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3.1 INTRODUCTION The general form of a quadratic function is f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c ; a, b, c are constants and a 0 Similarities and differences between Quadratic Functions and Quadratic Equations Quadratic Functions Quadratic Equations General form is f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c a, b, c are constants General form is ax 2 + bx + c = 0 a, b, c are constants

dependent variable The highest power of the x is 2 Involves one variable only When f ( x ) = 0 , quadratic functions 3.1.1 Recognizing a quadratic function quadratic equations

x is unknown

The highest power of the x is 2 Involves one variable only

(i) f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 3 x 4 is a quadratic function because the highest power of the x is 2 and Involves one variable only. (ii) f ( x ) = 3x + 2 is not a quadratic function because the highest power of the x is 1, not 2. (iii) f ( x ) = 3 x 2 + 4 y 2 is a not quadratic function because it involves two variables.

* Note: The proper way to denote a quadratic function is f : x ax 2 + bx + c . f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c is actually the value (or image) f for a given value of x.

3.2 MINIMUM VALUE AND MAXIMUM VALUE OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION 1. Do you know that a non-zero number when squared will be always positive. 2. So the minimum value of squared number is 0. So, what is the minimum value when we find the square of a number? Minimum value of x2 is 0.This is obtained when x = 0. The minimum value of a squared number is For example f ( x) = ( x 1) 2 4 . The minimum value for f ( x ) is 4 when x 1 = 0 x = 1. zero. When (........) = 0 , we would know the minimum value for the function.

2

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The minimum value of x2+ 3 is 0 + 3 = 3 the minimum value of x2 8 is 0 8 = 8 the minimum value of x2+ 100 is 0 + 100 = 100 The minimum value of x2is 0, 2 It means x 2 0 When (........) = 0 , we would know the So, minimum or maximum value for the x2 0 function. The minimum value of a squared Hence the maximum value of x2 is 0 number is zero. the maximum value of -x2+ 5 is -0 + 5=5 the maximum value of x2 3 is -0 + 3 = 3. For example f ( x ) = ( x 1) 2 4 . The maximum value for f ( x ) is 4 when x 1 = 0 x = 1. The minimum value of a squared number is zero. When (........) = 0 , we would know the minimum value for the function.

2

We can state the minimum value of a quadratic function in the form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q , a > 0. From that, We can also state the Maximum Value of a Quadratic Function in the form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q , a < 0 Example 1: Express f ( x) = x 2 3x 4 in form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q. Hence, find the coordinates of the turning point of the graph.

f ( x) = x 2 3x 4

3 3 = x 2 3x + ( ) 2 ( ) 2 4 2 2 3 9 = (x )2 4 2 4 3 25 = (x )2 2 4 25 The minimum value for f ( x ) is 4 3 when x = 0 2 3 x= 2

The coordinates of the turning point means the coordinates of the minimum of maximum point for the function. For this question, it is minimum point because a > 0

3 25 , ) 2 4

f(x) is the value for y. This is because f(x) is the y-axis.

If the value of a of a quadratic function is greater than zero, then the function has a minimum point. If the value of a of a quadratic function is less than zero, then the function has a maximum point. Page | 31

Example 2: Express f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 8 x 14 in form f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q. Hence, find the coordinates of the turning point of the graph. The coordinates of the turning point means the coordinates of the minimum of maximum 2 f ( x) = 2 x + 8 x 14 point for the function. For this question, it is = 2[ x 2 4 x + (2) 2 (2) 2 + 7] maximum point because a < 0

This is in the form a (x + p)2 + q. The value of a is -2 which is less than 0. ( 2, -6)

EXERCISE 3.2 1. State the minimum value of the following function and the corresponding value of x (a) f ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 8 (b) g ( x ) = 2 x 2 + 5 x 1 2. State the maximum value of the following function and the corresponding value of x (a) f ( x ) = 2 x 2 + 4 x + 3 (b) g ( x) = x 2 + 2 x 5 3. Given that the minimum value of the quadratic function f ( x ) = 2 x 2 + px + q is 1 when x = 3 , find the value of p and of q. Page | 32

3.3 GRAPH OF QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 1. To express quadratic function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x+ p)2 + q, we have to use completing the square that we have learned in chapter 2. 2. From the minimum point of a graph, we can know the equation of the axis of symmetry for the graph. The equation is based on the value of x of the coordinates of the turning point. 3. If the turning point is (2,3), hence the equation of axis of symmetry is x = 2 .

f ( x) = x 2

x f(x) -2 4 -1 1 0 0 1 1

a = 1, b = 0 and c = 0

2 4

By using the information given, sketch the graph

Example 2:

f ( x) = x 2

x f(x) -2 -4 -1 -1 0 0 1 -1

a = 1, b = 0 and c = 0

2 -4

By using the information given, sketch the graph.

Page | 33

a = 1, b = 4 and c = 3

f ( x) = x 2 4 x + 3 f ( x) = x 2 4 x + (2) 2 (2) 2 + 3 f ( x ) = ( x 2) 2 4 + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2) 2 1

The minimum value of f ( x ) = 3 when x 2 = 0

x=2

Minimum point is (2,3).

