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apartment guidelines

fo r m i x e d -u s e a n d h i g h d ensi ty residential developments

enhancing our living environment


Adopted onto the Register of Planning Guidelines on 9 September 2005 Amended 3 July 2006

Contents
Introduction 1 2 Diversity 1.1 Diversity of Apartment Types Building Design 2.1 Building Address 2.2 Buildings on Corners 2.3 Articulation 2.4 Building Entries 2.5 Internal Common Areas, Circulation Areas & Apartment Entries Residential Amenity 3.1 Building Interface 3.2 Visual Privacy 3.3 Natural Ventilation and Daylight 3.4 Sunlight 3.5 Acoustic Privacy Public Areas and Open Space 4.1 Streetscape and Public Areas 4.2 Open Space Site Facilities 5.1 Car Parking 5.2 Bicycle Parking 5.3 Storage 5.4 Clothes Drying 5.5 Services Glossary References 6 6 8 9 13 14 15 16 20 20 24 26 30 31 36 36 38 41 41 43 44 45 46

Introduction
These Apartment Guidelines set standards for residential amenity and provide advice for achieving high quality sustainable design in apartment developments. The aim is to provide apartment developments that: enhance amenity for apartment residents; promote urban design that contributes positively to the streetscape and public domain; protect neighbouring residents from negative amenity impacts; support environmentally sustainable design principles; promote the development of buildings that are able to accommodate changes in use over time, particularly for developments built in Commercial Land Use policy areas; and provide a diversity of housing types to suit a range of peoples needs. The quality of the urban environment is an important factor influencing peoples experiences and quality of life in Canberra. Better design of apartment developments can significantly improve the quality of the urban environment. The ACT Planning and Land Authority is preparing guidelines in respect of environmentally sustainable development that will support and reinforce the objectives of these guidelines. The ESD guidelines will address issues such as waste reduction, water management and energy use.

Why Apartment Guidelines are Necessary


The Apartment Guidelines are necessary to provide design and siting advice specifically for apartment developments. At present, no Territory Plan Design and Siting Codes apply to apartment buildings higher than three storeys, or to residential development in Commercial Land Use policy areas and Entertainment Accommodation and Leisure Land Use Policy Areas. The Apartment Guidelines establish clear guidance for the design of residential apartment developments. The guidelines provide greater certainty in respect to acceptable development standards for proponents and a clearer basis for assessment at the pre-application and development application stages.

Apartment Guidelines

Effect/Application of Apartment Guidelines


The Guidelines apply only to development applications that are lodged on or after 6 November 2004. The Apartment Guidelines apply to an apartment development that is: of four storeys or more; or located in either: o o o Commercial Land Use Policy areas (Territory Plan Part B2); or Entertainment Accommodation and Leisure Land Use Policy areas (Territory Plan Part B8); or B1 Area Specific Policy in the Residential Land Use Policy (Territory Plan Part B1); or

referred to in a Master Plan, Development Control Plan or Lease and Development Conditions. The Apartment Guidelines do not apply to supportive housing or boarding houses. Guidance
Building Refurbishment Conversion or refurbishment of existing non-residential buildings to residential use should meet all of the objectives of these guidelines, however some standards may not be applicable. For example, building depths, lift/stair cores and floor to ceiling heights may all form fixed constraints for an existing building. A10 Residential Core and B11 and B12 Urban Housing Areas These Guidelines do not apply to A10 Residential Core Areas or B11 and B12 Urban Housing Areas, as defined in the Territory Plan Residential Land Use Policies. For A10 Residential Core Areas, refer to the Area Specific Policy and Appendix III.2 of the Territory Plan. For B11 and B12 areas, refer to the relevant Area Specific Policy and Appendix III.3 of the Territory Plan as well as the relevant Section Master Plan on the Register of Planning Guidelines.

Apartment Development Definitions


Apartment refers to: o an individual dwelling within an apartment building which contains two or more residences and which is not an attached house; and o includes both residential use and commercial accommodation use. Apartment building refers to all buildings in which individual apartments are located and includes common access areas and any site facilities located within the building (e.g. waste enclosure). Apartment development refers to the entire residential development within a site, including areas of open space, the building/s, individual apartments, any non-residential uses, shared and private site facilities.

