PART 66 CATEGORY B1.

1
MODULE 3 : ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

ELECTRON THEORY (EASA Ref : 3.1)

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 2

EASA Ref:3.1

ATOMIC STRUCTURE smallest part of an element (solar system) element, molecules and compound nucleus consists of PROTONS and NEUTRONS electrons – around the orbit of an atom Charge of proton – positive Charge of electron – negative Charge of neutron – neutral Proton and Neutron makes up app. 98% of the mass
Slide No 3

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B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

EASA Ref :3.1

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 4

EASA Ref :3.1

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 5

EASA Ref :3.1

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 6

EASA Ref :3.1

IONISATION FACTORS AFFECTING IONISATION: HEAT LIGHT ELECTRIC FIELDS MAGNETIC FIELDS CHEMICAL ACTION PRESSURE CAN BE: POSITIVE ION (LOSS OF ELECTRON) or NEGATIVE ION (GAIN OF ELECTRON) MOVEMENT OF ELECTRON IS CURRENT FLOW

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 7

EASA Ref :3.1

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 8

EASA Ref :3.1

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 9

EASA Ref :3.1

MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF CONDUCTOR, INSULATOR AND SEMICONDUCTOR A MATERIAL WHICH ALLOW ELECTRONS TO FLOW IS KNOWN AS CONDUCTOR. EX: GOLD, COPPER, SILVER and ALUMINUM A MATERIAL WHICH PREVENTS ELECTRON FLOW IS KNOWN AS INSULATOR. EX: DRY AIR, MICA, EBOLITE, PORCELIN and RUBBER A MATERIAL WHICH RESTRICTS ELECTRON FLOW IS KNOWN AS SEMICONDUCTOR. EX: SILICON, GERMANIUM and TELLURIUM

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 10

STATIC ELECTRICITY AND CONDUCTION ( EASA Ref : 3.2 )

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 11

02.09 Slide No 12 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3. WHEREBY ONE MATERIAL LOSSES ELECTRONS AND THE OTHER GAINS ELECTRONS MATERIAL WITH LESS ELECTRONS IS CALLED POSITIVELY CHARGED MATERIAL WITH GAINED ELECTRONS IS CALLED NEGATIVELY CHARGED B1.2 STATIC ELECTRICITY AND DISTRIBUION OF ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES FRICTION: RUBBING OF 2 DIFFERENT MATERIALS.

FLANNEL.09 Slide No 13 . EX: HARD RUBBER RUBBED AGAINST FUR. ROD – NEGATIVE CHARGE FUR – POSITIVE CHARGE B1.AMBER.2 MATERIALS THAT ACQUIRE A CHARGE OF STATIC ELECTRICITY: GLASS.WAXES. SILK.1M03 Presentation V1.02. HARD RUBBER. NYLON.EASA Ref : 3.RAYON.0 dated 02.

29 x1018 ELECTRONS B1.000.09 Slide No 14 .02.000.0 dated 02.000.000 ELECTRONS = 6.1M03 Presentation V1.2 ELECTROSTATIC LAW OF ATRACTION AND REPULSION: (COULOMB’S LAW) LIKE CHARGES REPELS and UNLIKE CHARGES ATTRACTS COULOMB’S LAW – UNITS OF CHARGE: QUANTITY (UNIT OF CHARGE) OF ELECTRICITY = COULOMB SYMBOL FOR COULOMB = Q 1 COULOMB = 6.EASA Ref : 3.000.290.

02.09 Slide No 15 .2 CONDUCTION OF ELECTRICITY IN SOLIDS – ELECTRONS IN LIQUIDS – POSITIVE IONS OR NEGATIVE IONS IN GASES – ELECTRONS AND IONS IN A VACUUM – ELECTRONS AND IONS B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.

09 Slide No 16 .ELECTRICAL TERMINOLOGY (EASA Ref : 3.120 VOLTS WITH 0 VOLTS = A PD of 120 VOLTS + 120 VOLTS WITH . UNIT and AFFECTIVE FACTORS: DIFFERENCE IN POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGE = POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE (PD) UNIT OF PD .3 ) ELECTRICAL TERMINOLOGY.02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.VOLTS 120 VOLTS WITH 0 VOLTS = A PD of 120 VOLTS .120 VOLTS = A PD of 240 VOLTS THIS PD CAN FORCE ELECTRONS TO FLOW FROM NEGATIVE CHARGE TO POSITIVE CHARGE DUE TO ELECTRICAL PRESSURE B1.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.3 B1.09 Slide No 17 .02.

09 Slide No 18 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.3 B1.

0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 19 .1M03 Presentation V1.3 CONVERSION OF ENERGY: CHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERTED TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONVERTED TO LIGHT ENERGY LIGHT ENERGY CONVERTED TO HEAT ENERGY B1.

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 20 .3 B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

3 EMF CAN BE MEASURED WHEN NO CURRENT FLOWS PD CAN BE DETERMINED Reason: voltage will be dropped across the internal resistor of the battery EMF = PD + INTERNAL VOLTAGE DROP NO CURRENT FLOWS .1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 21 .EASA Ref : 3. EMF =PD UNIT FOR EMF AND PD IS VOLTS B1.0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1.3 B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 22 .02.0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1.3 VOLTAGE: ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL = JOULES PER COULOMB (VOLTS) CURRENT: 1 AMPERE = 1 COULOMB PER SECOND (Q = AMPERE X TIME) .0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 23 .EASA Ref : 3. Q=I/t UNIT FOR CURRENT = AMPERE (Amp) SYMBOL FOR CURRENT = I B1.

3 PREFIXES: 0.000001 Amp = 1 microamps 3 TYPES OF CURRENT: DIRECT CURRENT (DC) PULSATING CURRENT (PULSATING DC ) ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) B1.02.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.010 Amp = 10 milliamp 0.1 Amp = 100 milliamp 0.09 Slide No 24 .001 Amp = 1 milliamp 0.

02.CURRENT FLOWS IN ONE DIRECTION .CURRENT FLOWS IN ONE DIRECTION BUT VARIES IN AMPLITUDE BUT DOES NOT GO BELOW ZERO AC .0 dated 02.3 DC . THEN IN THE OTHER DIRECTION AND CHANGES FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE AND THEN POSITIVE AGAIN AND SO FORTH B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 25 .CURRENT FLOWS CONTINUOUSLY IN ONE DIRECTION PULSATING DC .

02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 26 .3 FREQUENCY: 1 HERTZ = 1 CYCLE PER SECOND UNIT FOR FREQUENCY = HERTZ (Hz) B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

09 Slide No 27 .0 dated 02.3 B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 28 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.3 B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

DIFFERENT MATERIAL HAVE DIFFERENT VALUE OF RESISTANCE SILVER = VERY LOW RESISTANCE RUBBER = VERY HIGH RESISTANCE SYMBOL = R UNIT = OHMS ( ) B1.1M03 Presentation V1.3 RESISTANCE: THE PROPERTY OF A MATERIAL WHICH OPPOSSES ELECTRON FLOW.EASA Ref : 3.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 29 .

0 dated 02.02.000001 OHM = 1µ 1 milliohm = 0.3 Prefixes: 1 MICRO OHM = 0.09 Slide No 30 .001 OHM = 1 m 1000 ohms = 1 kilo ohm = 1 k 1000000 ohm = 1 M Note: resistor are used to control current flow B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 31 .1M03 Presentation V1.3 3 FACTORS AFFECTING RESISTANCE: LENGTH CROSS-SECTION MATERIAL ρ (rho) Rho = the resistance of 1 meter of the material and the cross-section of 1 millimeter square B1.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.3 CONDUCTANCE: OPPOSITE TO RESISTANCE – THE EASE OF CURRENT FLOW IT IS THE RECIPROCAL OF RESISTANCE UNIT FOR CONDUCTANCE = SIEMENS (S) G= 1/R G= V / I or R = 1/G B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 32 .

0 dated 02.3 ELECTRIC CHARGES: ELECTRIC CHARGES GIVES A MATERIAL ITS ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES PROTON .02.NEGATIVE CHARGE NEUTRON .EASA Ref : 3.POSITIVE CHARGE ELECTRON .ZERO CHARGE / NEUTRAL B1.09 Slide No 33 .1M03 Presentation V1.

ELECTRONS FLOW FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE CONVENTIONAL CURRENT FLOW .02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.3 2 TYPES OF CURRENT FLOW: ELECTRON FLOW .09 Slide No 34 .HOLES TRAVEL FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE B1.

02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 35 .0 dated 02.3 B1.

3 B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 36 .02.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.3 WHEN A BATTERY IS CONNECTED TO A LOAD ELECTRONS FLOW FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE AT THE TERMINALS. CURRENT (ELECTRONS) FLOWS FROM THE POSITIVE ROD TO THE NEGATIVE ROD INSIDE THE BATTERY THROUGH THE ELECTROLYTE.09 Slide No 37 .02. B1.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.3 B1.09 Slide No 38 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.

09 Slide No 39 .GENERATON OF ELECTRICITY ( EASA Ref : 3.02.4 ) 6 BASIC MEANS OF GENERATING ELECTRICITY FRICTION PRESSURE HEAT LIGHT MAGNETISM CHEMICAL ACTION B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 40 .02.4 B1.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 41 .1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.4 FRICTION: WHEN 2 DIFFERENT MATERIALS ARE RUBBED TOGETHER ELECTRONS TEND TO TRANSFER FROM ONE MATERIAL TO ANOTHER ONE BECOMES POSITIVE AND THE OTHER WILL BE NEGATIVE B1.

4 B1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 42 .02.

EASA Ref : 3. THE PROCESS IS KNOWN AS INDUCTION THE VALUE OF VOLTAGE INDUCED DEPANDS ON THE SPEED OF MOVEMENT AND NUMBER OF COILS FREE ELECTRONS ARE FORCED TO MOVE WITHIN THE WIRE B1.1M03 Presentation V1.4 MAGNETISM WHEN A MAGNET IS MOVED INTO A COIL AND REMOVED.0 dated 02.02. A VOLTAGE IS PRODUCED KNOWN AS INDUCED VOLTAGE.09 Slide No 43 .

1M03 Presentation V1.4 B1.09 Slide No 44 .0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.

4 B1.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 45 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 46 . COLD AND HOT JUNCTION THE EFFECT IS KNOWN AS THERMO-ELECTRIC EFFECT USED IN ENGINES. EXHAUST GASES.4 HEAT: WHEN HEAT IS APPLIED TO A JUNCTION OF 2 DIFFERENT MATERIAL.0 dated 02. ELECTRONS ARE FORCED TO MOVE. 2 JUNCTIONS. OVENS and FURNACES B1.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 47 .EASA Ref : 3.02.4 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.

4 PRESSURE: WHEN QUARTZ PLATE IS COMPRESSED. ECHO SOUNDER ) B1.EASA Ref : 3.02. A VOLTAGE IS PRODUCED WHEN A VOLTAGE IS APPLIED.1M03 Presentation V1. COMPRESSION OF THE QUARTZ IS PRODUCED THIS EFFECT IS KNOWN AS PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT USED FOR TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION OF ULTRASONIC VIBRATION IN WATER (SONAR.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 48 .

09 Slide No 49 .4 B1.02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

A VOLTAGE IS THIS EFFECT IS KNOWN AS PHOTO-ELECTRIC EFFECT PRODUCED USED IN PHOTO-DIODES.09 Slide No 50 . SOLAR CELLS AND SILICON CELLS ALSO SMOKE DETECTOR.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.4 LIGHT WHEN LIGHT STRIKES A PHOTO-VOLTAC MATERIAL.02. PHOTO-TRANSISTORS.EASA Ref : 3. B1.

02.09 Slide No 51 .EASA Ref : 3.4 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

4 CHEMICAL EFFECT WHEN 2 DISSIMILAR METALS ARE PLACED SIDE BY SIDE.EASA Ref : 3. OPPOSITE ELECTRIC CHARGES WILL BE ESTABLISHED ON THE PLATES.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1. ELECTRONS TEND TO FLOW. WHEN 2 PLATES OF DISSIMILAR METALS ARE PLACED IN AN ELECTROLYTE.09 Slide No 52 . RESULTING AN ELECTRICAL VOLTAGE(PD) B1.02. ELECTRONS FROM THE NEGATIVE POLARITY WILL MOVE TOWARDS THE POSITIVE POLARITY.

4 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 53 .02.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02. IT IS KNOWN AS A BATTERY WHEN CERTAIN SUBSTANCES ARE DISSOLVED IN WATER +ION OR -ION IS PRODUCED.09 Slide No 54 .1M03 Presentation V1.5 ) DC SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY: WHEN 2 DISSIMILAR METALS ARE PLACED IN A CHEMICAL (ELECTROLYTE). THIS EFFECT IS KNOWN AS ELECTROLYTIC DISSOCIATION AND THIS SUBSTANCE IS KNOWN AS ELECTROLYTE THEY CAN BE ACID OR ALKALINE B1.02. AN ELECTRIC CELL IS FORMED KNOWN AS SIMPLE CELL WHEN MORE THAN 2 CELLS JOINT TOGETHER.DC SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY ( EASA Ref : 3.

40V PD OF THE CELL = .5 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DISSIMILAR METALS IS KNOWN AS ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES.02.0.18V B1.0. EX: A NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERY NICKEL = -0.0.EASA Ref : 3.40) = 0.22 – (.09 Slide No 55 .22V CADMIUM = .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

EASA Ref : 3.02.5 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 56 .0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1. THE +IONS MOVE TOWARDS THE COPPER ELECTRODE (ZINC BECOMES EVEN MORE NEGATIVE WITH RESPECT TO THE ELECTROLYTE 1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 57 .5 ENERGY CONVERSION: CHEMICAL ENERGY IS CONVERTED TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY AS ZINC DISSOLVES.0 dated 02.02.1 V IS PRESENT AT THE TERMINALS (ANODE AND CATHODE ) 2 CONDITIONS WHEN ELECTRICITY CAN BE EXHAUSTED a) ZINC FULLY DISSOLVED or b) ELECTROLYTE EXHAUSTED (THE IONS USED UP) B1.

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 58 .5 HYDROGEN BUBBLES FORM WHEN ELECTRIC CURRENT IS GENERATED BUBBLES FORM BARRIER AT THE ANODE CAUSING A REDUCTION IN CURRENT FLOW THIS EFFECT IS KNOWN AS POLARIZATION FORMATION OF HYDROGEN BUBBLES AT THE ANODE OF THE CELL B1.0 dated 02.

5 B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 59 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.5 B1.09 Slide No 60 .1M03 Presentation V1.

09 Slide No 61 .EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.5 CLASSES OF CELLS PRIMARY CELL = NOT RECHARGEABLE = CAN BE USED ONLY ONCE SECONDARY CELL = RECHARGEABLE = CAN BE REUSED MANY TIMES B1.

09 Slide No 62 .0 dated 02.02.2V = 3.EASA Ref : 3. HIGHER OUTPUT VOLTAGE AND CAPACITY OUTPUT (AH )THE SAME PARALLEL = EX: 3 CELLS OF 1.5 CELLS CAN BE CONNECTED IN 2 WAYS SERIES = EX: 3 CELLS OF 1.OVERALL VOLTAGE THE SAME BUT CAPACITY OUTPUT ( AH ) INCREASED B1.6V.2V = 1.1M03 Presentation V1.2V .

09 Slide No 63 .1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.0 dated 02.5 B1.

09 Slide No 64 .02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.5 B1.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 65 .1M03 Presentation V1.5 B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 66 .5 B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

5 = 1V PD = 12 – 1 V = 11V Rex = 5.5 EMF = 12 V B1.02.5 INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF BATTERY Ri = 0.5 = 6 IT = EMF/RT = 12/6 = 2Amp Uri = IT X Ri = 2 X 0.0 dated 02.5 RT = 0.5 + 5.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 67 .1M03 Presentation V1.

02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.5 B1.09 Slide No 68 .

09 Slide No 69 .EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.5 B1.

1M03 Presentation V1.auxiliary power start up B1.positive terminal with lack of electrons -output is steady DC voltage -purpose on aircraft: .02.EASA Ref : 3.5 AIRCRAFT BATTERIES A device composed of two or more cells that convert chemical energy into electrical energy.stand-by power .09 Slide No 70 .0 dated 02. has 2 terminals: .negative terminal with excess of electrons .

09 Slide No 71 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02. Georges leclanche in 1839-1889 -commonly used but can be used only once (primary cell) B1.1M03 Presentation V1.5 Dry cell also known as leclanche cell -produced by a French.02.

EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 72 .5 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.lead acid battery nickel cadmium battery etc B1.5 Secondary cell also called storage batteries -can be recharged -do not produce electrical energy but can be recharged by storing in chemical form -after a certain number of charges and discharges the battery should be replaced e. .g.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 73 .

09 Slide No 74 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.5 Lead Acid B1.

02.1M03 Presentation V1.5 LEAD ACD BATTERIES - positive plate is made of lead peroxide (PbO2) negative plate is made of pure spongy lead (Pb) the electrolyte is made up of sulphuric acid (30%) and distilled water (70%) the 2 plates are separated by plates known as separators purpose of the porous separators is to prevent short circuit offer minimum resistance to current flow due to the material of the separators (porous ) - B1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 75 .

1M03 Presentation V1.5 B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 76 .

02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 77 . the negative plates are also connected together to a different plate strap -they are both insulated from each other B1.5 Lead acid battery construction -consists of a group of lead acid cells connected in series. -the positive plates are connected together to a plate strap.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

5 Lead acid B1.09 Slide No 78 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.

09 Slide No 79 .5 the 3 elements are placed inside a hard rubber of plastic composite container the container are sealed to prevent leakage or spillage and loss of electrolyte ventilation caps are located at the top to let the gasses due to chemical action. B1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 80 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.5 Construction B1.

02. (to be repeated at all cell holes) release the bulb slowly without removing the tube out of the electrolyte the float movement should not be restricted observe the reading at eye level.09 Slide No 81 .1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02. - - B1.5 Specific Gravity Test Procedure - wear goggles to protect eyes ventilation caps to be removed squeeze the hydrometer rubber bulb hard and insert it into the cell hole closest to the positive terminal.

0 dated 02.5 Specific gravity B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 82 .EASA Ref : 3.

5 Lead Acid Battery Inspection and Service -inspect for cracks on supporting structure -inspect for corrosion and evidence of leakage by opening the covers -refill electrolyte if the level is below the level -check for defect by carrying out load test or hydrometer test -check that the terminals are not corroded -check that the cables are in good condition (not cracked or broken) -check that the ventilation of the aircraft and battery box is good B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 83 .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

0 dated 02.02.5 Lead acid B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 84 .

NI(OH)2 negative plate. potassium hydroxide (KOH) plates are made by sintering process active material impregnated into the plate by chemical deposition B1.5 ALKALINE BATTERIES positive plate.EASA Ref : 3. nickel hydroxide . metallic cadmium (Cd) electrolyte.09 Slide No 85 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.

5 Alkaline Battery B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 86 .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 87 .EASA Ref : 3.5 Nickel cadmium battery B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

5 Connections of cells B1.02.09 Slide No 88 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 89 .02.EASA Ref : 3.5 Different capacity batteries B1.1M03 Presentation V1.

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.5 Inspection of Alkaline Battery -inspections are based on: flying hours annual inspection periodic inspection (normally 28 days) -what is to be inspected: the case proper airflow of the vent system the cells (clean if required) the cell connector for corrosion.09 Slide No 90 .02. cracks and overheating the cell caps are clean and not clogged for correct electrolyte level B1.

if more than one battery is to be charged at one time. batteries are normally constant voltage charged. they must be connected in parallel B1. current diminishes as the battery is charged the electron flow resistance is reduced as the charge increases as the battery voltage increases.5 CHARGING OF BATTERY 2 methods (constant voltage or constant current) constant voltage charging voltage is held constant always.02.09 Slide No 91 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3. the charger current reduces on the aircraft.1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.5 Constant Current Charging current is held constant but voltage varies equipment monitors the current constant while the voltage decreases if more than one battery is to be charged.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 92 . it should be in series over charging is to be prevented B1.02.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 93 .EASA Ref : 3.5 THERMOCOUPLES -a sensor for the measure of temperature -consists of 2 dissimilar metals (also in the form of alloy wires) -voltage is formed either heated or cooled and correlated back to temperature -a voltage produced by heating is known as Peltier Seeback Effect (thermoelectric effect ) B1.02.

5 Operation of Thermocouples voltage depends on: -types of material used -temperature difference between hot and cold junctions Connected in a closed loop parallel circuit: -when heated the resistance changes at a known rate -voltage is proportional to the temperature B1.02.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 94 .

