. ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 19. Pará.1963... rodovia BR-174. Aldeia Araçu: s. Bandeira (INPA-690). w. w.vii.....vii...S. F. Apolinário (UnB-3689).2002. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 37 .vi.i. w.1990.. Malkin (MZSP-1891).. 07.R. Manaus. Porto Trombetas: s.. the color of the soldier head capsule is not as dark as described by Emerson & Banks (1965). Constantino (MPEG 3514). Manaus.1983.vii.. Rodovia ZF-2: s. Geographic distribution of Labiotermes labralis and L. w. A. w.Remarks. E. Ch. Itabu Creek: paratype soldier. longilabius.1938... x. Acioli (UnB-5514). Constantino (UnB-3431).G..iii. Reserva Ducke: s. Amazonas. s. A. w. B. Mato Grosso. 06.1991. w. Blake (MZSP). Paragominas: s. GUYANA.B. w. Ackerman (UnB-4711. Oriximiná.v. 16. The double symbol indicates the respective type-locality. 4713). Most had the head capsule light brown. 27. Material examined BRAZIL.1988. R.2002.N. Manaus. I.vi.. 4712. Noirot (MZSP-9380). 29. In most samples examined. 27. 01. Acary Mountains. Maranhão. km 54: s.2000. 05. Juruena: s.
Augusto L. Geographic distribution of Labiotermes laticephalus. and L.ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 20. Bandeira (DSEC). guasu. Og F. Harada (MPEG). longilabius. We thank the following colleagues for sending specimens for study: Eliana M. We also thank Yves Roisin for providing unpublished records of L. 38 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. Henriques (INPA). The double symbol indicates the respective type-locality. 307123/2004-9). DeSouza (UFVB). oreadicus. L. Acknowledgments This work was supported by a grant from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq no. . Collecting trips to some unexplored places in Brazil where supported by grants from the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment (MMA/PROBIO/GEF) and the project Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity (TSBF/ UNEP/GEF). new species. emersoni and L. Cancello (MZSP). and Adelmar G. new species. AnaY.
pelliceus. Geographic distribution of Labiotermes leptothrix and L. The double symbol indicates the respective type-locality.ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 21. NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 39 .
Triangles correspond to Paracornitermes hirsutus and the square to P. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. 181–189. Termitidae.. & Constantino. with description of two new species (Isoptera. Bandeira. A. M. E. & Constantino. 36(2).M. References Araujo. A. orthocephalus. Calderon. Roraima. Nasutitermitinae).G.A. (2003) Effects of habitat disturbance on the termite fauna in a highland humid forest in the Caatinga Domain..L. caapora. 1949. Termitidae) from the Island of Maracá. Geographic distribution of Labiotermes orthocephalus. (1954) Notes on the genus Paracornitermes Emerson. R. Vasconcellos. & Cancello. A. The double symbol indicates the respective type-locality. 42(1).G. 117–127. 423–435. both synonyms of L. Brazil. A survey of the termite fauna (Isoptera) of an eucalypt plantation 40 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. . 1.ZOOTAXA 1340 FIGURES 22. Bandeira. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. (1992) Four new species of termites (Isoptera. Sociobiology. R. Silva. R. R. Brazil.
G. Zoologica. L. Fascicule 25.A. Redia. 48(4).A. 4 edition. distribution and ecology (Isoptera. in press. (1912) Termitenstudien 3. (1903) Contribuzione alla conoscenza dei Termitidi e Termitofili dell’ America Meridionale. & Eggleton. American Museum Novitates. (2004) Family-group names for termites. 1–8. 467–513. (1926) Termites collected on the Mulford Biological Exploration to the Amazon Basin 1921–1922. Mathews.E. 1. 1–419. ZOOTAXA 1340 NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 41 . Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. T. N. (1906) Studien über südamerikanische Termiten. S. Sands. Fontes.E. Emerson.. (1925) The termites from Kartabo. 291–459. Snyder. 44(3). Piracicaba. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 68(14). 