THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE)

THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE)

ALFRED E. EMERSON Research Associate, Department of Insects and Spiders The American Museum of Natural History Professor of Zoology The University of Chicago

BULLETIN
OF THE

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

VOLUME 83: ARTICLE 7

NEW YORK: 1945

1945 .BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Volume 83. text figures 1-12 Issued August 6. pages 427-472. article 7.

. . . . . new species . . . . .. . . . . . Syntermes chaquimayensis chaquimayensis (Holmgren) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . new species .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . ... . . .. . . 433 433 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . Syntermes lighti. . . .. . . .. . . . . . Syntermes hageni Holmgren . new species . . . . . . . . . .... Syntermes solidus. . ... . . . . new species . . . . . . . . . . Syntermes chaquimayensis. . . .. 437 . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . 439 442 443 444 445 446 447 447 449 450 451 453 454 455 457 458 459 . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . Syntermes parallelus Silvestri . . Syntermes peruanus Holmgren .. .. . . .. . Syntermes snyderi Emerson . . . new species .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . new species . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Syntermes brevimalatus. . . . . . . Syntermes aculeosus. .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . Other Records of Syntermes .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . Syntermes magnoculus Snyder . .. .. . .. . . . .. . . . ... . . Syntermes silvestrii Holmgren . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. subspecies emersoni Snyder . .. . . . Syntermes molestus (Burmeister) . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . new subspecies . . . .. . . Syntermes chaquimayensis.. . Genus Syntermes . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . Syntermes grandis (Rambur) . . . .. Syntermes dirus (Burmeister) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Key to the Species of Syntermes . . . . . . ... . . . . Syntermes obtusus Holmgren . . .. . .. ... . . . . . .. . 462 463 464 466 467 470 470 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . Acknowledgments. .. .. Syntermes calvus. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . 431 . .. . . . .. . .. . General Ecology .. . . .. subspecies parvinasus. . . . . . 433 SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION . . . .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . .. Syntermes wheeleri. Syntermes territus Emerson . . .. . . . .

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Rupert L. Digging 1I feet below entrance holes on the ground surface failed to disclose nesting galleries. Jr. Chapin. territus soldiers and workers emerge from a hole under leaf debris near the roots of a large dead stump. During the course of the study I visited the Reale Scuola Agraria. N. E. When disturbed. Soldiers and workers were collected from an open trail near small mounds with openings at the top which were probably connected with the underground nest. Silvestri. No nests of S. and the Chicago Natural History Museum. Washington. Roman. did not contain galleries (Emerson. Carnegie Museum. Reyne. 3' feet long. Weber for specimens and for the opportunity to examine collections. the American Museum of Natural History. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to Messrs. H. G. Massachusetts. The galleries were large and seemed to be simple excavations in the sandy clay soil. Chicago. Berlin. This study attempts to bring the taxonomy of the genus up to date and to stimulate further collecting and ecological investigations. the subterranean habitat and the tendency of the workers and soldiers to retire under ground when disturbed have resulted in meager collections. United States National Museum. At another time I saw S. It is also noteworthy that the Pliocene invasion of Cornitermes and Armitermes into Central America was not ac- companied by Syntermes. some carried by workers. J. Wallace C. Museum of Comparative Zoology. A. Darlington. Holmgren. In spite of the large size. Anduze. C. Wenzel. British Guiana. The termites had deposited the dirt between the buttressed roots of the tree so that the mound sloped down from the base of the roots and stood 3 feet from the ground level in places. D. W. Lutz. J. it seems likely that biotic barriers prevented extension of its range. Churchill prepared the drawing of the map. In another case the nest was underneath a large Mora tree. the workers and a soldier tapped their 433 . C. Holes were found at the top of each slope next to the trunk of the tree. Miss Laura B. Stockholm. A. Bradley. although there were small lumps lining the galleries in places which might have been excretions of the termites. Araujo. Italy. Illinois. The chambers extended below the surface of the ground about 4 feet and covered an area with a diameter of about 12 feet. Germany. J. Germany. p. Abbott Memorial Fund of the University of Chicago. P. Portici. N. J. were composed of excavated dirt brought to the surface by the workers and. J. Although this genus or its immediate generic ancestor must have been in existence before the Cretaceous dispersal of the derived genera Nasutitermes and Subulitermes. Staatsammlung. aside from the openings. E. Banks. territus workers and soldiers were found in a short open trail under leaves on the forest floor at Kartabo. In one case the surface mound of loose dirt was 2 feet high. Pennsylvania. T. Kahl. On one occasion S. Pittsburgh. and 2 feet wide. and a queen of fair size was found under a leaf with a few small nymphs. Recently I have received financial aid from the Dr. and Clara A. R. Snyder. territus were found at Kartabo. which has attracted the general collector. V. Vivas-Berthier. Sweden. A. The mounds of S. Museum fur Naturkunde. P. One large opening was located near the top of the mound. F. snyderi found at Kartabo. Pinheiro. 1). 1938. GENERAL ECOLOGY Syntermes is confined to the tropical savannas and rain forests of South America (fig. Seevers. 258). The species of the genus usually have their nests entirely under the ground. Portions of the study were made during my tenure of a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship in 1926-1927. Gerhard. F..INTRODUCTION THE GENUS Syntermes includes a number of large species of termites confined to the South American continent and generally recognized as the most primitive group of the subfamily Nasutitermitinae of the family Termitidae. Cambridge. E. A. but sometimes they make mounds above the ground. C. New York. and I was assisted in some of the drawings of the species by Mr. H. Munich.. Naturhistoriska Riksmuseets. L. and N.

Sao Paulo. 83 GS SERIES OF BASE MAPS NwLa nu" FIG.434 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. .). 1. Distribution of the species of the genus Syntermes showing the approximate border of the tropical savanna and rain forest combined. 46°38' W.. was recorded after the map was prepared. wheeleri from Sao Paulo (23°44'S. S. Brazil.

Thi's enables the genus to live in both rain forests and treeless savannas The workers show a distinct dimorphism in every species of the genus I have examined. Ants of three species were found preying upon the workers in the open trail and were later determined by Dr. The smaller worker may possibly be an earlier instar of the worker caste. but the description of the nest probably refers to that of S. Both forms of workers. and it is difficult to understand what the reproductives were doing above the ground. All the species of Syntermes. C. brevimalatus from 02°42' N. One type of worker has a large yellowish head. Gradually all disappeared inside a decayed log of about 4 or 5 inches diameter which was then brought back to the laboratory. In the case of S. A. as far as is known. Silvestri (1903) states that it is his belief that the leaf fragments are used for growing fungus upon which the termites feed. Bequaert (1925. Near the region where I found these termites I had seen a number of workers earlier coming from a hole in the ground. aculeosus and S. pick up a fragment of a dead leaf about one-half inch long and return to the hole with the leaf piece held vertically in its mandibles. N. and Pheidole biconstricta Mayr. 294) records the leaf-collecting activities of S. collect portions of leaves which they cut out of the dead leaves or pieces of grass and store them in their nests. territus in the day time at Kartabo. The soldier tapping was somewhat slower than that of the workers. taking with them the immature forms. Wheeler as Neoponera apicalis Latreille. molestus. making a distinct noise. I once saw a worker of S. snyderi. 1). The soldiers. No mound was seen." These species were found together in the same vial. Silvestri (1903) states that the small form stays inside the nest and is adapted for functions in the nests. Weber's field notes concerning the collection of S. M. lighter head. He observed fungus growing on pieces of grass stored by S. Direct sunlight used when we took moving pictures of the termites killed all of the castes very quickly. Fungus gardens of the type found among all species of the Macrotermitinae have never been observed in Syntermes nests nor associated with any other South American termite. I am inclined to believe that the fungus growing on the stored grass noted by Silvestri was accidental. .. chaquimayensis from the Putamayo region of Peru with a colony of stingless bees of the genus Trigona established in the mound. grandis and S. I found circular leaf pieces about 1 centimeter in diameter stored in chambers in their nest. The king was later found inside this log.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 435 heads rapidly on the dried leaves. which had been drawn up in close rank around and throughout the colony. the soldiers very quickly aligned themselves in defensive positions with their heads directed outwards. were found in the open trails of S. During my observations at Kartabo. on the Oronoque River in British Guiana." Dr. territus emerge from a hole in the ground. The physogastric queen and the king occupied a cell on the surface of the ground. The soldiers of Syntermes have very strong mandibles with which they are able to draw blood by cutting through'the skin of the hand. completed the withdrawal of the colony after a time. and the other has a distinctly smaller. W. however. Dr. molestus (S. however. The workers began retiring into the subterranean galleries. When the log was removed. Openings one centimeter in diameter leading directly down for a few centimeters to horizontal galleries in top ten to thirty centimeters of soil. Charles Seevers sent me the following field notes: "A large colony of Syntermes molestus was located beneath a log in an open field near Villavicencio. Dr. state: "Nesting in clay at base of tree. In addition to this means of defense. brasiliensis synonymous). J. Ectatomma quadridens Fabricius. brevimalatus because more specimens of this species were in the vial. the frontal gland of the soldiers is probably able to emit a defensive fluid and is the most (fig. The hypothesis that Syntermes is not a wood eater but is largely confined to grass and leaves for food conforms to known observations. I never saw any sign of fungusgrowing behavior by these termites even though I dug some distance into their nests. p. The king and queen also withdrew very slowly into these galleries but were captured before retirement had been completed. Bradley of Cornell University reports a large mound of S. Colombia.

436 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. Reichensperger (1936) described another histerid. on October 22. but the data are too meager for a reciprocal evolution to be assumed. He also described a new species. snyderi. I have witnessed these ants attacking colonies or transporting workers and soldiers of S. molestus. The genotype species of Cryptophora. 4) named after my wife. Goyaz. Roman observed T. Brazil. It seems reasonable to suppose that further observations will verify the predatory relationship of this species of ant and this genus of termites. although more information concerning the ecological relationship between Carebara and its hosts needs to be gathered before we become convinced of a reciprocal evolution. Wasmann (1894) described the acanthocerid beetle A canthocerus termiticola from the nest of Syntermws dirus from Rio de Janeiro. Ponerine ants were able to sting the soldiers so effectively that they could offer no resistance. molestus (S. . Perene. Wheeler (1936) lists records of 25 colony raids involving many hundreds of individuals attacking various species of Syntermes. Syntermophora microphthalma. Wheeler classifies the relations of Carebara to their host termites under the term "termitolesty. Scapolister sternalis. at Santa Cruz. commutata coincides quite well with the known distribution of Syntermes. These two genera of flies have been found only with Syntermes. Dr. however. and also from habitats dissociated from termites. territus. Rio Branco. which Wheeler later (1922. 1914. Amazonas. Bequaert (1925. Cossyphodister schwarzmaieri. from the nests of Syntermes molestus-at Villavicencio. British Guiana. Colombia. coeca Borgmeier. Forbes collected this ant carrying a worker of S. British Guiana). territus at Cururuzinho. Brazil. Odontotermes. grandis and S. from Santa Cruz. ecological. calvus at Kartabo. Brazil. Macrotermes. and S. snyderi. Dr. S. The soldier of S. and Syntermes. pp. snyderi had a distinctive odor when placed in a closed vial for a time. I was unable to witness much defensive action during normal predation. Here we find a correlation between taxonomic. Wheeler (1936. from nests of S. 176-177. from the nest of Syntermes molestus (brasiliensis synonymous) from Campinas. C. Goyaz. T. 176) is in reality S. chaquimayensis at El Campamiento. A. p. Brazil. and zoogeographical data. including my field observations taken in the rain forest of British Guiana. Seevers (1941) described a genus and species of phorid flies. 1926) observed raids on S. Ethiopian. brasiliensis is considered a synonym) on the savanna of Vista Alegre. Wheeler (1936) has published a rather extended account of the taxonomy and ecology of the ant Termitopone (Syntermitopone) commutata (Roger). Cryptophora colombiae. While excavating a nest of Syntermes snyderi at Kartabo. Peru. M. Borgmeier (1930) has described a histerid beetle. I picked up specimens of the ant Carebara uwnifredae Wheeler. Goyaz." The relationships of Syntermes to these genera of the Macrotermitinae are discussed later. W. 197-202) discussed the distribution and relationships of the species of Carebara which are found in the IndoMalayan. was collected from a marching colony of Syntermes sp. commutata transporting workers and soldiers of S. His record of S. dirus in British Guiana (p. Brazil. from the nest of Syntermes sp. This interesting ponerine ant seems to be a termite raider specializing on the species of Syntermes. 83 primitive in the phylogenetic series which ends in the nasute soldiers with degenerate mandibles. I also failed to observe any defensive effect of the thoracic spines of the soldiers and workers. Rio Autaz. Brazil. Winifred Jelliffe Emerson. The geographical distribution of T. and Neotropical regions in the nests of Acanthotermes. This genus of beetles has been found in other termite nests (Constrictotermes cavifrons at Kartabo.

genera are not groups of similar species). not because of special knowledge of the genetics and physiological development of these termites. 544). that this little progress has scientific value and is necessary for the more accurate elucidation of certain broad generalizations of interest to biologists who may never be called upon to determine a species of the genus or who may never see a living specimen in its natural habitat. 47). The ecological relationships of species of Syntermes to the ant Termitopone (Syntermitopone) commutata (Roger). Geographical distribution (fig. 1858b. embryology. 108. The generic concept of the genus Syntermes has not been changed since 1910 when it was named by Holmgren (1910. including Hagen (1858a.. gories are artificial conventions useful for cataloging biologic data. may be cited as an example. Higher categories are not necessarily groups of similar units (e. p. Silvestri (1903. I maintain. and no more can be said than that a little more progress has been made toward the definition of the various species. and higher categories are not groups of units with a common origin. The evolutionary pattern is not that of a 'tree of life' in which the main branches represent ancestral stocks which disappeared as they gave rise by radiate evolution to the species at the ends of the tree. 1). p. Starting with Hagen (1853. If the genus Syntermes . Because the nomenclatural system in taxonomy seems to give an impression of finality to many non-taxonomists. It was in a comparatively unsatisfactory condition prior to the new studies contained in this paper. Termes was virtually synonymous with our present concept of the order Isoptera. Such observations tend to substantiate the objectivity of taxonomic categories. p.SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION EARLIER AUTHORS. In the post-Linnaean century. and no necessity has arisen for subdividing it into two or more genera or even into subgenera. 285) with S. 59). but because of the correlation of the data with similar information on organisms more thoroughly studied by geneticists and embryologists. and phases of their ecological relationships. ecology. 5) states: "All of the higher cate437 pp. 1862. p. The taxonomy of the genus Syntermes has by no means been completed... by which we mean that they not only have similar visible patterns but also exhibit in common subtle and complex growth activities during their ontogenetic development-developmental processes which were initiated and influenced by a setof genetic factors or genes highly similar in the various species due to their evolution from a common ancestry. dirus as the generitype species. and gradually the modern generic groups were recognized and named mainly in the works of Wasmann. and Holmgren. Further descriptions and the addition of new species and castes have only substantiated and clarified the concept. The genus would seem to be a natural group of related species. as in other sciences. their geographic distribution. 1858a) the old genus Termes was subdivided. it seems wise to point out from time to time that. described in the preceding pages. There has been some question in the minds of various biologists concerning the reality of the higher taxonomic categories. included species of the genus under the generic name Termes. Silvestri. the nomenclature is no better than the correlations of the gathered data it symbolizes and that it changes as new knowledge is gained. and behavior should be related to phylogeny. p. however. If these basic assumptions are valid. p. particularly if the tentative concepts are based upon meager information. 16. and physiology which are applicable to this particular case of the genus Syntermes. These characters are considered homologous. one would expect other types of evidence to point toward the same general conclusions concerning homology. and Holmgren (1906. but hardly real either in manner of origin or in their intrinsic qualities. This brief summary of the basic assumptions of taxonomic homology rests upon extensive researches in the fields of genetics. Kinsey (1936. I have conformed to the conventional taxonomic tradition of describing the characters which are common to the various species which I and others have included within this genus.g." In the following diagnosis of the genus Syntermes. 107.