Apartment Guidelines

Status of Apartment Guidelines


The Apartment Guidelines were adopted as interim guidelines within the Register of Planning Guidelines on 10 September 2004. Public comment on the guidelines were received up to May 2005 and the following revisions were incorporated in the Apartment Guidelines. Section 2 Building Design: Images illustrating the written advice in respect to design issues have been included at Section 2 of the Guidelines. Section 2.5: Internal Common Areas, Circulation Areas & Apartment Entries, Standard 2.5.5: A Guidance box has been added with text During design of walk-up apartment buildings consideration should be given to provision for future installation of a lift or stair-climbing device to ensure the development can be adapted for access by people with disabilities. Section 5.2: Bicycle Parking, Standard 5.2.1 the Standard has been revised to read Apartment developments shall provide secure, undercover bicycle storage for residents at a rate of 1 space per each apartment. Bicycle storage for an apartment may be included in that apartments storage rate required by Element 5 of these guidelines. Section 5.2: Bicycle Parking, Standard 5.2.2 The Standard has been revised to read, Developments in excess of 50 apartments shall provide secure visitor bicycle parking at a rate of 1 rail per 12 dwellings. Visitor bicycle parking shall be publicly accessible i.e. located outside any secure parking for residents. Section 5.2: Bicycle Parking, Standard 5.2.3 The accompanying guidance box has been revised at dot point 4 to read, an additional space within individual secure parking and/or storage area. Bicycle dimensions of 1.7 m x 0.7 m x 1.05 m (based on AS 2890.3) should be used to calculate the additional space required. Refer 5.3.1 Storage. Section 5.3: Storage, Standard 5.3.3 An additional standard reading, Where bicycle storage is provided within the apartment storage rate the storage is to be configured to allow for unimpeded storage and removal of bicycles. has been included. The Apartment Guidelines were permanently placed on the Register of Planning Guidelines in September 2005.

Apartment Guidelines

The Territory Plan requires the Authority to carefully consider relevant guidelines on the Register when determining development applications or proposals to use land (Territory Plan, Part A3, 9.2b). As such, these guidelines will be considered in determining planning applications for apartment buildings. The Territory Plan already contains development controls according to land use policy areas. The land use policy may specify general envelope controls (eg. building height, plot ratio) and design and siting controls. The Apartment Guidelines are to be considered in addition to these controls.

Using the Guidelines


The following sections contain design guidance for apartment developments: 1 Diversity 2 Building Design 3 Residential Amenity 4 Public Areas and Open Space 5 Site Facilities The guidelines are performance based and each section contains objectives and standards. The standards are considered to satisfy the relevant objectives, such that generally no further evidence of performance is required if they are met. However, other solutions, which would result in an equal or better outcome, may be considered by the Authority, provided the objectives are satisfactorily achieved. Guidance boxes in the guidelines provide additional information on good design practice and assist in the interpretation and achievement of the objectives and support in the assessment of other solutions.

Apartment Guidelines

Diversity

The Canberra Spatial Plan identifies the following objective as a way of achieving the goal of creating and maintaining a healthy community. Provide opportunities for a diverse range of housing for the full range of household types and lifestyles preferences.
The Canberra Spatial Plan

Apartment developments can contribute to neighbourhood diversity by providing a mix of housing types and sizes. By accommodating a range of household types, a mix of apartments can ensure apartment buildings support the needs of society now and in the future. This is particularly important because apartment buildings form a significant and often permanent part of the urban fabric. A wide range of housing types will be permitted throughout the city to increase choice; maximise opportunities for affordable housing; and secure some intensification of development consistent with maintaining residential amenity.
The Territory Plan

A mix of apartment types and sizes can provide a variety of building forms and appropriate design responses to suit the site. Flexible design of apartment buildings, such as dual key apartments, allows the building to easily adapt to changes in occupier requirements so that it can meet the needs of a greater number of people over a longer period of time.

1.1 Diversity of Apartment Types


Objectives O 1.1.1 To provide a diversity of apartment types within developments, which cater for different household requirements both now and in the future.
O 1.1.2 To promote a range of housing types.

Standards S 1.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in a Neighbourhood Plan, Master Plan, Lease And Development Conditions or other approved area strategy, all apartment developments shall contain a variety of apartment types. Refer Guidance Box below.