431–471. K. Termitidae). II. —Sous-Famille des Nasutitermitinae. Cab International. J. W. W. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar.. Martius. (1996) Colony populations and biomass in nests of the Amazonian forest termite Anoplotermes banksi Emerson (Isoptera: Termitidae). Die Familie Metatermitidae. 521–676. XVI(389). 475–540. Anatomische Untersuchungen. 37(4). Jones. pp. (1901) Nota preliminare sui Termitidi sud-americani. Wytsman (Ed. C. 500 pp. D. Termitidae. 3(1).R. A. Neotropical Entomology. (1977) Studies on Termites from the Mato Grosso State. (1909) Termitenstudien 1. M. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. Systematik der Termiten. Berti-Filho (Eds. Desneux. 2208. 82–86.E. Noirot. 16(3).D. J. pp. Morphological phylogenetics of termites. S.L. 9–66. Snyder. 70. Annales de la Societé Entomologique de France. 1–9. & Banks. & Ribeiro. National Museum. Comparative anatomy. 1234. (1952) The neotropical genera Procornitermes and Cornitermes (Isoptera. N. American Museum Novitates. 1–52. A. A. 1–490. 195–234. (1969) Anatomie comparée du tube digestif des termites II. 1–166. & Krishna. 1–33.R.E. Brazil. Termitidae. 6(4). Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar. (1926) Revision der Termiten Afrikas. Systematik. F. K. 31(2). Silvestri. (1904) Isoptera Fam. Krishna. Rio de Janeiro. Termitidae. 23(5).A. Desmet. Holmgren. Kovoor.E. Proceedings of the U. Engel. 21(1). (1965) The neotropical genus Labiotermes (Holmgren): its phylogeny. Verteneuil & L. C.). (1949) Catalog of the termites (Isoptera) of the World. 1–76. Fontes & E. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Brussels. London. M. 309412. systematics. Journal of the Zoological Society of India. (1963) The African genus Foraminitermes Holmgren (Isoptera. Guyana. 267 pp.A. Roonwal.E. phylogeny. (2001) The gut of termites (Isoptera).in central Brazil. Academia Brasileira de Ciências. color plates 1–2. Emerson. Holmgren. Higher termites (Termitidae). 112.E.). Cupins: O desafio do conhecimento. e uma filogenia para os gêneros neotropicais de Nasutitermitinae. F. Holmgren. Silvestri. 1–23. 99(8). F. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. In: L. N. J. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Genera Insectorum. (1970) Measurement of termites (Isoptera) for taxonomic purposes. Bartica District. A. T. In: P. Sands. P. Sjöstedt. Donovan. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Emerson. V. (1998) The identification of worker castes of termite genera from soils of Africa and the Middle East. Y. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata della Università di Torino. (2000). American Museum Novitates. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar. Wallingford. 3432. Nasutitermitinae). FEALQ.T. 1–215. Insectes Sociaux. 2161. (1998) Novos aditamentos ao Catálogo dos Isoptera do Novo Mundo. Termitinae).
ZOOTAXA 1340 Torales..C. J.M. M. 45(3). Wessel. improved version of Generic Mapping Tools released.O. Coronel.F. (2005) Update on taxonomy and distribution of Isoptera from Argentina. E. 853–886. Laffont. & Smith.. (1998) New. M.J.H.R. W. 42 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. EOS Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 79(47). & Arbino. 579. . Sociobiology.. G. P. Godoy.
Monte Alto: 13°39'20" S 46°45'9" W. Iquê-Juruena: 12°0' S 59°30' W. Santiago del Estero. Poços de Caldas: 21°47'16" S 46°33'41" W. Parque Nacional Copo: 25°55' S 61°55' W. Dianópolis. Curiau: 0°1'48" N 51°3' W. Rossato: 17°23'42" S 47°16'34" W. Parque Nacional Chaco: 26°50' S 59°40' W. Cuiabá: 15°35'46" S 56°5'48" W. Ceará. Piracicaba: 22°43' S 47°38' W. Rio Pomba: 21°16'29" S 43°10'45" W. Rio Manso: 14°56' S 55°44' W. Jardim Botânico de Brasília: 15°50'51" S 47°50'13" W. Rodovia ZF-2: 3°0' S 60°0' W. Areia: 6°58'12" S 35°42' W. Oiapoque: 3°50'35" N 51°50'6" W. Bahia. Aiuaba: 6°34'25" S 40°7'25" W. Grande Sertão Veredas: 15°6' S 45°48' W. Anápolis: 16°19'48" S 48°58'12" W. Francisco Sá: 16°28'12" S 43°30' W. Manaus. BRAZIL. Localities indicated in the lists of material examined and in the distribution maps ARGENTINA. Fazenda