# OPTIMAL LINE DESIGNS

R. Stephen ESKOM
PRESENTATION TO SC B2 ICELAND 2011

CIGRE

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What is a power line?

• A device to transmit power over distances. • Design of the line can be tailor made to meet planner’s requirements. • Load flow depends on R, X and B values.

2 CIGRE

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Maximise Power Transfer

• Zs is surge impedance • SIL is the surge impedance loading • Reduce L and increase C to maximise transfer

L is series inductance C is shunt capacitance

VLL is phase to phase
voltage

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CIGRE

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Determination of R, X and B

• Resistance is a function of
– Conductor construction material and line length
• Lay ratio, ACSR, AAAC, number of layers, diameter of strands.

– Temperature
• The higher the temperature the higher the resistance

– Current and frequency
• Transformer effect • Eddy currents.

4 CIGRE

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08 Rac/Rdc 1.10 1.00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 I(A) 800 mm2 Falcon(19+54) T cond=80°C 5 CIGRE 5 .00 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 I(A) 800 Penguin(1+6) T cond=80°C 107 mm2 1.10 Rac/Rdc 1.04 1.08 1.02 1.04 1.Variation with current 1.02 1.06 1.12 1.06 1.14 1.

Determination of L • L is a function of GMR and GMD • Larger bundle radius and closer phase spacing gives lower L r ’=0.7788xradius of conductor (m) Rb=radius of bundle n=number of subconductors 6 CIGRE 6 .

GMD EXAMPLES 7 CIGRE 7 .

• P=1/C 8 CIGRE 8 .Determination of C • To increase capacitance keep phases closer together.

LINE MODEL • X = jωL • B=jωC/2 • R=R 9 CIGRE 9 .

Summary • SIL (L and C) can be varied by – varying phase spacing closer is better – Increasing bundle size larger is better • Resistance can be improved by – Varying lay ratios per layer (not practical) – Different materials – Homogeneous conductors 10 CIGRE 10 .

11 CIGRE 11 .Corona limitations • Corona (often producing audible noise) is a function (inter alia) of phase spacing and bundle size – Smaller bundle radius better – Wider phase spacing better – More sub conductor bundles better.

Audible noise as a function of voltage 12 CIGRE 12 .

Mechanical considerations • Wind load is major consideration in tower design – Less conductors in the bundle the better – Less UTS the better (Lighter strain towers). 13 CIGRE 13 . Higher tension to increase height.

14 CIGRE 14 .Thermal loading • Load at which the safety or annealing criteria of the line is met – Current at which the height above the ground is in line with OHS act – Height determined by voltage and flashover distance • Heat Balance equation used.

15 CIGRE 15 .Joule and magnetic heating • Joule dependent on AC resistance and temperature • Magnetic heating dependent on current and conductor layers.

Solar heating • Darkness of conductor • Diameter of conductor • Solar radiation 16 CIGRE 16 .

Convective cooling • Dependent on – – – – the conductor diameter (bigger is better) Wind speed Temperature difference (bigger is better) Roughness 17 CIGRE 17 .

Templating temperature • Templating temperature is the conductor temperature at which the height above ground is in accordance with the OHS act Conductor TERN TERN TERN TERN ZEBRA ZEBRA ZEBRA ZEBRA Templating Normal Emergency temperature deg C Amps Amps 50 611 814 60 784 991 70 911 1138 80 1023 1257 50 642 859 60 818 1049 70 963 1203 80 1080 1325 18 CIGRE 18 .

annual RXB parameters. high and low Line Voltage for AC Length of line Location.Planning requirements • Planners need to specify the following – – – – – – – Load transfer requirements Load profile daily. start and end points Reliability requirements 20 CIGRE 20 .

Conductor size and temp 21 CIGRE 21 .

Material considerations 22 CIGRE 22 .

Material .core 23 CIGRE 23 .

Conductor type 24 CIGRE 24 .

Selection of conductor 25 CIGRE 25 .

Indicator to determine best design • Need to combine – SIL – Thermal rating – Cost initial and life cycle • (Taking into account corona. magnetic fields. mech loading etc) 26 CIGRE 26 .

(Due to power flow in interconnected system) 27 CIGRE 27 .FACTOR 1 Life Cycle Cost (k1) • Covers determination of optimum aluminium area required. (Kelvin’s law) • Cost of maintenance (estimate) • Cost of losses – use system losses not line losses.

FACTOR 2 THERMAL (k2) • Cost is directly proportional to Thermal rating – Higher rating higher initial cost • A ratio is therefore needed – Initial cost/MVA thermal (emergency or normal) • The lower the ratio the better. 28 CIGRE 28 .

FACTOR 3 SIL (k3) • The higher the SIL the higher the initial cost (normally) • Ratio is therefore also required – Initial cost/MVA sil 29 CIGRE 29 .

• ATI = w1k1+w2k2+w3k3 – wn are weighting factors 30 CIGRE 30 .COMBINATION OF THE FACTORS • Objective Matrix method – Present practice is given 3/10 – 0 or 10 level is determined (normally trial and error) and a linear interpolation used.

00 4 x Tern 200.00 800.00 700.00 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 Pm e an(MVA) 31 CIGRE 31 .00 3 X BERSFORT 3 X TERN 3 X YEW 3 x Bersfort 4 X TERN 400.00 600.00 4 x Kingbird 100.CONDUCTOR SELECTION CONDUCTOR OPTIMISATION 900.00 3 x Tern 0.00 300.00 2 X IEC800 4 X KINGBIRD LCC(Rmil) 500.