5 Measuring and Reference junctions -measuring junction is the hot junction exposed to temperature -reference junction is the cold junction where the temperature is held constant B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 95 .02.

09 Slide No 96 .02.5 Thermocouple B1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.5 Types of Thermocouple surface contact type measures temperatures of solid components cylinder head temperature-indicating systems of air cooled engines immersion type measures gases and liquid temperatures (engine oil) gas temperature-indicating system of turbine engines B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 97 .02.EASA Ref : 3.

5 Thermocouples B1.0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 98 .1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 99 . the homogeneity of the component wire can be maintained. areas -due to the low temp.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1. of up to 400º C -suitable at moist and low temp. -errors are very low B1.02.5 – Copper – Constantan (T curve) Thermocouples -copper wire is positive and constantan is negative wire -used in mildly oxidizing and reducing temp.

0 dated 02. for the largest wire size is 1260ºC -smaller wires operate at lower temp.1M03 Presentation V1. B1.EASA Ref : 3. 2% aluminium and 1% silicon -positive is the chromel wire and the negative is the alumel wire -used in clean oxidizing atmosphere -operating temp. 2% maganese. 10% chromium -alumel : 95% nickel.09 Slide No 100 .5 Chromel-Alumel (K Curve) -chromel : 90% nickel.02.

1M03 Presentation V1.5 – Voltages produced by Thermocouples C – tungstan rhenium = 15 µV / ºC E – chromel constantan = 68 µV / º C J – iron constantan = 52 µV / º C K – chromel alumel = 41 µV / º C R – platinum radium (13% platinum) = 10 µV / ºC S – platinum rhodium (10% platinum) = 10 µV / ºC T – copper constantan = 42 µ V / ºC N – nicrosi (nickel.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 101 .EASA Ref : 3. chromium and silicon) = 40 V /ºC B1.

0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 102 .1M03 Presentation V1.5 Temperature versus Voltage B1.

09 Slide No 103 .5 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.5 PHOTOCELLS -also known as Solar Cell or Photovoltaic cell -converts ultra violet and infra red light directly into voltage uses of photocells (known as electric eye) -light activated counters -automatic door opener -intrusion alarms B1.09 Slide No 104 .

metal backing is the negative electrode (N type Silicon) -each solar cell can produce about 1 watt of power and 0.0 dated 02.5 volts B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.5 Construction of photocell -P-type Silicon the metal rib is the positive electrode .09 Slide No 105 .EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 106 .1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.accurately controlling a great number of operations Used in: -video camera -automatic manufacturing process controls -door openers -burglar alarms -smoke detector B1.0 dated 02.5 Operation of photocell -P-type and N-type semiconductor are sandwiched together -produces low power -reacts to light in a short time period .02.

02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.DC CIRCUITS ( EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 107 .6 ) DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS A DC circuit is necessary for DC electricity to exist Types of DC circuits: series parallel combination of series and parallel B1.

if it is a bulb.6 Simple circuits: If a load is connected to a battery.09 Slide No 108 .EASA Ref : 3. keeping in mind that electron flow from cathode to anode whereas conventional flow holes travel from anode to cathode B1. to the neg. term.0 dated 02. current flows from the pos.1M03 Presentation V1.02. it should light up until the battery is discharged or the bulb has blown. terminal. the load.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 109 .1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.6 B1.

0 dated 02.6 Sources of DC power supply: battery DC generator rectifier output 3 components associated with a circuit: voltage => unit volts current => unit amperes or amps resistance => ohms B1.09 Slide No 110 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.6 Conductors: wires are normally made of copper but it can also be aluminum or any other low resistance elements tungsten is also a conductor but has a very high resistance to current therefore it heats and lights up B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 111 .

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.6 Series circuit B1.09 Slide No 112 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.

02.6 SERIES DC CIRCUIT when 2 or more components are connected one after the other in a line. it is said that they are in series the current that flows in this circuit is the same in all components but the voltage is divided among them components cannot be controlled individually disadvantage is that if one component fails.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02. than all will not function B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 113 .

02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.6 schematic B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 114 .

1M03 Presentation V1. Bulb) will be represented as a resistor and drawn as a rectangular block or zig-zag line. A component (ex. but volt drops different.09 Slide No 115 .6 SCHEMATIC The circuit elements in fig. 51 are connected end to end The current flows through each element is the same.02. B1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 116 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.6 parallel B1.02.

6 PARALLEL DC CIRCUIT 2 or more components are connected side by side with each other.02.EASA Ref : 3. if any one fails than the others will still be operational all components can be controlled individually B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 117 .

02.6 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 118 .

EASA Ref : 3.6 B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 119 .0 dated 02.

0 dated 02.6 When the series circuits and the parallel circuits are connected together.02.1M03 Presentation V1. they are said to be a combination.09 Slide No 120 . B1.EASA Ref : 3.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 121 .EASA Ref : 3.02.6 OHM’S LAW the current passing thru’ a conductor from one terminal to another is directly proportional to the PD across the 2 terminals and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor between the 2 points it is true only for lower current and voltage at high current and voltages the law does not apply (due to heat) Formula: I = V/R B1.

EASA Ref : 3. abbreviated as E or U instead of V when 1 amp of current flows thru’ an ohm resistor with 1 volt is known as one volt per ampere.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 122 .1M03 Presentation V1.02. B1.6 sometimes the potential difference is also known as the voltage drop.

EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 123 .6 Figure 54 :Ohm’s Law B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

09 Slide No 124 .EASA Ref : 3. voltage = current x resistance current = voltage / resistance resistance = voltage / current B1.6 Using the equation when 2 variables are known.02.1M03 Presentation V1. the 3rd variable can be calculated.0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 125 .6 Figure 55 : Solving Circle B1.02.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.6 – To find resistance: R=V/I = 6V / 2A =3 B1.09 Slide No 126 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.6 I= E/R = 1.02.15 Amp = 150mA B1.09 Slide No 127 .5V / 10 = 0.

02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 128 .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.6 ANALOGY: E = I X R (constant) (constant) E = I X R (constant) E =I X R B1.

02.EASA Ref : 3.6 B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 129 .

09 Slide No 130 .EASA Ref : 3.6 KIRCHHOFF’S LAW KIRCHHOFF’S LAW IS DIVIDED INTO 2 CURRENT LAW VOLTAGE LAW KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW = KIRCHHOFF’S JUNCTION LAW = KIRCHHOFF’S FIRST LAW STATES: THE ALGEBRAIC SUM OF CURRENT INTO ANY JUNCTION IS ZERO (This also means that the sum of current flowing into a junction equals the sum of current flowing out of the junction) B1.02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

i4=5amp.0 dated 02.i6 = 0 => 5A + 5A -8A + 5A + 4A .i3 + i4 + i5 . i5=4amp.11A =0 => 0 = 0 B1.EASA Ref : 3. i2=5amp. i3=8amp. i6=11amp OUT FLOWING i6 i4 i5 SUM: IN FLOWING i1 + i2 +i4 + i5 = i3 + i6 => 5A + 5A + 5A + 4 A = 8A + 11A => 19A = 19A ALGEBRAIC: i1 + i2 .02.1M03 Presentation V1.6 i1 i2 i3 i1=5amp.09 Slide No 131 .

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 132 .EASA Ref : 3.6 – KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.6 KIRCHHOFF’S VOLTAGE LAW STATES: THE ALGEBRAIC SUM OF THE VOLTAGE (POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES) IN ANY LOOP MUST EQUAL ZERO VR1 + VR2 + VR3 = 18 V => 6V + 6V + 6V = 18V 6V + 2K R 1 3 mA _+ 6V 2K R 2 _+ 6V 2K R 3 _ => 18V = 18V => 0 = 0 18V B1.09 Slide No 133 .

09 Slide No 134 .6 B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 135 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.6 B1.

EASA Ref : 3.6

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 136

EASA Ref : 3.6

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF A SUPPLY

NEW BATTERIES WITHOUT INTERNAL RESISTANCE WILL PRODUCE AN EMF THAT IS EQUAL TO THE PD. WHEN THE RESISTANCE OF THE ELECTOLYTE INCREASES THE PD WILL DECREASE AS THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE INCREASES EVEN MORE, THE VOLTAGE DROP WITHIN THE BATTERY INCREASES EVEN MORE.

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 137

EASA Ref : 3.6

EX: NEW BATTERY VOLTAGE = 12V AND THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE = 1 . THE LOAD TAKES UP 0.5 Amp. WHAT IS THE INTERNAL VOLTAGE DROP? INT. VOLT DROP = 0.5 Amp X 1 VOLTAGE = 12V – 0.5 V = 11.5V FORMULA: V = E – (I X r)
BULB I =0.5 Amp

= 0.5 V AND THEREFORE, THE TERMINAL

E = 12 VOLTS

r=1

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 138

EASA Ref : 3.6

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 139

RESISTANCE / RESISTORS ( EASA Ref : 3.7 )

RESISTORS and RESISTANCE COMES IN MANY SHAPES SIZES VALUES WATTAGES

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 140

EASA Ref : 3.7

SYMBOLS

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 141

EASA Ref : 3.7

SI UNIT for RESISTANCE – Ohm 1 OHM = 1 VOLT OF PRESSURE THAT CAN PUSH 1 AMP OF CURRENT THRU’ A RESISTOR IN A SECOND 18 1 AMP OF CURRENT = 6.24150629 X 10 ELECTRONS PER SEC MULTIPLES: Ex: 1K = 1000 1M = 1000000 170K =170000 1M5 = 1500000 = 1 X 10
6

SI => Systeme international d’unites or International system of unit Body responsible => bureau international des poits et mesures (BIPM)

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 142

EASA Ref : 3.7

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 143

EASA Ref : 3.7

IF A RESISTOR HAS A NUMBER SUCH AS 10, 15 or 110 , IT MEANS THAT IT IS 10 15 110 or 10R 15R AND 110R R CAN ALSO BE REPRESENTED BY THE LETTER E. i.e: 10R 15R AND 110R. IT CAN BE REPRENENTED BY 10E 15E AND 110E 1.1 = 1E1 or 1R1 2.5 = 2E5 or 2R5 9.7 = 9E7 or 9R7

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 144

EASA Ref : 3.7

IDEAL RESISTOR DOES NOT CHANGE IN RESISTANCE IN THE CIRCUIT IN ANY CIRCUMTANCES. RESISTANCE VALUES ARE AFFECTED BY THE APPLIED VOLTAGE, CURRENT, TEMPERATURE AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS EVERY RESISTOR OPERATES WITHIN THE TOLERENCE IT IS MEANT TO. IF IT EXCEEDS THE WATTAGE TOLERENCE IT WILL BE DAMAGED WATTAGE FOR CARBON FILM OR METAL FILM RESISTORS ARE 1/8, 1/4 OR 1/2 WATT METAL FILM AND CARBON FILM RESISTORS ARE MORE STABLE WITH TEMPERATUE CHANGE THAN CARBON RESISTORS LARGER ONES ARE HIGHER POWERED ex: WIRE WOUND AND CERAMIC RESISTORS

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 145

EASA Ref : 3.7
VARIABLES AFFECTING ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE LENGTH RESISTANCE INCREASES WITH LENGTH CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF THE WIRE RESISTANCE DECREASES WITH INCREASE IN AREA THE RHO OF THE MATERIAL DIFFERENT MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT RESISTANCE (CONDUCTIVE ABILITY) RESISTIVITY: DEPENDS ON THE MATERIALS ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE AND ITS TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE MOST MATERIALS USED AS CONDUCTORS INCREASE IN RESISTANCE VALUE AS TEMPERATURE INCREASES. BUT THERE ARE MATERIALS THAT THEIR RESISTANCE DECREASE AS TEMPERATURE INCREASES

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 146

02.09 Slide No 147 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.7 RESISTIVITY B1.

09 Slide No 148 . B1.02. CONSTANTAN AND MANGANIN CHANGES VERY LITTLE WITH TEMPERATURE.7 LOWER RESISTIVITY =>HIGHER CONDUCTIVITY => HIGHER ELECTRON FLOW HIGHER RESISTIVITY => LOWER CONDUCTIVITY => LESS ELECTRON FLOW TEMPERATURE: EFFECTS RESISTANCE THE MOST MOST CONDUCTORS INCREASE IN RESISTANCE WITH INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE CARBON DECREASES.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

aluminum and copper when the resistance decreases with the increase of temperature is known as negative temperature coefficient ex: insulators.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 149 .7 TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT: with the increase of the temp. Ex: silver.EASA Ref : 3. semiconductors and thermistors manganin and constantan changes very little over their working temperature B1. by 1 degree from 0 degree causes one ohm to be increases in a conductor is known as temperature coefficient.0 dated 02. when the resistance increases with the increase in temperature it is known as positive temperature coefficient.

0 dated 02.e *CIRCULAR-MIL-FOOT or CENTIMETER CUBE.7 SPECIFIC RESISTANCE (RESISTIVITY) THE RESISTANCE OFFERED BY A UNIT VOLUME. i. L – length in feet and A – circular area in circular mils) * Circular mils => 1 thousandth of an inch B1.09 Slide No 150 . THAT RESIST CURRENT FLOW IS KNOWN AS SPECIFIC RESISTANCE RESISTIVITY IS THE RECIPROCAL OF CONDUCTIVITY FORMULA: R= ρL/A (ρ – specific resistance in ohms per circular mil foot.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.

02.4 IF THE LENGTH OF THE WIRE IS 20FT LONG AND THE RHO FOR STEEL IS 100 Ohm – cmil / ft .09 Slide No 151 .4 B1. WHAT IS THE MAXIMUM RESISTANCE THE WIRE CAN HAVE (2 WAYS)? R = E / I = 2V/5A = 0. OF 26VDC WITH 5 AMP.0 dated 02. THERE CAN BE A SEVERE DAMAGE TO AIRCRAFT OR OTHER EQUIPMENT EX: IF THE SUPPLY IS 28VDC AND THE LOAD REQUIRES A MIN.1M03 Presentation V1. what is the area? A=ρXL R = 100 -cm/ft X 2O = 5000cmil 0.EASA Ref : 3.7 SELECTION OF WIRE IF THE PROPER WIRE IS NOT SELECTED.

7 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 152 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

7 Ex 1: IN AN ALUMINUM WIRED CIRCUIT.920 -cmil/ft X 20ft A 168872 cmil = 108. AREA IS 28280 cmil AND THE LENGTH IS 30 ft. WHAT IS THE RESISTANCE OF THIS WIRE? R = ρ L = 0. THE LENGTH OF THE WIRE IS 20 ft.0 dated 02. AL 000 SWG IS USED. AL 6 SWG IS USED.09 Slide No 153 .60425 30ft -cmil/ft B1. THE Rho OF THIS MATERIAL IS 0.920 – cmil/ft AND WITH AN AREA OF 168872 cmil. ρ = R X A = 641 µ L X 28280cmil = 0.02. THE RESISTANCE IS 641 µ .EASA Ref : 3.958 µ Ex 2: IN AN ALUMINUM WIRED CIRCUIT. WHAT IS THE Rho OF THIS MATERIAL.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 154 .0 dated 02.7 B1.

02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 155 .0 dated 02.7 Figure 68 B1.

65 µ -cm x 125cm / 12cm² R = 27.604 µ B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 156 .0 dated 02.7 BUSBAR (ALUMINUM) 3CM 4CM 125CM AREA = WIDTH X HEIGHT SPECIFIC RESISTANCE: R=pL/A A = 4CM X 3CM = 12 CM² 2.1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.7 RESISTOR COLOUR CODE 4 COLOUR BANDS 3 BAND FOR OHMS => 1st AND 2nd BANDS FOR VALUE THE 3rd BAND AS MULTIPLIER ( NUMBER OF ZEROES ) 4th BAND FOR TOLERANCE 5%.09 Slide No 157 .1M03 Presentation V1.02. 2% AND 1% B1.

02.7 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 158 .0 dated 02.

09 Slide No 159 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.9K - 1003 = 100 + 000 = 100000 4992 = 499 + 00 = 49900 B1.7 4 CODED RESISTORS - 1001 = 100 + 0 = 1000 1002 = 100 + 00 = 10000 = 1K = 10K = 100K = 49.EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 160 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.7 B1.

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3. 2nd AND 3rd BANDS DETERMINE THE FIRST 3 DIGITS 4th BAND IS THE MULTIPLIER 5th BAND IS THE TOLERANCE B1.0 dated 02.02.7 5 BAND RESISTORS FOR MILITARY USE 1st.09 Slide No 161 .

02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 162 .7 TOLERANCE FOR 5 CODED RESISTORS (BS 18520) B = 0.1 % C = 0.5 % F=1% G=2% J=5% K = 10 % M = 20 % B1.25 % D = 0.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

02. 2nd AND 3rd DIGITS ARE THE VALUE 4th BAND IS THE MULTIPLIER 5th BAND IS THE TOLERANCE 6th TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT B1.1M03 Presentation V1.7 CYLINDRICAL SMD RESISTOR - 1st.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 163 .0 dated 02.

0 dated 02.7 SURFACE MOUNTED DEVICE 563 THE SPACE AVAILABLE ON THE DEVICE IS LIMITED 3 DIGIT CODE HAS A 5% TOLERANCE 4 DIGIT CODE HAS A 1% TOLERANCE CERTAIN CIRCUITS TOLERANCES IS NOT IMPORTANT CERTAIN CIRCUITS TOLERANCE IS IMPORTANT B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 164 .

09 Slide No 165 .02.7 WATTAGE RATINGS WHEN CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH A RESISTOR.0 dated 02. IF THE TEMPERATURE EXCEEDS A CERTAIN CRITICAL VALUE THE RESISTOR WILL BE DAMAGED WATTAGE RATINGS OF A RESISTOR THE POWER THE RESISTOR CAN DISSIPATE OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME THEY ARE PRINTED ONLY ON LARGE RESISTORS B1.1M03 Presentation V1. IT HEATS UP.EASA Ref : 3.

7 B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 166 .EASA Ref : 3.

7 WATTAGE RATING -1/16W. 10W etc ARE USED FOR HEAVY DUTY CIRCUITS LIKE THE POWER SUPPLY.09 Slide No 167 . 1/4W RESISTORS ARE USED FOR ELECTRONICS -1W. 5W.0 dated 02. 1/8W. B1.1M03 Presentation V1. 2W.02.EASA Ref : 3. -IF REQUIRED A SMALL WATTAGE RESISTOR CAN BE REPLACE WITH A LARGER WATTAGE RESISTOR FOR THE SAME VALUE. 1/2W.

144 Watts = 144mW (RESISTOR REQUIRED IS ¼ Watt RESISTOR) NORMALLY POWER DESSIPATION IS CALCULATED WITH THE BATTERY POWER P = V² / R = 15² / R = 225 / 250 = 0.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1. P =I²xR IF THE VOLATGE ACROSS A 250R RESISTOR IS 6 VOLTS.0 dated 02. P = VxI 2.9Watts = 900mW (RESISTOR REQUIRED IS 1 Watt RESISTOR) B1. WHAT IS THE POWER DESSIPATED BY THIS RESISTOR? P = V² / R = 6² / 250 = 36 / 250 = 0. P = V² / R 3.09 Slide No 168 . BATTERY POWER IS 15V.02.7 WATTAGE CALCULATION: 1.

09 Slide No 169 .7 RESISTORS CIRCUIT PATTERNS RESISTORS ARE FOUND IN ALL ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS IN THE FORM OF: -SERIES -PARALLEL -SERIES PARALLEL COMBINATION B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.

02.EASA Ref : 3.Rn B1.09 Slide No 170 .7 SERIES CONFIGURATION -CURRENT IS CONSTANT BUT THE VOLTAGE IS VARIABLE ACROSS EACH RESISTOR -THE RESISTORS ARE FITTED ONE AFTER THE OTHER .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.ELECTRONS FLOW ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION -THE TOTAL RESISTANCE IS THE SUM OF ALL THE RESISTORS R1 + R2 + R3 + …………….

09 Slide No 171 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.7 B1.02.

7 SERIES CONFIGURATION V1=5V I=1A V2=8V V3=7V R1 = V1/I = 5V/1A = 5 Ohms R2 = V2/I = 8V/1A = 8Ohms R3 = V3/I = 7V/1A = 7 Ohms RT = 30 Ohms R4 = 30 – 5 – 8 – 7 = 10 Ohms THEREFORE V4 = I x R4 = 1 x 10 = 10V THE TOTAL VOLTAGE IS = 5 + 8 + 7 + 10 = 30Volts B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 172 .