Apartment Guidelines

Guidance
A variety of apartment types could include a range of the following: unit sizes, including studio apartments, 1,2,3+ bedroom apartments; and including additional living areas such as studies; and apartment design and internal layout, including dual aspect, loft and mezzanine and cross-over apartments (with two opposite aspects and a change in level between one side of the apartment and the other),

S 1.1.2

Unless otherwise specified in a Neighbourhood Plan, Master Plan or other approved area strategy, all apartments have floor areas greater than the following minimum standards: Studio apartments 1 bedroom apartments 2 bedroom apartments 3+ bedroom apartments 40sqm 50sqm 70sqm 95sqm

S 1.1.3

For the purposes of S 1.1.3, calculation of apartment floor area excludes balconies and garages. The internal storage area required under section 5.3 can be included as part of this calculation. Studio apartments less than 40sqm may be acceptable where there is extensive provision of shared facilities eg laundry, lounge, storage etc.

Guidance
For the purposes of S 1.1.2, dual-key apartments that are defined under a single unit title may be counted as a larger unit. A dual-key apartment is defined as two smaller apartments that are adjacent and accessible from a shared private lobby and are able to be combined into a larger apartment.

Figure 1: An example of a two bedroom dual-key apartment where two onebedroom apartments share a common lobby and both apartments are defined by a single unit title

Apartment Guidelines

Building Design

Well considered site planning and building design of apartment developments can significantly improve the quality of the urban environment for residents of the developments as well as those who use the public streets and spaces adjoining them. Buildings with an active frontage to the street are beneficial in promoting street-level activity, character and security. In urban commercial areas, accommodating a range of commercial uses on the ground floor is particularly desirable in order to ensure a continuity of street-level activity into the future.

Waterside Apartments: Canberra

Corner sites are visually prominent and building design that responds to corner locations assists in promoting legibility of an urban precinct. Providing building articulation breaks down the visual bulk and increases the visual interest of a building when viewed from the street. Articulation elements facing the street, such as balconies, can also create opportunities for activity and overlooking of streets.
Kogarah Square: Sydney

Building entrances can make a positive contribution to the street through articulating the building faade and promoting active (and therefore safer) streets through facilitating pedestrian activity. Safe, direct and simple apartment entries and circulation areas improve residential amenity and convenience.

Space Apartments: Canberra

Apartment Guidelines

Building design can promote recognition and social interaction between residents of an apartment development, which will assist developing a sense of community and promoting residents safety.

City Edge Apartments: Canberra

2.1 Building Address


Objectives O 2.1.1 To ensure buildings make a positive contribution to the streetscape and public areas, including promoting safe streets and public spaces.
O 2.1.2 To ensure apartment developments respond to the existing

streetscape character and the desired future streetscape character of an area.


O 2.1.3 To ensure apartment developments in Non-Residential Land Use

policy areas have ground floor units which are flexible and able to be used for a range of complementary, non-residential uses.

Docklands: Melbourne

Apartment Guidelines

Standards S 2.1.1 If not otherwise determined in the Territory Plan, Master Plan or other document, the Authority will confirm the appropriate streetscape response for a development following a review of the proponents Site Analysis Guidance
An appropriate streetscape response should take into account the following elements: verge treatment; front and side setback - landscaping design and use, including the design of any private open space within front setbacks; design of vehicular access to site; design and pattern of pedestrian entries to site and building; and building articulation.

S 2.1.2

Active frontages are required on developments fronting avenues, major roads, pedestrian routes and public places. Guidance
Active frontages are characterised by: frequent entries and windows with minimal blank walls for lower levels; obvious entries from public streets and places, including access for people with disabilities; a high degree of transparency allowing the non-residential uses of the building to be obvious from public areas; a high degree of visibility allowing passive surveillance from the building to public areas; building activities spilling out into public areas; awnings or colonnades for pedestrian weather protection; high quality materials and refined detailing; and a strong building edge along boundaries fronting streets and public spaces, to contribute toward defining streets and public spaces. Developments may have a number of street frontages and a hierarchy of streetscape responses may be appropriate, and should be identified as part of the Site Analysis. Less active frontages (e.g. blank walls, service areas and access to basements) may only be permitted on service lanes, or if there are no service lanes, minor streets.

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Ground and First Floors in Non-Residential Land Use Policy Areas


S 2.1.3

The ground and first floors of active frontages in Non-Residential Land Use Policy areas should be designed to accommodate a range of non-residential uses.