However. . and I have given only the range and the mean. In some cases such data may prove quite valuable. the small numbers of Syntermes available for study make this refinement of little value. Whether the species of this group might be classified further into subgenera or genera. the symbol of which is the genus or other higher category. 3. imagoes of species known only from soldiers. Theoretically one should be able to construct a phylogenetic tree of the species within the genus.438 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. it would be wise to express the variation in terms of standard deviation from the mean. It seems best to await further specimens before attempting to form a taxonomic judgment. a fact in harmony with the generalization that the imago is a more conservative caste than the soldier. and it is expected that the discovery of the imagoes of species now described only from soldiers will 'overlap with some of the specific characters used at present and that larger series will probably show overlaps that are not now included. In some cases the taxonomy must remain quite tentative until more information is gathered. is that the key to the species of imagoes is much less satisfactory for determinations than the key to the soldiers. They may be new species. The key is based upon observed series and is useful only as a preliminary guide for specific determination. TERMS 1. The width of the head of the imago includes the eyes. Many of the species based upon the soldier caste seem satisfactory. The arrangement of the species is based upon morphological similarities. or whether they might be incorporated into a larger genus including the species now assigned to Cornitermes depends upon comparative patterns of homologies and the gaps due to extinction. particularly in the Termitidae. The result. but in this case the data are not adequate. It is to be expected that further data will extend the ranges so far noted and that different means may be found. It should also be mentioned that the evolution of generic groups and higher taxonomic categories gives us an understanding of the long-term action of evolutionary factors which are valuable in the analysis of the dynamics of evolutiQn. I have explained below the points which need clarification. To a certain extent these divisions are arbitrary. Light (1927) has expressed proportions by means of various indices. The length of head to side base of mandibles is the greatest length of the head capsule at the side. although greater series and new species will doubtless make it necessary to hunt for new characters and better quantitative data. 83 is an "artificial convention useful for cataloguing biologic data. but I have not found them of sufficient importance in this genus to warrant the extra time involved in measurement. The diameter of the eye is the longest diameter and includes the diameter of the ocular suture. The specific distinctions of the imagoes are more difficult to discover than those of the soldiers. 4. Conversely. All measurements are in millimeters and are taken by means of an ocular micrometer. The male imagoes are somewhat smaller than the females. or even varieties of described species. but I have grouped the measurements in most of the cases. does not symbolize the multidimensional relationships. the imago may be very useful for the diagnosis of higher taxonomic categories. even though speciation still remains the key study of phylogeny." Termitopone commutata must have extrasensory perception in reading the minds of termite taxonomists. but the data still point to the objective reality of genetic and phylogenetic relationships. 2. however. Inasmuch as different students have different systems of measurements. When sufficient numbers are available. and it is deemed important to give exact measurements of the specimens studied. and such evolutionary associations are merely suggested in the linear order which. but hardly real either in manner of origin or in intrinsic qualities. I have in my collection two vials of imagoes with characters that do not fit the key descriptions. Larger collections may ultimately be studied from this point of view with profit. however. and Kinsey is right in emphasizing a degree of subjectivity. Size may be fairly characteristic of a species or subspecies. The length of the head with mandibles includes the extended mandibles.

3. 462. Eyes relatively small or medium-sized. 3): Color yellowish brown to dark brown. p. 1862. 1906. = Genus Syntermes HOLMGREN. the wings). 176. 474. 1910. 8. the wing length includes the scale. The author examined all the listed specimens. if a repository is not indicated. 16. 9. This can usually be measured without removing the mandible. 2. Head oval or egg-shaped. are the field numbers of the collectors. Mandibles of imago of Syntermes dirus (Burmeister). 1924. a fairly sharp ridge running diagonally from the front of the eye to the lower base of the mandibles." 7. Head. the determinations of the listed specimens were made by the author and conform to the nomenclature used in this paper. 47. Other numbers listed. IMAGO (FIGS. -Genus Syntermes EMERSON. 1937. and wing scales with fairly long. scattered bristles. If the suture is not mentioned. and the descriptions are based upon this material. p. The length of the postmentum is the median length of the sclerotized portion. 1912. <Genus Termes HAGEN. -Genus Syntermes EMERSON. pronotum. cotype. 475. cotype. wing membranes hyaline or brown. p. is not the maximum length if there are emarginated front or hind borders. pp. Size large (smallest specimens measure about 27 mm. p. long with FIG. -Genus Syntermes HARE. p. In earlier works this sclerite has often been referred to as the "gula.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 439 5. 2. The length of the pronotum is the length of the middle line and. 11. 1911. FIG. GENUS SYNTERMES <Genus Termes HAGEN. 107. 1928. 45. -Genus Syntermes HOLMGREN. 1936. p. Unless otherwise stated. p. wing membrane and veins with short hairs and no chitinous punctations. 1903. =Genus Syntermes WHEELER. 21. 1858b. 406. <Genus Termes HAGEN. 1925. therefore. 357. The length of the wing from the suture and the length of the scale are taken from the costal border of the suture. pp. 59. The width of the thoracic nota includes the spines when present. 1858a. . <Genus Termes HOLMGREN. -Genus Syntermes HOLMGREN. The length of the mandible includes the rounded side condyle projection. p. 545. pp. p. 6. <Genus Termes SILVESTRI. 108. 544. p. 285. Head and pronotum of imago of Syntermes dirus (Burmeister). prom- -Genus Syntermes SNYDER. 46. The specimens are deposited in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History unless another repository is given.

roundish. Forelegs with three tibial spines near the apex. curved stripes converging at the posterior margin. Outer portions of mandibles black. basal light portion quite sharply separated from outer black portion and showing a small but distinct notch at the junction on the outer margin.27 mm. sides straight or a little curved. R4+5 running singly to the tip of the wing where it may be branched. lighter or about the same color as the head. running roughly medianly between R and Cu. and sometimes the median suture is also visible. slightly curved or nearly straight cutting edge between the first marginal tooth and the small second marginal tooth. Shape of wings elongate with slightly curved costal and inner margins. Right mandible with a marginal and usually conspicuous tooth which may be almost vestigial (S. 3) with the apical and first marginal tooth roughly similar in size and a long. and middle and hind legs with two tibial spines near the apex (3:2:2). proportionately wide (narrowest about seveneighths width of head). Wing suture nearly straight with small undulations. Labrum three-pointed.AA0 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. Hind margin of mesonotum widely concave with fairly sharp lateral angles (occasionally rounded). Postmentum somewhat constricted in the middle. Anteclypeus white. continuous. 83 inent. Hind margin of metanotum widely concave with fairly sharp or rounded lateral angles. (Note: The above homologies of the teeth seem to be a fair assumption from a comparison with the mandibles of the Macrotermitinae which have an acute notch between the first and second marginal teeth. Pronotum with median emargination or entire front margin. either somewhat narrower or wider than the head. Fore and hind wings with a short R1 and sometimes R2+3 joining the costal border a little beyond the wing suture. with some reticulations between the costal border and the radius near the tip. yellowish. at least one and one-third times their length from the eyes. Cu weak with 14 to 17 branches. conspicuous. Frontal tube short. Mandibles large and powerful. SOLDIER (FIGS. a longitudinal lateral ridge on each side on the under surface. less than half as long as wide. Antennae with 19 to 21 articles.18 mm. Arolium absent. Two small visible structures or spots making a triangular arrangement with the opening of the frontal gland. darker. Antennae with 19 to 21 articles. anterior lobe large and sharply marked from the rest of the . including base of mandibles. except in S. 2) with a thin white anterior lip. molestus and parallelus). Hind margin conspicuously emarginate. Male and female with styli absent. Head large (width 2.1 mm. Pronotum somewhat saddle-shaped. diagonal. Arms of the Y-suture visible in favorable light. Postclypeus flatly arched with a median longitudinal line. a blunt notch posterior to the second marginal tooth. Left mandible with a marginal tooth from a little less than half to more than half the length of the mandible from the base. sclerotized mark in the middle. Labrum hatchet-shaped (fig. a frontal lobe with an anterior vertical surface and flat lateral projections which may be sharply pointed or somewhat rounded. all notches sharper than a right angle. Postclypeus fused with the front. depressed or forming a convex plate. and lateral points which are either slightly more than a right angle or sharper (to 600 angle). Penultimate article distinctly more than twice as long as wide (5:2). joining R4+5 beyond the suture in the hind wing. Anteclypeus white. Cerci short with two articles. molestus in which the nota have somewhat angular sides. parallel or converging toward the front. FQntanelle large (smallest 0. Head with many or few hairs or bristles. Scales of wings not overlapping the posterior border of the notum. width of narrowest part over half the width of the widest part.) The right mandible (fig.4-7. 3) with an apical tooth slightly larger or nearly the same size as the first marginal tooth. with a small light spot immediately anterior to the fontanelle. long). with white median tip. M weak. Thoracic nota with sharp lateral spines. even.). with two sclerotized. Tarsi with four articles. less than half as long as wide. the arms curving toward the front lateral margin. the suture still visible in a favorable light. 4-12): Color yellow brown. long). Ocelli medium size (smallest 0. with a Vshaped. The left mandible (fig. no longer than the diameter of the antennal socket and sometimes hardly projecting above the surface of the head. curved or somewhat hooked near the tips. and the second marginal tooth smaller than the first marginal tooth.

we must suppose that neither developed directly from the other. 7. Acanthotermes possesses trimorphic soldiers compared to the monomorphic soldiers of Syntermes. (3:2:2). the three apical spurs on the tibiae of the forelegs. covered with a few or numerous bristles. (This would indicate that the conspicuous second marginal tooth of the left mandible of the worker of Acanthotermes is homologous with the third marginal tooth in the Rhinotermitidae. round and white. Acanthotermes has a frontal spine near the opening of the frontal gland and does not possess the frontal tube which is slightly developed in Syn. The major soldier of Acanthotermes has no lateral projections of the labrum. The closest relative outside of the subfamily Nasutitermitinae would seem to be the genus Acanthotermes of the Macrotermitinae. Y-suture present. The reduced teeth on the mandible of the soldier of Acanthotermes must be considered more specialized than the toothed mandibles of Syntermes. Syntermes has no frontal spines on the pronotum in either the imago or the soldier. the white tip on the labrum of the soldier in both genera (the tip of the imago labrum has a white lip in Syntermes and Pseudacanthotermes). Mandibles similar to those of the imago. the proportionately large mandibles of the soldier. the relatively small frontal tube of the soldier. Acanthotermes is a fungus-growing termite in common with all the genera of the Macrotermitinae. Thoracic nota with sharp lateral spines or without such spines in S. Forelegs with three tibial spines near the apex. but that both are descended from an extinct group possessing the primitive characters of both of these subfamilies. as large as. The more important differences between Acanthotermes and Syntermes may be summarized as follows: 1. The relative primitiveness is indicated by the large size of the imago and soldier. (Note: At least one and probably two of the five types of Acanthotermes soldiers described and figured by Sj6stedt [1926] are modifications caused by parasitic fly larvae in the heads. while Syntermes does not cultivate fungi in common with all genera of the Nasutitermitinae and other termites. 3. the 19 to 21 articles in the antennae of the imago and soldier. the postmentum of the soldier in both genera is not particularly wide in the middle in contrast to the wide postmentum in the higher Macrotermitinae. although the minor soldier has fleshly lateral projections not sclerotized as in Syntermes. Antennae with 19 to 20 articles.) 6. and middle and hind legs with two tibial spines near the apex WORKER: Head yellow brown or light yellowish white. The styli on the male imago of Pseudacanthotermes must be considered a more primitive character than their absence in Syntermes. uniform in general tooth pattern in all species (see fig. Inasmuch as each of these primitive genera of the Macrotermitinae and Nasutitermitinae has generalized characters not found in the other subfamily.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 441 pronotum by angular notches on the margins and in profile rising at a fairly sharp angle from the middle portion. Labrum hatchet-shaped with a thin white tip.termes. 8. and both Syntermes and Acanthotermes possess three spines near the tip of the tibiae of the foreleg and two spines on the tibiae of the other legs (3:2:2). the lateral spines or pointed sides of the thoracic nota of the soldier. with a median line. the antennal sockets. molestus. Fontanelle fairly large. Anteclypeus as in the soldier. 2. The similarities of Syntermes and Acanthotermes include what seem to be homologous lateral spines on the soldier mesothorax and metathorax.) 5. 4. 3). or a little smaller than. the left worker mandible of Acanthotermes is definitely more primitive than that of Syntermes. RELATIONSHIPS: Syntermes is the most primitive genus of the Nasutitermitinae (Termitidae) and is closest to the genus Cornitermes. and the short R1 joining the costal border a little beyond the wing suture. The left mandible of Acanthotermes workers has what appears to be a vestigial second marginal tooth homologous with the second marginal tooth of the imago-worker mandible of the Rhinotermitidae. Postclypeus a little shorter than half its width. vestiges of lateral spines on the sides of the prothorax of Acanthotermes (these spines are very small on the worker of A canthotermes but are present on most of the species of Syntermes). .

S.. opening of gland somewhat upward. peruanus .. . 1. Notal spines medium-sized . .. .. snyderi Cutting edge of apical tooth of left mandible distinctly sigmoid . .. 2 Tooth of right mandible comparatively small or vestigial. . .1 mm. 83 OF Syntermes 1. . .72-4. Sides of head straight. peruanus . . .. Notal spines very large. . width of head 5.32 mm. .6 mm.6-3.1 mm. length of head to side base of mandibles 5. wide...79 mm. . width of head 6. . .. brevimalatus 4. opening of gland somewhat upward. Pronotum distinctly wider than the head .11 Sides of head straight.47 mm.. .6 mm. . . diameter of eye 0. Profile of frontal tube showing a shallow angle with the line of the top of the head. head covered with few to numerous straight bristles. .25 mm. 8). . length of head to side base of mandibles over 5. .62-3.15 mm.. . .. wide. . width of head 4. S.S.... S.. . .72 mm.. . 4) . . .... length of left mandible 3. . . S. . diameter of eye 1.. 11. . . . Large or medium-sized species. . head covered abundantly with straight bristles (fig. magnoculus 6. wide (fig.. . chaquimayensis subspecies parvinasus Length of left mandible 3. 8 Small species.) . . .. . SOLDIERS 1...71-0.. . S. . S. width of head 5. width of head 6. . . frontal tube comparatively large. parallelus S..14 mm. . . width of head 5.. . Length of left mandible more than half the width of the head .27-4.58 mm. . . . frontal tube not prominent (fig. territus 4. . .. .. (fig. . . .39 mm. . . molestus .05 mm. .14-4. wide. . .. . wide..46-1.. .. . converging markedly toward the front. ..) (fig. wide. S. . tip to point of tooth 1. hageni Length of left mandible 3. long (color of wing not known) . . diameter of eye 0. width of head 6. c. ..67-6. 3 Pronotum distinctly narrower than the head. . grandis Sides of head a little curved. 4 3. tip to point of tooth of left mandible 1. . . width of pronotum 5. . ... width of head 5..03-1.58-6.41 mm.59 mm. . . .. S.. .. angle between frontal tube and top of head in profile flat (160°) S. .58-7...88-4. chaquimayensis subspecies emersoni Length of left mandible 3. dirus Pronotum 2. . diameter of eye 0. . 8. S..64 mm.. 3 3.. opening of gland vertical.66 mm. .79 mm..02 mm. 6 5. . head covered rather abundantly with straight bristles . snyderi Pronotum 3.. . ..03 mm.. S. magnoculus Pronotum 3. .94-5 mm. . length of head to side base of mandibles 6. . . tooth of left mandible definitely projecting well beyond the apical margin . 6) .. . . .37 mm.. . . 13 Notal spines short.74-3 mm..442 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY KEY TO THE SPECIES IMAGOES VOL. S. . . ..6-3.23-3. 1. Pronotum 3. 9) . .72 mm.47-3.61 mm. .32 mm. . .. ..19-1.. . . . S. ... .6 mm...S.27 mm. ... tooth of left mandible not projecting much beyond the apical margin . peruanus Pronotum 2.67 mm... sides of head parallel or . ..37-5. grandis Pronotum 3. .. wide . Profile of frontal tube showing a shallow angle with the line of the top of the head. obtusus Pronotum 3. . .. . verging toward the front. . . 5 Cutting edge of left mandible beyond the notch distinctly sigmoid .2-7. . . . . 2) . . 5 2. . S.88 mm .. width of head over 5. . . (fig. .. wide..58-7. . chaquimayensis . Notal spines of medium to short length.. ..21-1.. . frontal tube prominent ..926.. .72 mm. . . 10 . . . . . .85 mm... . . 2 Wing membrane hyaline ..23 mm. solidus . .. ..99-3. S. Cutting edge of apical tooth of left mandible not or slightly sigmoid. ..13 mm.77 mm. .. .41-3. . .. 1. ... Cutting edge of left mandible beyond the notch not distinctly sigmoid. . nearly as wide as width of head (6. 7..08-5.78 mm... . Wing membrane brown .77 mm. . sides of head strongly con.... . Pronotum 4..6 mm. . . 10) S. . 9 Length of left mandible 4. . . . . . S.. . snyderi Smaller species (width of head 6. .S. . Larger species (width of head 6. . . long .. territus Pronotum 2. ... 10. S. S. . wide. .. head thickly covered with bristles. ... .. . . .38-1.. .34 mm. S.. pronotum 6... 11) . . 12. wide. aculeosus ...9-4. . .. . (color of wing not known). . ... . Tooth of right mandible comparatively large.616. . Pronotum 4. converging a little toward the front. . 9. .08 mm. ...97-1.... . . . .. long ..66 mm. . 7 Profile of frontal tube not showing any angle with the line of the top of the head or showing an extremely shallow angle.. ..). . wide.. .19 mm. converging only slightly toward the front. head with a number of bristles but not thickly covered. . S.12 2. width of pronotum 4... . 4 Length of left mandible about half the width of the head (fig. lighti Length of left mandible 3.67-6. .. 7) S. ... Pronotum 2. wheeleri ..03 mm. . . diameter of eye 1. .99-3.. 5) . angle between frontal tube and top of head in profile comparatively sharp (1350). S.96 mm... wide. (fig.. head covered with curly hair (fig. . . ..