09 Slide No 173 . 1 R1 R2 R3 Rn -symbol for parallel is // B1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.7 PARALLEL CONFIGURATION -BRANCHED OUT FROM A SINGLE NODE AND RECOMBINE IN ANOTHER POINT -CURRENT DIVIDES BETWEEN THE BRANCHES WHEREAS THE VOLTAGE IS THE SAME FOR ALL BRANCHES 1 = Req 1 + 1 + 1 +………….

02. Req = R1 x R2 R1 + R2 -IN A PARALLEL CCT THE TOTAL RESISTANCE IS LESS THAN THE SMALLEST RESISTOR.7 FORMULA -SINCE R1 // R2.09 Slide No 174 . B1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.7 PARALLEL CONFIGURATION B1.09 Slide No 175 .

SINCE VOLTAGE IS THE SAME IN ALL BRANCHES OF A PARALLEL CCT. R1. R2 AND R3 GETS 12V EACH V1 = V2 = V3 = 12V Ohms LAW STATES THAT I = V/R I2 = 12/3 = 4A I3 = 12/6 = 2A THEREFORE I1 = 12/2 =6A KIRCHHOFF’S LAW STATES: CURRENT INTO A JUNCTION IS EQUAL TO THE CURRENT OUT OF THE JUNCTION.7 EMF = 12 V.02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 176 .0 dated 02. IT =I1+I2+I3 = 6+4+2 = 12A B1.

02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 177 .7 COMBINATION CONFIGURATION (SERIES PARALLEL) FORMULA: Req = (R1 // R2) + R3 = R1xR2 +R3 R1+R2 B1.0 dated 02.

EASA Ref : 3.7 COMBINATION RAB = R1 + R2 (SERIES) RTOTAL= RAB x R3 (PARALLEL) RAB + R3 B1.09 Slide No 178 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 179 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.7 1/RAB = 1/R1 + 1/R2 1/RCD = 1/R4 + 1/R5 RTOTAL =RAB +R3 + RCD B1.0 dated 02.

7 COMBINATION 1/RAB = 1/R1 + 1/R2 = 1/10 + 1/4.09 Slide No 180 .EASA Ref : 3.35 = 2.1M03 Presentation V1.857 Ohms 1/RCD = 1/R4 +1/R5 = 1/8 +1/1 1.889 Ohms B1.125 Therefore RCD = 1/1.0 = 0.02.0 dated 02.125 = 0.35 Therefore RAB=1/0.

EASA Ref : 3.857 + 3 + 0.0 dated 02.7 RTOTAL = RAB + R3 + RCD = 2.889 = 6.1M03 Presentation V1.7 Ohms B1.09 Slide No 181 .02.

7 EXAMPLE 2 RAB = R1 +R2 =1+2 = 3 Ohms REF = R4 + R5 =4+5 = 9 Ohms B1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 182 .02.

09 Slide No 183 .7 1/RTot = 1/RAB + 1/R3 + 1/REF 1/RTot = 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/9 RTot = 1.286 Ohms B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 184 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.7 FIXED RESISTORS -USED TO REDUCE CURRENT FLOW IN SOME PARTS OF A CIRCUIT -THE CURRENT AND VOLTAGE IS CONSTANT AT THE OUTPUT IF THE INPUT IS KEPT CONSTANT -COMES IN DIFFERENT VALUES .EASA Ref : 3.USED IN MOST ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT AND ELECTRICAL DEVICES INPUT OUTPUT B1.0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 185 .7 TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS CONDUCTING MATERIAL RESISTING MATERIAL CONDUCTING MATERIAL RESISTANCE IS PROPORTIONAL TO LENGTH AND Rho OF THE MATERIAL AND INVERSE TO THE X-SECTIONAL AREA -OHM’S LAW APPLIES -3 FACTOR WHEN SELECTING A RESISTOR: -TOLERANCE -POWER RATING -STABILITY B1.

THEREFORE THE ACTUAL VALUE OF THE RESISTOR WILL BE WITHIN THE RANGE OF: 20% OF 1000 = 200 Ohms THEREFORE THE VALUE IS WITHIN 800 Ohms AND 1200Ohms B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 186 .7 TOLERANCE TOLERANCE SPECIFIES THE MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM VALUE OF RESISTANCE A RESISTOR VALUE IS 1K Ohm AND HAS A TOLERANCE OF 20%.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

1 W. THE LARGER IS THE RATING - - B1.7 POWER RATING POWER RATING 2 WATTS 1/4 WATT - INDICATES THE MAXIMUM POWER THE RESISTOR CAN HANDLE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE SHOULD NOT EXCEED THE RATING OR ELSE IT WILL BE DAMAGED FOREVER RATING CAN BE OF MANY VALUES Ex: ¼ W.09 Slide No 187 .1M03 Presentation V1. 2W etc BIGGER THE RESISTOR. ½ W.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.02.

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 188 .02.7 STABILITY -THE ABILITY TO MAINTAIN THE RESISTANCE OF THE CIRCUIT -CHANGES VERY LITTLE WITH CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE -IMPORTANT IN ELECTRONIC PRECISION CIRCUITS B1.

MAX VALUE 10 M Ohms.09 Slide No 189 .5%.EASA Ref : 3.125 W TO 1 WATT WITH GOOD STABILITY B1.1M03 Presentation V1.7 CONSTRUCTION METHODS LOW POWER RESISTORS CARBON FILM RESISTOR IS MADE OF GRAPHITE CUT INTO BLOCKS OR WRAPPED OR GRAFTED INTO REQUIRED SHAPE X-SECT.0 dated 02. DETERMINES THE POWER RATING TYPES OF CARBON FILM RESISTORS STANDARD FILM – BARREL OR CIRCULAR TYPE WITH PINS ON THE OPPOSITE SIDES CHIP TYPE – COMES UP TO 6 LAYERS NETWORK TYPE – CAN HAVE 12 RESISTORS IN 1 COMPACT SPACE.02. RATINGS 0. TOLERANCE +.

EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 190 .02.0 dated 02.7 B1.

1M03 Presentation V1.7 HIGH POWER RESISTORS POWER RATING OF 5 TO 50 WATTS -USED IN POWER SUPPLIES AND AMPLIFIERS GETS VERY HOT USES RESISTANT WIRE WRAPPED WITH CERAMIC MATERIAL SYMBOL IN CIRCUIT IS THE SAME AS OTHER CONVENTIONAL RESISTORS LOW TOLERANCE AND HIGH STABILITY MADE OF MAGANIN. POWER RATING O.1 Ohm TO 25K Ohms.02.0 dated 02. NICHROME OR CONSTANTAN WIRE WOUND ON A FORMER AND A PROTECTIVE COATING VALUES .10 TO 20 WATTS B1.09 Slide No 191 .EASA Ref : 3.

7 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 192 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02. Ex : VARY THE BRIGHTNESS OF A LAMP OR TO VARY THE CHARGING OF A CAPACITOR -2 TERMINALS FOR RIGIDITY OF WHICH 1 IS FOR INPUT. WIPER IS THE OUTPUT -USED WITH HIGH POWERED DEVICE > ½ WATT B1.02.09 Slide No 193 .7 VARIABLE RESISTORS RHEOSTATS -2 TERMINALS ( 1 MOVEABLE TERMINAL AND THE OTHER ONE CONNECTED TO THE TRACK END -MOVABLE TERMINAL PROVIDES THE VARIED RESISTANCE BY TURNING A SPINDLE -USED TO VARY CURRENT IN A CIRCUIT.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.7 POTENTIOMETER -HAS 3 TERMINALS ( 2 FIXED AND 1 SLIDING TERMINAL ) -USED TO VARY VOLTAGES.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 194 . TO SET AS A PRESET TO A SENSOR -VOLTAGE CAN BE TAPPED ACROSS THE 2 FIXED TERMINALS -OUTPUT VOLTAGE CAN BE VARIED WITH THE WIPPER ROTATION FROM 0 UP TO THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE B1.0 dated 02. Ex: VARY THE VOLUME OF AN AMPLIFIER.

7 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 195 .

02.1M03 Presentation V1.7 PRESETS -VARIABLE RESISTORS BUT IN A MINIATURE FORM -MOUNTED ON THE CIRCUIT BOARD DIRECTLY -USED IN ALARM TONE SETTING. SENSITIVITY OF LIGHT SENSITIVE CIRCUITS ETC -DOES NOT HAVE SPINDLES BUT VALUE ADJUSTED WITH A SMALL SCREWDRIVER -CHEAP AND VERY ACCURATE -CAN BE 1 TURN TYPE OR MULTI TURN (10X) TYPE FOR FINE ADJ.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 196 . B1.EASA Ref : 3.

7 Figure 87 B1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 197 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

RESISTANCE IS EITHER LINEAR. INVERSE-LOGARITHMIC etc.1M03 Presentation V1. USED FOR HIGH CURRENT APPLICATION WITH HIGHER POWER DISSIPATION B1.02.7 POTENTIOMETER CONSTRUCTION -2 TYPES: COATED TYPE -STRIP (ARC) OF INSULATING MATERIAL WITH A SLIDER MOVING OVER THE STRIP WHICH INCREASES AND DECREASES THE RESISTANCE AS IT MOVES OVER IT.0 dated 02. BY MOVING THE SLIDER THE OUTPUT IS VARIED ACCORDINGLY. USED IN ACCURATE AND CONSTANCY CIRCUITS FUNCTIONS. LOGARITHMIC (COMMONLY USED). TONE AND VOL CONTROLS COILED TYPE -CONDUCTIVE WIRE WOUND OVER AN INSULATOR. USED FOR BALANCE.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 198 .

2 AND 4.02. AND 5% (COILED POTS) COMES IN DIFFERENT SHAPES AND SIZES AND WATTAGE FROM ¼ WATTS (COATED POTS FOR VOLUME CONTROL) TO 10s OF WATTS (REGULATING HIGH CURRENT ) B1. 5K.7. 10%. 10M.0 dated 02. 1M.09 Slide No 199 . 2K. NORMALLY USED IN ELECTRONICS (1K.1M03 Presentation V1. 20%. 10K.7 RESISTANCE VALUE. 50M etc) TOLERANCES RANGE FROM 30%.TOLERANCE AND WATTAGE RANGES FROM E6 SERIES = 1.2.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 200 .02.7 B1.

0 dated 02.7 POTENTIOMETERS MONO POTENTIOMETER SYMBOL STEREO POTENTIOMETER RULER POTENTIOMETER COILED POT (20W RHEOSTAT) REGULATES CURRENT B1.02.09 Slide No 201 .1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

7 TRIMMER POTENTIOMETERS (TRIMMERS) -GIVES VERY ACCURATE VOLTAGE AND CURRENT VALUES -ADJUSTABLE BY ADJ.09 Slide No 202 .1 TO 0.5 WATTS -NORMALLY USED FOR FINE ADJ.02.1M03 Presentation V1. SCREWS THAT HAS A SLIDING CONTACT -WATTAGE RANGE 0.0 dated 02. WITH MANY TURNS OF THE SCREW B1.EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 203 .1M03 Presentation V1.7 B1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.02.

EASA Ref : 3.7 OPERATION AND USE OF POTENTIOMETER (POTS) AND RHEOSTAT -HAS 3 TERMINALS USED FOR VOLTAGE REGULATORS AND ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS (VOLUME CONTROL) AND VOLTAGE DIVIDERS OR VARIABLE RESISTOR (USES 2 TERMINALS) -POTENTIOMETER CONVERTED TO VARIABLE RESISTORS ARE ALSO KNOWN AS RHEOSTAT (ONLY 2 TERMINALS ARE USED) B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 204 .02.

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 205 .7 B1.0 dated 02.02.

7 CONVERSION OF A POT TO RHEOSTAT -ONLY 2 TERMINAL ARE USED OF WHICH ONE IS THE WIPER -THE RESISTANCE CHANGES WITH THE POSITION OF THE WIPER -IF END TERMINALS ARE USED.1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02. IT BEHAVES AS A FIXED RESISTOR B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 206 .

1M03 Presentation V1.02.7 B1.09 Slide No 207 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.

7 B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 208 .02.

0 dated 02. -IF A MOTOR IS CONNECTED TO THE 2 TERMINALS IN SERIES.7 MOTOR CONTROLS -IF A BULB IS CONNECTED TO THE 2 TERMINALS (ONE WIPER) IN SERIES AND THE RESISTANCE IS VARIED. THE SPEED OF THE MOTOR WILL VARY BUT WITH POWER WASTAGE AT THE RHEOSTAT -NORMALLY WHEN THE POT IS USED AS A RHEOSTAT THE UNUSED TERMINAL IS CONNECTED TO THE WIPER TO PREVENT COMPLETE OPEN CIRCUIT B1.02. AND THE RESISTANCE IS VARIED. THE BULB WILL CHANGE IN BRIGHTNESS.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 209 .

1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 210 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.7 MOTOR SPEED CONTROLLER B1.

1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 211 .EASA Ref : 3.7 SPEED CONTROL B1.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 212 .1M03 Presentation V1.7 WIPER TERMINAL DISCONNECTED B1.02.0 dated 02.

02.EASA Ref : 3.7 THERMISTORS -RESISTOR THAT SENSES TEMPERATURE -MADE OF SINTERED SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL -2 TYPES OF THERMISTORS .0 dated 02.NEGATIVE COEFFICIENT (NTC) – RESISTANCE DECREASES AS TEMPERATURE INCREASE.POSITIVE COEFFICIENT (PTC) – RESISTANCE INCREASES WITH TEMPERATURE.09 Slide No 213 . .1M03 Presentation V1. USED IN TV DEMAGNETIZING COIL AND POLYSWITCH AS SELF REPAIR FUSE. USED IN TEMPERATURE DETECTORS AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS B1.

COPPER.7 -NTC. RODS OR DISC -USED IN AIRCRAFT AS TEMP SENSORS. MADE OF OXIDES OF NICKEL.EASA Ref : 3. Ex. COBOLT AND OTHER SIMILAR MATERIAL.02.09 Slide No 214 . MADE OF BARIUM TITANATE TO PREVENT OVER CURRENT IN CIRCUIT DUE TO TEMP RISE B1. AIRCONDITIONING AND BATTERY SYSTEMS -PTC.1M03 Presentation V1. MANGANESE.0 dated 02. -COMES IN THE FORM OF BEADS. IN HEATING.

7 BENEFITS OF TERMISTORS -ACCURATE BUT WORKS WITH A TEMP RANGE OF 0 TO 100 DEGREES C -STABLE THEREFORE IS NOT EFFECTED BY AGING.09 Slide No 215 .0 dated 02.02. B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.7 VOLTAGE DEPENDENT RESISTORS (VARISTOR) -THE RESISTANCE IS INVERSLY PROPOTIONAL TO VOLTAGE -MADE OF SILICON CARBIDE -USED IN : - VOLTAGE STABILIZATION CIRCUITS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SUPPRESSION SWITCH CONTACT PROTECTION -CONNECTED ACROSS THE PROTECTED DEVICE DUE TO SURGE CURRENT B1.09 Slide No 216 .

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3. -IT IS SANDWICHED BET. 2 METAL PLATES (ELECTRODES) LIKE THE DIODE JUNCTION .7 METAL OXIDE VARISTOR (MOV) -CONTAINS CERAMIC MASS OF ZINC OXIDE GRAINS IN A MATRIX OF OTHER METAL OXIDES.e. i.09 Slide No 217 .02.1M03 Presentation V1. BISMUTH. MANGANESE AND COBALT.CURRENT FLOWS ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION -USED FOR SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION B1.

0 dated 02. THEREFORE NO CURRENT FLOWS THRU’ THE METER.09 Slide No 218 .7 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION -CONSISTS OF 4 RESISTORS.e. -UNBALANCED CONDITION= VOLTAGE IS NOT THE SAME IN BOTH DIVIDERS. i. 2 VOLTAGE DIVIDERS -BOTH DIVIDERS HAVE THE SAME VOLTAGE SUPPLY -A GAGE IS CONNECTED BETWEEN THE 2 DIVIDERS TO DETECT THE CURRENT WITH A GALVANOMETER -BALANCED CONDITION = VOLTAGE AT BOTH DIVIDERS ARE EQUAL.02. THEREFORE CURRENT FLOWS THRU’ THE METER.EASA Ref : 3. B1.1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.7 FIGURE 97 : WHEATSTONE BRIDGE B1.09 Slide No 219 .02.

02.1M03 Presentation V1.7K Slide No 220 .09 2.7 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE OPERATION I I1 A I2 27K R1 R2 v B I4 R3 RX C I3 27K D B1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.7 APPLICATION OF WHEATSTONE BRIDGE -TO MEASURE THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE ACCORDANCE TO PRESSURE OR TEMPERATURE STRAIN -LOCATING BREAKS IN POWER LINES -ACTING AS TEMP.02. CONTROL DEVICE -MEAUREMENT OF ACFT WEIGHT AND C of G POSITION -MEASURING ELECTRICAL VALUES IN INSTRUMENTS B1.09 Slide No 221 .EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02. ANOTHER IS THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRIC MOTORS TO DO SOMETHING -TYPES MECHANICAL ENERGY -POTENTIAL ENERGY -KINETIC ENERGY B1.02.8 ) POWER AND ENERGY -VOLTAGE DROPS ACROSS A RESISTOR BUT DOES NOT PASS THRU’ -CURRENT PASSES THROUGH A CIRCUIT BUT NOT ACROSS -ENERGY IS THE CAPABILITY OF DOING WORK = ELECTRICAL ENERGY IS USED TO BE CONVERTED TO LIGHT OR HEAT ENERGY.POWER ( EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 222 .

09 Slide No 223 .EASA Ref : 3.8 POTENTIAL ENERGY A BODY HAS BY VIRTUE OF ITS POSITION.02. POTENTIAL ENERGY B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

8 B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 224 .

THE BOX HAS KINETIC ENERGY WHILE MOVING THRU’ SPACE. THEREFORE. ENERGY = VOLTAGE X AMPERE X TIME W=UXIXt -CAN BE EXPRESSED IN Watt – Seconds (Ws) OR Watt – Hours (Wh) B1.0 dated 02.8 KINETIC ENERGY -IF THE BOX IS KNOCKED OF THE TABLE.EASA Ref : 3.POWER IS = V X I BUT WORK IS DONE OVER A PERIOD OF TIME.09 Slide No 225 .1M03 Presentation V1.02. -POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY ARE CAPABLE OF DOING WORK ELECTRICAL ENERGY – JOULE(WATT/SEC ) .

EASA Ref : 3.8 KINETIC ENERGY B1.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 226 .1M03 Presentation V1.

P = V² / R B1.EASA Ref : 3.8 POWER -RATE OF ENERGY BEING USED OR WORK DONE WITH RESPECT TO TIME -POWER IS = ENERGY / TIME -SINCE ENERGY IS V X I X t.09 Slide No 227 .0 dated 02. POWER = (V X I X t) / t -THEREFORE POWER IS = V X I.1M03 Presentation V1. P = I²R.02.

09 Slide No 228 .EASA Ref : 3.02.8 – POWER TRANSFER B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.8 MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER WHEN THE Ri = RLOAD . MAX POWER IS TRANSFERRED THIS CONDITION IS KNOWN AS RESISTANCE MATCHING P = V X I .02.09 Slide No 229 .1M03 Presentation V1. I X R X I. I²R B1.

09 Slide No 230 .9 ) CAPACITORS AND CAPACITANCE OPERATION AND FUNCTION -A DEVICE THAT STORES ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN THE FORM OF ELECTRIC FIELD BETWEEN 2 CONDUCTING BODIES USES OF CAPACITORS -DC BLOCKER -STORES MEMORY IN COMPUTER CHIPS -STORE CHARGE FOR CAMERA FLASH -TUNED CIRCUIT IN RADIOS B1.1M03 Presentation V1.CAPACITANCE / CAPACITORS ( EASA Ref : 3.02.0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1.9 DESCRIPTION OF A CAPACITOR CONSISTS OF : -2 PLATES (1 NEG.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 231 . PLATE GAINS ELECTRONS -THE POS. THE CHARGING STOPS B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.) -1 DIELECTRIC WHEN POWERED: -THE NEG. AND 1 POS. PLATE LOSES ELECTRONS ONCE THE PLATES ARE AT THE SOURCE VOLTAGE.

EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1. ARRANGEMENT OF PLATES -DIFF.9 COMES IN: DIFF.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 232 .02. SIZES -DIFF. TYPES OF DIELECTRIC DIELECTRICS MADE OF: -PAPER -CERAMIC -AIR -MICA -ELECTROLYTIC MATERIALS TYPES: -FIXED -ADJUSTABLE B1.