Guidance
Achieving the following demonstrates that a range of non-residential uses can be accommodated: the finished floor level of the entry to the premises has a level that is equal to or higher than the verge (public area adjoining the building) and a continuous accessible path of travel between the street and ground floor. Where this is not possible, any level change at the entry is to occur within the building while continuing to meet access requirements; a high level of acoustic isolation rated construction. Refer 3.5 Acoustic Privacy; include a range of complementary, non-residential activities in the lease purpose clause; appropriate building entry configuration. Commercial and residential entries should be clearly distinguishable. For residents and visitors safety, different uses should be able to be separately accessed and secured after hours; and commercial service access (e.g. for deliveries and waste collection) is designed to not impact on streetscape or residential amenity Refer 5.5 Services

S 2.1.4

In Non-Residential Land Use policy areas on active frontage/s where front building setbacks are less than 6 m the minimum ground floor finished floor level (FFL) to finished ceiling level (FCL) height is 3.6 m. A height of 4.8 m or greater is encouraged to allow active public uses and provide for flexibility such as mezzanines.

Guidance
Ceiling heights provide building flexibility as well as light and natural ventilation to apartments. A greater range of uses is expected over time in Non Residential Land Use policy areas, especially on the ground floor. Increasing the first floor ceiling height beyond minimum standards allows for more uses including commercial, retail or residential.

Figure 2: Minimum ceiling heights in NonResidential Land Use Policy Area

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Figure 3: Preferred practice for ceiling heights in Non-Residential Land Use Policy Area S 2.1.5

When residential use is proposed on the ground floor of an active frontage in a Non-Residential Land Use Policy, the proponent should demonstrate how the ground floor can be converted to non-residential uses at a later stage by providing floor plans indicating planning and functional arrangements for multiple uses. Refer S 2.1.3 and S 4.2.6

Guidance
If residential uses are proposed on ground floor in Non-Residential Land Use Policy Areas, designing the ground floor units to be live-work dwellings may be an appropriate response. Typically, live-work units are two or three level dwellings that can accommodate a range of flexible uses at ground floor, such as a home business, third bedroom, extra living space, share housing for independent adults, or housing for the elderly. Such apartments shall demonstrate how privacy, security, noise, light and air issues are addressed.

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2.2 Buildings on Corners


Objective O 2.2.1 To design buildings on significant corner sites (eg. located on landmark sites or major intersections) that respond to the character of adjoining urban space and built form.

National Apartments: Canberra

Mixed-use Development: Sydney

Standards S 2.2.1 The preparation of a design response on a corner location shall be based on a Site Analysis and confirmed by the Authority as an appropriate built form response to the corner location. The Site Analysis should address: existing corner built form at the intersection/streets; views to and from the development; existing trees; movement patterns for pedestrians and vehicles; and existing built form frontages adjacent to the site, along both streets.

Guidance
Building design to reinforce corner locations may involve: maximum building heights; variation of setbacks; siting corner building toward street frontages; addressing both frontages; high level of articulation (minimise extent of blank walls); prominent front entries and/or windows; and variation in articulation elements and/or building colour.

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2.3 Articulation
Objective O 2.3.1 To provide visual interest to the built form, articulate the building facade of development and provide an appropriate street address.

Newington Apartments: Sydney

Waterside Apartments: Canberra

Standards S 2.3.1 Articulation of building facades shall respond to and enhance the street character, aspects of building function and configuration. One of the following should be submitted with the development application to demonstrate the three dimensional appearance of the development and how it successfully relates to the surrounding context: a) Photomontages or similar perspective drawings showing views of the proposal from adjacent streets and buildings; and/or b) 1:500 scale model showing the massing of the proposal in the context of properties adjacent to side and rear boundaries and opposite the opposite the front boundary. c) S 2.3.3 To ensure that a high standard of design and construction is achieved, details of articulation and faade elements (generally 1:50 scale) may, as part of any development approval, be required to be submitted to the Authority for further approval.
S 2.3.2

Guidance
Building articulation refers to the three-dimensional detailing of the external walls of the building. Building articulation can be achieved through a variety of measures such as variations in construction materials, detailing, colour, floor to ceiling heights, window size, entry features, projections, roof design and, where appropriate, setting back the top level of taller buildings. Building articulation can include vertical and horizontal articulation e.g. buildings with a discernible base, middle and top.

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2.4 Building Entries


Objectives O 2.4.1 To provide building entries that are easily identifiable and assist in the identity and legibility of the development.
O 2.4.2 To

provide building entries that contribute to an appropriate streetscape response.