0m 55 . Condu cto r cleara nce + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + M inimu m Condu cto r cleara nce + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 8.0 m (aver age) 33 .0m 55 .TOWER SELECTION SERV UDE A IT ND 400kV SERV ITUDE A ND 400kV Cross.0 m (aver age) V M in.5m + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + V + + + V + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + V V 21 . 5 + m + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 8.0m V V 36 .Rope Guyed suspension type V 28 .0 V V suspension V 23 .0m Servitud e V V V V 26 .0m Servitud e V V 32 CIGRE 32 .

Tower development Proposed CRS 6% saving on line cost 33 CIGRE Existing guyed V 33 .

000 R150.000 R0 52% Saving 46% Saving Misc Costs Insulation Hardware Tower Erection Tower Supply Foundations 0-15 degree structures 34 CIGRE 15-30 degree structures 34 .000 R225.Cost Savings R450.000 R375.000 R75.000 R300.

05-0.1faults/100km/annum 35 CIGRE 35 .Performance comparison Improved performance can give 0.

705A tower at NETFA CIGRE 36 .

EXAMPLE LINE – .Quad “Bunting” cross rope suspension (CRS) tower with a phase spacing of 6.Quad “Zebra” guyed Vee tower – .Quad “Boblink” conductor with a CRS tower with a 6.Triple “Bittern” conductor with a CRS tower with a 6.Quad “Rail” conductor with a CRS tower with a 6.5m.5m phase spacing.Triple “Bunting” conductor guyed Vee tower – .5m phase spacing. – . – .2m phase spacing. – .5m phase spacing.Triple “Bersfort” conductor with a CRS tower with a 8. CIGRE 37 . – .

73] 14.60] 17.47] 17.ATI SCORES CASE AL AREA mm 2 1715 1817 2423 1935 1933 2901 2059 DESCRIPTION K 1 (LCC) K2 (CI/MVA th ) 28.32 [6.36 [5.53 [3.4 [6.87] 80.06 [1.31 [5.19] 6.2m 38 CIGRE 103.96] 5.48 [5.5m 3xBers CRS 8.33 [4.25] 88.40] 38 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4XZEB V 3XBUNT V 4XBUNT CRS 6.73] 82.12] 6.91 [6.43 [3.00] K3 (CI/MVA sil) 7.27 [6.5m 4XRAIL CRS 6.41 [6.02 [3.81] .38] 7.80 16.31 [5.38] 8.07] 19.94 [6.30] 84.88] 6.86 [5.04 [5.23 [6.30 [5.5m 3xBIT CRS 6.76 [5.5m 4Xbob CRS 6.48] 93.13 [3.20] 13.64] 87.

14 [5] 5.0.89 [7] 5.3 2.4.W 2 .ATI WEIGHTING CASE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 W 1 .1 2.08 [6] 6.W 3 0.23 [5] 5.0.W 3 0.0.96 [7] 5.21 [6] 6.33 [6] 6.90 [2] 4.56 [4] 6.09 [5] 6.0.3.80 [3] 5.77 [3] 4.67 [4] 5.W 3 0.W 3 0.88 [2] 39 CIGRE 39 .82 [7] 5.04 [2] 4.1.W 2 .55 [4] 5.42 [4] 5.2 2.63 [3] 3.W 2 .W 2 .2.03 [7] 5.8.0.4 3.0.24 [1] W 1 .2.96 [6] 5.0.11 [1] 5.42 [1] W 1 .4.93 [2] 5.06 [1] W 1 .74 [3] 5.0.18 [5] 5.6.

electrical designers work together with planners (iterative process) • Indicator very sensitive and detects errors rapidly • Line optimisation is possible looking at overall line design. • Reliability is assumed constant for options • Cost system is critical • Most aspects of the line design are taken into account 40 CIGRE 40 .FINDINGS/BENEFITS • Tower. hardware. foundation.

Double Circuit developments CIGRE 41 .

650 m Yes Self Support Tower (Figure 3a) Electric field (max) Audible Noise Radio Interference Magnetic Field (@ 523 A) SIL 9.5 m 53.5 dBA 48.000 MW 77.9 μT 2.7 kV /m 43.Comparison self supporting vs CRS Bulk power transfer capacity Max tower height (Self Support) Max tower height (Cross Rope) Performance (Faults / 100 km / year) Visually acceptable Efficient land use Conductor Bundle Max Altitude (AMSL) Country wide application 5.2 m < 0.3 μT 2.3 dBμV/m 3.904 MW 42 CIGRE .3 Yes 57 % 8 x Bersfort 1.8 dBA 56.3 dBμV/m 4.581 MW Cross Rope Tower (Figure 3b) Electric field (max) Audible Noise Radio Interference Magnetic Field (@ 523 A) SIL 10 kV/m 49.

• Alignment with Planners requirements CIGRE 43 .CONCLUSIONS • Line design options can be objectively determined • ATI is a guide from which options can be finalised.

Cretchley DH. (Held in Lubljana April 4-6 2004) • [Muftic]. C. • Prof. Cigré 2003. Paper 330-1 Shanghai Symposium. Muftic D.T.Gaunt (UCT) acknowledged for comments and input. Pillay T. Vajeth R “The Planning design and construction of overhead power lines” Published by Crown publications 2005 ISBN 9780620330428 • [Southwire] Overhead Conductor Manual First edition copyright 1994.REFERENCES/ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS • [Stephen 2004] Stephen R. “Use of indicators to optimise design of overhead transmission lines”. Bisnath S. Britten A. CIGRE 44 .