EASA Ref : 3.9

CAPACITORS:

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 233

EASA Ref : 3.9

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 234

EASA Ref : 3.9

VARIABLE CAPACITOR

VARIABLE CAPACITOR

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 235

EASA Ref : 3.9

CAPACITOR

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 236

EASA Ref : 3.9

- AS THE CHARGE ON THE PLATES INCREASE, THE ELECTRIC FIELD ALSO INCREASES -THE ELECTRIC FIELDS CREATES A POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BET. THE PLATES V=Exd or E=V/d or d=E/V

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 237

EASA Ref : 3.9

PARALLEL PLATES

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 238

EASA Ref : 3.9

• SYMBOLS

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 239

EASA Ref : 3.9

ANALOGY

Q=VxC

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 240

EASA Ref : 3.9

DIELECTRIC MATERIALS

-THE DIELECTRIC IS AN INSULATOR, IT PREVENTS DC CURRENT FROM FLOWING BET. THE PLATES -IT STORES ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES -DIELECTRIC’S ABILITY TO SUPPORT ELECTROSTATIC FORCES IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 241

EASA Ref : 3.9

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 242

EASA Ref : 3.9

CAPACITANCE

-ELECTRONS ARE REMOVED FROM 1 PLATE AND DEPOSITED ON THE OTHER. -AS THIS GOES ON, THE CHARGE INCREASES -THIS CHARGE IS STORED IN THE DIELECTRIC IN THE FORM OF ELECTRIC FIELDS -THEREFORE THE PLATES POSSESES A CERTAIN CAPACITANCE -CAPACITANCE IS THE CHARGE CAUSED BY A UNIT OF POTENTIAL (V) ON A CONDUCTOR (PLATE) -UNIT FOR CAPACITANCE IS THE FARADS (F)

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 243

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.28 x 10¹⁸ ELECTRONS). C = CAPACITANCE IN FARADS AND V = POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE IN VOLTS) B1.09 Slide No 244 . -1 FARAD CAPACITOR STORES 1 COULOMB OF CHARGE WHEN A POTENTIAL OF 1 VOLT IS APPLIED ACROSS THE TERMINALS OF THE CAPACITOR CAPACITANCE (C) = CHARGE (Q) / VOLTAGE (V) CHARGE = CAPACITANCE x VOLTAGE VOLTAGE = CHARGE / CAPACITANCE (Q = QTY OF STORED ELECTRICAL CHARGE IN COULOMB.9 DEFINATION: -1 FARAD IS THE CONDUCTANCE OF A CONDUCTOR (PLATE) WITH A POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE OF 1 VOLT WHEN IT CARRIES A CHARGE OF 1 COULOMB (6.EASA Ref : 3.02.

1M03 Presentation V1.9 FARADS (F) -1 FARAD IS TOO LARGE -THEREFORE SMALLER VALUE ARE USED: µ (MICRO) MEANS 1 MILLIONTH OF A FARAD n (NANO) MEANS 1 THOUSAND MILLIONTH => 1000nF = 1 µf P (PICO) MEANS 1 MILLION MILLIONTH => 1000 pF = 1 nF B1.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 245 .EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 246 .854 x 10¯¹² F/m PERMITTIVITY OF DIELECTRIC MATERIAL εr or kε = DIELECTRIC CONSTANT C = Q/V OR C = ε A/d = k ε0 A/d B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.9 PERMITTIVITY OF SPACE (ABSOLUTE) ε0 = 8.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 247 . CAN BREAKDOWN IF THE MAX. OF 20µ F. THEREFORE A VOLTAGE IS DEVELOPED ENERGY STORED = ½ CV² ( JOULES ) -THE CAP. WORKING VOLTAGE IS EXCEEDED AND THIS IS LIMITED BY THE ELECTRIC FIELD OF THE DIELECTRIC (JOULES OF ENERGY PER CUBIC METER) Ex: WHAT IS THE ENERGY STORED BY A CAP.02.9 STORED ENERGY -WHEN OPPOSITE CHARGES ACCUMULATE ON THE PLATES. E = ½ CV ² = ½ x 20µF x 24V² = 5. IF THE VOLTAGE IS 24V. THERE WILL BE ELECTRIC FIELDS FORMED.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.7mJ B1.

09 Slide No 248 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.9 FACTORS AFFECTING CAPACITANCE DEPANDS ON 3 FACTORS: -AREA OF THE PLATES -DISTANCE BETWEEN THE PLATES -DIELECTRIC CONSTANT OF THE MATERIAL ε0 A C = kε d B1.02.

02.09 Slide No 249 .0 dated 02. MATERIALS HAVE DIFF. DIFF. THEREFORE THE CHARGE STORAGE IS GREATER DIELECTRIC CONSTANT DIELECTRIC IS AN INSULATOR.1M03 Presentation V1. THE LARGER IS THE CHARGE AND CAPACITANCE DISTANCE THE CLOSER THE PLATES THE STRONGER IS THE ELECTROSTATIC LINES OF FORCE. HIGHER IS THE INSULATION - B1.9 AREA THE LARGER THE AREA . CONSTANT VALUES HIGHER THE CONSTANT.EASA Ref : 3.

02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 250 .9 B1.0 dated 02.

02.09 Slide No 251 .0 dated 02.9 DIELECTRIC CONSTANT B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

WHAT IS THE CAPACITANCE? C = ε0 KA d = 8.EASA Ref : 3.854 x 10¯¹² F/m (1 x 2) 0.9 ABSOLUTE CONSTANT -ABSOLUTE CONSTANT = ε0 = 8.02.01m = 1771 pF B1.854 x 10¯¹² F/m IF A CAPACITOR HAS AIR AS DIELECTRIC.1M03 Presentation V1. THE AREA OF THE PLATE IS 2 Sq m AND A DISTANCE OF 1 cm.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 252 .

9 C = ε0 KA/d B1.09 Slide No 253 .02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

EASA Ref : 3.9 C = ε0 KA/d ………… PicoFarads B1.0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 254 .

02.picoFarads B1.8 0.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.9 C = ε0 KA/d Bakelite 4..0 dated 02.09 Slide No 255 .1 sq m 1 cm …….

09 Slide No 256 .1M03 Presentation V1.1 cm …….0 dated 02.02.4 0.9 C = ε0 KA/d Mica 5.picoFarads B1.EASA Ref : 3.085 sq m 0.

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.9 C = ε0 KA d THE CAPACITANCE IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE DIELECTRIC AND THE AREA BUT INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE DISTANCE B1.09 Slide No 257 .

EASA Ref : 3.9 VOLTAGE RATING -SELECTION OF CAPACITOR DEPANDS ON: CAPACITANCE WORKING VOLTAGE DESIRED CAPACITANCE IN THE CIRCUIT HOW MUCH VOLTAGE THE CAPACITOR CAN HANDLE (WORKING VOLTAGE) IN THE CIRCUIT -IF THE VOLTAGE RATING IS SMALLER THAN THE REQUIRED VALUE THEN THE CAPACITOR WILL BE DAMAGED AND ARCING WILL TAKE PLACE WITHIN THE CAPACITOR -IF THIS HAPPENS THAN IT CAN DAMAGE OTHER COMPONENTS -THICKER THE DIELECTRIC.02.09 Slide No 258 .0 dated 02. LOWER IS THE CAPACITANCE -FREQUENCY INCREASES. THE LOSSES AND HEATING EFFECT INCREASES B1.1M03 Presentation V1.

THEREFORE A 50 V CAPACITOR WILL BE MOST APPROPRIATE (30V CAP.09 Slide No 259 .1M03 Presentation V1.9 VOLTAGE RATING -20 VRMS = 28.0 dated 02.28V PEAK. WILL ALSO DO) -50 % OF THE RMS VALUE IS VERY SAFE ONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS KO CAPACITANCE WORKING VOLTAGE B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 260 . LOSSES DEPANDS ON THE TYPE OF DIELECTRIC LEAKAGE LOSSES ALTHOUGH THE DIELECTRIC IS AN INSULATOR.02.9 CAPACITOR LOSSES 2 TYPES OF DIELECTRIC LOSSES HYSTERESIS LOSSES DUE TO THE RAPID CHANGE IN ELECTRON CHANGE -OVER IN THE CIRCUIT.1M03 Presentation V1. IF THE LEAKAGE IS TOO HIGH. CURRENT CAN STILL PASS THROUGH BUT IN A VERY SMALL AMOUNT. THAN OVER HEATING TAKES PLACE AND IT CANNOT RETAIN THE CHARGE B1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.9 TYPE. VALUE AND WORKING VOLTAGE IS PRINTED ON THE BODY NOT DAMAGED DUE TO HEAT WHILE SOLDERING B1.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 261 . OTHER WISE CAN CAUSE BODILY INJURIES THEY HAVE VERY LARGE VALUES (> 1 MICRO F). CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION 2 TYPE OF CAPACITORS POLARIZED > ELECTROLYTIC UNPOLARIZED > NON ELECTROLYTIC POLARIZED CAPS HAS HIGHER POWER HANDLING CAPABILITY MUST BE CONNECTED ACCORDING TO THE POLARITY.

EASA Ref : 3.9 B1.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 262 .1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.9 ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS -FIXED CAPACITIVE VALUE -RANGE FROM 1 TO SEVERAL 1000 MICRO FARADS -USED IN RECTIFIERS AS SMOOTHING CIRCUIT -2 DESIGNS OF E – CAPS => AXIAL AND RADIAL (SMALLER) + + + KONAS KONAS + + 5000 µf 25 v 1000 µF 50V KONAS KONAS -WORKING VOLTAGE CAN BE AS LOW AS 6 VOLTS -CHOOSE THE CAP ACCORDING TO THE POWER SUPPLY B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 263 .

09 Slide No 264 .EASA Ref : 3.02.9 E – CAPS B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1. VOLTAGE AND POLARITY IN FULL OLD TYPE USES COLOUR CODES (BODY.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 265 .9 TANTALUM BEAD CAPACITOR SPECIAL TYPE OF ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR HANDLES LOW VOLTAGES ONLY SMALL IN SIZE BUT LARGE CAPACITANCE AND EXPENSIVE BEAD CAPS ARE PRINTED WITH CAPACITY.02. TIP AND SPOT) - B1.

1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 266 .02.000 pF = 47µF with a WV of 35V B1.9 CAP CODING 4 and 7 X 1000000 47.000.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.

EASA Ref : 3.01 AND WHITE MEANS X BY 0.9 COLOUR CODES SPOT => GREY MEANS X BY 0.09 Slide No 267 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.1 VALUES OF LESS THAN 10 MICRO F CAN BE READ THIRD COLOUR STRIPE INDICATES VOLTAGE RATING YELLOW MEANS 6.0 dated 02.3 V BLACK MEANS 10 V GREEN MEANS 16 V BLUE MEANS 20 V GREY MEANS 25 V WHITE MEANS 30 V and PINK MEANS 35 V B1.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 268 .9 SPOT NUMBER OF ZEROS TIP 2ND DIGIT BODY 1ST DIGIT VOLTAGE RATING READING IN MICRO FARADS B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

GREY. GREY AND GREEN MEANS 0.09 Slide No 269 .47 MICRO F WITH 10 WORKING VOLTS B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1. WHITE AND PINK MEANS 1.5 MICRO F WITH WORKING VOLTAGE OF 35 V YELLOW. GREEN. VIOLET. BLACK AND YELLOW MEANS 68 MICRO F WITH A WORKING VOLTAGE OF 6.02.9 EXAMPLE: BLUE.EASA Ref : 3.3 V BROWN.

9 UNPOLARISED CAPACITOR CAN BE CONNECTED IN EITHER WAY ITS ROBUST CAN STANDS HEAT DURING SOLDERING EXCEPT FOR THE POLYSTYRENE TYPE FROM 50 WORKING VOLTS TO 250 WORKING VOLTS 47 MEANS 47 MICRO F = 47000 NANO F 0.EASA Ref : 3.02.1 MICRO F = 100 NANO F 4.09 Slide No 270 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.1 MEANS 0.7 n F CAN ALSO BE STATED AS 4n7 - - B1.

9 B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 271 .EASA Ref : 3.

330.470 =>1000.68000 B1.EASA Ref : 3.47 => 100.2200.15000.6800 => 10000.680 => 1000.68 => 100.15.470.47000.33.22000.22.9 POLYSTYRENE CAPACITOR - VALUES ARE NORMALLY IN PICOFARADS ( pF) CAN BE DAMAGED DUE TO HEAT ONLY CERTAIN VALUES ARE POSSIBLE (E 3 SERIES) 10.02.47.4700.22.150.47000 (E 6 SERIES) 10.4700 => 10000.0 dated 02.2200.09 Slide No 272 .33000.220.1M03 Presentation V1.1500.220. 3300.

1M03 Presentation V1.9 - READ IN PICOFARADS B1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 273 .02.EASA Ref : 3.

01µF TO 10 nF B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.9 MICA CAPACITOR MICA SHEET TIN FOIL PLATES CAN BE MADE BY DEPOSITS OF SILVER FILM ON MICA OR INTERLEAVED SHEETS OF METAL FOIL (TIN.09 Slide No 274 .02.AL etc) POSSESES: HIGH STABILITY LOW TOLERANCE ( +_ 1% ) HIGH WORKING VOLTAGE LOW LEAKAGE CURRENT RANGE => 0.

HIGH CAPACITANCE ( DUE TO V.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 275 .9 CERAMIC CAPACITOR: MANY SHAPES WITH CERAMIC DIELECTRIC OR BARIUM TITANATE DIELECTRIC DISC ROD PLATE SMALL IN CAPACITANCE (1pF TO 1 MICRO F) LARGE WORKING VOLTAGE (TO A FEW THOUSAND VOLTS) - - BARIUM TITANATE HAS V. HIGH DIELECTRIC CONSTANT) BUT SMALL IN SIZE - HAS POOR STABILITY AND TOLERANCE B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.

00005 micro F ) HIGHER THE MESH.EASA Ref : 3. MECHANICALLY USED IN THE RF AND OSCILLATOR STAGE OF THE RADIO HAS A STATOR (IMMOBILE) AND A ROTOR (MOBILE) CONNECTED WITH A COMMON AXIS SMALL IN VALUE.0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0001 µF TO 0. IN THE RANGE OF 100pF AND 500pF (0.9 VARIABLE CAPACITOR (TUNING CAPACITOR) CAPACITANCE CAN BE CHANGED IN VALUE. HIGHER IS THE CAPACITANCE CAPACITORS CONTAINED IN PLASTIC CONTAINERS HAVE VALUES OF 12 pF TO 218pF - - B1.09 Slide No 276 .

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 277 .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.9 GANGED DUAL CAPACITORS SINGLE CAPACITANCE QUADRUPLE CAPACITANCE 2 VARIACS AND 2 TRIMMERS B1.02.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 278 .9 PRESET (TRIMMER) CAPACITORS MINIATURE CAP.EASA Ref : 3.02. WITH VERY SMALL CAPACITANCE = 2 TO 100 pF USED FOR FREQUENCY FINE TUNING IN TRANSCIEVERS AND OSCILLATORS CCT BOARD MOUNTED ADJUSTED WITH NON-MAGNETIC SCREWDRIVER SPECIFIED BY THE MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM VALUES - B1.

09 Slide No 279 .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.9 PRESET (TRIMMERS) CAPACITORS B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.

02.1M03 Presentation V1.USED IN LOW OR NODC VOLTAGE IF 5 COLOUR RING.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3. AND THE OTHER 4 ARE AS THE NUMBERING SYSTEM - B1.09 Slide No 280 .9 COLOUR CODING (CERAMIC) (JOINT ARMY-NAVY AND RADIO MANUFACTURERS CODE) CAPACITORS ARE MARKED WITH NUMBERS FOR: VALUE WORKING VOLTAGE TOLERANCE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT SMALL CAPS ARE MARKED WITH COLOURS LIKE THE RESISTOR CODING 1ST 2 COLOURS REPRESENT THE 1ST 2 DIGITS 3RD COLOUR REPRESENTD THE MULTIPLIER 4TH COLOUR REPRESENTS TOLERENCE 5TH COLOUR REPRESENT WORKING VOLTAGE DISC CERAMIC AND TUBULAR CAPS DOES NOT HAVE WORKING VOLTAGE. THEN 1ST RING IS THE TEMP COEFF.

9 10 nF B1.09 Slide No 281 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.

EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1. AND 3RD DOTS FOR FIRST 3 DIGITS 4TH DOT FOR MULTIPLIER 5TH DOT FOR TOLERENCE 6TH DOT FOR VOLTAGE RATING ALWAYS SELECT A CAP OF A VALUE ABOVE THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE B1.0 dated 02.9 MICA OR MOULDED PAPER CAPACITORS COMES WITH 3 DOTS OR 6 DOTS 3 DOT REPRESENTS 1ST. 2ND DOTS FOR 1ST 2 DIGITS 3RD DOT FOR MULTIPLIER 6 DOTS REPRESENTS 1ST (OR TYPE).09 Slide No 282 . 2ND.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.02.9 FIRST DOT BLACK OR WHITE FOR MICA SILVER OR BODY COLOUR FOR PAPER IN PICOFARADS B1.09 Slide No 283 .

02.EASA Ref : 3.9 B1.09 Slide No 284 .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

9 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 285 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.02.

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.6% B1.2 nF +.9 WHAT IS THE VALUE? MICA CAP WITH 1.09 Slide No 286 .

09 Slide No 287 .EASA Ref : 3.9 B1.0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

9 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 288 .

02.09 Slide No 289 .9 CAPS NUMBER CODING 1ST AND 2ND NUMBER IS THE DIGITS 3RD NUMBER IS THE NUMBER OF ZEROS LETTER STANDS FOR TOLERENCE READINGS IN PICOFARADS WORKING VOLTAGE. 25V 103M 25V B1. 20%.01µ F).1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3. 25 VOLTS 10000 p F (0.

000 pF 630 pF 9600 pF 683J 68000 pF B1.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 290 .9 WHAT IS THE VALUE OF EACH CAPACITOR 26 mF OR 260.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

02.OR CT = C1XC2 C1+C2 C1 C2 NEUTRAL B1. THEREFORE CAPACITANCE IS REDUCED THE CAPACITANCE IS FELT ACROSS THE LEFT PLATE OF C1 AND RIGHT PLATE OF C2 THE FORMULA FOR SERIES CAPACITANCE IS THE SAME AS FOR RESISTANCE IN PARALLEL KONAS KONAS 1000 µF 50V KONAS KONAS 1000 µF 50V SERIES CAPACITANCE .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 291 .9 CAPS IN SERIES BY CONNECTING IN SERIES THE PLATES ARE SEPERATED.0 dated 02.1/CT = (1/C1) + (1/C2) + (1/C3) ………….

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 292 .9 B1.0 dated 02.

2.1M03 Presentation V1.02. AND C3 = 50n F C1 = 10µF.9 AS FOR RESISTANCE. C2 = 0.47 µF . C1 = 0.47µF B1. THE CAPACITANCE SHOULD BE CONVERTED TO FARADS FIRST THE TOTAL CAPACITANCE SHOULD BE BELOW THE SMALLEST CAPACITANCE CALCULATE THE TOTAL CAPACITANCE 1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.68p F. C2 = 0.09 Slide No 293 .

25µF. 2.09 Slide No 294 . C3 = 2µF - - KONAS KONAS 1000 µF 50V KONAS KONAS 1000 µF 50V B1.THEREFORE THE AREA IS BIGGER.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3. C2 = 0. C1 = 68µF. C2 = 0. TOTAL CAPACITANCE OF THE CAPACITORS IS: CT = C1 + C2 + C3 ……………… ALL CAPS SHOULD BE CONVERTED TO THE SAME UNIT CALCULATE THE TOTAL CAPACITANCE 1.01nF AND C3 = 47pF C1 = 0.9 CAPS IN PARALLEL CONNECTING CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL ADDS UP THE TOTAL AREA OF THE CAPACITORS.02.03µF.

9 B1.02.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 295 .1M03 Presentation V1.

9 - WHEN PARALLELED THE TOTAL CHARGE INCREASES ENERGY STORED = 0.09 Slide No 296 .5 X C X V ² WHEN MORE THAN 2 CAPS ARE CONNECTED IN SERIES THE OVERALL WORKING VOLTAGE WILL ADD UP B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

09 Slide No 297 .667m F 5000 µf 25 v + 5000 µf 25 v + 5000 µf 25 v + KONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS 75V 1.1M03 Presentation V1.667m F 5000 µf 25 v + 5000 µf 25 v + 5000 µf 25 v + KONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS 3 X 3 MATRIX OF CAPACITORS B1.EASA Ref : 3.9 75V 1.0 dated 02.667m F 5000 µf 25 v + 5000 µf 25 v + 5000 µf 25 v + 25V 5 mF KONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS KONAS 75V 1.02.