São ZOOTAXA 1340 NASUTITERMITINAE © 2006 Magnolia Press 43 . Rio de Janeiro. Sumé. Brasília: 15°46'47" S 47°55'47" W. Reserva Ecológica do IBGE: 15°56'42" S 47°53'6" W. João Pessoa: 7°7'12" S 34°52'12" W. Paranã. Jaraguá: 17°9' S 55°5' W. Crato: 7°13'48" S 39°22'48" W. Viçosa: 20°45' S 42°52'48" W. Santo Antônio de Goiás: 16°29'1" S 49°18'40" W. Vila Velha: 20°19'47" S 40°17'33" W. Lagoa Santa: 19°37'48" S 43°52'48" W. Manaus. Bom Sucesso: 21°1'48" S 44°46'12" W. Taperinha: 0°52' S 47°49' W. Serra dos Carajás: 6°0' S 50°16'12" W. Seropédica: 22°43'59" S 43°43'1" W. Susano: 17°29'12" S 47°19'55" W. Chaco. Pará. Paracatu. Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira: 21°51' S 47°54' W. Montes Claros: 16°43'12" S 43°52'12" W. Teófilo Otoni: 17°51' S 41°30' W. Diamantina: 18°15' S 43°36' W. Aldeia Araçu: 2°34' S 46°6' W. Ruta Nacional 16: 26°8' S 62°5' W. Mazagão: 0°7'48" N 51°18' W. Recife: 8°3' S 34°54' W. Alto Garças: 16°56'38" S 53°31'41" W. Vilhena: 12°43'12" S 60°6' W. Amapá. ZF-3: 2°27' S 59°47' W. Tocantins. Monte Pascoal: 16°45' S 39°32' W. Costa Rica: 18°32'38" S 53°7'45" W. Chapada dos Guimarães. Guarda-Mor: 17°34'17" S 47°8'37" W. Pernambuco. Manaus . Rondonia. Corumbá: 19°1'1" S 57°39' W. Oriximiná. Reserva Ducke: 2°57' S 59°57' W. Buritis. Tucurui: 3°43'12" S 49°40'48" W. Rio Pardo de Minas: 15°36'35" S 42°32'23" W. Área 3: 12°39'41" S 60°7'25" W. Santo Antônio do Leverger: 15°51'56" S 56°4'36" W. Benjamin Constant. Caruaru: 8°17' S 35°58'34" W. Fazenda Aruanã: 3°4'12" S 58°45' W. Utiariti: 12°40'12" S 58°30' W. Fazenda Água Limpa: 15°58' S 47°54'22" W. Araguari: 18°38'50" S 48°11'14" W. Rohden Lignea: 10°28'9" S 58°34'54" W. Paraíba. Quebrângulo: 9°19'8" S 36°28'16" W. Alvorada do Norte. Anavilhanas: 2°45' S 60°46'12" W. Minaçu. Mimoso: 15°10'1" S 48°4'59" W. Mato Grosso do Sul. Guajará-Mirim: 10°48' S 65°22'1" W. Campo Grande: 20°27' S 54°37'12" W. Serra da Mesa: 14°1' S 48°19' W. Chapada dos Guimarães: 15°27'38" S 55°44'59" W. Área 05: 11°45'9" S 61°2'50" W. Vilhena. Manaus. Rebio Sooretama: 19°11'29" S 40°5'31" W. Parque Nacional das Emas: 17°49'48" S 52°30' W. Parque Nacional da Amazonia: 4°19'48" S 56°40'12" W. Faz.Rod. Pimenta Bueno. Capitão Eneias: 16°31'48" S 43°46'12" W. Manaus. Fazenda São Miguel: 15°58'22" S 46°32'6" W. Fazenda Almas: 7°40'18" S 36°52'48" W. km 54: 2°30'40" S 60°1'46" W. Piauí. Cachoeira do Arari: 1°0'41" S 48°57'48" W. São Paulo: 23°31'48" S 46°37'12" W. Fazenda Paraná: 14°31'31" S 46°47'5" W. Morro da Garça: 18°32'49" S 44°36'9" W.Appendix. Bálsamo: 20°44'7" S 49°35'1" W. Serra do Cachimbo: 9°21'32" S 54°54'51" W. rodovia BR-174. Bocaiúva: 17°7'12" S 43°49'12" W. Ilhéus: 14°49'12" S 39°1'48" W. Juruena. Faz. N. Porto Trombetas: 1°29' S 56°23' W. Amazonas. Sete Lagoas: 19°27' S 44°13'48" W. Paracatu. Copo. Maranhão. São Paulo. Nova Aliança: 4°21' S 69°36' W. Itacoatiara. Espírito Santo. Juruena: 10°19'5" S 58°21'32" W. Fazenda Novo Iguaçu: 11°36'9" S 46°31'3" W. Copo. Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades: 4°5' S 41°40' W. Distrito Federal. Linhares: 19°23'28" S 40°4'20" W. Roraima. Manaus: 3°6'47" S 60°1'30" W. Rio de Janeiro: 22°54' S 43°13'48" W. P. Paragominas: 2°59'45" S 47°21'10" W. Corrente: 10°26'36" S 45°9'44" W. Novo Progresso. Humaitá: 7°30'58" S 63°1'19" W. Rio Negro: 2°31' S 60°48' W. São Domingos. Ilha de Maracá: 3°27' N 61°21' W. Mato Grosso. Eunápolis: 16°22'39" S 39°34'49" W. Minas Gerais. Curvelo: 18°45' S 44°25'12" W. Goiás. Pimenta Bueno: 11°39' S 61°12' W.
PERU. Presidente Hayes. Tingo María: 5°10'12" S 75°31'48" W. Río Aguaytía: 8°3'59" S 74°40'13" W. PARAGUAY. La Patria. Cruce de los Pioneros: 22°43'15" S 59°46'50" W. FRENCH GUYANA. Boquerón. Saül: 3°37' N 53°12' W. .ZOOTAXA 1340 João: 12°54'50" S 47°37'1" W. VENEZUELA.Motorema: 3°10' N 65°33' W. Huánuco. San Pedro: 4°34'22" N 67°50'8" W. Alto Orinoco . Parque Nacional Teniente Enciso: 21°12'25" S 61°39'25" W. Ucayali. Itabu Creek: 1°42' N 57°55' W. 44 © 2006 Magnolia Press CONSTANTINO ET AL. Amazonas. Pucalpa: 8°22'57" S 74°32'17" W. GUYANA.
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