Docklands: Melbourne

Space Apartments: Canberra

Standards S 2.4.1 Building entries are to: (a) reinforce a desirable pattern of entries along a street frontage; (b) be clearly visible from streets or internal driveways so that visitors can easily identify an individual apartment; (c) provide a sense of address, shelter and transitional space around the entry; and (d) contribute to security.
S 2.4.2

Frequent building entries are required in urban environments. Multiple building entries are required where front building setbacks are less than 6 m and the frontage is over 15 m long. Multiple building entries may include common building entries and/or individual ground floor unit entries. Guidance
Regular common building entries can facilitate quality apartment layouts, such as dual aspect apartments. Refer S 2.5.3 Relevant legislation includes: ACT Discrimination Act 1991 Commonwealth Disability Discrimination Act 1992

Relevant planning guidelines include: ACT Interim Planning Guidelines for Access and Mobility ACT Crime Prevention and Urban Design Resource Manual.

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2.5 Internal Common Areas, Circulation Areas & Apartment Entries


Objectives O 2.5.1 To promote a sense of community and safety through interaction between residents.
O 2.5.2 To provide common circulation areas with a high level of amenity,

including well-proportioned foyer and corridor areas.


0 2.5.3

To design routes between building entrances and apartment entries that maximise personal safety and ease of movement for the circulation of people and their possessions.

O 2.5.4 To configure individual apartment entries that are clearly identifiable,

and provide simple, safe, secure, direct access for both residents and visitors. Standards S 2.5.1 Clear lines of sight and well-lit routes are required throughout the development. In this regard, the routes from car parking areas and public areas via the lift and stair lobbies to the apartment are particularly important. Circuitous narrow routes and places that allow concealment shall not be approved e.g. deep alcoves or numerous corners along a corridor.

Guidance
It is good practice for fire doors and smoke doors to be fitted with hold open devices and configured to minimise concealment spaces

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S 2.5.2

Common circulation areas should achieve the following minimum dimensions: a) A common lobby area with a dimension of 2 m in any direction outside a lift or main staircase (not applicable to a fire stair which is in addition to a lift or a main stair access); b) Up to 4 m corridor length from common lobby = 1.5 m width;

Figure 4: Minimum dimensions of common circulation areas up to 4m long

c) Up to 8 m corridor length from common lobby = 1.8 m width;

Figure 5: Minimum dimensions of common circulation areas from 4m to 8m long

d) Greater than 8 m corridor length from common lobby = 2.0 m width.

Figure 6: Minimum dimensions of common circulation areas over 8m long

Guidance
The amenity of double loaded corridors can be improved by additional Window openings to frame views or allow natural light access; Provide articulation along the length of a long corridor such as regular intervals of wider or higher spaces e.g. at entries to apartments

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S 2.5.3

The number of apartment units per floor accessible from a common lobby is limited to a maximum of nine. This includes all apartments served by corridors and balcony walkways that are accessed by either lift(s), stair(s) or directly from the street. The Authority may consider a variation in the maximum number of units per common lobby, where the applicant can demonstrate that all of the following are achieved: (a) a high level of public amenity and safety in the common lobby and corridors as per S 2.5.2; (b) a high level of amenity within the apartments. Refer 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4; and (c) an appropriate streetscape response. Refer 2.1 and 2.4

S 2.5.4

Figure 7: Higher amenity is created through multiple common building entries that creates a high proportion of dual aspect apartments

Figure 8: Lower amenity is created by a double loaded corridor that increases proportion of single aspect apartments

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S 2.5.5

Walk-up apartment buildings (i.e. where no passenger lift is provided) have a maximum stair rise of three storeys, with an additional stair rise only permitted as access to an upper level within a third storey apartment unit.

Figure 9: Walk-up apartment buildings: The path of travel from either ground floor building entry or from basement car parks to the front door of an apartment is a maximum of three storeys (including basement car park levels).

Guidance
During design of walk-up apartment buildings consideration should be given to provision for future installation of a lift or stair-climbing device to ensure the development can be adapted for access by people with disabilities.

S 2.5.6

Apartment entries that open directly onto common spaces or public areas are to be clearly visible and articulated with transitional areas such as a verandah, porch or like element and provide direct, secure, all-weather access to apartments. Guidance
Common spaces may include indoor spaces such as a comfortable lobby with couches and waiting areas, gymnasium, recreation rooms, and any outdoor common spaces. Refer 4 Public Areas and Open Space. For convenience and safety of residents and visitors, where buildings are serviced by lift(s), stairs are also required connecting the common entry lobby and basement to the apartment entry. This is practical for lower floor levels. Convenient and safe travel distances from the building entry and resident car spaces to the front door of an apartment. 60m is generally acceptable as the longest distance between a building entry or car space, via the mail box, to the apartment building.