many of the hairs rather delicate and curved. . . . pronotum. molestus 13. Head stocky. .54-4. . .63-3. . . . . . S. . . sides of head a little curved. . . . . . S. . . Width of head 4. new species SOLDIER (FIG. Head.16 mm. . . . opening of the frontal tube slightly upward at an angle to the axis of the head. . . Sides of head slightly converging toward the front . f 2) . frontal .24 mm. widest behind. 4. width of pronotum . . . . silvestrii 15. . . holotype. .84 mm.4 mm. calvus 14. S. posterior portion continuous with the top of head without angle. . opening of frontal tube forward and nearly vertical to the axis of the head or slightly upward at an angle of 45° or greater. .17-3.23 mm. . S. . dirus Frontal tube hardly elevated above the head at the anterior margin. opening of frontal tube forward or a little upward with an angle at the junction of the frontal tube and vertex. sternites. slightly converging. giving a fuzzy appearance. . S. . width of pronotum 3. 14 Sides of head strongly converging toward the front and nearly straight. sides of head nearly straight. . . . Frontal tube elevated above the head at an- 3.17 mm. terior margin. peruanus . legs. sides straight and converging toward the front. sides of head a little Syntermes aculeosus. territus Width of head 2. . 4): Head.. . . 443 . . . . S. S. width of pronotum 3. new species. . . opening of frontal tube upward at angle of about 450 to the long axis of the head. thoracic nota. (fig. width of pronotum 3. . and postmentum of soldier of Syntermes aculeosus. . labrum.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES .66-4. . . . parallelus curved. FIG. . base of mandibles.97-3. .. . postmentum. . and posterior tergites thickly covered with hair.. . Frontal tube hardly elevated above head at anterior margin. .15 Notal spines absent .21-5.

Syntermes aculeosus is unique among the described species of Syntermes in the type of pilosity and in the enormous size of the thoracic spines. 547 (imago). one with 19 articles. 20.00 mm. The pilosity is not so abundant or so curly. Labrum threepointed with white tip. Left mandible with a large tooth forming an angle with the apical portion somewhat less than a right angle.29 0.VII.13 mm.06 Narrowest width of postmentum 2. Membrane hairs absent near the suture on the inner portion. The imago is . wide and 0.21 mm. with the subapical articles about 0. brevimalatus. p. Wings hyaline with yellow brown costal border and radial veins. and conical.61 Width of pronotum 6.59 Width of pronotum COMPARISONS: Syntermes snyderi soldiers have shorter and straighter bristles. Termes grandis SILVESTRI. Syntermes obtusus SNYDER.17 mm. long on the outer margin giving a ciliated appearance and almost disappear on the outer portion. 1924.25 6.52 2. but I cannot be sure of the association. pl. brevimalatus. worker). 49 (imago.42 4. thick.07 Length of pronotum 6. right mandible also with large tooth which has a broken tip in the specimen. Color similar to soldier.33 31. long. 57025' W. Syntermes obtusus HOLMGREN. COMPARISONS: Syntermes magnoculus is smaller but is very close and could conceivably belong to the same species.1936. 83 tube wrinkled.47 7. The notal spines are much smaller (width of pronotum 4. 1901.23 Width of mesonotum 7.10 snyderi. snyderi and S. 22. Total length 10. brevimalktus. pp. subapical articles about 0. forming a flat angle with the vertex. I have no hesitation in describing the individual as belonging to a new species. 4.00 mm. antennae brownish. Thoracic spines a little thicker than S.12 2. Front margin of pronotum emarginate. snyderi is sometimes more sigmoid. British Guiana (type locality). LARGER WORKIER: I judge this worker to be conspecific with the soldier because of the pilosity. p. Weber. figs. p. 584.444 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. opening forward and slightly upward. Width of head 2.65 0.).18-0. The antennae are less robust.17 4.50 3. but the inside edge of the apical portion in S.48 0. Although I have only a single specimen.33 Length of hind tibia Syntermes magnoculus has a similar-shaped mandible. narrowest portion about two-thirds the width of the widest portion. A. Length with wings Length without wings Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Diameter of eye Eye from lower margin of head Length of ocelli Width of ocelli Ocelli from eyes Length of fontanelle Length of left mandible Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia Length of anterior wing Width of anterior wing 40.14 bles 6.). The mandibles are similar. all points a little more obtuse than a right angle.77 Widest width of postmentum 1. lateral spines very robust. 3. coll. workers). 2. 1): Oronoque River (02°42' N.76 Length of postmentum 1.02 mm. The single soldier and worker were found in a vial with S. No. 1903. 1911.).32 Length of left mandible 3. and the tip of the left mandible is more hooked. p. 116 (biology). apical cutting edge not sigmoid. 79-83 (imago. The size is smaller (head width 6.34 Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandi7. Syntermes obtusu Holmgren Termes grandis SILVESTRI.. It is closest to S. IMAGO: Antennae with 21 articles. Antennae incomplete in specimen. 22 (imago). The lateral spines of the thoracic nota are much less robust in S.33 Width of metanotum 7. N.00 mm. 546. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. wide.96 Width of head 4. Spines on the mesonota and metanota also robust and conical similar to the prothoracic spines but directed a little posteriorly. 1 soldier (holotype).58 1 . 1 worker. magnoculus in the shape of its mandibles.47 mm. 19. with a sharper angle at the tooth in the left mandible.19 0. Postmentum stocky. Pilosity a little thicker than S.32 0.

13 3.58 mm. 23 (imago. and converging a little toward the front.35 Ocelli from eye 0. The pronotal angles are similar.29 Length of ocellus 0. with a large first marginal tooth making an angle of about 600 with the apical cutting edge. F. ble with curved apical cutting edge not sigmoid.50 0. workers. grandis and has larger eyes. Paraguay (type locality).90 1.29 0. grandis. Notal spines comparatively of medium length.14 4. det.64 Ocelli from fontanelle 0.15 Eye from lower margin 0.47 Width of ocellus 0. SOLDIER (FIG.82 Length of fontanelle 0. Wing membrane hyaline. obtusus has a head width of 4.25 mm. Sides of head fairly straight FIG. 2 imagoes (types). Holmgren. the gland opening forward but not quite vertical to the longitudinal axis of the head. 560271 W. 22 (soldier).22 mm. fig. 5. 4.44 Width of fontanelle 0. Silvestri Coll. IMAGO: Head dark brown. coll. Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum 6. in a depression. 8. Males were compared to males to avoid sexual differences. Front and top of the head with a few long hairs. 1): Villa Rica (250551 S. but not in the middle.77 COMPARISONS: Syntermes obtusus is close and might be the same species. An. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. snyderi which is distinctly larger. pp. However. the same color as the ocelli. Lateral angles of labrum about equal to a right angle.41 0.35 Length of pronotum 1. Fontanelle round. and a pronotum width of 4.). 22. Left mandi- Syntermes magnoculus Snyder Syntermes magnoculus SNYDER. Pronotum with anterior angles not very sharp. Left mandible of soldier of Syntermes magnoculus Snyder. posterior edge making a flat angle with the vertex. Portici. Silvestri. Syntermes graniis is very close. topotype.01 Width of pronotum 3. 1924.00 mm. soldier). Length of head with mandibles 4. tip white. MALE FEMALE Length with wings 39. F. Antennae with 20 articles.23 0.89 4.96 1.03 1. angle at the tip greater than a right angle.08 Length of hind tibia 6.88 4. but the frontal lobe of the pronotum of S. Pronotum strikingly saddle-shaped with a depressed line near the anterior margin and both sides. 6. grandis rises at a sharper angle from the main portion.86 Length of anterior wing from suture 31. Fontanelle yellow.88 2.00 Width of anterior wing 6..1900.39 Diameter of eye 1. N. det. the type of S.. terior edge of frontal tube raised a little above the rest of the head. These species are quite closely related.02 3.X.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 445 somewhat larger than S.08 COMPARISONS: The closest species seems to be S.89 Width of head 4. pl.50 40.63 0.17 4. Antennae with 20 articles. 5): Head with a few scattered bristles. about the same size as the ocelli. Silvestri as T. Front margin of the pronotum emarginate. has .

1937. Syntermes snyderi SNYDER.3. 294.93. 590491 W.80 more bristles on the head.76. 28 (worker and soldier mandibles).71 0.0.90-4. 27.M. pp. Right mandible with a large marginal tooth forming an angle with the apical cutting edge of about 750.). and sternites orange yellow brown. Antennae with 19 or 20 articles. Syntermes snyderi WHEELER. 468 (systematics). about one-third their length from the lower margin.4.26 0. 83 1. text fig. E. Head and pronotum with a few bristles. Frontal tube with a flat angle where it joins the vertex and distinctly elevated above the head in front. E. Matto Grosso. 21 (imago). H. X. however.25 2. fig. Syntermes dirus SNYDER. has a narrower pronotum in all the specimens examined.65 1.77 6. Syntermes snyderi EMERSON.10 6. 510 (imago. Ocelli of medium size.49-6.4. E. soldier. 14510. Wing scales with numerous bristles.. pronotum. soldier).3. opening nearly vertical to about 450 to the axis of the head. narrowest width about two-thirds of widest width. Syntermes snyderi Emerson ? Termes dirus WALKER. 7 (soldier). Pronotum wider than head.76 2. larger than ocelli. p.64 Length of hind tibia 3 6. Smith. Smith.C. pp. p. 176. Syntermes snyderi EMERSON. dirus which. prominent..S.01. Length of head with mandibles 4. 1936. 176 (biology. pp. 1925. wings and tergites brown contrasting quite strongly with yellowish regions.2. the tip about equal to a right angle. p. M. T. det.19-1. anterior angles quite sharp and outturned.Z.12 Length of pronotum 1 1. M. postmentum. 1853. 258 (nest).74 6. 44 (imago.57.71 0. Snyder.78. p. in Snyder. p.59 1. Width of head 14 6. 1): Chapada (14010' S.81 Length of left mandible 13 3. Left mandible with apical cutting edge somewhat or slightly sigmoid forming an angle with the large prominent tooth of about 600 or a little wider (450 in the Venezuelan specimens).60 .446 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Width of labrum Length of postclypeus Width of postclypeus Length of left mandible Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia Length of anterior wing from suture Width of anterior wing VOL. The coloration seems to be quite similar. base of mandibles. 2.58 6.50 mm.N.35 mm. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. 221 (biology).23 4. det.11 3.08-5.75 0.88 Width of pronotum 14 5. VII. Syntermes snyderi HARE. type No.13 Length of left mandible from tip to tip of tooth 10 1.09 30. U. T. fig. 310. British Guiana. Snyder. 174. sides straight and converging somewhat toward the front. British Guiana only).Z.76 Narrowest width of 1 postmentum 1. Brazil (type locality). 1924. 358 (imago. 1924. soldier). RANGE MEAN Length of head to side base of mandibles 2 6. pl. only).7.71. det. Length with wings 35. 28 (soldier from Kartabo. p. Eyes small. SOLDIER: Head. Front margin of pronotum emarginate or evenly curved. 1926. coll.33. Spines fairly large and of about equal size on the three nota. Head very large. 1 soldier (topotype).79 5. Antennae with 19 or 20 articles..C.63 Widest width of postmentum 1 1. pronotum. 1 male (paratype). over twice their length from the eyes and about midway between the eyes and fontanelle.7. Syntermes snyderi EMERSON. 1 female (holotype).27.79 Width of metanotum 1 5.58-7. 1936.88 Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Diameter of eye Eye from lower margin Length of ocelli Width of ocelli Ocelli from eyes Ocelli from fontanelle Length of fontanelle Width of fontanelle 2.41 COMPARISONS: The closest species seems to be S. T. coll. Postmentum stocky.61 0. IMAGO: Head. and a more sigmoid apical cutting edge of the left mandible.83 7.23 0.00-42. Snyder. Fontanelle round. H.92 0. H. H. Syntermes dirus WHEELER. light.42 Length of postmentum 1 3. No.32 0. 1938. X. labrum. worker).39 Width of mesonotum 1 4.41 0. 22 (soldier).11-6. and abdomen covered with a great many straight bristles.10 4.