The point is (0,3) By using the information given, sketch the graph.

Example 4: Express the function f ( x ) = 1 + 4 x 2 x 2 in the form of a(x+ p)2 + q. Hence (a) state the minimum or maximum point. a = 2, b = 4 and c = 1 (b) the equation of axis 0f symmetry

1 f ( x) = 2( x 2 2 x ) 2 1 = 2[ x 2 2 x + (1) 2 (1) 2 ] 2

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The maximum value of f ( x ) = 3 when x 1 = 0 a < 0, so it is maximum value

x =1

So, the maximum point is (1, 3). The equation of axis of symmetry is x = 1 . EXERCISE 3.3 1. Express the quadratic function y = x 2 12 x + 13 in the form of y = ( x + b) 2 + c . State the minimum point and the y-intercept. Hence, sketch the graph of the function y. 2. Express the quadratic function f ( x ) = 2 x 2 4 x in the form of f ( x ) = q ( x + p ) 2 . Determine the maximum point and the y-intercept. Hence, sketch the graph of the function f(x). 3. Given that the curve y = m (2 x + n) 2 has a maximum point (1, 4), find the values of m and of n. Hence, sketch the curve. 4. For the quadratic function g ( x ) = 2 x 2 3 x + 2 , find the equation of the axis of symmetry. 3.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN b2 4ac AND THE POSITION OF GRAPH f(x)= y 1-If b 2 4ac > 0 ,the graph cuts x-axis at two different points f(x)

f(x)

a>0

a<0

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f(x)

x x

a>0

a <0

1-If b 2 4ac < 0 ,the graph does not touch the x-axis f(x)

f(x)

x a>0 Curve lies above the x-axis because f(x) is always positive. a<0 Curve lies below the x- axis because f(x) is always negative

3.4 QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES In Form Three, we have learned about linear inequalities. For example when x 1 > 0 , x > 1 . Example: Given x 1 > 0 . Find the range of values of x.

x 1 0 x 1

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To solve the quadratic inequality for example ( x + 1)( x 3) > 0 , we use the graph sketching method. If f(x) > 0, the range of values of x: f(x)

4m 2 36 > 0 m2 9 > 0

Let

m2 9 = 0 m2 = 9 m = 3

y

-3

Example 2: Find the range of the values of k if the equation x 2 + 2kx 5k 6 = 0 has two real roots. Solution: two real roots also means two different roots:

Let

k 2 + 5k + 6 = 0 (k + 2)(k + 3) = 0 k + 2 = 0 or k + 3 = 0 k = 2 or k = 3

y

y = k 2 + 5k + 6

-3

-2

If k 2 + 5k + 6 > 0 , the range of values of k is k < 3 , k > 2 . Example 3: Find the range of the values of x for which if the equation x( x + 2) 15 Solution:

x( x + 2) 15 x 2 + 2 x 15 0

Let

x 2 + 2 x 15 = 0 ( x + 5)( x 3) = 0 x + 5 = 0 or x 3 = 0 k = 5 or x = 3

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y = x 2 + 2 x 15

-5

-2

If x 2 + 2 x 15 0 , the range of values of x is 5 x 3 . EXERCISE 3.3 1. Find the range of values of x for each of the following inequalities. (a) x( x + 1) < 20 (b) x 2 3x < 2 x (c) x (7 5x ) > 2 2. Given that y = 2 x 2 + 3x , find the range of values of x for which y > 9. 3. Find the range of values of k given that x 2 + (k 1) x + 2 + k = 0 has two different roots. 4. If the straight line y = k , where k is a constant, does not intersect the curve y = 2 x 2 6 x + 5 , show that k <

1 . 2

CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISE 1. The graph of the function f ( x ) = p 2(q x )2 has a maximum point at , of p and q. 2. Given the quadratic function y = 2 x 2 + 6 x 3 , express f(x) in the form p( x + q) 2 + r , where p, q and r are constants. Hence, sketch the graph of the function y. 3 Given that the straight line y = 2 x n cuts the curve y = x 2 + nx 2 at two points, find the range of the values of n. 4. The quadratic equation px 2 4 x = p 5 , where p 0 , has real and different roots. Find the range of values of p. 5. By expressing the function f ( x ) = 3 x 2 6 x + 5 in the form a( x p) 2 + q , or otherwise, find the minimum value of f(x). 6. Given that the quadratic function f ( x ) = px 2 + 4 x q , where p and q are constants .Given that the curve y = f ( x ) has a maximum point (-1, 5).State the values of p and q.

1 2

Page | 39

7. Diagram shows the graph of a quadratic function y = f ( x ) . The straight line y = 9 is tangent to the curve y = f ( x ) .

y = 9

(a) Write the equation of the axis of symmetry of the curve. (b) Express f(x) in the form ( x + p ) 2 + q , where p and q are constants. 8. Diagram below shows the graph of the function y = ( p 1) x 2 + 2 x + q .

x

0

y = ( p 1) x 2 + 2 x + q

(a) State the value of q. (b) Find the range of values of p. 9. Find the range of values of k given that the straight line x + y = 1 does not intersect the curve

x2 + y2 = k .

Page | 40

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