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# Electricity is the science, engineering, technology and physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric

charges. Electricity gives a wide variety of well-known electrical effects, such as lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire. In addition, electricity permits the creation and reception of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves. Voltage, otherwise known as electrical potential difference or electric tension (denoted V and measured in volts, or joules per coulomb) is the potential difference between two points or the difference in electric potential energy per unit charge between two points.[1] Voltage is equal to the work which would have to be done, per unit charge, against a static electric field to move the charge between two points. A voltage may represent either a source of energy (electromotive force), or it may represent lost or stored energy (potential drop). Ampere (SI unit symbol: A), often shortened to amp, is the SI unit of electric current[1] (quantity symbol: I,i)[2] and is one of the seven[3] SI base units. It is named after Andr-Marie Ampre (1775 1836), French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics. Note that SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of any abbreviations for units.[4] Watt (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI), named after the Scottish engineer James Watt (17361819). The unit, defined as one joule per second, measures the rate of energy conversion or transfer. Electrical resistance of an electrical element is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that element; the inverse quantity is electrical conductance, the ease at which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S). An object of uniform cross section has a resistance proportional to its resistivity and length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. All materials show some resistance, except for superconductors, which have a resistance of zero. The resistance (R) of an object is defined as the ratio of voltage across it to current through it, while the conductance (G) is the inverse: Electric current is a flow of electric charge through a medium.[1] This charge is typically carried by moving electrons in a conductor such as wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons in a plasma.[2] The SI unit for measuring the rate of flow of electric charge is the ampere, which is charge flowing through some surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current is measured using an ammeter.[1] Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric charge flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). A term formerly used for direct current was galvanic current.

Alternating current (AC, also ac), the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current (DC, also dc), the flow of electric charge is only in one direction. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.[1] [2] AC is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences. The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current. In these applications, an important goal is often the recovery of information encoded (or modulated) onto the AC signal. Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance,[1] one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship:[2] where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current.[3] The law was named after the German physicist Georg Ohm, who, in a treatise published in 1827, described measurements of applied voltage and current through simple electrical circuits containing various lengths of wire. He presented a slightly more complex equation than the one above (see History section below) to explain his experimental results. The above equation is the modern form of Ohm's law. In physics, the term Ohm's law is also used to refer to various generalizations of the law originally formulated by Ohm. The simplest example of this is: where J is the current density at a given location in a resistive material, E is the electric field at that location, and is a material dependent parameter called the conductivity. This reformulation of Ohm's law is due to Gustav Kirchhoff. Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many different ways. The two simplest of these are called series and parallel and occur very frequently. Components connected in series are connected along a single path, so the same current flows through all of the components.[1][2] Components connected in parallel are connected so the same voltage is applied to each component.[3] A circuit composed solely of components connected in series is known as a series circuit; likewise, one connected completely in parallel is known as a

parallel circuit. In a series circuit, the current through each of the components is the same, and the voltage across the components is the sum of the voltages across each component.[1] In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each of the components is the same, and the total current is the sum of the currents through each component.[3]

Transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductorsthe transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF), or "voltage", in the secondary winding. This effect is called inductive coupling.

Power is the rate at which energy is transferred, used, or transformed. The unit of power is the joule per second (J/s), known as the watt (in honor of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the steam engine). For example, the rate at which a light bulb transforms electrical energy into heat and light is measured in wattsthe more wattage, the more power, or equivalently the more electrical energy is used per unit time. Energy (Ancient Greek: energeia "activity, [1] operation" ) is an indirectly observed quantity that is often understood as the ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems.[2][3] Since work is defined as a force acting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always

equivalent to the ability to exert pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature, along a path of a certain length. Conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. In metallic conductors such as copper or aluminum, the movable charged particles are electrons (see electrical conduction). Positive charges may also be mobile, such as the cationic electrolyte(s) of a battery, or the mobile protons of the proton conductor of a fuel cell. In general use, the term "conductor" is interchangeable with "wire." Insulators are non-conducting materials with few mobile charges and which support only insignificant electric currents.