V. p. 18.C. 3 soldiers.). The species referred to S. Future data may indicate subspecific distinction between these forms.N. coll. 8 soldiers (holotype and paratypes).1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 447 COMPARISONS: Syntermes snyderi seems to be closest to S.VI. These Venezuelan forms have a somewhat shorter left mandible than the types. Edward's Mission on the Mazaruni River 2 miles above Kartabo. Surinam. coll. Antennae broken in specimen.1919. 176) belongs to S. 10.34 Length of hind tibia 24. Bufo typhonius. snyderi.90 Length of left mandible 3. legs.73 Width of head 3. coll. solidus which has a larger. workers). Le Moult. SOLDIER (FIG. No. and the tooth of the left mandible extends farther and forms a wide-angled notch. A. dirus from British Guiana.80 Width of mesonotum 4. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. Some were observed 100 to 150 feet up in the air. imagoes. British Guiana. Head.1 Moroni Syntermes chaquimayensis chaquimayensis (Holmgren) Termes chaquimayensis HOLMGREN. by Indians. apical cutting edge only barely suggesting a sigmoid shape. 24. sides straight and converging toward the front.00 Width of pronotum 3. The angle formed by the tooth in the left mandible is narrower. St.1924. 547 (soldier. No.21 Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandi6. 1 soldier. and a less projecting marginal tooth. but portions of the head and pronotum have similar pilosity. new species COMPARISONS: The species is most closely related to S. snyderi until Walker's specimens are reexamined. p. thoracic nota. The Venezuelan form is close to S. opening of gland vertical to long axis of head. British Guiana. Reyne.47 Widest width of postmentum 0.07 Length of pronotum 5. 6): Color of specimen black due to preservation. subspecies parvinasus which has few bristles and a less prominent frontal tube and a distinct sigmoid apical cutting edge of the left mandible. Mesonotal and metanotal spines also fairly robust and a little smaller than pronotal spines. 52. 1 male. Syntermes snyderi is quite close but has somewhat longer left mandibles. A.00 mm. coll. Emerson. 2 soldiers (paratypes).162g and unnumbered vial.1920. coll. Left mandible with a prominent marginal tooth.VI. 6. labrum. Head widest behind. Flying alates were observed on 2. and sharper angle of the notch of the left mandible. 1906.. A. the angle with the apical tooth less than 450.1924 at about 6 P. chaquimayensis from which it differs in its larger frontal tube. 1): Kartabo (06023' N. tergites. 1 soldier. but front concave and wrinkled. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. These soldiers have fewer bristles on the top of the head than the type colony. 510) records T. 58042' W. No. 3 bristles. Narrowest portion of postmentum over half the width of the widest portion.54 Length of postmentum 1.170. the cutting edge of the apical tooth sigmoid.1924. but the variation seems too slight for taxonomic distinction. A. Tip of labrum a little more obtuse than a right angle. coll. Total length 9. River. p. and sternites rather thickly covered with straight and fairly long 5406' W.63 Width of metanotum 6.1919.71 bles 6. Emerson.V. British Guiana (type locality). Emerson.90 Narrowest width of postmentum 2.. A. a more strongly sigmoid apical cutting edge of the left mandible. M. 5. from Chicago M. more prominent frontal tube. 2. lateral angles blunt and about equal to right angles. Front margin of pronotum emarginate. postmentum. Indians brought me alates at Kartabo which they said were flying on 4. Jean (05022' N. base of mandibles. 13. chaquimayensts. No. not in much of a depression. dirus from Kartabo. 1): St.). It would seem best to consider this record as a synonym of S.Z.H.VI. 1 female (topotypes). Venezuela. Reyne. imagoes (morphotype and paratypes). French Guiana (type locality). Right mandible with a fairly large tooth forming an angle with the apical portion a little less than a right angle. workers in stomach contents of a toad. Portions indicate that original color was yellow brown. more convergent sides of the head. soldier removed from pin (holotype). coll. Walker (1853. No.VIII. lateral spines fairly robust and conical. by Snyder (1924) and by Wheeler (1936. soldiers. Frontal tube comparatively large.M. . Syntermes solidus.

pp. holotype. Left mandible with a prominent marginal tooth extending somewhat beyond the apical cutting edge and forming an angle of about 450 to 600 with the apical cutting edge which is sigmoid. 4 (soldier). LARGE WORKER: Antennae with 20 articles. pp. base of mandibles. 2. 22. 6. and sternites covered rather abundantly with bristles.16 mm. COMPARISONS: This species may tentatively be subdivided into three subspecies. wide and 0. 191 1. pp. penultimate article 0. 548). Frontal tube lying in a slight depression. fig. side points about equal to right angles or slightly more blunt. There is no doubt that these subspecies are quite closely related. Syntermes chaquimayensis SNYDER. Narrowest width of postmentum about two- thirds the widest width.41 mm. tergites.448 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. Syntermes chaquimayensis SNYDER. 7). 546-S548 (soldier). converging a little toward the front. 1936. SOLDIER: Head. 26 (soldier). 1924. 173. p. Sides of head fairly straight. about equal in pilosity to subspecies parvinasus (fig. 1926. I have included the total length given by Holmgren (1911. Syntermes chaquimayensis WHEELER. 176 (biology). opening facing slightly upward at an angle. The typical subspecies is . Right mandible with a prominent marginal tooth. thoracic nota. Dorsal view of head and pronotum and ventral view of head of soldier of Syntermes solidus new species. Lateral spines on the thoracic nota comparatively of medium size and about equal in length and thickness on the three segments. Tip of labrum sharper than a right angle. Width of head 3. long. posterior junction of tube with the head forming a flat angle (about 1600). Antennae with 19 or 20 articles. Front margin of pronotum emarginate or not emarginate. and further samples of the populations from various localities as well as the collection of the reproductives are necessary for the validation or refutation of the suggested categories. Syntermes chaquimayensis HOLMGREN. 83 FIG. postmentum. pl.41 mm. p. 17 (locality).

type No.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 449 MEAN 16. det..85 5. 68035' W.67. workers. coll. This specimen from eastern Brazil is geographically removed from the Peruvian and Bolivian series and might conceivably be different. det. Thayer Expedition.34.55- 1. 11 soldiers (metatypes). chaquimityensis parvinasus is larger. 26. 1 soldier (holotype). Near Philadelphia (17053' S. N..34 Length of right mandible from tip to 1. subspecies emersoni Snyder Syntermes emersoni SNYDER. chaquimayensis.52 XI. Peru. Llinquipata (13°49' S. Aside from somewhat narrower thoracic nota.59 5. fig. Brazil (type locality).66 Length of left mandible Length of left mandible from tip to point of tooth 1. The angle between the posterior portion of the frontal tube and the vertex is about 1350 in profile while this angle is flatter in S. c. M. 5 2 8 21 7 4 5 5 3 7 5 5 4 RANGE 15. 67007' W.) [Tuiche Valley]. Cocos Valley.64 3.95 4. det. 1): Chaquimayo (13044' S. Perene). 4. T. but the morphology is very close to S.00 5. and near Buturu (140171 S.). base of the mandibles than in S. E. chaquimayensis. Caupolican). c. S.).89 3.66 1. 26 (soldier). chaquimayensis. but is a little smaller and has a flatter angle (1600) at the junction of the frontal tube and vertex. U. pl. 9. J. 25748.VI. Peru.32 3. 377. 2 soldiers (cotype).N. 41019' W.1904. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. SOLDIER: Pilosity close to S.3. The hairs are stiff and straight as in S. Huachi t15036' S. c. M.1. .78 mm.09 1.20. extended) Estimated length of head with mandibles extended 10. 22.Z.61 3.88 4. T.30 Length of hind tibia 6. The larger size.M. c.). W. 1 soldier.21 5.89 4. chaquimayensis emersoni. Bradley. Holmgren.00-18. I have no specimens surely from the type locality but have 3 soldiers (probably cotypes).73.02 6.05 1.38 point of tooth Length of pronotum 2.C. c. E. Prov. slight difference in pilosity.834. 20 (soldier). Perene (10°53' S.47. 5 soldiers (metatypes).61 3. Snyder.01.34 5.08 SOLDIER Total length Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia No. No. Hartt and Copeland. Bolivia. but I am tentatively including the form as a subspecies of S.).50 8. Peru (type locality). chaquimayensis. and the frontal tube is proportionately smaller.39 5. There seem to be fewer hairs on the COMPARISONS: This form was originally described by Snyder (1924) as a separate species. Rio San Gaban Valley.6. Length of head with mandibles (not 9.54 1. however. Bolivia.70 mm. 70°38' W.08 Width of head 6.64 very close to S. 1): Iguaripe (possibly Aguaripe. between Rio Azata and Rio Tavara in the Tambopata Valley (Prov.3. chaquimayensis. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. Brazil.78 3.49 1. There are fewer hairs on the head in places. 1920. chaquimayensis. 380551 W. and coll.S.. 75°12' W. Snyder... C. de Carabaya. workers.9..96 4. The species is also recorded from El Campamiento (Col.1. but this difference may be due to rubbing. Peru. chaquimayensis on admittedly very inadequate data.624.. Holmgren.6. 1924.01 Width of pronotum 5.15 Length of head to tip of labrum 8. I am unable to make any distinction and think it best to consider it conspecific until more specimens are available.71 1. and small difference in the angle between the frontal tube and the vertex may not be characteristic of the populations. locality unknown. Bahia). The general proportions of the head and the mandible dentation are virtually the same as in S.83.085.).. coll. coll. N. 13°08' S. det.253. Mann. pp. 70039' W. Syntermes chaquimayensis.

new subspecies. Dorsal view of head and pronotum and ventral view of head of soldier of Syntermes chaquimayensis. Left mandible with a large tooth forming an angle with the apical portion of about 450 or slightly less. base of mandibles. sternites. cutting edge posterior to marginal tooth undulating. new subspecies VOL. COMPARISONS: Close to S. solidus. Antennae broken in all specimens examined. but the frontal tube is not so conspicuous and the notch of the left mandible anterior to the first marginal tooth is wider than in S. sides straight. Close to S. opening the cutting edge of the apical tooth distinctly sigmoid. 7): Head. raised only a little above the vertex at the posterior edge. Narrowest portion of postmentum over half as wide as the widest portion. Head converging somewhat in front. Right mandible with fairly large marginal tooth which makes an angle with the apical portion a little less than a right angle. anterior edge level with the front. pointing up at an angle of about 45°. 83 SOLDIER (FIG. but the frontal tube is not . labrum. solidus. snyderi. Lateral spines of mesonota and metanota nearly as large as the pronotal spines. Lateral spines fairly large. Tip of labrum about equal to a right angle or slightly greater or less than a right angle. subspecies parvinasus. the cutting edge of the apical tooth is very slightly convex or nearly straight near the notch. lateral points about equal to right angles. a small notch anterior to the basal tooth at the junction of the light and dark portions of the mandible.450 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Syntermes chaquimayensis. hind margin nearly straight. of the pronotum emarginate. Frontal tube comparatively very small. Front margin FIG. postmentum. holotype. 7. legs. subspecies parvinasus. and tergites covered rather abundantly with straight bristles. thoracic nota.

20. p.05 6. grandis was in the same vial. c...4. DISTRIBUTION (FIG.4. 2. 22.22 5.. hind margin con- spicuously emarginate. 546548 (imago.63 so conspicuous and the head bristles are fewer in S.24 4. p. c. Termesfuscum LATREILLE.21.. Perla fusca DeGeer is a synonym of Coptotermes testaceus (Linnaeus).37 1.12 1. a. Wings hyaline and transparent except for a yellow brown costal border and radial region.47 4.1. 306 (imago).15 7.63 Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of 3. c. 27 (imago. A.43 5.32 3.1.34 6. 24.94.88. Ocelli of medium size. p. 60 (imago).76.4.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES SOLDIER No. 1936.1. Brazil or possibly Colombia (type locality). Termes costatus WALKER.6.78.00 mm.1911. Termes grandis RAMBUR.27. Termesfuscum LATREILLE. 518 (imago). p. right angle. labrum.08.1. 4 4 6 8 4 2 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 4 RANGE 451 MEAN 19.1. fig. and wing scales with numerous long bristles. *Syntermes grandis WHEELER. 1858a.M.26 4. yellowish. *Termes decumanus ERICHSON.94 Total length Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of left mandible from tip to point of tooth Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia 18. and thus Rambur's subsequent name is valid. Brazil. pronotum. *Syntermes grandis HOLMGREN.) to Roraima. Termes grandis WALKER.H.7.95.50-20. 1925. anterior angles about equal to.01 1.63 1. S. Antennae with 20 articles. 1848.57 5. 68 (imago). 294 (biology). fig. Eyes relatively small.64 4. 519 (locality). 190a. 294 (locality). VIII. somewhat saddle-shaped. p. fig.4. 1805a. 1924. 1911. S. parvinasus. pp. 23 (soldier).14 5. chaquimayensis is so close that I am tentatively placing it in a subspecies until more data are available. 39. p. 10. round. closer-to the eyes than to the fontanelle. pl. Fontanelle about as. M. pl.Z. *Syntermes grandis EMERSON. 67000-72°38' W. Syntermes grandis (Rambur) Although all the museum specimens assigned to this species have not been examined by the author (specimens reexamined by me are marked with an asterisk). 3. 582 (imago). soldier). pl. 10. 5 soldiers (holotype and paratypes). 3 soldiers (paratypes).5. 23.21 1. 1805b. 4.C. 22 (imago). 1858b. *Termes grandis HAGEN. 1): Rio Waupes (oo00'o02001' N.N.14.). oval. 1853.7. there is no reason for not assuming that the following synonymy is accurate. *Termes grandis HAGEN. sides curved. the third longer than the second and the second longer than the fourth. the length of the ocellus. 18 (imago). 176 (biology). long as.99 4.76 0.17 4.00 Length without wings 4. IMAGO: Head fairly dark brown with lighter yellowish postclypeus. p. pp. c. Latreille incorrectly determined his species as Perla fusca De Geer and placed it in the genus Ternmes. 1842.03 Diameter of eye .5. Ireng River (05016' N.59. 174. p. Head. Box No. 60°22'-60054' W. 8 (location of type).47 6. p.02 1. pp.05 4. S. 1925. Pronotum narrower than the head. 157 (imago. *Syntrmes grandis BEQUAERT.30 mm.93. 1853.11 mandibles 4. 1915. and the posterior edge of the frontal tube rises in a steeper angle from the vertex. Length with wings 18. soldier).29 Width of head 0. chaquimayensis is smaller in a number of measurements and has a proportionately larger frontal tube. *Syntermes grandis SNYDER. and prominent. p. The morphological relationship of this form to S.97. or a little shorter than.27 1.00. and pronotum. soldier).00 9. emersoni has a shorter left mandible.87-10. Termes grandis DESNEUX. or slightly more than. p.

71 wider than head.19 29 .10 1.29-4. Rambur.66 0.63 3.71 3. the sides are more parallel.89-30 . British Guiana. R.34 6. Left mandible with apical cutting edge sigmoid.180. Unknown locality.65 2. Rambur erroneously recorded the species from Senegal. P. the capsule at the ventral mandibular condyle is less rounded.23- 1.29 0. H.680. COMPARISONS: Syntermes hageni is quite close. 1 soldier (morphotype). 1): Cayenne (type locality). base of mandibles.7. det.79 5.23-4. and the prothoracic spines are not so blunt.72 6.39 5. unlabeled but associated with the Erichson imago from British Guiana. marginal tooth projecting well beyond apical cutting edge and forming a notch with an angle of about 450 or a little wider.Z.34 COMPARISONS: Syntermes dirus has browner wing membranes. long.452 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 0. Lateral mandibles are a little less hooked.91-1. coll.07 mm.86 MEAN 3. wide and 0.82 0.3.33 0. N. the pronotal spines are sharper.96.61 0.88 3. and sharper anterior angles of the pronotum. but the head is longer and the sides are more parallel. Erichson as T. the No.67-6.40 0. Hagen as T.. E.41 1. Berlin Mus.18-3. somewhat larger fontanelle. ocelli in a more midway position between the fontanelle and eyes. 1 soldier.953. 83 Eye from lower margin Length of ocelli Width of ocelli Ocelli from eyes Ocelli from fontanelle Length of fontanelle Width of fontanelle Width of labrum Width of postclypeus Length of postclypeus Length of left mandible Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia Length of anterior wing scale Length of anterior wing from suture Width of anterior wing 0.35 1. M. H. grandis. The thoracic spines of the holotype are a little longer than in the morphotype of S. Head large.24 6.92 1. Holmgren. frontal opening slightly upward from the vertical. 1 imago (cotype of decumanus). coll. Syntermes lighti is quite close. 1856".41 1. smaller eye. Snyder.45 1. Right mandible with a prominent marginal tooth forming a notch slightly less than a right angle. but has less of a frontal lobe rising at a flatter angle from the main part of the pronotum.290. decumanus. pronotum. the frontal tube is similar.47 5. No.15 mm. Front margin of pronotum slightly emarginate. sides converging toward the front. T.46-1. grandis. Frontal tube virtually without an angle where it joins the vertex and front margin hardly elevated above the head.47 3.29-3. 2764.41 0.32 0.. 1 soldier. det. labeled "Hagen revid. Hagen as T.74-3. det.350.01 VOL.03 2.60 2. and abdomen covered with numerous bristles. Antennae with 20 articles.53 1. SOLDIER: Head.10 3.12 3. 1 female (cotype of de- . but the head is narrower. Berlin Mus. and the antennal articles are a little longer and thicker.61-6. Schomburgk. pronotum angles the same. F.590. Thoracic nota with rather short spines. grandis.59 0.230. pronotum SOLDIER Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of left mandible from tip to tip of tooth Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia angles of labrum blunt. W. 8 11 9 8 2 7 7 7 11 8 9 7 RANGE 5.04 3.25 2. about equal to a right angle.23-1. Narrowest portion of postmentum four-sevenths to three-fourths width of widest portion.81-0.93 3. Syntermes magnoculus is quite close with a little larger fontanelle. fairly straight. penultimate article 0. det. 5. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. det.38 mm.62. postmentum.C.39 0. the thoracic spines are a little longer.61-5.