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Residential Amenity

Peoples choice of home is greatly influenced by the amenity offered by a particular housing type. Careful attention must be paid to privacy and environmental amenity of apartments to ensure they provide a quality home environment, a desirable lifestyle choice and are well integrated into established communities. The design of apartments in relation to sun, light and wind is important in terms of residential amenity and influences the potential to reduce energy consumption within the home.

3.1 Building Interface


Objectives O 3.1.1 To ensure appropriately proportioned external spaces between buildings to contribute to visual privacy, solar access, wind mitigation and amenity of outdoor spaces.
O 3.1.2 To ensure a proposed development reasonably anticipates likely

future redevelopment on adjoining sites and does not compromise it. Guidance
The interface standards do not apply to blank walls e.g. building to the boundary may be acceptable. The interface standards are in addition to any side or rear boundary setbacks outlined in The Territory Plan Area Specific Policy requirements. A primary window interface distance applies to the main window of a habitable room. A primary balcony interface distance applies to the main balcony to an apartment as defined in S 4.2.7. Secondary window or balcony interface distance applies to: a) A window to a non-habitable room; b) A window or balcony of a commercial use; c) Windows with sill of 1.7 m above Finished Floor Level; d) Fixed obscure glazing; and e) Secondary balconies, which are defined as a balcony in addition to the minimum requirements defined in S 4.2.7. Habitable Room is defined in the Territory Plan. A non-habitable room is any room not defined as a habitable room in the Territory Plan.

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Standards S 3.1.1 Minimum dimensions between primary and secondary windows and balconies (both within a development and between adjoining sites) are: (a) Primary window/balcony to primary window/balcony Up to four storeys or 12 m high Between five to eight storeys or up to 25 m high Nine storeys and above or over 25 m high

12 m 18 m 24 m

Figure 10: Primary window interface distances

(b)

Primary window/balcony to secondary window/balcony Up to four storeys or 12 m high 9m Between five to eight storeys or up to 25 m high 13 m Nine storeys and above or over 25 m high 18 m

Figure 11: Primary window to secondary window interface distances

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(c)

Secondary window/balcony to secondary window/balcony Up to four storeys or 12 m high 6m Between five to eight storeys or up to 25 m high 9m Nine storeys and above or over 25 m high 12 m

Figure 12: Secondary window interface distances S 3.1.2

On a side boundary where an adjoining site has potential for redevelopment, half the interface distance applies as a side boundary setback. Refer S 3.1.1 Guidance
In addition to protecting the amenity of adjoining neighbours, consideration must be given to the envelope achieved on the adjoining site and the likely effect on both properties in terms of interface, daylight, sunlight and ventilation issues where an adjoining site is not redeveloped.

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(a)

Primary window/balcony to side boundary Up to four storeys or 12 m high Between five to eight storeys or up to 25 m high Nine storeys and above or over 25 m high

6m 9m 12 m

Figure 13: Primary window to side boundary interface distance

(b)

Secondary window/balcony to side boundary Up to four storeys or 12 m high Between five to eight storeys or up to 25 m high Nine storeys and above or over 25 m high

3m 4.5 m 6m

Figure 14: Window and balcony interface distances adjoining a potential development site

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3.2 Visual Privacy


Objectives
O 3.2.1 To site and design buildings and associated open spaces to provide

visual privacy, and protect the visual privacy of neighbours.


O 3.2.2 To avoid overlooking through the effective location of windows and

balconies. Standards S 3.2.1 Windows and balconies of an upper floor level apartment are to be designed to prevent overlooking of more than 50% of the private open space of a lower floor level apartment, either within the same development or adjoining development.
S 3.2.2

A screening zone between different apartments: (a) is determined by a 9 m horizontal distance from the outer edge of a window to a habitable room or balcony within a 45 degree angle. Any windows to habitable rooms/balconies within this zone shall be designed to prevent direct views between the two areas. applies to any window to a habitable room/balcony either adjacent (at the same floor level) or below.