9 CHARGING OF THE CAPACITOR OFF CHARGE NO POWER CONNECTED TO CAP BOTH PLATES ARE NEUTRAL NO ELECTRIC FIELDS BETWEEN THE PLATES B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 298 .

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.9 ON CHARGE POWER IS CONNECTED ACROSS THE PLATES CAP WILL CHARGE UP AT 5 TIMES CONSTANT ELECTRONS ARE REMOVED FROM THE POSITIVE PLATE AND FED TO THE NEGATIVE PLATE.02. TO CHARGE UNTIL SOURCE VOLTAGE AND CURRENT STOPS FLOWING - B1. THE BUILD UP OF CURRENT OPPOSES THE SOURCE VOLTAGE THE CAP CONT.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 299 .

IT ONLY STORES ENERGY - - B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 300 .9 DISCHARGING OF THE CAPACITOR CHARGE ON THE 2 PLATES SHOULD BE NEUTRALIZES THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD WILL VANISH THE SOURCE ENERGY IS RECOVERED FROM THE CAPACITOR WHEN DISCHARGED CAPACITORS DO NOT CONSUME POWER.

02.EASA Ref : 3.9 RESISTOR / CAPACITOR TIME CONSTANT FORMULA: 1TC = R x C B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 301 .0 dated 02.

02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 302 .9 CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF THE CHARGE B1.EASA Ref : 3.

9 CHARGING THE CURRENT WILL BE MAX AND THE VOLTAGE WILL BE MIN AS SOON AS THE VOLTAGE IS APPLIED TO THE CAP (INITIALLY) THE VOLTAGE WILL BE MAX AND THE CURRENT WILL BE MIN WHEN THE CAP IS FULLY CHARGED B1.02.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 303 .1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 304 .1M03 Presentation V1.9 CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CHARGING B1.02.

09 Slide No 305 .9 DISCHARGING THE VOLTAGE WILL BE MAX. WHEN THE CAP.02. AS SOON AS THE LOAD IS APPLIED (INITIALLY) THE VOLTAGE WILL BE MIN. HAS FULLY DISCHARGED B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3. AND THE CURRENT WILL ALSO BE MIN. AND THE CURRENT WILL ALSO BE MAX.0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 306 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.9 CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT C DIS IN RG HA G B1.

1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 307 .02.EASA Ref : 3.9 TESTING OF CAPACITORS MULTIMETER (EITHER ANALOGUE OR DIGITAL) SHOULD BE AT VERY HIGH RANGE NON-POLARIZED B1.0 dated 02.

02.09 Slide No 308 .10 ) MAGNETISM CAN PRODUCE ELECTRICITY OR ELECTRICITY CAN PRODUCE MAGNETISM CONVERTING A METAL INTO A MAGNET IS THE PROCESS OF CONVERTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY INTO MECHANICAL ENERGY.MAGNETISM ( EASA Ref : 3. Ex.1M03 Presentation V1. MOTOR - - B1. GENERATOR MOVING A MAGNET THROUGH A COIL CAUSES AN ELECTRIC CURRENT TO FLOW.0 dated 02. Ex. THIS PROCESS IS THE CONVERTION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY.

09 Slide No 309 . THEREFORE NO MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS - B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.0 dated 02.10 PROPERTIES OF MAGNETISM NATURE OF MAGNETISM IT IS AN ELECTRIC CHARGE IN MOTION (ELECTRONS) - ELECTRONS ARE MAGNETS SPINNING ON ITS AXIS SOME SPIN CLOCKWISE AND EQUAL AMOUNT IN ANTICLOCKWISE THEY ARE MAGNETICALLY NEUTRAL.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 310 .10 SUSPENDED MAGNET (PERMANENT MAGNET) EARTH IS A MAGNET ITSELF WHEN SUSPENDED THE MAGNET LIES IN THE NORTH-SOUTH DIRECTION MAGNETIC FIELDS (INVISIBLE) ARE ALSO KNOWN AS LINES OF FORCE - B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.

0 dated 02.02.10 Magnet in earth magnetic field B1.09 Magnetic field and poles of the earth Slide No 311 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.EASA Ref : 3.10 SHAPES OF MAGNETS MADE OF STEEL COMPASS NEEDLES BARS RODS HORSE SHOES RINGS (CIRCULAR) B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 312 .0 dated 02.

EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 313 .0 dated 02.10 Shapes of magnets B1.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.1M03 Presentation V1. 1 NORTH SEEKING POLE AND 1 SOUTH SEEKING POLE WHEN SUSPENDED THE END THAT POINTS TO THE NORTH POLE OF THE EARTH IS NORTH POLE.0 dated 02. THE ONE THAT POINTS SOUTH IS SOUTH POLE - B1.10 MAGNETIC POLES - MAGNETS HAVE 2 ENDS.09 Slide No 314 .EASA Ref : 3.

02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 315 . IT WILL BE EVEN MORE INDUCED AND MORE MAGNETIZED - B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.10 MAGNETISM BY INDUCTION ANOTHR NAME FOR NATURAL MAGNET -LODESTONE THEY CAN PICK UP IRON AND STEEL WHEN A SOFT IRON IS PLACED NEXT TO A MAGENT IT GETS INDUCED AND SLIGHTLY MAGNETIZED IF THE MAGNET IS STROKED A NUMBER OF TIMES.

02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 316 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02. B1.10 MAGNETIC SHIELDING ALSO CALLED MAGNETIC SCREENING SOFT IRON IS USED AS MAGNETIC SCREEN FOR SHIELDING THE EFFECT OF CONCENTRATING THE FLUX TO PREVENT STRAY MAGNETIC FIELDS CAUSING INACCURATE OPERATION.

LOW PERMEABILITY - - B1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.10 SCREENING OF COMPONENTS SINCE MAGNETIC FLUX CAN BE CONCENTRATED INTO IRON. SOFT IRON – HIGH PERMEABILITY AND AIR . THE CENTER PART OF THE IRON RING HAS NO MAGNETIC FLUX OUTSIDE THE IRON CORE THE ABILITY OF THE SOFT IRON TO CONCENTRATE THE MAGNETIC FLUX IS KNOWN AS PERMEABILITY.02.09 Slide No 317 .

NICKEL AND COBOLT PARAMAGNETIC MATERIALS – CANNOT ATTRCT OTHER KINDS OF METAL. PAPER OR WOOD DIAMANGNETIC MATERIAL – REPELS ITSELF FROM MAGNETS (NOT IN USE) IF AN IRON IS MAGETIZED BY A LOADSTONE. THAT IRON IS KNOWN AS ARTIFICIAL MAGNET. THEY ARE KNOWN AS PERMANENT MAGNET - - - B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 318 .10 TYPES OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS – CAN ATTRACT OTHER KIND OF METALS LIKE IRON. THEY LOSE THEIR MAGNETISM EASILY (SOFT IRON) SOME IRONS CAN RETAIN THEIR MAGNETISM FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 319 .10 TYPES OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS B1.0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

09 Slide No 320 . ARMATURE AND CONTACTS CAN BE NORMALLY OPEN OR NORMALLY CLOSED TYPE B1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.10 RELAY CONSISTS OF A TEMPERORY MAGNET. COIL.

10 CONSTRUCTION OF RELAY B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 321 .0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 322 .10 CIRCUIT SYMBOL AND CONTACTS OF A RELAY B1.EASA Ref : 3.

10 OPERATION CURRENT FED TO THE COIL SORF IRON BECOMES MAGNET ATTRACTS THE ARMATURE CONTACTS EITHER CLOSES OR OPENS CURRENT DISRUPTED IRON LOSSES MAGNETISM ARMATURE RELEASED DUE TO SRINGY ACTION CONTACTS EITHER OPENS OR CLOSES B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 323 .02.EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 324 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.10 B1.

10 USES OF RELAY REMOTE SWITCHING HIGH VOLTAGE DROP CAN BE EXPERIENCED IN LONG WIRES A RELAY CAN BE USED TO CONTROL EQUIPMENT AT A DISTANCE SINCE RELAY TAKES ONLY A SMALL CURRENT POWER LOSS AT THE EQUIPMENT WILL BE LESS B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 325 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.

0 dated 02.10 REMOTE SWITCHING USING A RELAY B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 326 .02.EASA Ref : 3.

1M03 Presentation V1. USED IN PROTECTIVE CIRCUITS INDICATING SYSTEMS POWER CONTROL SYSTEMS TELEGRAPHIC CONTROL SYSTEMS B1.09 Slide No 327 .10 HEAVY WORKING CURRENT SWITCHING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SWITCHED ON AND OFF WITH SMALL CURRENT CAN BE HEAVY DUTY RELAY OR LIGHT DUTY RELAY.0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 328 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.10 HEAVY WORKING CURRENT SWITCHING B1.

09 Slide No 329 .02.EASA Ref : 3.10 MAGNETIC FIELDS ON CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS CURRENT FLOWS.1M03 Presentation V1. A MAGNETIC FIELD IS PRODUCED 2 METHODS TO DETERMINE THE FIELD DIRECTION RIGHT HAND RULE WIRE GRASPED WITH RIGHT HAND THUMB POINTS TO THE DIRECTION OF CURRENT FINGERS POINT TO THE DIRECTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELDS B1.0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 330 .0 dated 02.10 MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND A CONDUCTOR B1.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.10 RIGHT HAND RULE B1.09 Slide No 331 .02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

10 CORKSCREW RULE WHEN THE CORKSCREW IS SCREWED INTO THE PAPER. THE CURRENT WILL FLOW INTO THE PAPER THE DIRECTION THE CORKSCREW IS TURNED .09 Slide No 332 . THE CURRENT WILL FLOW OUT OF THE PAPER THE DIRECTION OF THE CORKSCREW IS THE DIRECTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELDS (ANTI-CLOCKWISE) - - - B1.0 dated 02. IS THE DIRECTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELDS (CLOCKWISE) WHEN THE CORKSCREW IS REMOVED.EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.02.10 COCKSCREW RULE B1.09 Slide No 333 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

TO ESTABLISH AFLUX DENSITY OF 1 MAXWELL IN A FLUX PATH OR MAGNETIC CCT.09 Slide No 334 .0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3. SYMBOL IS F 1 GILBERT IS EQUAL TO THE MAGNETIC FORCE THAT IS REQ. HAVING A RELUCTANCE OF 1 UNIT MAGNETIC CIRCUIT B1.10 MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE (MMF) THE FORCE THAT TENDS TO PRODUCE A MAGNETIC FIELD UNIT FOR MMF IS THE GILBERT.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.09 Slide No 335 .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02. THEY CAN PASS THRU’ THE CORE AND ALSO THE AIR GAP SYMBOL FOR MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH IS H (UNIT IS TESLA) SYMBOL FOR MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY IS B (LIKE THE VOLTAGE) (UNIT IS WEBER) H = AMPERES x TURNS = IN/L Tesla - LENGTH (MAGNETIC CCT) B1.EASA Ref : 3.10 FIELD STRENGTH MAGNETIC FIELDS ARE CONTINOUS.

10 OUTSIDE –THE MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE TRAVEL FROM NORTH SEEKING POLE TO THE SOUTH SEEKING POLE INSIDE – THE MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE TRAVELS FROM SOUTH TO NORTH B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 336 .0 dated 02.02.

WHICH CAN BE CONSIDERED TO FLOW OUTWARD FROM THE NORTH POLE OF A MAGNET.10 FLUX DENSITY (SYMBOL B) MAGNETIC FLUX THE ENTIRE GROUP OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 337 .1M03 Presentation V1. IS CALLED MAGNETIC FLUX SYMBOL IS Φ (phi) - A STRONG FIELD HAS MORE LINES OF FORCE AND MORE FLUX THAN A WEAK MAGNETIC FIELD B1.

10 PERMEABILITY THE ABILITY OF A MATERIAL TO BECOME A MAGNET IS THE PERMEABILITY.02.0 dated 02. WHEN AN IRON BECOMES A MAGNET IT PRODUCES MAGNETIC FIELDS OF ITS OWN. HENCE INCREASING THE FLUX DENSITY THE MULTIPLYING FACTOR OF A MATERIAL IS µ (mu) =B/H RANGES FROM 1 (AIR) TO A FEW THOUSANDS - - B1. DIFFERENT MATERIAL HAVE DIFFERENT PERMEABILITY.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 338 .1M03 Presentation V1.

10 EFFECT OF IRON IN MAGNETIC FIELD B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 339 .

02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 340 . THIS EFFECT IS KNOWN AS HYSTERESIS IT CAN BE SAID THAT THE LAG OF FLUX DENSITY (B) BEHIND THE MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH (H) IS HYSTERESIS - - - B1. IT BECOMES A MAGNET IF THE MAGNETIC FIELDS ARE INCREASED EVEN MORE INTO SATURATION. THE IRON STILL HOLDS SOME RESIDUAL MAGNETISM. TME IRON IS FULLY MAGNETIZED NOW IF THE CURRENT IS REMOVED.10 HYSTERESIS LOOP - WHEN A SOFT IRON IS SUBJECTED TO CURRENT AROUND IT.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.1M03 Presentation V1. - REMNANT OR RESIDUAL MAGNETISM WILL REDUCE TO ZERO QUITE FAST UNDER NORMAL CONDITION.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3. ONLY IF IT REACHES SATURATION. IF THE INCREASE OF THE ‘H’ STRENGTH IS NOT TO SATURATION AND REMOVED. THIS VALUE OF ‘B’ IS KNOWN AS REMNANT OR RESIDUAL MAGNETISM. KEEP IN MIND.10 B-H CURVE ONCE AT SATURATION AND THE MAGNETISM IS REMOVED THE ‘B’ DOES NOT DROP TO ZERO. INSTEAD IT HOLDS VALUE OF ‘B’. IT IS KNOWN AS REMNANT FLUX DENSITY B1.09 Slide No 341 .

MAGNETISM (SATURATION) Remanence or Residual Magnetism B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 342 .02.0 dated 02.10 B-H CURVE INITIAL BEFORE MAGNETISM AFTER INCREASING TO MAX.EASA Ref : 3.

IT IS KNOWN AS RETENTIVITY RESIDUAL / REMNANT IS NOT THE SAME AS RETENTIVITY.10 RETENTIVITY WHEN THE MAGNETISM IS HELD FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 343 .02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02. IN NORMAL CONDITIONS THE REMNANT CAN DECREASE TO ZERO BUT THE RETENTIVE MAGNETISM MAY LAST A VERY LONG TIME DEPANDING ON THE TYPE OF MATERIAL USED - B1.

A NEGATIVE MAGNETISING FORCE IS REQUIRED - THE AMOUNT OF NEGATIVE FORCE REQUIRED IS KNOWN AS COERCIVE FORCE - IF THE FIRST TIME IT REACHED SATURATION. THAN THIS VALUE IS KNOWN AS COERCIVITY OF THE MATERIAL.EASA Ref : 3.10 COERCIVE FORCE - TO REMOVE THE REMNANT MAGNETISM.02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 344 . B1.

09 Slide No 345 .10 COERCIVE FORCE B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

09 Slide No 346 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1. MAGNETIC FIELDS COMBINE - B1. THEY ATTRACT EACH OTHER.10 MAGNETIC ATTRACTION - WHEN 2 UNLIKE POLES ARE PLACED CLOSE TOGETHER.02.EASA Ref : 3.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 347 .02.10 MAGNETIC POLES B1.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3. THEY REPEL MAGNETIC FIELDS REPEL EACH OTHER B1.02.09 Slide No 348 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.10 MAGNETIC REPULSION - WHEN 2 LIKE POLES ARE PLACED CLOSE TOGETHER.

EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 349 .10 REPULSION B1.0 dated 02.02.

THAN THE IRON WILL BE SATURATED IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION (NEGATIVE SATURATION) TO REMOVE THE MAGNETISM OF A PERMANANT MAGNET.0 dated 02. A LARGE FORCE IS REQUIRED HARD IRON REQUIRES A LARGE FORCE TO ENERGIZE AND DEENERGIZE - - B1.09 Slide No 350 .10 SATURATION POINTS - A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF FORCE IS REQUIRED TO REMOVE THE RESIDUAL MAGNETISM.1M03 Presentation V1.02. IF THE FORCE IS TOO HIGH.EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 351 .EASA Ref : 3.10 NEGATIVE SATURATION B1.0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02. THE CORE IS INDUCED WITH VOLTAGE.10 EDDY CURRENT IN A TRANSFORMER. THIS CURRENT IS KNOWN AS EDDY CURRENT THAT FLOWS IN A CIRCULAR PATH.02. WHEN THE MAGNETIC FIELD EXPENDS AND COLLAPSES. B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 352 . THIS VOLTAGE IN TURN ESTABLISHES A CURRENT.

02.1M03 Presentation V1. THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT IS COMPLETE.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3. THEREFORE THERE IS NO STRAYING OF THE MAGNETIC FIELDS B1.09 Slide No 353 .10 CARE AND STORAGE OF MAGNETS - TO PREVENT THE LOSS OF MAGNETIC ENERGY OF A PERMANENT MAGNET A KEEPER IS REQUIRED - A KEEPER CAN BE A SOFT IRON OR EVEN ANOTHER MAGNET - WITH THE KEEPER.

09 Slide No 354 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.10 MAGNET WITH KEEPERS B1.

10 DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW IN A WIRE WHEN CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH A WIRE.0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 355 . ELECTRONS (HOLES) SHOULD FLOW FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE (CONVENTIONAL) - ARROW SYMBOLIZES THE TAIL AS POSITIVE AND THE HEAD AS NEGATIVE B1.

10 DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW B1.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 356 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.EASA Ref : 3. THE MAGNETIC FIELDS WILL BE CONCENTRATED INTO A SMALL AREA ONCE CONCENTRATED.0 dated 02. IT WILL HAVE 3 PROPERTIES BRINGS THE FLUX LINES TOGETHER CREATES NORTH AND SOUTH POLES CONCENTRATES THE FLUX LINES IN THE CENTRE - B1. BUT VERY SMALL FOR PRACTICAL USE IF THE SAME WIRE IS TWISTED INTO A LOOP.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 357 .10 MAGNETIC FIELDS IN A COIL A PIECE OF STRAIGHT WIRE CARRYING CURRENT HAS MAGNETIC FIELDS AROUND IT .

09 Slide No 358 .02.1M03 Presentation V1.10 MAGNETIC FIELDS IN A COIL B1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.

10 RIGHT HAND GRASP RULE USING THE RIGHT HAND AND GRASPING THE COIL IN THE DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW.09 Slide No 359 .0 dated 02.02. THE THUMB POINTS TO THE NORTH THE FLUX DENSITY DEPANDS ON: VALUE OF THE CURRENT IN THE COIL NUMBER OF TURNS IN THE COIL THE TYPE OF CORE MATERIAL IF A CORE IS USED. (STRONGER ELECROMAGNETS) THE LEVEL OF CURRENT CAN ALSO VARY THE STRENGTH OF THE MAGNETIC FORCE - B1. THE MAGNETIC FORCE STRONGER TOO. THE MAGNETIC FORCE STRENGTH IS INCREASED IF THE NUMBER OF TURNS INCREASE.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.10 RIGHT HAND GRASP RULE B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 360 .

0 dated 02.0002 = 5000 B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.10 MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS RELUCTANCE (S) (IT IS THE SAME AS RESISTANCE IN AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT) IT IS THE OPPOSITE TO MAGNETIC FLUX IT IS RECIPROCAL OF THE PERMEABILITY FORMULA : PERMEABILITY = 1/ RELUCTANCE S=1/µ OR µ = 1/S Ex: IF THE RELUCTANCE IS 0.1M03 Presentation V1.0002. µ = 1 / 0. WHAT IS THE PERMEABILITY OF THIS MATERIAL.09 Slide No 361 .

. IT CANNOT CONCENTRATE THE MAGNETIC FLUX AND DOES NOT HAVE THE ABILITY OF MULTIPLING THE FLUX.AIR HAS A µ OF 1 - B1.0 dated 02. THEY HAVE THE ABILITY OF CONCECNTRATING AND MULTIPLING THE FLUX NON-FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS MATERIAL THAT CANNOT BECOME MAGNET ( ALLUMINUM WATER AIR etc).1M03 Presentation V1.10 MAGNETIC MATERIALS 2 TYPES OF USEFUL MAGNETIC MATERIALS FERROMAGNETIC MATERIAL MATERIAL THAT CAN BECOME MAGNET ( NICKLE. IRON etc).EASA Ref : 3. COBALT.02.09 Slide No 362 .

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.02.10 MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH/ FLUX DENSITY CURVE ( B-H CURVE ) B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 363 .

09 Slide No 364 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.10 STRAIGHT LINE GRAPH BECAUSE AIR HAS A PERMEABILITY OF 1 B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.