Snyder. dirus. coll. Antennae broken in the specimens before me.C.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 453 cumanus).87. det. J.1903. coll. SOLDIER (FIG. H. det. 60045' W. soldiers. Brazil. Brazil. soldiers. 4200 feet. .. Brazil. Brazil.).. new species. M. R. Tapajos River (02°27'-07°27' S. Brazil. Schomburgk. F. tergites. 8. soldiers. E. postmentum. 1 soldier. Tate. coll. T. 1940. 22. XII. sides slightly curved and converging somewhat toward the front. Bahia (13010' S. Head large.N.Z.C. W. 8 (soldier). A. coll. opening facing upward at an angle. 1 male. soldiers. grandis.1911.]. P. holotype. p. 54421-57055' W. H.. VIII. Venezuela. Santarem (03030' S. 8): Head. Dorsal view of head and pronotum and ventral view of head of soldier of Syntermes lighti. H. 15. Ireng River (05016' N.M. Bolivar).H. Vista Alegre (01°35' N. Snyder.Z. pl. det. T. posterior edge joining the vertex with an even curve in profile. Arabupu (05°00' N. Frontal tube very short. Acc. and sternites covered with bristles but comparatively sparse on the head. M.H. A.N. coll. det. foraging in daytime. Akuriman (not found on map but located in upper Caroni River basin [05°-07° N. XI.11. Hagen as T. 61009' W. base of mandibles.).. legs. Congonhas (20054' S.. A.M. Thayer Expedition. Left mandible with large tooth join- / FIG. M.Z. Burmeister. Bequaert. 1926. Thayer Expedition. 45047' W. det. det..1927. labrum. J.)..N... H. Lateral angles of labrum about rectangular. widest behind. soldiers. 38050' W.). Holmgren. 2. some slightly more and some slightly less than a right angle.Z.). Brazil. E. 61°30'- 63020' W.) to Roraima. fig. decumanus. VIII. G. 29780.M. 60°22'-60°54' W. H. G. Rio Branco.C.). Syntermes lighti. A. new species Syntermes peruanus SNYDER. N. 54020' W. Roraima. Erichson as T..C. Mt. thoracic nota. Brazil.H. Hagen as T. M. Anduze. Narrowest portion of postmentum about two-thirds width of widest portion. coll. 1 soldier.

H.4.30 mm.66 1.84 6. 1): Villa Bella (10027' S.3.454 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL.18 3. coll..16 mm.25 mm. wide. short and few on the base of the mandibles.14 3. thoracic nota. 64049' W. hageni.78.M.. tergites.3. apical cutting edge sigmoid.47. pp. Frontal tube short.6. A. Bolivia (type locality).6. which differs especially in the smallersized head and the straighter sides of the head.71. from Vienna Mus. posterior margin joined in even.6.88 3. Carnegie Mus. rather sparse on the head and postmentum.32 3. labrum.97 1.09.41 3.1.).91. 4043.96 1.. Lateral spines of medium size and about of equal size in the three thoracic nota.3.77 5.72 1. Head fairly large. apical cutting edge sigmoid.78 1.).4. Lateral thoracic spines comparatively rather small. 9. Lateral angles of labrum about equal to a right angle.82 1. p.9.Z. J.1. 9): Head. .. postmentum.1909.50 9. shallow curve with vertex in profile. Light of the University of California whose work has greatly advanced our knowledge of both the taxonomy and physiology of termites. Left mandible with marginal tooth extending well beyond the apical cutting edge and making an angle of about 450. coll.X. Natterer. Haseman. 15. and the pronotal spines are less long.20 5. When more collections have been made.74 1. F.N. long and 0. as S.10. Antennae with 20 articles. and sternites with bristles. form hageni HOLMGREN.1. it is possible that gradations between these two named species may indicate that they should be placed in subspecific or varietal rank. Right mandible with prominent marginal tooth making an angle with apical cutting edge a little less than a right angle.31 COMPARISONS: The closest species is S.39. S. 548 (soldier). peruanus. Right mandible with large tooth joining apical cutting edge at an angle somewhat less than a right angle.23 3.C. det.92.1.59 0.58. M.22 3. REMARKS: I have named this species in honor of Prof. 1926. SOLDIER Total length Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of left mandible from tip to point of tooth Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia SOLDIER (FIG.70 6. Syntermes grandis is also close. but the sides of the head converge more toward the front. 547. E.05 3.21 6. 2 4 5 5 6 4 5 6 6 5 6 6 5 4 RANGE 17. sides slightly curved and converging only a little toward the front.58 MEAN 17.06 1. DISTRIBUTION (FIG.96. D.69 1.96 3. 1911. 83 ing apical cutting edge at an angle of about 450. Front margin of pronotum emarginate.38. Front margin of pronotum slightly emarginate.05 6. Brazil.37 3.18 3.77 6. 6. Caigara (03014' S. Narrowest portion of postmentum a little less than two-thirds the width of the widest portion. penultimate article 0. T.59 6. 4 soldiers (holotype and paratypes) removed from pins.09 3.38 0. Snyder.44 mm.63. Acc.68 3.34 4.17. 9. angle of about 45°. 2 soldiers (paratypes). opening facing upward at an No. legs.00-17. Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of left mandible from tip to point of tooth Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia 9. 65028' W.79 4.28 Syntermes hageni Holmgren Syntermes dirus.51 0. Margin of basal portion of mandible on outer edge about a third of the length of the outer edge from base.

posterior margin joined in an even curve with the vertex in profile. Frontal tube short. Syntermes grandis is close. tergites. Syntermes lighti is close. opening facing upward at an angle of about 45°600 to the main axis of the head. new species SOLDIER (FIG. 10): Head with fairly numerous scattered bristles." Syntermes wheeleri. Antennae with 20 articles. Syntermes wheeleri is close. Other specimens determined as this species in the literature belong to other species. revid. but the head width is greater.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 455 FIG. Brazil. Holmgren as "T. the sides of the head converge more toward the front. The frontal tube and mandibular type are similar. det. penultimate article 0. but the head is larger and the sides are more curved. This specimen seems to belong to a distinct species. as far as can be determined. DISTRIBUTION: Brazil (type locality). mandibular type. anterior portion only very slightly elevated above the head.15- . and sternites with numerous bristles. from a unique soldier originally from Hagen's collection. Hagen 1856. COMPARISONS: This species was described. the bump at the ventral mandibular condyle is less sharp. Hageni n. 1 soldier (holotype) removed from pin. postmentum. and thoracic spines are quite similar. holotype. 9. Frontal tube. the pronotal spines are a little less long and are more blunt. thoracic nota. base of mandibles. sp. N. Labrum. but the head and mandibles are shorter in proportion to the width of the head. Dorsal view of head and pronotum and ventral view of head of soldier of Syntermes hageni Holmgren. Head with sides slightly curved and converging only a little toward the front.

and tergites with numerous bristles.82-5.58 MEAN 8.78 Width of pronotum COMPARISONS: I regret the paucity of the material of this form. 10. Head and pronotum of soldier of Syntermes wheeleri. 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 RANGE 8. Antennae with 20 articles.08 3.89 3. Front margin of pronotum slightly or not emarginate. 1 pinned soldier (holotype).64-3.. new species. and the determination as a new species must be considered tentative. BurNo. a little larger than the mesonotal and metanotal spines. I am more confident of the specific distinction of the other species named from few specimens than I am in this case. Head. wide from the notch to the tip) making an angle about equal to a right angle with the apical cutting edge.61 3.72-3.32 1. $yntermes hageni differs in having a longer head and mandibles.03 5.10 5.25-4. 23°18' S.35-2 . 430 18' W.10 3. det.73-6. Right mandible with a prominent marginal tooth (0.65 5. Brazil (type locality).17-3.86 5. and sparser distribution of hairs on the head and postmentum. Left mandible with a prominent marginal tooth projecting well beyond the border of the apical cutting edge and forming an angle of FIG. pronotum.44-1.49 0.94 1. SOLDIER Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of left mandible from tip to point of tooth Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia about 700 with the apical cutting edge which is distinctly sigmoid.82-1.52 mm. 5. 83 0. DISTRIBUTION (FIG.96 mm. Front margin of pronotum slightly emarginate.2 mm.45-4.456 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 3.23-3.36 1.17 mm. hageni than to any other species.60 3.64 2. about the same size as the antennae sockets.03 0.33 4. LARGE WORKER: Color of head similar but a little more variegated than soldier. wide. Narrowest portion of postmentum about four-sevenths to nine-fourteenths the width of widest portion.37-5. hook at tip comparatively short.). The frontal tube and general mandibular characters are similar in the two species. I think the most probable hypothesis is that the specimens represent a new species or subspecies.10 1. In view of the range of variation in other forms.47 0. however.50-1. holotype. Mandibles comparatively somewhat short in relation to width of head.97-1. 1): Rio (probably Rio de Janeiro.54 1. Lateral angles of labrum slightly less to slightly greater than a right angle.30 . Thoracic nota with sharp lateral spines.79 3. Fontanelle white. The specimens are closer to S.37 4. Lateral spines somewhat short. H. Width of head 2 .36-8.70 3.05 3.

The other two soldiers of the series conform to other S. and tergites almost bare with only a few cle about 0. 46038' W. scattered bristles.VIII.1944. sides only slightly converging toward the front and slightly curved. dirus material. Brazil (not included in map which was prepared before this record). dirus determined by Burmeister. new species. penultimate artif FIG.. type No. the tip greater than a right angle and not forming a sharp angle with the apical tooth. Tip of labrum a little greater than a right angle. narrowest portion more than two-thirds width of widest portion. Head. R. new species SOLDIER (FIG. wide. I have named the species in honor of the late W. Antennae with 19 articles. base of mandibles. Wheeler whose personality and achievements were a source of great inspiration to me. M. curved. only a little constricted in the middle.Z. 7TI7 REMARKS: The holotype specimen seems to have been part of the original series of T. dirus. M. 4 soldiers (paratypes) with workers and nymphs. fairly blunt point about equal to a right angle.).C. hill-like nest. and sternites also with short hairs. Postmentum stocky. Left mandible with a large marginal tooth. 11. frontal tube short. second marginal tooth quite blunt. coll. Sao Paulo (Ibirapu6ra) (23044' S. lO. nearly quadrangular. Sao Paulo. postmentum. 25707. 2322. Mandibles comparatively short for this genus. basal anterior angle slightly greater than a right angle.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 457 meister and H. Araujo. thoracic nota. Right mandible with a fairly large marginal tooth. and sternites with bristles. but cutting edge fairly evenly . Syntermes brevimalatus. side angles about equal to a right angle. L. Hagen as T. Dorsal view of head and pronotum and ventral view of head of soldier of Syntermes brevimaltus. legs.15 mm. Head stocky. paratype. No. Labrum. 11): Antennae brown and contrasting with yellowish head.

about midway between the eyes and fontanelle. Fontanelle oval. the third longer than the second. 18. 548 (soldier).23 3 2 4.00 mm.39-4. Found in a vial with S.24 Ocelli from eyes 0. the angle being more obtuse than a right angle. Pronotum with a small round or elongate depression in center..32 Length of postclypeus Width of postclypeus Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia Length of anterior wing scale 0. 1911. Width of head Width of pronotum 2.33 1. 1912.58 3. VOL. soldier). thorax.00-1. pp.39 3 3. 9. Antennae with 20 articles. soldier.49 4. 3.43 3 6. directed laterally or slightly posteriorly. about as long as the ocelli. front lateral angles nearly round. workers). lateral spines of medium size and length. . 23 (sol- dier). 1906. p.24 Eye from lower margin Length of ocelli 0. Thoracic nota with sharp lateral spines.59 Ocelli from fontanelle 0. front margin not emarginate.17-3.50-40. Labrum hatchet-shaped.36 Width of fontanelle 0. including the brown contrasting antennae.VII. 22.44-1. soldier). Weber's field notes are included under general ecology of the genus. Syntermes peruanus SNYDER.72 6. ? Syntermes bolivianus HOLMGREN.48 Syntermes peruanus HOLMGREN. 548 (imago.458 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY RANGE No. LARGE WORKER: Color similar to soldier.1936. 83 SOLDIER Total length Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandible Width of head Length of left mandible Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia curved in contrast to the somewhat straight cutting edge of the left mandible just posterior to the hooked tip. 3 soldiers (holotype and paratypes) with workers. Also the head is about as bare of hairs and bristles as any species of the genus.57-4.61 4.35-3.21 4. Front margin of pronotum slightly emarginate. aculeosus. Length with wings (Holmgren. hind margin nearly straight or slightly concave. British Guiana (type locality). light colored and depressed. p.58-1.64 3 3 4. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. Length of head to side base of mandibles 2.59 Length of fontanelle 0.40-2. the second about equal to the fourth. 546. ? Syntermes bolivianus SNYDER. No. The species is so distinct from the others that I do not know which is the most closely related. very slightly angular.). Eyes relatively small and prominent. IMAGO: Head with scattered long bristles.84 Diameter of eye 0.60 p. Fontanelle white.33-7.47 3 1.60. Antennae with 19 articles. Weber. 85 (anat- omy).3. and tergites with few scattered bristles. 548) 34.63 Syntermes dirus HOLMGREN. COMPARISONS: The soldiers of this species have the shortest mandibles in relation to the width of the head of any described species of Syntermes.00 2 3 9. sides curved. Front margin of the MEAN 18. ? Syntermes bolivianus HOLMGREN. 22 (imago. p. pronotum emarginate.00 mm.84 7.53 1. 1911. Possibly when the imago is discovered we may have sufficient characters to form a judgment. 1924.65 Width of head 3. 1): On Oronoque River (020421 N.68-9. anterior margin evenly curved. A.36 6. hind margin emarginate.12 1. 1924.47 1. Head. p.32-4.39 3. 1911. 584. 547. p. Ocelli of medium size.45 mm.38 Width of ocelli 0.10 2.96 7. smaller than antennae sockets.06 1. Lateral spines of mesonota and metanota not so large as those of the pronotum. 1909.46 1. 57025' W. 545 (imago. pp. N.07 Syntermes peruanus Holmgren Termes dirus HOLMGREN.85 0. Pronotum narrower than the head.33 2 1. 47 (locality). coll.63 2 4.