Insulator is a material that does not respond to an electric field and completely resists the flow of electric charge. In practice, however, perfect insulators do not exist. Therefore, dielectric materials with high dielectric constants are considered insulators.[citation needed] In insulating materials valence electrons are tightly bonded to their atoms. These materials are used in electrical equipment as insulators or insulation. Their function is to support or separate electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves. The term also refers to insulating supports that attach electric power distribution or transmission conductors to utility poles or transmission towers. Wire is a strand of drawn metal used especially in electrical conductors and fencing.

Cable is most often two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly, but can also refer to a heavy strong rope. In mechanics cables, otherwise known as wire ropes, are used for lifting, hauling and towing or conveying force through tension. In electrical engineering cables are used to carry electric currents. An optical cable contains one or more optical fibers in a protective jacket that supports the fibers.

Ampacity is a portmanteau for ampere capacity defined by National Electrical Safety Codes, in some North American countries. Ampacity is defined as the maximum amount of electrical current a conductor or device can carry before sustaining immediate or progressive deterioration. Also described as current rating or current-carrying capacity, ampacity is the RMS electric current which a device or conductor can continuously carry while remaining within its temperature rating. The ampacity of a conductor depends on: o o o o o its insulation temperature rating; the electrical resistance of the conductor material; frequency of the current, in the case of alternating current; ability to dissipate heat, which depends on conductor geometry and its surroundings; ambient temperature.

Power outage (also power cut, blackout or power failure) is a short- or long-term loss of the electric power to an area.
There are many causes of power failures in an electricity network. Examples of these causes include faults at power stations, damage to electric transmission lines, substations or other parts of the distribution system, a short circuit, or the overloading of electricity mains. Power cable is an assembly of two or more electrical conductors, usually held together with an overall sheath. The assembly is used for transmission of electrical power. Power cables may be installed as permanent wiring within buildings, buried in the ground, run overhead, or exposed. Metal-clad all-purpose (MCAP) and HCF (health care facilities) MCAP cables reduce branch circuit makeup and cable installation time. Interlocked armor and aluminum-grounding conductor are in direct contact throughout entire cable length. Available in 14-10 AWG conductor sizes, UL-Listed and NEC-compliant products are offered with solid or stranded conductors and come in 120 and 277 V conductor colors.

Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable is a variety of electrical cable made from copper conductors inside a copper sheath, insulated by inorganic magnesium oxide powder. The name is often abbreviated to MICC or MI cable, and colloquially known as pyro (because the original manufacturer and vendor for this product in the UK is a company called Pyrotenax). A similar product sheathed with metals other than copper is called mineral insulated metal sheathed (MIMS) cable.

Nonmetallic-sheathed (plastic) is a type of covered electrical wire consisting of at least two insulated conductors and one bare conductor used in residential wiring. Also Known As: romex non metallic sheathed

Service entrance is defined as that portion of the customer's wiring including all necessary conduits, cable and accessories which extends from the customers main entrannce switch and/ or company's service drop on the outside of the building/property line visible and accessible to authorized personnel of ILPI. The outside terminal of the customer's service entrance must be located near the service drop at a point nearest to ILPI's existing or proposed electric service facilities. Service-Entrance Cable, is a single conductor or multi-conductor assembly provided with or without an overall covering, primarily used for service and of the following types: Type SE, having a flame-retardant, moistureresistant covering. Type USE, identified for underground use, having a moisture-resistant covering, but not required to have a flame-retardant covering.

Underground feeder cable, or UF cable, is specially made for outside wiring applications when wires need to be run below ground. This can include running wire to a driveway lamppost, a pole light in the back yard, a GFCI receptacle for a pond pump or any one of a hundred other outside electrical jobs. Power and Control Tray Cable These cables are suitable for use in raceways, ventilated, non-ventilated and ladder type cable trays, direct earth burial, and for exposed or concealed wiring in wet, damp or dry locations in -40C (-40F) environments.