09 Slide No 365 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.10 B-H CURVE OF FERROMAGNETIC MATERIAL Large increase of H causes a small increase of B Small increase of H causes a large increase of B Large increase of H causes a small increase of B B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

GENERATOR AND TRANSFORMER STEEL ALLOYS (PERMALLOY OR STALLOY) FOR AC USE SORT IRON FOR DC USE.02.0 dated 02.HAS HIGH PERMEABILITY BUT RELATIVELY HIGH HYSTERESIS LOSS B1.1M03 Presentation V1. LOW HYSTERESIS LOSSES AND HIGH PERMEABILITY SUITABLE WITH AC DEVICES ex. COBALT.EASA Ref : 3.10 CLASSIFICATION OF FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS 2 TYPES OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS: HARD MAGNETIC MATERIALMAKES A GOOD PERMANENT MAGNET.09 Slide No 366 . HIGH RETENTIVITY LARGER HYSTERESIS LOSSES ALNICO MAKES A GOOD PERMANENT MAGNET ALNICO CONSISTS OF ALU. ELECTRIC MOTOR. NICKEL AND IRON SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIAL LOW RETENTIVITY.

0 dated 02.10 HYSTERESIS LOOP B1.09 Slide No 367 .02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 368 .10 HYSTERERIS LOOP B1.0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.

1M03 Presentation V1.11) INDUCTANCE AND INDUCTOR BY THE MOVEMENT OF A CONDUCTOR IN A MAGNETIC FIELD. Ex.09 Slide No 369 .0 dated 02.INDUCTANCE / INDUCTOR ( EASA Ref : 3.02. ELECTRICAL ENERGY CAN BE PRODUCED BY MOVEMENT OF A MAGNET INTO A COIL. GENERATOR AND TRANSFORMER B1. ELECTRICAL ENERGY CAN BE PRODUCED TOO.

THERE WILL BE NO PD THEREFORE PD IS CREATED ONLY WHEN THE CONDUCTOR IS MOVED MECHANICAL FORCE IS CONVERTED TO ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE BY ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION - B1. WHILE LACK OF ELECTRONS AT THE LEFT.02. WHEN THE CONDUCTOR IS MOVED OUT OF THE MAGNETIC FIELDS. THE ELECTRONS MOVE IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION AND THE PD DISAPPEARS WHENTHE CONDUCTOR IS OUT OF THE FIELDS IF THE CONDUCTOR STOPS IN THE FIELDS.0 dated 02.11 INDUCING A VOLTAGE WHEN A CONDUCTOR IS MOVED INTO A MAGNETIC FIELD AT 90° THE ELECTRONS ARE FORCED TOWARDS THE RIGHT OF THE CONDUCTOR.EASA Ref : 3. A PD IS DEVELOPED.09 Slide No 370 .1M03 Presentation V1.

1M03 Presentation V1.02.11 B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 371 .0 dated 02.

02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 372 .11 EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH ON THE INDUCED VOLTAGE WHEN THE CONDUCTOR MOVEMENT AND THE MAGNETIC FLUX ARE IN THE SAME DIRECTION. THERE WILL BE NO EMF INDUCED IN THE OTHER CIRCUIT B1.

0 dated 02.11 MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 373 .

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1. WILL PRODUCE ZERO INDUCTION - B1. TURNING A FURTHER 90 DEG.02.11 EFFECT OF RATE OF CHANGE OF FLUX ON INDUCED VOLTAGE - MOVING THE COIL AT 45 DEG. THE INDUCTION WILL BE INCREASED TO MAXIMUM.. WILL INCREASE THE INDUCTION AND WHEN MOVED TO 90 DEG.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 374 .

09 Slide No 375 .02.11 B1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02. THIS IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE RATE OF MOVEMENT THRU’ THE FIELDS FORMULA: EMF = B x I x V B1. THERE WILL BE INDUCED EMF PRODUCED.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 376 .02.11 FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF CHANGE OF FLUX SPEED OF CONDUCTOR MOVEMENT THRU’ THE FIELDS THE STRENGTH OF THE MAGNETIC FIELDS THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE CONDUCTOR AND FIELD THE LENGTH (# OF TURNS) OF THE CONDUCTOR IN THE FIELD FARADAY’S LAW: WHEN A CONDUCTOR CUTS OR IS CUT BY THE MAGNETIC FLUX.

THE CONDUCTOR WILL PRODUCE ITS OWN MAGNETIC FIELDS THE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FRONT OF THE CONDUCTOR’S MOTION IS STRENGTHENED BEHIND THE CONDUCTOR’S MOTION IS WEAKENED - - B1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 377 .11 LENZ’S LAW - WHEN A CURRENT IS SET UP IN AN INDUCED EMF CLOSED CIRCUIT.02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

11 B1.09 Slide No 378 .02.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

11 FIELDS OF PARALLEL CONDUCTORS CARRYING CURRENT CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR’S MAGNETIC FIELDS WILL ATTRACT EACH OTHER IF THEY ARE IN THE SAME DIRECTION CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR’S MAGNETIC FIELDS WILL REPEL EACH OTHER IF THEY ARE IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION THE DIRECTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELDS ARE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RIGHT HAND AND CORKSCREW RULE - - B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 379 .

02.09 Slide No 380 .0 dated 02.11 FIELDS OF PARALLEL CONDUCTORS B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1. THEREFORE THE CONDUCTOR IS FORCED TOWARDS THE WEAKER SIDE ELECTRICAL ENERGY IS CONVERTED TO MECHANICAL ENERGY - - - B1.11 FORCE ON A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR IN A MAGNETIC FIELD A CONDUCTOR CARRYING CURRENT IS PUT INTO THE MAGNETIC FIELDS. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE 2 FIELDS TAKE PLACE THE CONDUCTOR HAS ITS OWN FIELDS.EASA Ref : 3. THEREFORE ON 1 SIDE IT AIDS THE MAGNETIC FIELDS AND ON THE OTHER SIDE IT OPPOSES THE AIDED SIDE HAS A GREATER FORCE COMPARED TO THE OPPOSED SIDE.09 Slide No 381 .02.

11 B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 382 .1M03 Presentation V1.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.11 THE CORKSCREW RULE IS USED TO DETERMINE THE FELD DIRECTION OF THE CONDUCTOR ANOTHER WAY TO DETERMINING THE DIRECTION OF FORCE IS BY THE LEFT HAND RULE MAGNETIC FLUX IS FROM NORTH TO SOUTH THE DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW IN THE CONDUCTOR (DIRECTION OF THE FINGERS) WHEREBY THE THUMB DETERMINE THE DIRECTION OF FORCE B1.09 Slide No 383 .02.

09 Slide No 384 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.11 LEFT HAND MOTOR RULE B1.

09 Slide No 385 . I.1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3. l NEWTONS B1.0 dated 02.11 MAGNITUDE OF THE FORCE THE MAGNITUDE IS PROPORTIONAL TO 3 FACTORS: THE FLUX DENSITY OF THE MAGNET’S POLES THE FLUX DENSITY OF THE CONDUCTOR (PROPORTIONAL TO THE CURRENT) LENGTH OF THE CONDUCTOR THEREFORE FORCE IS EQUAL TO (FORMULA): FORCE = FLUX DENSITY (B) x CURRENT (I) x LENGTH (l) = B.

02.09 Slide No 386 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.11 LENZ’S LAW AN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD INTERACTING WITH A CONDUCTOR WILL GENERATE ELECTRICAL CURRENT THAT INDUCES A COUNTER MAGNETIC FIELD THAT OPPOSES THE MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATING THE CURRENT ( THE INDUCED CURRENT ALWAYS OPPOSES THE MOTION OR CHANGE PRODUCING IT ) B1.

11 LENZ’S LAW B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 387 .

EASA Ref : 3.11 DETERMINATION OF THE INDUCED CURRENT FLOW WITH LENZ’S LAW - FIRST THE DIRECTION OF THE CONDUCTOR MOVEMENT SHOULD BE KNOWN THE DIRECTION OF THE FIELD IN THE CONDUCTOR SHOULD ALSO BE KNOWN USING THE RIGHT HAND OR THE CORKSCREW RULE IN REVERSE TO DETERMINE THE INDUCED CURRENT - - B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 388 .0 dated 02.02.

EASA Ref : 3. THIS CHANGE WILL INDUCE AN EMF (BACK EMF) WHICH WILL OPPOSE THE APPLIED EMF AND IN TURN. THE CURRENT OF THE CONDUCTOR.11 BACK EMF WHEN A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR MOVES THROUGH THE MAGNET’S MAGNETIC FIELDS.02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1. THIS CAUSES THE CONDUCTOR TO MOVE BACK EMF IS ALSO KNOWN AS –EMF or COUNTER EMF FORMULA: -EMF = B x I x V B1.09 Slide No 389 . THE CONDUCTOR’S FIELD WILL CHANGE (RATE OF CHANGE OF FLUX).

11 MAGNETIC LINE OF FLUX AROUND A LOOP IF CURRENT IS CHANGED IN A LOOP. THE FIELD GIVES UP THE ENERGY. ENERGY STORED IN THE MAGNETIC FIELDS DEPEND ON THE INDUCTANCE AND COIL CURRENT - - - B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 390 . THE FLUX ALSO CHANGES IN STRENGTH THE CHANGE CAUSES AN EMF (BACK) THAT OPPOSES THE EMF IF THE VOLTAGE AND CURRENT INCREASES THE OPPOSITION ALSO INCREASES AND VICE VERSA IF THE CURRENT INCREASES IN AN INDUCTOR. THE ENERGY IS STORED IN THE FIELDS AND WHEN THE CURRENT DECREASES.

EMF(V ) INDUCTANCE = RATE OF CHANGE OF CURRENT (A) RATE OF CHANGE OF TIME (S) - B1.09 Slide No 391 . FORMULA: .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.11 INDUCTANCE THE OPPOSITION TO A CHANGE OF CURRENT OR FLUX ANY IRCUIT WHICH HAS AN EMF INDUCED INTO IT BY A CHANGE OF CURRENT THROUGH THAT CCT POSSESS SELF INDUCTANCE. A COIL IS AN INDUCTOR SYMBOL FOR INDUCTANCE IS ‘L’ AND THE UNIT FOR INDUCTANCE IS HENRYS (H) IF 1 AMPERE FLOWS IN A CIRCUIT FOR 1 SECOND PRODUCES 1 VOLT – EMF THE CCT IS SAID TO HAVE AN INDUCTANCE OF 1 HENRY.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.11 INDUCTANCE OF A CORED COIL WHEN CURRENT FLOWS IN A COIL INCREASES . IT IS INDEPENDENT OF CURRENT - - B1.0 dated 02.02. THE INDUCTANCE INCREASES BUT WHEN THE COIL IS INSERTED WITH A CORE. THE INDUCTANCE INCREASES UNTIL SATURATION.09 Slide No 392 . COPPER AND ALUMINUM DOES NOT MULTIPLY FLUX. FURTHER INCREASE IN THE CURRENT WILL DRASTICALLY REDUCE THE INDUCTANCE NON-MAGNETIC MATERIALS SUCH AS AIR. THEREFORE THE CORE DOES NOT SATURATE.

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.11 B1.09 Slide No 393 .02.1M03 Presentation V1.

GREATER IS THE CUTTING AND THEREFORE BACK EMF) CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF THE CORE (THE GREATER THE A. THE GREATER IS THE FLUX THAT CUTS THE CONDUCTOR) PERMEABILITY (GREATER IS THE MU.02.09 Slide No 394 .11 WHEN CURRENT FLOWS IN A COIL. LESS IS THE FLUX) - - - B1.0 dated 02. A BACK EMF WILL BE PRODUCED THIS BACK EMF IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE AMOUNT OF MAGNETIC FORCE (RATE OF CHANGE) THAT CUTS THE COIL THE INDUCTANCE ‘CUTTING’ DEPENDS ON: NUMBER OF TURNS (GREATER THE NUMBER OF TURNS.EASA Ref : 3. THE GREATER IS THE FLUX CUTTING CONDUCTOR AND THEREFORE GREATER –EMF LENGTH OF THE CORE (SHORTER THE CORE.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 395 .EASA Ref : 3.11 FORMULA L = N2 A µ Henrys H l B1.1M03 Presentation V1.

6 X 10‫ 6־‬or 12.09 Slide No 396 .³־‬WHAT IS THE INDUCTANCE OF THIS INDUCTOR (µ OF AIR = 1.02.EASA Ref : 3.26 X 10‫) 6־‬ L= 0.26 X 10‫) 6־‬ N² x A x µ L = l 100² X ( 0.1M03 Presentation V1.11 FORMULA: L = N² x A x µ Henrys H l Ex : 1 IF AN INDUCTOR HAS AIR AS ITS CORE AND THE NUMBER OF TURNS IT HAS IS 100 WITH A X-SECTIONAL AREA OF 0.6 µ H B1.0 dated 02.2 = 12.2 x 10‫ )³־‬x (1.2 x 10‫ .

11 CALCULATION: Ex: 2 IF N = 100 TURNS.26 X 10‫ ) 6־‬X 1000 = 0. AND THE FERRITE CORE HAS mu=1000.5 METERS. FIND THE INDUCTANCE. A = 3µ METERS. l = 0.756 µH B1.0 dated 02. N² x A x µ L = l (100)² X (3 X 10‫ )6־‬X (1.5 = 756 mH or 0.09 Slide No 397 .02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 398 .0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.11 Inductor symbol B1.

0 dated 02.11 TIME CONSTANT as discussed earlier. the current that flows in an inductor is opposed by the induced current as the current is increased.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 399 .02.EASA Ref : 3. the opposed current also increases therefore this causes the current to delay in the circuit - B1.

11 RISE TIME WHEN POWER IS APPLIED TO AN INDUCTIVE CIRCUIT. IT IS 63.09 Slide No 400 - . INITIALLY WHEN POWER IS APPLIED: TIME IS 0 RATE OF CURRENT CHANGE IS MAXIMUM BACK EMF AND THE APPLIED VOLTAGE ARE ALMOST EQUAL THAT IS MAXIMUM THE VOLTAGE DROP (I X R) ACROSS R IS MINIMUM FORMULA: t = L (Henrys) R (OHMS) B1. THE CURRENT INCREASES AT A HIGH SPEED IN 1 TIME CONSTANT.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.2% AS THE CURRENT INCREASES THE BACK EMF WILL BE REDUCED FROM MAXIMUM.1M03 Presentation V1.

1M03 Presentation V1. THEREFORE THE BACK EMF IS 36.11 5 TIME CONSTANT - THE VOLTAGE IS MAX. WHERE THE VOLTAGE DROPS TO ALMOST ZERO.8% IT TAKES 5 TC TO INCREASE THE CURRENT TO MAX.02.2%. WHEN THE APPLIED CURRENT WAS MIN.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 401 . IN 1 TC THE EMF HAS DROPPED FROM 100% TO 63. L FORMULA: 5TC = 5 X R - B1.0 dated 02.

09 Slide No 402 .02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.11 AT 5 TC BACK EMF OF THE INDUCTOR IS MINIMUM RATE OF CURRENT CHANGE IS MINIMUM CURRENT FLOW IS MAXIMUM APPLIED VOLTAGE DROP ACROSS THE R IS MAXIMUM B1.0 dated 02.

11 Time constant B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 403 .02.

09 Slide No 404 .0 dated 02. THE CURRENT WILL DROP FROM MAX.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1. THAT IS CURRENT FLOWS FROM THE COLLAPSING MAGNETIC FIELDS THE BACK EMF IS MAX AND IT TRIES TO KEEP THE CURRENT FLOW IT TAKES 1 TC TO DROP 63.8 % OF THE MAX VALUE.11 DECAY TIME WHEN POWER IS REMOVED FROM THE CIRCUIT. TO 36. THEREFORE THE VOLTAGE DROP ACROSS THE R IS 36. VOLTAGE) CAN BE DANGEROUS AND CAN CAUSE DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT AND PERSONAL - - - B1.02.2%.8% AT 5 TC THE CURRENT IS ALMOST ZERO AND ALL THE ENERGY IS DISCHARGED THRU’ THE RESISTOR SMALLER RESISTOR VALUE MAKES THE DECAY TIME LONGER BACK EMF (MANY TIMES HIGHER THAN THE APP.8% THE BACK EMF IS ALSO 36.

0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 405 .1M03 Presentation V1.05 seconds B1.01 = 0.11 Example INDUCTANCE = 10 H AND RESISTANCE IS 1K. WHAT IS THE 5 TC OF THIS CIRCUIT L Formula: 5TC = 5 R 5 x 10/1000 = 5 x 0.

EASA Ref : 3.11

Example 2

IF THE INDUCTOR IS 10 H AND THE RESISTANCE IS 10 OHMS, WHAT IS THE TIME REQUIRED TO RISE THE CURRENT TO MAXIMUM. L Formula: 5TC = 5 x R = 5 x 10 / 10 =5x1 = 5 seconds

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 406

EASA Ref : 3.11

Decay time

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 407

EASA Ref : 3.11

INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WHEN 2 OR MORE INDUCTORS ARE CONNECTED IN SERIES, THE TOTAL VOLTAGE IS THE SUM OF THE VOLTAGE ACROSS EACH INDUCTOR UT = U1 + U2 + U3 +………………..Un WHEN 2 OR MORE INDUCTORS ARE CONNECTED IN SERIES THEY SHOULD BE ADDED UP JUST LIKE RESISTORS IN SERIES LT = L1 + L2 + L3 +………………Ln TO CALCULATE, FIRST OF ALL THE VALUES OF THE INDUCTORS SHOULD BE CONVERTED TO THE SAME DENOMINATION 10 µH + 100 mH = 10 µH + 100000 µH = 100010 µH Or 0.01mH + 100 mH = 100.01mH

-

-

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 408

EASA Ref : 3.11

MUTUAL INDUCTION WHEN TWO INDUCTORS ARE PLACED CLOSE TO ONE ANOTHER,THE FLUX GENERATED WHEN A CHANGING CURRENT FLOWS INTHE FIRST INDUCTOR WILL CUT THROUGH THE OTHER INDUCTOR. THE CHANGING FLUX WILL INDUCE A CURRENT IN THE SECOND INDUCTOR. THIS EFFECT IS KNOWN AS MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 409

EASA Ref : 3.11

THE EFFECT OF THE RATE OF CHANGE OF PRIMARY CURRENT AND MUTUAL INDUCTANCE ON INDUCED VOLTAGE

INDUCED VOLTAGE = MUTUAL INDUCTANCE X RATE OF CHANGE PRIMARY CURRENT = M di dt

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 410

EASA Ref : 3.11

FACTORS AFFECTING MUTUAL INDUCTANCE 1. NUMBER OF TURNS OF COIL 2. PHYSICAL SIZE OF COIL 3. PERMEABILITY OF COIL 4. POSITION OF COIL WITH RESPECT TO EACH OTHER

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 411

EASA Ref : 3.11

PRINCIPLES USES OF INDUCTORS 1. TUNED CIRCUITS 2. FILTERS 3. TRANSFORMERS 4. CHOKES

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 412

DC MOTOR / GENERATOR THEORY ( EASA Ref : 3.12)

FORCE ON CONDUCTOR N A MAGNETIC FIELD

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 413

EASA Ref : 3.12

BASIC MOTOR THEORY WHEN THE CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR IS PLACED WITHIN THE MAGNETIC FIELD,THE TWO FIELDS CANNOT EXIST INDEPENDENTLY A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR HAS A MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING IT. THE FIELD IS CLOCKWISE- CURRENT IN –COCKSCREW RULE THE MAGNETIC FIELD BETWEEN THE TWO POLES OF A BAR MAGNET MOVES FROM NORTH TO SOUTH THE RESULT WILL BE,STRONG FIELDS ON THE LEFT WHILE FIELDS ON THE RIGHT BECOMES WEAK( OPPOSE EACH OTHER ). THEREFORE, THE CONDUCTOR WILL BE FORCED TO MOVE TOTHE RIGHT HAND SIDE. –FLEMING’S LEFT HAND RULE

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 414

EASA Ref : 3.12

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 415

EASA Ref : 3.12

THE PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR THE FORCE ON THE CONDUCTOR , F = B I l NEWTONS F = FORCE ON CONDUCTOR, IN NEWTONS (N ) B = FLUX DENSITY OF MAGNETIC FIELD, IN TESLA I = CURRENT FLOW IN CONDUCTOR, IN AMPERES l = LENGTH OF CONDUCTOR , IN METERS FLUX DDENSITY ,B =θ/A F =θIl A

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 416

0 dated 02. armature winding and commutator) b) Field assembly ( pole pieces . iron core. brush rockers and brush spring ) d) Bearings B1.1M03 Presentation V1. brush holders.12 A PRACTICAL DC MOTOR The construction of a dc motor is identical to that of a dc generator.09 Slide No 417 . It consists of : a) Armature assembly ( shaft. yoke.EASA Ref : 3.02. fields windings) c) Brushes assembly ( brushes.