Narrowest portion of postmentum about two-thirds the width of widest portion. Syntermes dirus (Burmeister) Klug is usually considered as the author of this species. Peru (type locality).56-2.29-3. 2 imagoes (white).23-1 . S. and eyes smaller with ocelli farther from the eyes.13 mm. 1): Mojos (14°36' S.53 Width of pronotum 3. det. magnoculus has a larger eye. lighti and more so than in S. I think that S. Syntermes dirus (specimen determined by Hagen) is larger. He described S. S. S. and consequently the species should be assigned to Burmeister. bolivianus were found in the Holmgren collection in Stockholm. 63016' W. Paraguay) has proportionately shorter marginal tooth on left mandible.). 68°56' W. coll.24 mm.. Caupolican. bolivianus from soldiers only. so it is presumed that the vial containing imagoes.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 459 COMPARISONS: Syntermes dirus has the pronotum wider than the head. Tambopata Valley (13°22'-14°58' S. is a larger species. frontal opening facing upward at an angle of 45-60° from the long axis of the head. pronotum. Bolivia. SOLDIER: Head.88 Length of pronotum 1. and has no angle between the vertex and frontal tube. and with a proportionately shorter marginal tooth on the right mandible. calvus).06-5. S. grandis has a longer pronotum and larger eyes. and in general is of larger size. Profile of head strongly convex. workers. 69°00'69°55' XW. bolivianus from the meager descriptions and am tentatively placing this species in synonymy with S. peruanus by the weaker dentation in the mandibles of S. but the mandibles are very similar in type.). bolivianus.). and the pronotum has sharper lateral angles.05 1 . Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum 3. Right mandible with a distinct marginal tooth which is not projecting very far from the apical cutting edge (about 0. anterior margin hardly elevated above the head. dirus from the above localities.54 Width of metanotum 4. Bolivia.). S. The species is also recorded from Juan del Oro. S. proportionately longer pronotum.00 3. 68°43' W. Holmgren separates S. and sharper pronotal angles. Antennae with 20 articles. territus has a smaller eye. 4. angle of junction between the frontal tube and the vertex is much sharper. N. Lateral angles of labrum about equal to a right angle or a little more obtuse. a soldier. with more bristles on the head. tip sharper than a right angle. the notch forming an angle of about 45°. S..94-5. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. dirus is the closest relative to S. lateral angles of the pronotum sharper.29 Narrowest width of postmentum 0. parallelus is a smaller species with sharper pronotal angles. Bolivia. N. Holmgren as S. the fourth barely separated from the third in the two specimens. Left mandible with first marginal tooth extending somewhat beyond the continuation of the apical cutting edge (less so than in S..17-3.69 Length of hind tibia COMPARISONS: No type specimens of S.71 REMARKS: Holmgren originally recorded his S.40-1. dirus. molestus is smaller with the ocelli closer to the eyes than to the fontanelle. obtusus has a larger eye and is generally larger. peruanus. 1 soldier and workers (cotypes). lateral spines of medium size and about equal in size to those of the mesonota and metanota. peruanus. and Pata (14°34' S. S. Santa Cruz (17037' S. Holmgren. S. are cotypes of S.). and nymphs in my collection from Mojos. I cannot determine S.23 Width of mesonotum 2. bolivianus from S.23 3.. Bolivia. boliviaknus was later recorded only from south Bolivia. Frontal tube with a very slight angle where it joins the vertex. but no published description from his pen has been found. apical cutting edge sigmoid. silvestrii (autotype from San Bernardino. S. Pronotum with front margin slightly or distinctly emarginate. proportionately longer pronotum. snyderi has the pronotum wider than the head. 1 soldier (cotype) labeled as above. proportionately larger and thicker thoracic spines. peruanus. Head with somewhat convex sides converging slightly toward the front. chaquimayensis (cotype) is large. 5. and the pronotal angles are much sharper. and tergites with a number of straight bristles. with more abundant bristles on the head. It would be necessary to examine all the original material in various collections before the following synonymy could be veri- .

1. 1-11 (imago). 1805a. pl. p. 1842. 3.31 0. 1842. 1853. 83-85 (imago. ? Termes cephalotes WALKER.75 1.53 0. fig.00 16. p. * Termes dirus BURMEISTER.99 6.70 0. 2. 128 (imago). 38 (synonymy). Syntermes dirus SNYDER.21 0.99 3. fig.58 3. p. 1853. Latreille's type of Termes spinosum is reported present in the Selys Longchamps collection in Brussels.72. p.11 3. 1924. p.66 0.76 2.06 MEAN 40. p. * Termes dirus RAMBUR. Termes spinosus DESNEUX. * Syntermes dirus HOLMGREN.72 0. Termes obscurum BLANCHARD. If this finally proves to belong to S.53 0. 8 (imago). p.0.35 0.19 2. p.30 0. p. Termes spinosus DESNEUX.44 0.76. IMAGO Length with wings Length without wings Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Diameter of eye Eye from lower margin Length of ocelli Width of ocelli Ocelli from eyes Ocelli from fontanelle Length of fontanelle Width of fontanelle Length of labrum Width of labrum Length of postclypeus Width of postclypeus Length of left mandible Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia Length of anterior wing scale Length of anterior wing from suture Width of anterior wing Termes from Brazil. and he was a careful and meticulous taxonomist who laid an excellent foundation for our present knowledge of the classification of termites.74 0.0.0. pp.33 mm. Perty. 510 (imago.56. fig.38. 47. figs.92 3. Termes fatale PERTY. p. 63 (soldier). p.88 0. 521 (imago). soldier.37. p.71 0. No.29.58 1. 12 (imago). 151 (imago. 2.32. 1830. 1911. 25. pl.7. pl.96. p. ? Termes dirus WALKER. 21 (imago).0. and Hagen. p. 17 (imago). 307 (imago). 1853.1. fig. 70 (soldier).4.53.00-43.79 1. soldier). 305 (imago). 27 (soldier from Brazil only). 8. 8b (imago. but I am by no means sure of other portions of the synonymy. * Termes costatus RAMBUR.61. 1858a. However. ? Termes cephalotes RAMBUR. worker).3. Hagen examined many of these old determined specimens. figs.50 0. worker). p. 309 (soldier). pl. I hesitate to use Latreille's name without reexamining his specimens. 1915. 1840. Rambur.66 0.45. pp.50 4.0. 3 1 1 5 17 8 4 5 4 6 6 5 5 2 2 3 3 1 11 17 3 3 7 8 RANGE 39.1. 1830. the name of the species should revert to the earlier name. 83 fied. fig. 25. 22 (soldier). * Termes dirus HAGEN.0. pl.0.8.46 2. 4.90.27 5.19. p. worker).460 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. p.35 0. 1897. 16.0. ? Termes spinosum LATREILLE. 127 (imago). 766 (imago).2. WESTWOOD. 2. fig. 21 (imago).23. 1862. soldier.23 0. However. [Part.] * Termes dirus HAGEN.08 . pl. 545548 (imago.87.3.0. 521 (imago). 1-8 (imago). synonymy). * Termes flavicolle PERTY. he made a few errors.74 0.44 1.34 31.71. 1842.12 1. p. 1858b. 13 (soldier).58-34.21 1. Termes spinosus WASMANN. 8a. 1904. 1805b. fig.62 2.86 7.35 28. p. soldier.05 1. 139 (synonymy). and all his material needs further examination and comparison in the light of recent investigations.22 6.45. 1840.98. p.2. 8 (synonymy). p.71. ? Termes dubius WALKER. 1. 58. In some cases I have been able to examine some old collections including specimens determined by Burmeister. * Termes dirus HAGEN. 24 (imago). 17 (imago). dirus. 1839.56 0. 11 (imago). pl. In the following synonymy an asterisk denotes specimens reexamined by me: ? Termes spinosum LATREILLE.

15 3.05-8. Antennae with 20 articles. wings brown. a right angle. and pronotum covered rather abundantly with bristles. but for the present I am not attempting to subdivide the species on the basis of the few specimens available for study.82-1. somewhat fewer bristles. Syntermes calvus has more strongly converging sides toward the front. Lateral angles of the labrum more obtuse than a right angle. 22 (soldier).43-6.34 1.16 8. 847.61 3.54-4.83 3. 894 (soldier). fig. COMPARISONS: The closest imago is that of S. 4. the anterior and posterior portions about equally long. base of mandibles. particularly the anterior projecting portion. the second longer than the fourth.91 1. sometimes with dark markings.79 5.00 1. sides fairly straight.).40 0.29-1.53 0. Syntermes peruanus cotypes are smaller. an angle between the vertex and frontal tube in profile. and shorter thoracic spines. p. Pronotum wider than the head. Frontal tube raised above the rest of the head. These four species seem to be quite closely related. Angle between tooth and apical cutting edge about 30-45'. p. SOLDIER Narrowest width of postmentum about threefourths of the widest width. Fontanelle larger than the ocelli. An imago and a soldier from Burmeister's material in the Museum of Comparative Zoology have the same label and may have been collected from the same colony.79 1. about midway between the eyes and fontanelle.09 5. the third as long or longer than the second. pl. Head with a few scattered bristles. the frontal tube is not so large. Front margin of pronotum emarginate or fairly evenly curved. sides curved and hind margin conspicuously emarginate. Eyes relatively small.77 mm. Lateral spines of medium length. 5. which may prove to be characteristic of subspecies. pronotum with bristles on the anterior and posterior margins and a few on other parts. SOLDIER: Head. 3 9 14 11 7 4 10 8 8 13 11 11 RANGE MEAN Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of left mandible from tip to point of tooth Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia 8.65 5.06-3. converging a little toward the front.58-1.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 461 * Syntermes hageni SNYDER. 21 (soldier). Apical cutting edge distinctly sigmoid.35 3.48 3. 28 (soldier).04-1.18 mm. Right mandible with a relatively small prominent marginal tooth.41 1.15-0. Ocelli of medium size. Left mandible with prominent marginal tooth a little wider than the apical cutting edge. pronotum slightly lighter than the head. somewhat saddle-shaped with a vertical front surface in the middle covered with short bristles. Head large.72 3. prominent. postmentum.97 3. Lateral spines of mesonota and metanota about equal in size to the pronotal spines.03-3. COMPARISONS: In no case am I sure that the soldiers examined were found with reproductives. No. 3): Head yellow brown.00-6. wide from the base of the notch. postclypeus and labrum slightly lighter than the head.51-5. and the head has fewer bristles.66-4. white. Termes spinosus HANDLIRSCH.93-3. There is some variation among the examined soldiers in the size of the pronotal spines and in the teeth of the mandibles.75 5. snyderi which is somewhat larger (pronotum width 4. Syntermes silvestrii has shorter marginal teeth in both mandibles. fig. anterior angles about equal to. wing scales with medium long bristles. p. or slightly sharper than.10 4. the opening nearly vertical or pointed upward at an angle of about 450 to the axis of the head. a shorter frontal tube.27-4. about 0.49 3.17 2. round.32 mm.39 4. and with proportionately longer apical teeth in both mandibles.30 7 .25 1. Antennae with 20 articles. IMAGO (FIGS. 1924. 1930. 2.

1 soldier. Corcovado (not located on map).32 1.C. 1856". R.). dirus. Hagen as T. 29.XI.76-3. p. hageni. det. 1 soldier. 548 (soldier).77 3. M.. Olfers. although I have included it in the table of measurements.60-1. Brazil. T. but I am classifying it as S.95 3.C.M. Syntermes silvestrii SNYDER. 3 soldiers. M.C.. costatus. central Brazil. 151) records the species from Minas Geraes. records the species from Cayenne). Tschudi.). 9. Haseman.. Iguassu (probably Ituassu. det.61 0... p1.85-6. M. Thorey. 19. but the other is larger with a larger tooth in the right mandible and may possibly not be conspecific. coll. M. 204 (not sure these are Burmeister types). pl.).16 2. 1 female (possibly the type of T. 43056' W. Fischer. This specimen could conceivably be the imago of S. 1901. A. 1924. 115 (biology). Unknown locality.1923. coll.66-4. dirus. 298 (biology). coll. 6 6 RANGE MEAN Length of head to side base of mandible Width of head Length of left mandible Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia 5 2 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 5. SOLDIER 44040' W. Santa Catharina. type No. 47. Berlin Mus. 4 (soldier mandibles). 60°00' W. p. and Lagoa Santa (19041' S. and abdomen with numerous bristles. Bahia.Z. 43018' W. Hagen as T.C.VI. J.. Hagen as T. Rio. from Berlin Mus. One of these seems to be a typical dirus. Brazil.. Walker (1853.C. 510) records the species from Para (01035' S. det. workers).Z. costatus. Winthem.. No. det. Frontal tube very short. SOLDIER: Head. E. M. P.13 3. labrum. Rambur. 4. Hagen as T. The wings seem a little more hyaline than the other S. 3564. p. Caigara (03014' S. M. det. 23018' S. Munich Mus. No.Z. det. dirus. p. 31. Perty as T. from M. p.). 1 soldier. Hagen as T. dirus. or Barra. Munich Mus. Hagen as T. 48°38' W. Hagen (1858a. Holmgren. 2 soldiers. thorax. Snyder (1924. coll...75 6.. 1 soldier. Roman. figs.47 1. Desneux (1915.00 1. Jos6 Blaser. Berlin-Dahlem. 23 (sol- dier). H. Burmeister and H.H. 1 male. 13024' S. Hagen as T.Z.17-3. Rio. Brazil (type locality). 1 imago (metatype). coll. 1 imago (metatype). dirus. det.. without an No.).). 1 imago (metatype). dirus. 64049' W.. Surinam. 43015' W. Hagen as T.C.VII. 1 male.1908. D. 5. 3628 from the Berlin Mus... N. C. 1 imago (cotype). 2 soldiers (probably from the type series. p. N. dirus on pins. Syntermes silvestrii HOLMGREN. Sides of head converging only a little toward the front.. No.08 mm. coll. 2.C.49 0. from Kaiser Wilhelm Inst. 1911.49 5.92 3. Congonhas (20054' S. p.73 3.. 1 female. Rambur. base of mandibles. 419.66 3. redet. H. 48 (soldier. 1 imago. 83 DISTRIBUTION (FIG.Z. workers). calvus. 1 female (cotype). dirus.). 14 (soldier). 4. Roman. coll. 2763. coll.42 3. received 19. 28) as S. P. det. det. Rio de Janeiro. H. det. P. pp.. Termes dirus SILVESTRI. Holmgren.. 48°30' W. det. 430 18' W. 2. det. A. labeled "Hagen revid. Brazil.Z. A. Minas Geraes. 1842. 1): Rio (probably Rio de Janeiro. 15040' S. 43010' W. dirus for the present. Entre Rios (22008' S. M. H.94 1. P. coll. 4 imagoes (cotypes and probably the original Klug material).XI. although Burmeister did not describe the soldier caste). 14045' S. 46°35' W. coll. 17005' S. flavicolle.Z. Burmeister and H. fig. and the interior of Brazil. 1863.. H. pl. Brazil.). Holmgren as S. postmentum.1913.35-1. H. det. v. Holmgren. Burmeister and H.79 5. M.. 45047' W. 1 male. 3. Brazil. Acc. Perty's Coll.Z. 1 imago. H. text fig. and also from Guiana.29 .).C. although Rambur. dirus. dirus. 27015' S. Rambur as T. type No. dirus. Brazil. flying.C. Mang (possibly Manga.1924 (1). Rambur as T. coll. det.17-3. Carnegie Mus.. Barro Alto (not located on map but possibly Barra.1863. det.67 3.47-4.85-1. det.33 5. coll. M. fairly straight. dirus..06-5. Syntermes silvestrii HOLMGREN. Fletcher.I. 1 soldier.1924 (2). Manaos (03006' S. T.XI.). Syntermes silvestrii Holmgren Termes dirus SILVESTRI. H.).N.45-5. pp. Brazil.95 3. 6. 31. H. N. Amazonas. 75-78 (soldier. Rio de Janeiro (23018' S. N. 8) records Termes spinosus from Tijucca (probably Tijucas.462 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. p. Brazil (no other locality mentioned).. Hagen as T.). 546. 1 soldier. fig. 1912. 43057' W.VII.Z. 1903.