Flat cable assembly includes a plurality of power cables and a bonding medium. The plurality of power cables are parallel with each other, wherein every two adjacent power cables are separated from each other. The bonding medium is used for boding every two adjacent power cables together, thereby cooperatively forming the flat cable assembly having a first surface and a second surface. A first gap is formed between the first surface and the bonding medium and a second gap is formed between the second surface and the bonding medium. Flexible flat cable, or FFC, refers to any variety of electrical cable that is both flat and flexible. A flexible flat cable is a type of flexible electronics. However, the term FFC usually refers to the extremely thin flat cable often found in high density electronic applications like laptops and cell phones. Where used to connect to flat panel displays, FFCs may also be referred to as flat panel cables (FPC).[citation needed] Sometimes the term FPC (flexible printed circuit) is even --somewhat inaccurately-- used for any type of FFC.[citation needed] FFC is a miniaturized form of ribbon cable, which is also flat and flexible. The cable usually consists of a flat and flexible plastic film base, with multiple metallic conductors bonded to one surface. Often, each end of the cable is reinforced with a stiffener to make insertion easier or to provide strain relief. The stiffener makes the end of the cable slightly thicker. Flat cable conductor is a cable made of wide, flat conductors arranged side by side in a plane and protected by ribbons of insulating plastic.

Those of 10 to 33 kV are usually called medium voltage cables, those over 50 kV high voltage cables.High voltage is defined as any voltage over 1000 volts. Cables for 3000 and 6000 volts exist, but the majority of cables are used from 10 kV and upward.[3] Modern HV cables have a simple design consisting of few parts. A conductor of copper or aluminum wires transports the current, see (1) in figure 1. (For a detailed discussion on copper cables, see main article: Copper wire and cable.) Surface Mounted Raceway (wire molding) This type of "decorative" conduit is designed to provide an aesthetically acceptable passageway for wiring without hiding it inside or behind a wall. This is used where additional wiring is required, but where going through a wall would be difficult or require remodeling. The conduit has an open face with removable cover, secured to the surface, and wire is placed inside. Plastic raceway is often used for telecommunication wiring, such as network cables in an older structure, where it is not practical to drill through concrete block. Electrical conduit is an electrical piping system used for protection and routing of electrical wiring. Electrical conduit may be made of metal, plastic, fiber, or fired clay. Flexible conduit is available for special purposes. Conduit is generally installed by electricians at the site of installation of electrical equipment. Its use, form, and installation details are often specified by wiring regulations, such as the US National Electrical Code (NEC) or other national or local code. The term "conduit" is commonly used by electricians to describe any system that contains electrical conductors, but the term has a more restrictive definition when used in wiring regulations. Pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders, masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.

Electrical connector is an electro-mechanical device for joining electrical circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly. The connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. [1]

AC power plugs and sockets are devices that allow electrically operated devices to be connected to the primary alternating current (AC) power supply in a building. Electrical plugs and sockets differ in voltage and current rating, shape, size and type of connectors. The types used in each country are set by national standards.

Convenience outlet is disclosed for use in groups or alone at any point where it is desirable to have electrical power available. The individual convenience outlet has a housing of rigid insulative material enclosing terminals which have a receptacle configuration on one end adapted to mate with a conventional plug and on the opposite end are adapted to mate with conductors. The other end of each terminal is preferably profiled to effect an insulation displacement termination of a conductor but also can be profiled to mate with a terminated conductor. The terminals also include means for grounding the outlet to a mounting box, panel, or the like. Lighting outlet An outlet intended for the direct connection of a lampholder, a luminaire (lighting fixture), or a pendant cord terminating in a lampholder.

Receptacle tester or outlet tester is a device used to verify that an AC wall outlet is wired properly. The tester itself is small device which looks like the "plug in" end of a power cord, with several lights on it rather than an attached cord. Although a multimeter could be used to perform a series of tests which would give the same results, an outlet tester can perform the entire array of tests by simply plugging the device into the outlet once and observing the state of the lights. The tester performs several tests at once but the tests themselves essentially fall into two categories: tests which determine that the outlet has power connected, and tests which determine that the outlet is properly wired for safe operation.