1M03 Presentation V1.12 POWER POWER IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE TORQUE AND THE SPEED STRONG TORQUE AT LOW SPEED.0 dated 02. LOW TORQUE AT HIGH SPEED TORQUE TORQUE IS PROPORTIONAL TO Φ X Ia OUTPUT TORQUE (SHAFT TORQUE ) =ARMATURE TORQUE – LOST TORQUE LOST TORQUE WILL VARY WITH SPEED B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 418 .

EASA Ref : 3.02. SO THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE TWO ACTUALLY DRIVES CURRENT THROUGH THE ARMATURE CCT KNOWN AS EFFECTIVE VOLTAGE OR ARMATURE VOLTAGE EFFECTIVE VOLTAGE = APPLIED VOLTAGE – BACK EMF EX. A 28 VOLTS DC MOTOR HAS A 1 OHM ARMATURE RESISTANCE AND ARMATURE CURRENT OF 2 AMPS FLOWING.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 419 .12 BACK EMF BACK EMF IS THE INDUCED EMF OPPOSES THE APPLIED VOLTAGE (LENZ’S LAW ) BACK EMF PUSHING ONE WAY AND APPLIED VOLTAGE THE OTHER WAY.0 dated 02. FIND THE BACK EMF BACK EMF = APPLIED VOLTAGE – EFFECTIVE VOLTAGE = 28 – 2X 1 = 26 VOLTS B1.

EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 420 .0 dated 02.12 SPEED CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL MAY BE OBTAINED BY CONTROLLING THE FIELD CURRENT OR ARMATURE CURRENT BY INSERTING VARIABLE RESISTORS IN THE FIELD CCTS OR ARMATURE CCTS B1.

0 dated 02.02.12 TO REVERSE THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF A MOTOR IS TO REVERSE THE DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW THROUGH THE ARMATURE OR THE FIELDS IF THE CURRENT FLOW THROUGH THE ARMATURE AND THE FIELD ARE BOTH REVERSED THE MOTOR CONTINUES IN THE SAME DIRECTION ON AIRCRAFT IT IS NORMAL TO REVERSE THE DIRECTION OF CURRENT THROUGH THE ARMATURE BY MEANS OF REVERSING RELAYS USE TWO FIELDS BOTH WOUND ON THE SAME POLE PIECES BUT WITH ONE GIVING OPPOSITE POLARITY TO THE OTHER B1.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 421 .EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1. so the torque is proportional to the square of the armature current Large starting torque.12 TYPES OF DC MOTORS 1. B1.02. High torque at low speed – starting an a/c engine The motor must be connected to a load permanently as the off load speed will be very high On engine starter motors a small shunt winding is incorporated to limit this off load speed as the starter is disconnected from the engine.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 422 . SERIES MOTOR The field is connected in series with the armature.

1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 423 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.12 SERIES MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS B1.

SHUNT MOTOR The field is connected in parallel with the armature and of fairly high resistance.slow build up of the field strength and restricted armature current Should be started on light load or no load conditions. Considered to be a constant speed machine It is a self regulating machine.12 2.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 424 . windscreen wipers and fuel pumps B1. Used in inverter drives.02.( when a new load is placed on the motor’ the motor automatically adjusts its own effective voltage) Starting torque is small.EASA Ref : 3.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.12 SHUNT MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.09 Slide No 425 .

When the motor is disconnected from the load .02.the minor shunt limits the off load speed. B1.COMPOUND WOUND MOTOR Has two windings wound on the same pole pieces .EASA Ref : 3. the series winding enables a fairly high starting torque and a constant torque machine Used on fuel pumps and heavy duty actuators ii) Shunt limited type – high torque at low speed.09 Slide No 426 .0 dated 02.12 3.1M03 Presentation V1.They are wound to assist one another (cumulative ) or to oppose one another (differential ) a)Cumulative Compound i )Predominantly shunt field winding.

There will be no torque the motor will stop even though taking excessive current.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02. Fairly constant speed/load characteristic which is fairly constant but increases speed as the load becomes too great Low starting torque.09 Slide No 427 .EASA Ref : 3. but if overloaded. Has a problem on starting. B1.12 b) Differential Compound The shunt and series field windings are wound to oppose one another. the series field winding will cancel the shunt field winding.

0 dated 02.12 COMPOUND MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS B1.09 Slide No 428 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.

B = Flux Density in Tesla -l = length of conductor in meters v = velocity (speed ) of conductor in meters/sec e= B l v B1. The magnitude of the emf generated depends on : . the ends of the coil are connected to slip rings.EASA Ref : 3.12 BASIC GENERATOR THEORY When a conductor cuts a magnetic field. brushes spring on the slip rings make the connection to the external circuit (load The loop is rotated through 360 degrees and an alternating emf is generated. an emf is induced in the conductor (Faraday’s Law ) A single coil which can be rotated between a magnetic field.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 429 .1M03 Presentation V1.

EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 430 .0 dated 02.12 FLEMING’S RIGHT HAND RULE TO FIND THE DIRECTION OF THE INDUCED EMF (HENCE THE CURRENT ) OF A CONDUCTOR ROTATED IN A MAGNETIC FIELD FIRST FINGER – DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD SECOND FINGER – DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW (CONVENTIONAL) THUMB .02.DIRECTION OF CONDUCTOR MOVEMENT B1.

0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.12 FLEMING’S RIGHT HAND RULE B1.09 Slide No 431 .EASA Ref : 3.

high current and low voltage output. d) Commutator – consists of a number of copper segments on the shaft they are insulated from one another by strips of mica rectify ac to dc B1.1M03 Presentation V1. ARMATURE ASSEMBLY a) Shaft b) Iron Core .0 dated 02.12 CONSTRUCTION AND PURPOSE OF COMPONENTS IN DC GENERATOR 1. core laminated –to reduce eddy currents c) Armature Windings ( output windings) –wound in longitudinal slots in the core and wedged.provides low reluctance path.09 Slide No 432 .02.EASA Ref : 3. Wave windings – high voltage and low current output Lap windings .

Bolted inside the yoke. c) Brush Spring . FIELD ASSEMBLY a) Yoke – cylindrical frame of the machine.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3. Brush holders is secured to brush rockers.made of material of low contact resistance. B1.maintain good contact with commutator BEARINGS -supported the armature.09 Slide No 433 .reduces eddy currents c) Field Windings – pre-formed coils mounted on the pole pieces. b) Brush Holders .12 2. Ball or roller 3. Made of cast or rolled steel. provide the North and South polarity alternately BRUSHES GEAR ASSEMBLY a) Brush .-part of the magnetic cct.1M03 Presentation V1.metal boxes for brush to fit in. b) Pole Pieces – forms the core of the magnet coils. 4. laminated. and good lubricating propertiesgraphite carbon. low specific resistance.02. low coefficient of friction.

02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 434 .12 TYPICAL DC GENERATOR B1.

02. SELF EXCITED SELF EXCITED DC GENERATORS THE FIELD IS EXCITED BY CURRENT OBTAINED FROM THE ARMATURE OF THE MACHINE ITSELF.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 435 .12 CLASSIFICATION OF DC GENERATORS 1.1M03 Presentation V1. PERMANENT MAGNET 2. SEPARATELY EXCITED 3. THESE GENERATORS HAS A SMALL AMOUNT OF RESIDUAL MAGNETISM IN THE POLE PIECES DUE TO PREVIOUS MAGNETISATIONS A) SERIES WOUND FIELD COILS ARE WOUND IN SERIES WITH THE ARMATURE. FEW TURNS OF HEAVY WIRE OR COPPER STRIP OF LARGE CROSS SECTION AREA OF VERY LOW RESISTANCE. HAVE POOR VOLTAGE REGULATION –NOT NORMALLY USED ON A/C B1.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 436 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.12 SERIES WOUND GENERATOR B1.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 437 .CONTAINS MANY TURNS OF SMALL WIRE OF HIGH RESISTANCE.02.12 B ) SHUNT WOUND FIELD WINDINGS CONNECTED IN PARALLEL TO THE ARMATRE AND ALSO TO THE EXTERNAL CCT. SHUNTGENERATOR SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO BULD UP TO THEIR CORRECT VOLTAGE BEFORE THE LOAD IS APPLIED. HAS A FALLING VOLTS/LOAD CHARACTERISTICS DUE TO IR DROP IN THE ARMATURE WINDINGS USED ON A/C AS ITS DC POWER SOURCE B1.THE VOLTAGE DROPS TO ZERO.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3. IF THE LOAD IS INCREASED ABOVE THE FULL CONDITION THEN .

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 438 .12 SHUNT WOUND GENERATOR B1.1M03 Presentation V1.

IF THE SERIES FIELD ASSISTS THE SHUNT FIELD.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.12 C) COMPOUND WOUND COMBINATION OF A SERIES WINDING AND A SHUNT WINDING.02. c) OVER COMPOUND – THE’FULL LOAD’ VOLTAGE IS HIGHER THAN THE ‘NO LOAD’ VALUE IF THE SERIES FIELD OPPOSES THE SHUNT FIELD.09 Slide No 439 . THE GEN IS SAID TO BE DIFFERENTIAL COMPOUND USED WHERE VOLTAGE REGULATION IS OF PRIMARY IMPORTANCE B1. b) UNDER COMPOUND – THE ‘FULL LOAD’ VOLTAGE IS LESS THAN THE ‘NO LOAD’. THE GEN IS SAID TO BE CUMULATIVE COMPOUND a) FLAT COMPOUND – THE ‘NO-LOAD’ AND ‘FULL LOAD’ VOLTAGES ARE OF THE SAME VALUE.EASA Ref : 3.

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.12 COMPOUND WOUND GENERATOR B1.09 Slide No 440 .0 dated 02.

12 REGULATION OF GENERATOR VOLTAGE B1.09 Slide No 441 .0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

12 VIBRATING TYPE VOLTAGE REGULATOR B1.09 Slide No 442 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

1M03 Presentation V1. IT IS COOLED BY RAM AIR SPEED SENSOR –SIGNAL FOR STARTER CUTOFF START AS COMPOUND MOTOR SERIES MOTOR FOR TORQUE SHUNT GENERATOR – CONNECTED TO BUS BAR B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 443 .0 dated 02.12 STARTER GENERATOR CONSTRUCTION CONSISTS OF SELF EXCITED COMPOUND WOUND GENERATOR WITH COMPENSATING AND INTERPOLE WINDINGS AND INTEGRAL FAN COOLING.02.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 444 .02.1M03 Presentation V1.13 ) LOOP IN A MAGNETIC FIELD B1.AC THEORY ( EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 445 .13 EMF GENERATION B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.13 Flux Cut by a Loop in a Magnetic Field B1.02.09 Slide No 446 .

09 Slide No 447 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.13 Lines Cut against Loop Position B1.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.13 EMF against Loop Position B1.09 Slide No 448 .

02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 449 .13 Peak Value of a Sinusoidal Wave B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 450 .EASA Ref : 3.02.13 Peak to Peak Value of a Sinusoidal Wave B1.

RMS VALUE = PEAK VALUE √2 AVERAGE VALUE =0.02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.637 PEAK VALUE INSTANTANEOUS EMF (U) =EMF max x Sinθ B1.09 Slide No 451 .0 dated 02.13 ROOT MEAN SQUARE VALUE AN ALTERNATING CURRENT THAT WILL GENERATE THE SAME AMOUNT OF HEAT AS DIRECT CURRENT THAT HAS A VALUE OF ONE AMPERE IS CONSIDERED TO HAVE AN EFFECTIVE VALUE OR RMS VALUE OF ONE AMPERE.

13 Period of a Sinusoidal Wave B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 452 .

0 dated 02.13 Frequency of a Sinusoidal Wave B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 453 .

02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 454 .13 Period and Frequency B1.EASA Ref : 3.

1M03 Presentation V1.02.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 455 .EASA Ref : 3.13 Frequency Band B1.

09 Slide No 456 .13 ANGULAR VELOCITY ANGULAR VELOCITY (ω ) = 2 π f rad /sec 360 Degrees = π radians RADIAN B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

0 dated 02.13 Sine Waves in Phase B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 457 .02.1M03 Presentation V1.

13 Sine Waves Out of Phase B1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 458 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

13 Typical Waveforms B1.09 Slide No 459 .EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 460 .13 PRT and Mark to Space Ratio B1.

13 Generation of Three Phase Alternating Current B1.09 Slide No 461 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.

THE VOLTAGE LEADS THE CURRENT BY 90 DEGREES ALL THE ABOVE CAN BE REPRESENTED IN GRAPHS AND IN PHASOR DIAGRAMS. WITH A CAPACITOR. B1. IF A RESISTOR IS CONNECTED TO A SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE.CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS ARE IMPORTANT COMPONENTS IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERINGS.THE VOLTAGE LAGS THE CURRENT BY 90 DEGREES WHEREAS WITH A COIL. THE CURRENT AND VOLTAGE ARE ALWAYS IN PHASE.0 dated 02.RESISTIVE ( R ). AND INDUCTANCE ( L ) (EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 462 .02. CAPACITANCE ( C ).1M03 Presentation V1.14 ) RESISTORS.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 463 .EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.14 RC Series Connection B1.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 464 .02.EASA Ref : 3.14 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.14 B1.09 Slide No 465 .EASA Ref : 3.

02.14 B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 466 .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.

0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.14 Power Triangles for RC and RL Series Circuit B1.09 Slide No 467 .

02.14 Mathematical Relationship for Power in RC/RL Series Circuits B1.09 Slide No 468 .1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 469 .14 Resistor/ Capacitor in Parallel B1.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 470 .EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.14 Resistor/Coil in Parallel B1.

0 dated 02.02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 471 .14 Mathematical Relationship for Current in RC/RL Parallel Circuits B1.

14 Mathematical Relationship for Admittance.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 472 . Conductance and Susceptances B1.02.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 473 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.14 RC/RL Frequency dependent Current Divider B1.0 dated 02.

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 474 .14 Power Triangles for RC and RL Parallel Circuits B1.

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 475 .1M03 Presentation V1.14 Mathematical Relationship for Power in RC/RL Parallel Circuits B1.02.

1M03 Presentation V1.14 B1.09 Slide No 476 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.

09 Slide No 477 .0 dated 02.14 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.02.

09 Slide No 478 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.14 B1.

EASA Ref : 3.02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 479 .0 dated 02.14 B1.

0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.14 B1.09 Slide No 480 .02.EASA Ref : 3.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 481 .14 B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 482 .1M03 Presentation V1.14 B1.02.0 dated 02.

09 Slide No 483 .02.14 B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.

14 B1.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 484 .0 dated 02.02.

0 dated 02.TRANSFORMER ( EASA Ref : 3.THE VOLTAGE AND CURRENT LEVELS CAN BE INCREASED OR DECREASED.15 ) TRANSFORMER PRINCIPLES A TRANSFORMER IS AN ELECTRICAL DEVICE FOR TRANSFERRING ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM ONE CIRCUIT TO ANOTHER CIRCUIT BY MUTUAL INDUCTANCE.02. (ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION ). B1.09 Slide No 485 . THE ELECTRICAL ENERGY IS TRANSFERRED WITHOUT A CHANGE IN FREQUENCY.(STEP-UP OR STEP –DOWN).1M03 Presentation V1. (DC ) WHEN AC IS USED. A TRANSFOERMER WILL NOT OPERATE WITH A STEADY CURRENT IN THE PRIMARY.

0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 486 .EASA Ref : 3.15 Transformer Principles B1.

CORE.EASA Ref : 3.RECEIVES ENERGY FROM THE PRIMARY WINDING AND DELIVERS TO THE LOAD ENCLOSURE.HOLLOW SQUARE THROUGH THE CENTER . 3.SUPPORTS THE WINDINGS AND PROVIDES A PATH FOR MAGNETIC FLUX -AIR –CORE – USED WHEN HIGH FREQUENCY ABOVE 20 KHz -IRON –CORE – FREQUENCY BELOW 20KH -STEEL.SHELL –CONSISTS OF E AND I SHAPED SECTIONS OF METAL WINDINGS – WRAPPED AROUND THE A CORE .02.0 dated 02.PRIMARY – RECEIVES ENERGY FROM THE AC SOURCE . 2.LAMINATED FOR EFFICIENT POWER TRANSFER SHAPE OF CORE.PROTECTION FROM DIRT .09 Slide No 487 . AND MECHANICAL DAMAGE. MOISTURE.15 BASIC CONSTRUCTION OF A TRANSFORMER 1. CORE . B1.1M03 Presentation V1.SECONDARY.

EASA Ref : 3.02.15 (a) (c ) Hollow –core construction (b) Windings wrapped around laminations Shell-type core construction B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 488 .

1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 489 . WHICH SETS UP ALTERNATING MAGNETIC FLUX (EXPANDING AND CONTRACTING ) THROUGH THE CORE. THE VOLTAGE MAY BE STEPPED UP OR DOWN DEPENDING ON THE DESIGN OF THE PRIMARY AND THE SECONDARY WINDINGS. B1.02. THE MAGNETIC FLUX INDUCES AN EMF INTO THE SECONDARY WINDING.EASA Ref : 3.IT PRODUCES AN ALTERNATING CURRENT .0 dated 02. ( MUTUAL INDUCTANCE ).15 BASIC OPERATION OF A TRANSFORMER WHEN AN ALTERNATING VOLTAGE IS APPLIED TO THE PRIMARY WINDING.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 490 .15 Mutual Inductance B1.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

09 Slide No 491 .EASA Ref : 3.02.15 Schematic symbols for transformer B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.15 TRANSFORMER LOSSES 1. B) EDDY CURRENT LOSSES – CIRCULATING CURRENTS PRODUCED IN THE CORE BY THE CHANGING MAGNETIC FLUX. ( RESISTANCE OF THE WINDINGS) CORE LOSSES –IRON LOSSES A) HYSTERESIS LOSS – THE BUILD UP AND COLLAPSE OF THE MAGNETIC FLUX IN THE CORE. COPPER LOSSES ( I2R LOSS ) . B1. 3.09 Slide No 492 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02. STRAY LOSSES – POWER IS LOST IN AN INDUCTOR.1M03 Presentation V1.(VARIOUS KINDS ) 2.PRODUCED BY CURRENTS FLOW IN THE TRANSFORMER WINDINGS.

09 Slide No 493 . B1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.15 METHODS OF OVERCOMING LOSSES COPPER LOSSES MINIMISED BY USING LARGE DIAMETER CONDUCTORS FOR THE WINDINGS HYSTERESIS LOSSES THE CORES ARE FORMED INTO SQUARE OR RECTANGULAR BLOCK TO PROVIDE A COMPLETE CLOSED PATH FOR THE MAGNETIC FLUX. USED OF SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS.ADD 3% OF SILICON TO IRON EDDY CURRENT LOSSES THE IRON CORE IS LAMINATED AND INSULATING THE SEPARATE LAMINATIONS FROM EACH OTHER.02.

EASA Ref : 3. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CURRENT.09 Slide No 494 .02.1M03 Presentation V1. P =U S.0 dated 02. POWER AND EFFICIENCY RELATION OF THE PRIMARY AND THE SECONDARY VOLTAGE US =NS UP NP RELATION BETWEEN THE PRIMARY AND THE SECONDARY CURRENT IP =NS IS NP TURNS RATIO = N S NP POWER. I P EFFICIENCY . I S = U P . η = P S PP B1.TURNS RATIO.15 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY VOLTAGE.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.15 TRANSFORMER ACTION UNDER LOAD AND NO LOAD CONDITIONS TRANSFORMER ON NO LOAD CONDITION When the supply voltage is applied to the primary. an induced emf (back emf ) is produced in the primary which opposes the supply voltage. ( poor power factor for a transformer on no load ) B1. Very small excitation current ( I e ) will flow in the primary winding to overcome losses and to magnetise the core The primary and secondary voltages are in anti-phase.09 Slide No 495 .EASA Ref : 3. The off load primary current (I o ) lags the primary voltage with a large angle.

EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 496 .0 dated 02. The primary back emf is reduced and increase in effective emf in the primary so increase in primary current. The secondary current is 180 degrees out of phase to the primary current. The total primary current is the phasor sum of off load primary current and excitation current (I o ) . a secondary current will flow .1M03 Presentation V1.15 TRANSFORMER ON LOAD CONDITION When a load is applied to the secondary. B1.02. This current opposes the primary flux so reduce the total flux in the core.