). Silvestri. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. Silvestri as T. N. redet. 26. Portici. Frontal tube short. 6. Paraguay. Antennae with 20 to 21 articles. 20. Head. holotype. K. San Bernardino (25°19' S. K. silvestrii is closest to S. Sofia (not located on map). det. Syntermes calvus.IX. and tergites with a few bristles. 56°00' W. new species. from Vienna Mus. S. this species was recognized and described by Holmgren. Holmgren. coll. S. 3 soldiers (autotypes).1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 463 angle between the vertex and the frontal tube anterior margin hardly elevated above the head. coll. coll.. Narrowest portion of postmentum about two-thirds the width of the widest portion. Right mandible with blunt and rather short marginal tooth. Left mandible with marginal tooth extending about to the continuation of the apical cutting edge which is sigmoid. 12): Antennae not much darker than head. new species SOLDIER (FIG. Brazil (type locality). coll. Holmgren as S. . and the left mandible has a proportionately longer marginal tooth. N.V.1900. 12. Thoracic spines medium size. Silvestri Coll. 1 soldier (autotype). 1): Coxipo (15°30' S. Pronotum with front margin slightly or not emarginate. Cuyaba. Argentina. F. COMPARISONS: Originally described by Silvestri as Termes dirus. det. hind margin slightly angular. the mesonotal and metanotal spines are shorter. 57°16' W. Head with sides fairly straight. angle of notch less than 45°. thoracic nota. Holmgren. territus is smaller. F. Lateral angles of labrum blunter than a right angle. peruanus is smaller and has a slight angle between the frontal tube and the vertex in profile. 1 soldier.1908. Fiebrig. N. det. Paraguay. S. Dorsal view of head and pronotum and ventral view of head of soldier of Syntermes calvus. the sides of the head are more parallel.. S. Reimoser. in a small depression in the head. converging toward the front. 1 soldier (cotype). Fiebrig. opening upward at about an angle of 450.). silvestrii. open- FIG. Matto Grosso. but there is no angle between the vertex and the frontal tu-be. the dentation of the mandibles is similar. but the tips of the mandibles are more curved and the head is a little less hairy. No.. dirus. dirus.

IV. Fontanelle white.07 1.1924.1. text fig. round.27 5. found in jaws of worker ant. 1 soldier (paratype). pp. Antennae with 19 to 20 articles. the tip of the tooth sharper than a right angle.98.235. 1 soldier (paratype). dirus than to any other described species.24. Lateral spines of mesonota and metanota narrower than the pronotal spines. and the frontal tube is more prominent and is not sunk in as much of a depression. colony under log. 1): Kartabo (06'23' N. 25708.5.VI.61 4. Labrum hatchet-shaped with curved margins and rounded angles. 176.50-19. somewhat curved and hooked a little near the tip.30 3.24 MEAN 18. 1 soldier.77 5. 13. side angles greater than a right angle. Thoracic nota with sharp lateral spines. pronotum. LARGE WORKER: Color a little lighter than the soldier.1. Fontanelle yellowish. less than half their diameter from the lower margin. another smaller and wider notch about SOLDIER Total length Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of left mandible from tip to point of tooth Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia COMPARISONS: The soldier is closer to S. Syntermes territus WHEELER. Termitopone commutata No.3.15 mm.VII. 316.77 3. Wing scaies with a number of bristles.35 3.).5. 310.27 3. p.99. narrowest portion more than two-thirds the width of the widest portion. Syntermes territus EMERSON.15 1.00 7. 173. 23 (soldier).41. Antennae with 20 articles.. postclypeus and labrum yellow brown. 24. the tip of the tooth about equal to a right angle or less. Emerson.10 3.III. smaller than antennae sockets. paratype No. 1936. Front margin of pronotum slightly emarginate. 6. soldier). Tip of labrum sharper than a right angle.64.74 (Roger). 2 soldiers (holotype and paratype).8. and tergites with a few bristles.IX. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. the angle of the notch about 450. 58°42'W. wings brown. portions of wing scales darker than general pronotal color. Head. Ameiva ameiva. Width of head Width of pronotum 3.1924.C. the sides are not so strongly converging. No.72 3.464 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL.30 1. No. pp. No. in Snyder.1.15 halfway between the first marginal tooth and the base and a fairly sharp tooth-like projection just anterior to the molar plate. No.1920. smaller than antennal sockets.1.84 5. 18. Front margin of pronotum very slightly emarginate.25 mm.41 5. Lateral spines not very long. workers (paratype). 29. midway between the eyes and ..25.11 5.29 1. 1 soldier (paratype). subapical articles about 0. workers. 22 (imago). Mandibles proportionately long. Left mandible with a notch just in front of the first marginal tooth.60 mm. depressed. 189 (biology).76 mm. Right mandible with anterior angle of marginal tooth slightly greater than a right angle.3. Postmentum curved in cross section. 24. 1924. wide. 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 RANGE 17. hind margin nearly straight in center with evenly curved angles. 174. IMAGO: Head dark brown with yellow brown streaks. Head and pronotum with a few scattered bristles.3. M. under log on ground. coll.83.05. 19. Ocelli of medium size. British Guiana (type locality). 8. The mandibles and notal spines are quite similar. A. pronotum similar color to head.Z. found in jaws of worker T. dirus has more bristles on the head. Syntermes ternitus Emerson Syntermes territus EMERSON. 1925.53 0. S. commutata.40 1. 2. tergites dark brown.02 1. p. 359 (imago. 83 ing forward or a little upward with an angle at the junction of the frontal tube and vertex.5.45 1.00. 45 (imago.15. sternites yellow brown.63. an elongated pit in the center of the pronotum. tip 0.94.1924. Eyes small. 24. from stomach contents of the lizard.178. soldier). from the angle at the junction with the anterior lobe.1924.

53.99-3.44-25. IMAGO Length with wings Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Diameter of eye Eye from lower margin Length of ocelli Width of ocelli Ocelli from eyes Ocelli from fontanelle Length of fontanelle Width of fontanelle Width of labrum Length of postclypeus Width of postclypeus Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia Length of anterior wing from suture Width of anterior wing wings. 3.3.81 3.15-4.58 0.16 COMPARISONS: Syntermes snyderi is larger. long. converging only a little toward the front or parallel. the eye is a little larger.0.00-35. posterior margin emarginate. Postmentum with narrowest portion about three-fifths the width of the widest portion.21.00 3. with proportionately wider pronotum.24 0. lateral angles bluntly pointed forming an angle equal to.1.26 4. 5 1 1 1 1 13 1 1 3 2.54 3. Frontal No.29 0. Antennae with 19 articles.18-6.0.19 0.21-5.49.24 MEAN - mm.76 24.19 3.44 4. 1 4 13 RANGE 8. base of mandibles. dirus is larger.32 1. Left mandible with first marginal tooth projecting only slightly beyond the apical cutting No.54 1. 4 3 1 17 7 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 31 17 2 2 3 RANGE 32.38-1.00 3.0.41 mm. sides rounded.27 5.81 3.68 0. S.56 3. magnoculus is larger.26 0.79 4.58 0. the head.62 0. obtusus is larger and has hyaline wings. and lateral angles somewhat less than right angles.05. penultimate article 0.0.29 0. SOLDIER: Head. with proportionately wider pronotum. Antennae with 19 to 20 articles. S.29 MEAN 33. postmentum. with a much larger eye.53.50 0. peruanus is larger and has a larger eye. S.52 2.14 by 0.38 6. or slightly narrower or wider than.26 0. and the ocelli are farther from the fontanelle than from the eyes. Tip of labrum forming a right angle.80-3. narrowest portion with straight or slightly concave sides.0.29. S.62 0.32 mm. with slightly emarginate front margin.63 24. and pronotum moderately covered with numerous bristles.22 .00.37 5.60 4.4.91 6.53.49 1. S. the only difference being the slightly smaller size and a pronotum 1.00 mm.75.99.47.47 4. Head with sides slightly convex or straight.76 1. opening nearly vertical to the long axis of the head. S. a right angle.3.90 2. grandis is larger and has hyaline SOLDIER Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia tube forming a flat angle with the vertex.35 1. parallelus is close.29 0. molestus has hyaline wings.3. or greater than.6. S.22 4.62 0.67 2.47 1. Pronotum about as wide as.86 3.68 2.29 0.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 465 fontanelle.

coll. 1936.1919 0..19-2. Pronotum nearly as wide as the head with blunt lateral angles more than a right angle. 1): Kartabo (06023' N. RANGE Length of head with mandibles 6.1914. Ocelli proportionately small. soldier).28 2. angle of notch about 45°. The cotype of S. p.08-4.). colombianus Snyder is a synonym of S. Frontal tube short. colombianus in Snyder. 1 soldier.0.IV. 2. Wings brown.93a. 1924. No.VI. A. colombianus.22 2.). soldiers (holotype and paratypes). 361 (imago. coll. 1 soldier (paratype). pp. Antennae with 19 articles. side margin rounded and hind margin emarginate.1920. dirus or S. 29 (soldier). soldier.3. Right mandible with a small obtuse tooth about two-fifths the length of the mandible from the base.36 2. sides straight and almost parallel. COMPARISONS: Syntermes dirus has marginal teeth in the mandibles more prominent. COMPARISONS: The imago is very close to S. 1-10 (imago.33 1. 23. paralklus has rather concave sides of the head.1924. Antennae with 19 articles.1924. 46 (imago.290. 15.1924. imagoes. Syntermes colombianus SNYDER. pl. 1923. Left mandible with first marginal tooth about even with an extension of the apical cutting edge. Length of head to side base of mandibles 2. 24. 2. 58°50'60005' W. pl. M. workers.80 and 2. The closest relatives are probably S. worker). 22 (imago). Thoracic nota with small but sharp lateral spines. No.63 Length of ocelli 0. A. 22. text fig.0. Rio Autaz (03025' S. 4.57 0.15 Diameter of eye 0.89. with T.68 1. . 18.23- edge which is sigmoid. 428.1919.1920. 23.1919 and 4.5.97-3. This species differs from most of the other species in its small size and comparatively parallel straight sides of the head of the soldier. Syntermes parallelus SNYDER. 23 (soldier). Brazil. king. 1924. 24 (soldier). Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia 4. RANGE Length with wings 27.29 COMPARISONS: There seems to be little doubt that S.00 20. p. commutata in the same vial.VI. 318 (imago. p. territus. Roman.162c. 1924. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. British Guiana (type locality). 58°42' W.V.1924. soldier).29 Width of head 2. depressed and round. soldiers (topotypes). 1 imago.1924. 2 dealates. This soldier has somewhat longer spines on the thorax than the British Guiana types and topotypes but is otherwise very close. Flying alates were collected 14. 1 imago (morphotype).10-1..50 soldier. 83 0.62 1. parallelus.27. parallelus has more slender mandibles and is smaller.IV. No. The drawing of S.C.44-2.41 2. territus but is a little smaller.560.40 2. Notal spines rather short. soldiers (paratypes). from which it differs markedly.530. twice their length removed from the eyes.3. 2. The measurements all seem within the expected limits of variation. 1919.34-6. pp.X.162d.56 0. is quite accurate except that the angles between the lateral and central points of the labrum are not so sharp in the specimen as in the drawing and the right mandible is not so curved at the tip as in the drawing. 310. 1925. Fontanelle yellowish. queen. SOLDIER: Head brownish yellow.80 mm.466 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Ocelli from fontanelle Ocelli from eyes Length of fontanelle Width of fontanelle Length of left mandible Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia (after Silvestri) Length of anterior wing Width of anterior wing VOL. from colony raided by Termitopone commutata recorded by Wheeler.VI. Syntermes parallelus EMERSON.VI. figs. No. blunt marginal tooth.50-29.Z.00 4. Syntermes parallelus Silvestri Syntermes parallelus SILVESTRI. Front margin of pronotum emarginate. fig.X. worker). while all other specimens from British Guiana have slightly convex sides as in the type specimen of S.88 5.93-3.1.57. 24.00 mm.. 24. No.VIII. covered with short hairs. Emerson. 5. Alates with workers and soldiers were brought in by Indians on 29.74. IMAGO: Head and pronotum dark brown.38. Amazonas. Cururuzinho.42. Right mandible with small. 257. S.VI. I can detect no differences of specific importance.35 0.

162c. 10 (wings). No. 1853. 2. Labrum. Thus there is evidence that this species of ant does not confine its diet to termites. 14511. from the stomach of a toad. 1936. p. 1858a. Demerara River. British Guiana. pronotum. T. The ants took many termites and stuffed them in their mandibles. Syntermes brasiliensis HOLMGREN.0.07 5. 24.23 0.C.41. pp. Abraham (Cattle Trail Survey). p. Oronoque River (02042' N. Syntermes molestus SNYDER. 9 (soldier). pp. Ocelli above the level of the No. Syntermes MS species of Emerson. 23 (soldier). Syntermes brasiliensis WHEELER.0. 13.19-27.26 0.47 1. coll. 2.35 0. 23 (soldier).29 .Z. 299 (food). Weber. No. parts of 6 imagoes.10.1924. Syntermes braziliensis BEQUAERT. 1924. Winthem.69 21. 84-85 (imago).42 0.. Colombia.0.54 2. 1926. 22. 766 Termes molestus WALKER.82. fig.72 4.18. coll. colombianus).15. 116 (imago.23 0.35.71.47 0. 9 soldiers.00 3. 1924 (No.50 2. 24.96 1.92 mm.42 0. soldier). parallelus.1. p1. Wings hyaline and transparent except for yellow brown costal border and radial veins. 24.41.VI. 159. p1. flying. 22 (imago).48 0. colombianus. Syntermes molestus SNYDER.13 6.15 1. (imago).3. and wing scales covered sparsely with fairly long straight bristles. fig. 57°18'-57°26' W.29.12 2. 1924.). 1925. 51. workers. coll. p. soldier. Termes molestus HAGEN.21. p.75 0. Silvestri.94. pp.). 6. p.0. Termes molestus SILVESTRI. A. A. Termes molestus HAGEN.27 1. 6. 6 2 5 9 11 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 1 1 1 8 8 6 1 7 7 IMAGO Length with wings Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Diameter of eye Eye from lower margin Length of ocelli Width of ocelli Ocelli from eyes Ocelli from fontanelle Length of fontanelle Width of fontanelle Length of postclypeus Width of postclypeus Width of labrum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Length of hind tibia Length of anterior wing scale Length of anterior wing from suture Width of anterior wing RANGE 26.23 1. 548 (soldier). F.4. British Guiana. 3. p. I also found this ant carrying a roach in its mandibles. H.51. figs. 548 (imago.66 1.229). pp. No. 86-88 (soldier). Syntermes braziliensis SNYDER. 4 (locality). 21. 174. 1 soldier. det. and tergites yellow brown.50 MEAN 29. 1903. in the jaws of a ponerine ant. 1911. 58030' W. figs. 1): Canister Falls (04'54' N. Head. 1 worker.47.0. coll. 2. dirus.).39 2.03 3.15 0.VII.VI.44 2. Syntermes molestus HOLMGREN. 3. 583.0. pl. IMAGO: Head.0.3. 1911. 58042' W. and sternites more yellowish.. 1926.2.18 25.3.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 467 DISTRIBUTION (FIG. 1 soldier (cotype). fig. Pachycondyla crassinoda (Latreille). biology). This ant was observed by me at Kartabo collecting workers of a species of Termes (formerly called Mirotermes) from a disturbed nest.00-33. Syntermes molestus (Burmeister) Termes mokestus BURMEISTER.66. 547.31 0. 1839.1924. 22 (imago).99 0. type No.54 0.169.88 0. workers. On April 11. British Guiana (type locality). p. 2. text fig. pronotum. 1858b. p. M. 1924.. 24 (imago). SNYDER. fig.26. 15. Kartabo (06023' N. pp. pl. Bufo typhonius. Snyder as S. coll. 1 soldier (holotype of S. Syntermes braziliensis SNYDER. p. det. A. Termes molestus SILVESTRI.1936. Emerson. 14. A. postclypeus.35 0.59 0. 19 (imago). 5 (soldier).33 0.0. pp.6. BIOLOGICAL NOTES: The ant Pachycondyla crassinoda was found by Neal Weber carrying a soldier of S. 176 (biology). 294 (biology). 1901. p. 513 (imago). A. pl. 547. Emerson. A. E. det. Hagen as T. 1 imago. N.