Junction box is a container for electrical connections, usually intended to conceal them from sight and meter tampering. A small metal or plastic junction box may form part of an electrical conduit wiring system in a building, or may be buried in the plaster of a wall, concealed behind an access panel or cast into concrete with only the lid showing. It sometimes includes terminals for joining wires. A similar container used for joining wires to electrical switches or sockets is called a pattress.

PULL BOX a metal box with a blank cover that is installed in an accessible place in a run of conduit to facilitate the pulling in of wires or cables

Electric receptacle - receptacle providing a place in a wiring system where current can be taken to run electrical devices

Switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.[1][2]

Electrical network is an interconnection of electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, transmission lines, voltage sources, current sources and switches. An electrical circuit is a special type of network, one that has a closed loop giving a return path for the current. Electrical networks that consist only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed elements (transmission lines) can be analyzed by algebraic and transform methods to determine DC response, AC response, and transient response.

General purpose branch circuits are 120 volts circuits used for supplying lighting fixtures and receptacle outlets for most small portable appliances. There are usually a number of general purpose branch circuits supplying lights and outlets in different rooms around a residence or commercial or industrial building.

Small Appliance Branch Circuit A circuit that supplies electrical energy to one or more outlets to which appliances are to be connected is called an appliance branch circuit. These circuits are not to have any permanently connected lighting fixtures that are not a part of an appliance

Fuse (from the French fuse, Italian fuso, "spindle"[1]) is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Short circuit, overloading, mismatched loads or device failure are the prime reasons for excessive current.

Circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

Distribution board (or panelboard) is a component of an electricity supply system which divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuits, while providing a protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit, in a common enclosure. Normally, a main switch, and in recent boards, one or more Residual-current devices (RCD) or Residual Current Breakers with Overcurrent protection (RCBO), will also be incorporated.

Electric switchboard is a device that directs electricity from one source to another. It is an assembly of panels, each of which contains switches that allow electricity to be redirected. The U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC) defines a switchboard as a large single panel, frame, or assembly of panels on which are mounted, on the face, back, or both, switches, overcurrent and other protective devices, buses, and usually instruments. The role of a switchboard is to divide the main current provided to the switchboard into smaller currents for further distribution and to provide switching, current protection and metering for these various currents. In general, switchboards distribute power to transformers, panelboards, control equipment, and ultimately to system loads.

Service-entrance The point where electricity enters a buidling. A service-entrance switchboard has metering equipment and devices for overcurrent protection and electrical control. Though most of the older homes have an overhead service connection, underground services are becoming the overall favorite among homeowners. these buried lines are more appealing to the eye and the surrounding landscape area than power poles and overhead lines draped acroos someone's yard. but just like overhead service line feeders, there are rules that must be followed when installing these lines. And unlike overhead lines, underground feeders present their own dangers. Underground services use conduit to protect the feeders from things like lawn mower blades and weed eaters that would otherwise damage the wires. For that reason, the National Electrical Code requires conduit to protect the wires. There are three service conductor wires that come into a service panel feed. That includes two hot feeder wires and a neutral wire that bonds to the case ground of the service. This ground is then conneced and bonded to both the water pipe within the home a ground rod mounted in the immediate vicinity of the electrical meter outside your home.

Electricity meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, business, or an electrically powered device.

Feeder - A circuit, such as conductors in conduit or a busway run, which carries a large block of power from the service equipment to a subfeeder panel or a branch circuit panel or to some point at which the block power is broken into smaller circuits.

Main Feeder is the first facility cable coming from the central office. The feeder cable runs to cross connect points in the network where the second facility cable feeds are connected.

Solidly grounded means connected to ground without inserting any resistor or impedance device. NEC defines when an AC power distribution system shall be grounded. In general, with few exceptions, systems that operate between 50 and 1000 volts AC with line to ground voltages of less than 150 volts and/or systems with line to neutral loads are required to be grounded. Systems 1000 volts AC or greater are permitted to be grounded unless they supply mobile or portable equipment then the mobile / portable equipment shall be grounded