09 Slide No 497 .EASA Ref : 3. When an instantaneous positive voltage is applied to the primary terminals ( dot) there will be an instantaneous positive voltage produced at the secondary terminals (dot). The positioning of the dots is used to indicate the similar instantaneous polarities.02.1M03 Presentation V1.15 POLARITY MARKINGS PHASING DOTS The dots at the ends of the winding are called the phasing dots.0 dated 02. B1.

09 Slide No 498 .15 AUTOTRANSFORMER IS ONE IN WHICH PART OF THE WINDING IS COMMON TO BOTH THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CIRCUITS. BECAUSE OF THE COMMON WINDING. B1.02.EASA Ref : 3. A VARIABLE AUTOTRANSFORMER. OF NEAR UNITY. SO LESS I2R LOSS DISADVANTAGE – NOT SAFE FOR INTERCONNECTING HIGH-VOLTAGE AND LOW –VOLTAGE CIRCUITS. ADVANTAGE – REQUIRE LESS COPPER WIRE. SUITABLE FOR APPLICATIONS THAT REQUIRE A VOLTAGE TRANSFORMATION.PROVIDES AN ADJUSTABLE AC VOLTAGE. AND TO REDUCE THE APPLIED VOLTAGE TO AN AC MOTOR DURING STARTING.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 499 .15 B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.15 EFFICIENCY THE EFFICIENCY OF A TRANSFORMER IS η = OUTPUT POWER INPUT POWER = OUTPUT POWER OUTPUT POWER + LOSSES( COPPER + IRON ) REGULATION = NO LOAD VOLTAGE – FULL LOAD VOLTAGE FULL LOAD VOLTAGE B1.09 Slide No 500 .0 dated 02.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.15 LINE AND PHASE VOLTAGES STAR CONNECTIONS LINE VOLTAGE = 3 PHASE VOLTAGE UL = 3 UP DELTA CONNECTIONS LINE VOLTAGE = PHASE VOLTAGE UL = UP B1.02.09 Slide No 501 .

EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 502 .1M03 Presentation V1.15 LINE AND PHASE CURRENTS STAR CONNECTIONS LINE CURRENT = PHASE CURRENT IL = IP DELTA CONNECTIONS LINE CURRENT = √3 PHASE CURRENT IL = √3 IP B1.

IP =IL/√3 = √3 UL IL COSθ WATTS B1.UP = UL/√ 3 COS θ . IL =IP =√3 UL IL COS WATTS DELTA CONNECTIONS POWER = 3 UP IP COSθ WATTS ALSO = 3 UL IP COSθ ‘ UP =UL.09 Slide No 503 .1M03 Presentation V1.15 CALCULATION OF POWER IN A PHASE SYSTEM STAR CONNECTIONS POWER = 3 UP IP COS θ WATTS ALSO = 3 UP IL COSθ .02.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

CAPACITIVE LOW PASS ( RC FILTER ) USED IN AUDIO FREQUENCIES 3. CROSSOVER NETWORKS. Π TYPE AN INDUCTOR AND TWO CAPACITORS .02. B1. WHILE ALLOWING OTHER PARTS TO CARRY ON WITHOUT HINDRANCE. AND POWER CONDITIONING. 2. T TYPE TWO INDUCTORS AND A CAPACITOR 4.16 ) A FILTER IS ANY CIRCUIT THAT WILL REMOVE SOME PARTS OF A SIGNAL OR POWER SOURCE.09 Slide No 504 . LOW PASS FILTER PASSES LOW FREQUENCIES BUT BLOCKS FREQUENCIES HIGHER THAN THE CUTOFF FREQUENCY 1. INDUCTIVE LOW PASS ( LR FILTER ) USE IN AC DC POWER SUPPLIES.FILTERS ( EASA Ref : 3. EQUALIZERS.1M03 Presentation V1. TWEETER.0 dated 02.

EASA Ref : 3.16

Main characteristic of low pass filter

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 505

EASA Ref : 3.16

HIGH PASS FILTER OFFER EASY PASSAGE OF HIGH FREQUENCY SIGNAL AND BLOCK LOW FREQUENCY SIGNAL 1. CAPACITIVE HIGH PASS ( CR FILTER ) HIGH IMPEDANCE IN SERIES BLOCK LOW FREQUENCY SIGNALS 2. INDUCTIVE HIGH PASS (RL FILTER ) LOW IMPEDANCE INPARALLE SHORT OUT LOW FREQUENCY SIGNAL 3. T TYPE 2 SERIES CAPACITORS AND AN INDUCTOR 4. Π TYPE A CAPACITOR AND PARALLEL CAPACITORS

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 506

EASA Ref : 3.16

High pass frequency response curve

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 507

EASA Ref : 3.16

BAND PASS FILTER BLOCKS FREQUENCIES THAT ARE TOO HIGH AND FREQUENCIES THAT ARE TOO LOW SIGNAL INPUT -------LOW PASS--------HIGH PASS------------SIGNAL OUTPUT 1. CAPACITIVE BAND PASS LOW PASS –RC , HIGH PASS –CR 2. INDUCTIVE BAND PASS HIGH PASS – RL , LOW PASS – LR 3. MADE UP OF INDUCTORS AND CAPACITORS CR –HIGH PASS , RC – LOW PASS

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 508

EASA Ref : 3.16

Band pass frequency response

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 509

EASA Ref : 3.16

BAND STOP FILTER STOPS TRANSMISSION OF FREQUNCIES BETWEEN f co1 AND F co 2 ALSO KNOWN AS A NOTCH , BAND REJCT OR BAND ELIMINATION FILTER. SERIES ELEMENT – PARALLEL RESONANT CCTS ( 2 TUNED CCTS ) SHUNT ELEMENT – A SERIES RESONANT CCT AT LOW FR THE SERIES RESONANT CCT IMPEDANCE ( Z ) IS HIGH, PARALLEL CCT IMPEDANCE IS LOW. FREQUENCY PASSED. AT RESONANT, THE PARALLEL CCT Z IS HIGH , SERIES RESONANT Z IS LOW. THEREFORE FREQUENCIES ARE BLOCKED IN THESE RANGE AT HIGH FR, THE PARALLEL CCT Z LOW, SERIES ONE INCREASED, SO FREQUENCIES PASSED AGAIN.

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09 .

Slide No 510

EASA Ref : 3.16

Characteristics of band stop filter

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 511

EASA Ref : 3.16

APPLICATIONS OF FILTERS IN AIRCRAFT HF COMMUNICATION TRANSCEIVER VOR RECEIVERS MARKER BEACON RECEIVER ILS RECEIVER ENGINE VIBRATION MONITORING SYSTEMS AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEMS VOICE RECORDER

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 512

AC GENERATORS ( EASA Ref : 3.17 )

ROTATION OF A LOOP IN A MAGNETIC FIELD AND WAVE FORM PRODUCED WHEN LOOP OF COIL ROTATED IN A MAGNETIC FIELD, THE COIL CUTS THROUGH A MAGNETIC FIELD,GENERATING AN EMF. THE EMF PRODUCED ARE CONNECTED TO SLIP RINGS WHICH CAUSE CURRENT TO FLOW ALTERNATELY FIRST IN ONE DIRECTION AND THEN IN THE OTHER DIRECTION IN ONE COMPLETE REVOLUTION. THESE IS THE BASIC AC GENERATOR PRINCIPLE THE WAVEFORM PRODUCED IS A SINOSOIDAL ( ALTERNATING )

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 513

EASA Ref : 3.17

Rotation of a loop in a magnetic field and waveform produced
B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 514

EASA Ref : 3.17

CONSTRUCTION OF REVOLVING (ROTATING ) ARMATURE TYPE GENERATOR STATOR - STATIONARY PART OF THE GENERATOR – FIELD WINDINGS DC EXCITATION ON POLE PIECE TO CREATE NORTH AND SOUTH POLES AROUND THE STATOR. ROTOR ROTATING PART OF THE GENERATOR – ARMATURE WINDINGS IN SLOTS

SLIP RINGS - OUTPUT

B1.1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.02.09

Slide No 515

0 dated 02. THE GENERATED EMF IS BROUGHT TO THE LOAD BY SLIP RINGS LOW POWER RATING SELDOM USED ON A/C B1.17 OPERATION OF REVOLVING ARMATURE TYPE GENERATOR THE ROTOR CUTS THE MAGNETIC FIELD AND PRODUCES AN AC EMF IN THE STATOR.09 Slide No 516 .EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

02.17 Rotating armature alternator B1.09 Slide No 517 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.

AN AC IS PRODUCED IN THE STATOR WINDINGS –OUTPUT IT IS PREFFERED THAN REVOLVING ARMATURE TYPE BECAUSE: THE OUTPUT CAN BE CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE LOAD PROBLEM OF HIGH VOLTAGE ARCING AT THE SLIP RINGS ARE ELIMINATED B1.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 518 .FIELD WINDINGS.02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.FED VIA SLIP RINGS AND BRUSHES WITD DC OPERATION OF REVOLVING FIELD TYPE THE FIELD IS ROTATED AND CUTS THE STATIONARY WINDINGS.17 CONSTRUCTION OF REVOLVING (ROTATING ) FIELD TYPE GENERATOR STATOR – ARMATURE WINDINGS –OUTPUT ROTOR .

1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.09 Slide No 519 .17 Rotating field alternator B1.

09 Slide No 520 .0 dated 02. THE INDIVIDUAL VOLTAGE THEREFORE ADD . THE STATOR WINDINGS ARE CONNECTED IN SERIES.1M03 Presentation V1.17 SINGLE PHASE ALTERNATOR A GENERATOR THAT PRODUCES A SINGLE CONTINUOSLY ALTERNATING VOLTAGE.TO PRODUCE A SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.

02.EASA Ref : 3. THREE PHASE ALTERNATOR THREE PAIRS OF COILS ARE USED. EACH PAIR OF COILS IS SPACED AT 120° TO ONE ANOTHER SO 3 PHASES ARE PRODUCED WHERE THE OUTPUTS ARE 120° OUT OF PHASE B1.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 521 . A TWO PHASE OUTPUT IS PRODUCED 90° OUT OF PHASE WITH EACH OTHER.17 TWPO PHASE ALERNATOR IF ANOTHER SET OF SINGLE PHASE WINDINGS AT 90° TO ONE ANOTHER IS ADDED TO THE SINGLE PHASE.

1M03 Presentation V1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 522 .17 Single phase alternator Two phase alternator B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.

09 Slide No 523 .17 3 Phase rotating field generator B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.

02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 524 .0 dated 02.17 THREE PHASE STAR CONNECTION LINE CURRENT = PHASE CURRENT IL = IP LINE VOLTAGE = √ 3 PHASE VOLTAGE UL =√3UP ADVANTAGE 2 VOLTAGES – 200 V AC AND 115 V AC USES –IN A/C POWER SUPPLIES B1.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.17 THREE PHASE DELTA CONNECTIONS LINE CURRENT = √3 PHASE CURRENT IL = √3 IP LINE VOLTAGE = PHASE VOLTAGE UL =UP ADVANTAGE 2 VALUE OF CURRENTS – HIGHER CURRENT OUTPUT B1.09 Slide No 525 .02.

17 PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR ALSO CALLED BRUSHLESS GENERATOR CONSISTS OF PMG. THE EXCITER FIELD INDUCES VOLTAGE INTO THE EXCITER INPUT WINDING.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1. THE AC RECTIFIED AND GOES TO MAIN EXCITER STATOR FIELD. THE OUTPUT FED TO THE V/R IN THE GCU. ITS FIELD CUTS THE STATOR FIELD WINDING. PMG WILL ROTATE. INDUCES AC INTO IT. MAIN EXCITER GENERATOR AND MAIN GENERATOR OPERATION OF BRUSHLESS GENERATOR WHEN GENERATOR SHAFT ROTATES. THE OUTPUT IS RECTIFIED BY 6 SILICON DIODES SENT TO OUTPUT FIELD WINDING VOLTAGE IS INDUCED IN THE MAIN OUTOUT WINDING B1.09 Slide No 526 .02.

09 Slide No 527 .0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.17 Brushless Generator B1.EASA Ref : 3.02.

09 Slide No 528 . ROTOR.0 dated 02.AC MOTORS ( EASA Ref : 3.PERMANENT MAGNET OR ELECTROMAGNET SALIENT POLE – WINDING RECEIVED DC THROUGH SLIP RINGS B1.1M03 Presentation V1. STATOR FIELD WNDING 2.18 ) CONSTRUCTION OF THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR CONSISTS OF 1.02.

1M03 Presentation V1.18 Synchronous motor B1.02.09 Slide No 529 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

1M03 Presentation V1. ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD IS SET UP AROUND THE ROTOR THE ROTOR IS ENERGISED WITH DC ( ACTS AS A BAR OF MAGNET ) ATTRACTED BY THE ROTATING STATOR FIELD THIS ATTRACTION WILL EXERT A TORQUE ON THE ROTOR CAUSE THE ROTOR TO ROTATE WITH THE FIELD. B1.02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.18 OPERATION OF AC SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WHEN 3 PHASE AC POWER IS APPLIED TO THE STATOR.09 Slide No 530 .

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 531 .EASA Ref : 3.18 Action of synchronous motor B1.02.1M03 Presentation V1.

DIRECTION OF ROTATION CAN BE ACHIEVED BY CHANGING ANY TWO OF THE 3 PHASE INPUTS B1.1M03 Presentation V1. USE AS MOTR IN ENGINE SPEED INDICATORS 4. CONSTANT SPEED DEPENDS ON THE FREQUENCY OF THE POWER SUPPLY F = NP/60 HZ 3. NOT SELF STARTNG 2.02.0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.18 CHARACTERISTICS OF AC SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 1.09 Slide No 532 .

WOUND ROTOR B1.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 533 .SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR .1M03 Presentation V1. ROTOR – NOT CONNECTED TO EXTERNAL SOURCE VOLTAGE .EASA Ref : 3.18 CONSTRUCTION OF 3 PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 1. STATOR FIELD WINDING 2.02.

18 Types of ac induction motor rotors B1.09 Slide No 534 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.

ROTOR CURRENT GENERATE A MAGNETIC FIELD INTEACTS WITH THE STATOR. IF THERE IS NO RELATIVE MOTION. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ROTOR SPEED AND ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD SPEED ( SYNCHRONOUS SPEED ) IS THE SLIP SPEED. SLIP SPEED = Ns – Nr ( SYN SPEED – ROTOR SPEED ) SLIP = Ns – Nr x100 Ns B1. NO CURRENT AND NO ROTOR MOVEMENT. THE ROTOR FOLLOW A LITTLE BEHIND.02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.18 OPERATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR CURRENT IS INDUCED IN THE ROTOR BY THE ACTION OF THE ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD CUTTING THE ROTOR CONDUCTORS. TORQUE EXERTED ON THE ROTOR AND CAUSE IT TO ROTATE AS THE STATOR FIELD IS ROTATING.09 Slide No 535 .EASA Ref : 3.

18 Production of motor torque B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.09 Slide No 536 .0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.

02.18 CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUCTION MOTOR 1.EASA Ref : 3. CHABGE OVER ANY 2 CONNECTIONS OF THE 3 PHASE INPUTS .1M03 Presentation V1.09 Slide No 537 . B1. FUEL PUMPS AND FLAP MOTOR TO REVERSE THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION. CONSTANT SPEED USE AS HYDRAULIC PUMPS.0 dated 02. SELF STARTING 2.

09 Slide No 538 .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.02.1M03 Presentation V1.18 Speed/Torque characteristic of induction motor B1.

09 Slide No 539 .1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.18 Induction motor characteristics torque and current vs speed B1.02.0 dated 02.

USES FOR VACUUM CLEANERS.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.02.MAIN WINDING AND START WINDING-PARALLEL. SO MAGNETIC FIELDS ALSO THE SAME.18 CONSTRUCTION OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR (SPLIT PHASE ) CAPACITOR START STATOR . B1. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION –REVERSED BY CHANGING OVER THE TWO LEADS OF ANY ONE WINDING. WORKSHOP PEDASTAL DRILLS.REFRIGERATOR AND AIR COMPRESSORS. THE SWITCH OPENS AND CUTS OUT THE START WINDING WHEN THE MOTOR NEARLY AT FULL SPEED.09 Slide No 540 . THE TWO WINDINGS ACT LIKE A TWO PHASE STATOR AND PRODUCE THE ROTATING FIELD REQUIRED TO START THE MOTOR. 90 DEGREES PHASE DIFFERENCE CAPACITOR –IN SERIES WITH CENTRIFUGAL SWITCH OPERATION THE CURRENTS ARE 90 DEGREES OUT OF PHASE.0 dated 02.

09 Slide No 541 .1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.18 Single phase induction motor B1.0 dated 02.

02.EASA Ref : 3.09 Slide No 542 .1M03 Presentation V1.18 Capacitor start induction motor B1.0 dated 02.

REVERSAL OF ROTATION – BY TRANFERRING THE SHADING RINGS TO THE OTHER HALF OF THE POLEPIECES (NOT PRACTICAL ) USE FOR FANS.FLUX PRODUCED IN THE RING OPPOSES THE BUILD UP OF MAIN FLUX. MAIN FLUX CONCENTRATES IN THE UNSHADED POLE.1M03 Presentation V1. CLOCKS AND ENGINE INDICATION INSTRUMENT. FLUX PRODUCED OPPOSES THE COLLAPSE OF THE MAIN FLUX. AS THE SUPPLY CURRENT DROPS.SQUIRREL CAGE OPERATION AS THE SUPPLY CURRENT RISES AN INDUCED VOLTAGE IS SET UP IN THE SHADING RING.18 SHADED POLE CONSTRUCTION STATOR.CREATING FLUX SHIFTING FROM UNSHADED TO THE SHADED POLE.ONE HALF FITTED WITH COPPER OR ALUMINIUM RING ( SHADING ) ROTOR. BLOWERS.PROJECTINGPOLE PIECES – SPLIT INTO TWO . SIMILAR TO A ROTATING FIELD.09 Slide No 543 .0 dated 02. THIS IS REPEATED. SPEED IS DETERMINED BY THE INPUT FREQUENCY.MAIN FLUX CONCENTRATED IN THE SHADED POLE. AN INDUCED VOLTAGE IS SET UP IN THE SHADING RING.EASA Ref : 3.02. CAN BE VARIED WITHIN LIMITED RANGE BY A SERIES RESISTOR OR INDUCTOR. B1. THE NEXT HALF CYCLE.

02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.18 Shaded pole induction motor B1.09 Slide No 544 .EASA Ref : 3.

18 Line of flux moves towards the shaded ring (effect of moving field ) B1.1M03 Presentation V1.02.EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02.09 Slide No 545 .

OPERATION IF REFERENCE PHASE IS MAXIMUM. DIRECTION OR ROTATION IS DONE BY CHANGING THE PHASE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CONTROL PHASE BY 180 DEGREES USED AS SERVO MOTORS AND MINIATURE RATE GYROS.09 Slide No 546 .18 CONSTRUCTION OF HYTERESIS MOTOR STATOR – TWO WINDINGS 90° TO EACH OTHER. CONTROL PHASE NO CURRENT AT THIS TIME ROTOR RETAINS THE FLUX POLARITY WHEN THE REFERENCE PHASE REDUCES.REFERENCE AND CONTROL PHASE ROTOR . B1. AS CONTROL CURRENT DIES AWAY.COBALT STEEL.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.HIGH MAGNETIC RETENTIVITY AND LARGE HYTERESIS LOOP. THE ROTOR WILL BE ATTRACTED TO THE STATOR OF THE OPPOSITE POLARITIES. THE CONTROL PHASE NOW BUILDS UP-ROTATING FIELD CREATED. ROTOR CONTINUES TO TURN AS THE FIELD ROTATES THE SPEED OF THE MOTOR DEPENDS ON THE SUPPLY FREQUENCY.0 dated 02.02. THE CURRENT BUILDS UP ON THE REFERENCE PHASE.

09 Slide No 547 .EASA Ref : 3.18 Hysteresis motor B1.02.0 dated 02.1M03 Presentation V1.

TWO SPEED MOTOR WINDING . .09 Slide No 548 .VARYING THE AMOUNT OF EXTERNAL RESISTANCE IN THE ROTOR CIRCUIT.18 METHODS OF SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR 1.ELECTRONIC CONYROL UNIT B1. SQIRREL CAGE ROTOR .EASA Ref : 3.0 dated 02. WOUND ROTOR .02.USED OF HEAVY DUTY RESISTORS 2.1M03 Presentation V1.

0 dated 02.09 Slide No 549 .02.1M03 Presentation V1.EASA Ref : 3.18 B1.

0 dated 02.EASA Ref : 3.1M03 Presentation V1.18 B1.02.09 Slide No 550 .

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