Antennae with 19 or 20 articles. and sides slightly curved and converging toward the hind margin which is emarginate in the middle. Side posterior angles of mesonotum sharp or rounded and of metanotum rounded. Pronotum with a comparatively large frontal lobe. I am unable to discover consistent differences which would require subdivision into two or more species.87 2. long. The characters are consistent within colonies and in large series. Left mandible with a small notch anterior to the first marginal tooth forming about a 22-45° angle.67 0. However. Right mandible with marginal tooth barely visible. Antennae with 20 articles. All points of labrum less than a right angle or lateral points more than right angle. Soldiers from Bahia in my collection conform closely to the description of S.65-3. hardly more than a tiny ridge around the opening of the frontal gland.97 0. 4 8 8 7 4 6 6 6 8 7 6 6 RANGE 4. the sides fairly straight or slightly concave in the middle.09 3. postmentum. thoracic nota.63 2. brasiliensis which I consider a synonym.468 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL.07 SOLDIER: Head. It may well be that more extensive collections will indicate subspecific populations or even specific differences. front margin slightly emarginate.70 2.76-2. round and depressed or with a convex plate. COMPARISONS: These imagoes differ from each other somewhat in size and in possessing either a fontanelle depression or a fontanelle convex plate. First marginal tooth projecting to a line continuous with the apical cutting edge.15 mm. Narrowest portion of the post- colony to another that I feel it is best at present to treat them all as a single species. 83 top of the head in profile.34 3.72 1. anterior angles rounded.85 0.39-2.23-0.17 1.11-0. Mesonotum sometimes with rounded sides.61 mm.25 2. and notch posterior to the first marginal tooth forming a right angle or slightly greater than a right angle. SOLDIER Length of head with mandibles Length of head to side base of mandibles Width of head Length of left mandible Length of postmentum Widest width of postmentum Narrowest width of postmentum Length of pronotum Width of pronotum Width of mesonotum Width of metanotum Length of hind tibia mentum about two-thirds to three-fourths the width of the widest portion.41 2.02 1.02 1.88-1.72 MEAN 5. Ocelli of medium size. front margin entire. Head converging strongly or slightly toward the front. the second longer than the fourth. The cotype soldiers of S. COMPARISONS: The variation of the soldiers in this species is quite great.53-0.06-4. The species was described from the imago alone from Bahia. about the same length as the ocelli. Pronotum a little narrower than the head. The variation in the fontanelle may occur within the same vial as in the case of imagoes from Ciudad Bolivar. Eyes relatively of medium size and comparatively close to lower margin of head.35 mm.88-6.62 0. 3.65-2. brasiliensis Holmgren seem closely related to the Bom .39 2 . with a median anterior lobe. wide and 0. somewhat hooked to strongly hooked at the tip.03 1. closer to the eyes than to the fontanelle. the third longer than the second.24-2.71-0. Fontanelle yellowish white to brownish yellow. about twice the width of the ocelli from the eyes. and abdomen with a number of straight bristles. Venezuela. in some cases the tip pointing at right angles to the axis of the mandible. penultimate article 0. but usually angular. Mandibles long or fairly long.78 0.13-2. Frontal tube extremely short.64 1.55 1.42-3 . Lateral angles of nota not prolonged into spines. although different colonies from the same locality are not always a perfect match.57 2. the gradations in the specimens before me are so slight from one No. particularly in the length of the curved hooks in the mandibles in different localities.

C. M. molestus.1900. Sociedad. E. Silvestri as T. E. coll.VII. F. 48006' W. Minas Geraes. coll. Mann. Soldiers from Corumbi. 35033' W. Also the tip of the labrum of the Villavicencio form is wider. Brazil. 3441. while the larger soldiers with more curved mandibles from the region of the type locality of S. Hagen. the point forming a right angle or slightly less.Z..). Jayme V. A. DISTRIBUTION (FIG. from the Brit. king. G. Bradley and Harris. Brazil. with the Tumupasa. 46055' W..XI.). 6. M. Brazil. Brazil (type locality). Meta. Brazil. C. soldiers. Brazil. Bahia. the sides of the head are only slightly converging and are somewhat convex. Pinheiro. Vista Alegre (01035' N. brasiliensis would still seem to be a synonym of the typical subspecies. specimens but are much smaller than the Villavicencio soldiers. The species is also recorded in the literature from Coxipo (15030' S. Hagen as T. coll. brasiliensis). 570501 W. 27. Snyder as S. 1 soldier. brasiliensis. Silvestri Coll. and I regard these forms as variants of the same species. Minas Geraes. has slightly convex sides of the head and is similar in shape to the soldiers from Independencia. det. 1931. workers. Rio Branco. T. brasiliensis. Colombia.. Bom Fim (10025' S.XI. Temple as S. soldiers. Otherwise large series from these two colonies match quite well. Unknown locality.C.1938. Silvestri. workers. E. det. Brazil.1900. W. det. Cuyabi (13035' S. Amazonas. M. but the mandibles are similar. A. J. coll. and with the Akuriman. Bolivia. Tumupasa (13059' S.). Brazil.).1931. specimens. det. Saunders. Brazil. det. coll. D. Matto Grosso. Portici. Bahia. molestus. soldiers. Specimens from Villavicencio. 9 soldiers. These smaller soldiers from southern localities with straighter mandibles seem to agree with Holmgren's description of S. Bolivia.Z. R. coll. from Basel Mus. workers. Ivanauskas.. J. 1): Bahia (13010' S. soldiers. No. Rio Branco. 14." Paracatu (17005' S. as T.).). Matto Grosso. Jos6 Blaser. brasiliensis. Haseman. det. N. Brazil.XI.1943 (dealates in same vial belong to an undetermined species of Syntermes). Berlin Mus. 1895. M.. H.. W. Independencia (06048' S.. 73043' W. 1 soldier (probably cotype of S. 1 imago (cotype). seem to be almost identical with the cotypes of S. Parahyba.. with the Vista Alegre. coll. T. Silvestri. and Guarany. C. the frontal tube is a little more prominent. 61009' W. Ternetz. Paraguay. specimens. 1 female. soldiers.). Mann. specimens. XI. Soldiers from Mte. 40°10' W. F. and the labrum is similar to that of the Independencia soldiers. 38050' W.1919. 13. det. coll. No. 67048' W. Mte. VII-IX. Corumb& (19007' S. Colombia. 20.IX. coll.. Sociedad.. F. Gomez. 44035' W.. Fruhstorfer. although this hypothesis may be disproved as larger series are obtained. workers. queen.1907. 24.).1938. 2765. workers. Snyder as S. 12. Minas Geraes. Seevers.H. coll. but the mandibles have longer hooks. Paraguay. Bequaert." from Holmgren's Coll. Bahia. Brazil. 1 soldier. No. Lassance (17043' S. Venezuela. molestus. soldiers.). The labrum of the Independencia soldier has the middle point narrower at the base and is similar in proportions but smaller than the Paracatu soldiers. Mus. XII. A.). 11. Parahyba.). "foraging in daytime-savannah. Soldiers from Independencia. 9-19.. workers.1924. S. 1 soldier. A single soldier from Cuyab. det. 56010' W.IX.N. Guarany (21025' S..XI. are smaller than soldiers from Independencia. Sao Paulo. Carnegie Mus.. T. brasiliensis.M. with the Bom Fim. Seevers. coll.). Sociedad (not located on map). 56°00' W. coll. sp.1919. If the species is ultimately divided into subspecies. H. workers. the mandibles have comparatively short hooks. brasiliensis. Villavicencio (04017' N. workers. coll.. F. XII. T. the tips of the mandibles are proportionately less curved. H. . I male. 1 imago. molestus. 4 imagoes. and the side angles of the metanotum are less sharp. Snyder. specimens of S. Burmeister and H. No.1921. molestus. Brazil.1 945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES4 469 Fim. Silvestri as T. are very close to Barro Alto. Minas Geraes. Cuyaba. det. Holmgren as "Syntermes n. specimens.VII. J. coll. molestus agree with his description of S. Brazil. Acc. det. Brazil. H. Brazil. in having a shorter anterior portion of the postmentum in front of the widest part and in having the notch in front of the first marginal tooth of the left mandible forming an angle of 45-60°. 16. coll. coll. 28. are a little smaller than the Villavicencio specimens and are without concave sides. mokstus in my collection. 1 soldier. 1 male (topotype). Holmgren. Minas Geraes.1919. H. 5 soldiers. The Corumbf specimens are very close to those from Mte.. C. Barro Alto (not located on map). The Villavicendo specimens differ from those from Paracatu. Sao Paulo.

Monogr. Termitidae. are not so large as in S. 289294. T. brasiliensis. Workers only. W. and Krumbach." Emerson Coll. H. pp. K.. coll. 57. H. Akuriman (not located on map but in upper Caroni River basin [05o-07' N. part 2. Eine neue termitophile Histeridengattung aus Brasilien. pp. Zool.470 BULLETIN AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. The specimens were determined by T. London. IL. Sao Paulo.. Brazil. workers (2 vials). Leipzig. with notes on other Amazonian termites. Brazil. Neotermes injurious to living guava tree.. 52 pp. Hermann Hagen bearbeiteten Neuropteren aus Mossambique. 3. p. Bull. Harris. 1853.. 1925. 672 pp. British Guiana. Guarany (21025' S. Handbuch der Zoologie. BLANCHARD. 1-10. EMERSON. pp. 1928. Reichensperger (1936. Ber. 12.Z. vol. Imagoes. 3. vol. Emerson Coll. Brussels. Zoologica. BURMEISTER. near grandis.. dealates do not conform to the description of this species). 1938.]. Villavicencio. Paris. Ent. Hr. Termites of the Belgian Congo and the Cameroon. The hairs on the head are thick and curly as in S. P.. Venezuela. Bartica District. Jayme V.). coll. In Kiikenthal. Snyder as S. 88. pp. Wiss. Syntermes sp.) This species is probably new but is in such poor condition that it should not be named. E. Syntermes sp. 459-486. Handbuch der Entomologie: Neuroptera. 1839.C. Brussels. Soc. Goyaz.. HANDLIRSCH. P. Catalogue of the specimens of neuropterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Termite nests-a study of the phylogeny of behavior. R. 570351 W. H. pp. fasc. InSchomburgk. 1848. HARE. Mus. 63056' W. 1840. coll. 22. J.XI. Berlin. F.). Nat. The termites of Kartabo. coll. OTHER RECORDS OF SYNTERMES Syntermes sp. 1925. A single pinned soldier in poor condition in the M. E. pp. molestus. coll. although large. 757-768. In Peters.VIII. 247-284. labeled "Maruriu. Meta. de Selys Longchamps. C. imagoes. 48006' W. XI. 5. Matto Grosso. Schmidt. Seevers. 8.. Termitina. News.. Insecten. 48018' W.. Berlin. vol. ERICHSON. 1930. 19. pt.). Reisen in Britisch-Guiana. Colombia. A. Cambridge. aculeosus. 1862.). and the mandibles are quite different. 25.VII. TH. 36. F. vol. 183. vol. Anduze." (Locality not located on map. HAGEN. pp.). 37. coll. 1-342. W. vol. 1904. Linnaea Ent. Workers only. The medical report of the Hamilton Rice seventh expedition to the Amazon. pp. E. Anduze. In Castelnau. Urucum (19013' S. Syntermes sp. Lassance (170431 S. 1853. C. vol. Syntermes sp. Hist.1926.. aculeosus. 401-574. Dr.). A.1940. part 1. April. 1926. Ann. order 2. Dealates.1940. Isoptera: Collections zoologiques du Baron Edm. pp. "large brown earthen nest. vol. pp. 3. Bolivar). Harvard University Press. P. Genera Insectorum. A. Peters berichtete uber die von ihm gesammelten und von Hrn. Ecol. 291-459. Borgmeier (1930) records the species from Campinas (16045' S. p. 4. Pinheiro. Berlin and Leipzig. 1930.1919. Isoptera. pp. 57-89... Anz. 83 Ciudad Bolivar (0807' N. fasc.. J. 49015' W. 61°30'-63°20' W. BORGMEIER.. workers. 230). Amer. from Santa Cruz (17021' S. Peru. Venezuela. Berlin.. 1858a. . 3. 6. soldiers. Wings. 1858b. 33-39. 479-481. pp. Brazil. 2. 553-617. but these BIBLIOGRAPHY BEQUAERT. pp. LAURA 1937. 12.1943 (soldiers and workers in the same vial were determined as S. K. 840-858. 57035' W. 34 pp. Syntermes sp. Brazil. vol. 1915. J.. 65022' W. vol. vol. Ent. but the spines. Brazil. Amer. Minas Geraes. W. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Isoptera oder Termiten. Termitina. Syntermes sp. H. Madeira Mamore (090431 S. DESNEUX. Preussischen Akad. fam. Goyaz. Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mosambique.. vol. Termite phylogeny as evidenced by soldier mandible development. J. Monographie der Termiten.). Neuroptera.

4. Revision der Termiten Afrikas 3. 6. 159243. 48. art. S. pp.. H. Handl. Systematik der Termiten. pp. 37. 4. 64. KINSEY. K. Histoire naturelle des insectes Neuropteres. 521-676. ser. 1912. Nota preliminare sui Termitidi sud- americani.1945 EMERSON: THE NEOTROPICAL GENUS SYNTERMES 471 HOLMGREN. SNYDER. pp. 3. Paris. S. Y. Publ. vol. 35. Syst. List of the specimens of neuropterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. 1901.. 1922. 137-182. vol. Zoologica. Handl. Kritisches Verzeichniss der myrmekophilen und termitophilen Arthropoden mit Angabe der Lebensweise und mit Beschreibung neuer Arten. 0. vol. P. 48. 334 pp. LIGHT.. Ibid. Natl. 222-242. vol. Bemerkungen tiber einige TermitenArten. Torino. PERTY. Ibid. 1909. art.. Senckenbergische Naturf. no. 389. Abhandl.-Akad. vol. Tranopelta and Tranopeltoides. P. C. . LATREILLE. California Publ.. 1840. K. 8 pp. Univ. 3. no. 1805a. 49-63. pp. RAMBUR. London. U. vol. vol. Delectus animalium articulatorum Brasiliam. 6. 1-14. Mus. New termitophilous Diptera from the neotropics. 1941. SJ6SrEDT. Ent. Histoire naturelle gen6rale et particuliere. 5-17. vol. 4. Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle. 307-321. 68. London. 1906. 1-234. Svenska Vet. 51-70. A. C. 1-419. pp. Jahrb.. 2. Mus. Monographie. 1923. pp. Publ. Termitenstudien III. 1936. J. Field Mus. des crustac6s et des insectes. F.. pp. A. 1805b. pp. WESTWOOD. vol. Svenska Vet. Gesellsch. 1936. pp. Termiten von Madagaskar und Ostafrika.. 1910. 1924.. part 3. WASMANN. Beltrag zur Kenntnis der Myrmecophilen. vol. Zool. 1830. W. Acad. Munich. 1- 76. pp. T. Proc. vol. vol. vol. no. 1911. 1-166. SEEVERS. Amer. REIcHENSPERGER. new genus. Handl. pp. 24. Termitides. 545-553. vol. E. 23. pp. 3. pp. 71. comp. 300-309. Mus. A new and more exact method of expressing important specific characters of termites. Berlin. F. pp. Introduction to the modern classification of insects. WALKER. 1894. Ent. Paris. Die Familie Metatermitidae. 501-529. 1. 1. Abt. 1-40. Hist. 1853. 1926. Nat. vol. Contribuzione alla conoscenza dei Termitidi e Termitofili dell' America meridionale. Anz. no. pp. N. 1921-1922. Anat. no. Paris. 16. K. vol. Svenska Vet. M. 175-193. 1-215. PP.. Anatomische Untersuchungen. Ecological relations of ponerine and other ants to termites. Neotropical ants of the genera Carebara. pp. Amer. E. 1927. F. SILvESTRI.. 22. pp. Arts and Sci. pp. vol. vol. 1903. 1842. Rev. Sci. Studien uber sudamerikanische Termiten. Zool. A. pp. Descriptions of new species and hitherto unknown castes of termites from America and Hawaii.-Akad. WHEELER. M.. The origin of higher categories in Cynips. pp.. 21.und Termitophilenfauna Brasiliens und Costa Ricas IV. no.. pp. 14. pp.. 1926. Zool. Das System der Termiten. 127-128. Termites collected on the Mulford biological exploration to the Amazon basin. 75-88. 44. zool. Boll. Proc. Redia. Descriptiones Termitum in Anglorum Guiana. 231 1897.-Akad. Termitenstudien I. 284-286. Indiana Univ. 1936. 13. Ser. Novitates. vol..

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