(b)

Figure 15: Plan view of screening zone

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S 3.2.3

Where architectural devices, such as screening devices, high window sills or obscure glass, are used to prevent overlooking, they should be integrated with the building design and have minimal negative effect on amenity for residents or neighbours. Guidance
Preventing overlooking through the effective location of windows and balconies is preferred to the use of screening devices, high sills or obscured glass.

Figure 16: Locating building functions at internal corners such as stairs and lifts, improves visual privacy. Positioning windows with directional views can also improve privacy.

Figure 17: A break in built form provides separation between apartments.

Figure 18: A single apartment layout wraps around an internal corner to

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3.3 Natural Ventilation and Daylight


Objective O 3.3.1 To ensure building envelopes and apartment layouts are designed to maximise natural ventilation and daylight. Standards Habitable Room Height and Depth Standards
S 3.3.1

Habitable rooms, not including kitchens, should achieve the following proportions: a) Room depth from window is up to 6 m = minimum ceiling height 2.4 m

Figure 20: Ceiling height and room depth up to 6m

b) Room depth from window is between 6 m to 9 m = minimum ceiling height 2.7 m

Figure 21: Ceiling height and room depth between 6m and 9m

c) Room depths from window is greater than 9 m = minimum ceiling height 3.0 m

Figure 22: Ceiling height and room depth between 9m and 12m

Guidance
Tall ceiling heights are most effective in improving amenity when used in conjunction with window design that includes taller windows, highlight windows and light shelves. The effect of balcony location and design on daylighting to apartments should also be considered. The following maximum apartment depths are generally considered to provide appropriate daylight, ventilation and support appropriate internal apartment layouts, when used in conjunction with appropriate ceiling heights: Dual aspect apartments with a maximum total depth of 24 m; Single aspect apartments with a maximum depth of 10 m from a window; Studies or media rooms additional to living spaces provide additional space and flexibility for residents. If these rooms do not meet S 3.3.1, then the design needs to demonstrate how nonpermanent habitable uses are to be built-in to the room i.e. so that it cannot be used as a bedroom. The following are considered evidence of this: Maximum area 9 m2, and Wide double doors with louvres for ventilation, and Built-in joinery such as a computer desk

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Figure 19: Plan showing building and room depths that can support good natural daylight and ventilation, when used in conjunction with ceiling heights described in S 3.3.1.

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Flexibility of Internal Space


S 3.3.2

Apartment layouts must ensure circulation space does not interrupt functional use of habitable areas and that a variety of furniture layout opportunities exist in habitable areas. The Authority may require applicants to demonstrate furniture layouts shown on scaled plans to confirm well-organised functional layouts are achieved.
Guidance Careful consideration of the amenity of internal layouts where there are angled or tapering rooms or potentially deep and narrow apartment layouts. To ensure functional internal layouts, living and dining rooms deeper than 6 m should be a minimum of 4 m wide.

Ventilation Standards
S 3.3.3

Natural ventilation should be achieved in all living areas. Guidance


It is considered good practice for at least 60% of apartments in a development to be naturally ventilated, for example by providing dual-aspect apartments or corner apartments. Natural air movement through a building or apartment can be achieved by the stack effect and crossventilation. Cross-ventilation is achieved by using natural breezes and wind to produce pressure differences that channel air through openings. Cross-ventilation occurs where large openings face opposite directions and a free path of airflow (unobstructed or open able) between openings exist. The stack effect relies on a convection flow of air based on the principle that warmer air rises and is displaced by cooler air. Ventilation for single aspect apartments can be improved by maximising distance between openings on the external wall. To improve internal airflow for apartments on corners, openings should be located in both walls and be located as far as possible apart.

Figure 23: Cross ventilation and stack effect

Figure 24: Natural ventilation

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Daylight Standards
S 3.3.4

Buildings are to be sited and designed to provide adequate daylight to habitable rooms. Any building opposite a window to a habitable room is limited in height by a plane projected at 600 above horizontal from 750 mm above the floor level at the window for a lateral distance defined by a 600 arc from the centre of the window. Where S 3.3.6 is not met, the Authority may require the applicant to demonstrate that an average daylight factor of 2.5% across a proportion (60-90%) of the living areas in apartments can be achieved.
Guidance The daylight factor characterises the amount of daylight available in a space and is calculated under specific sky conditions. It is defined as the percentage of the luminance from the sky outdoors available at a point in a room. The luminance is specified as the horizontal luminance. If the horizontal luminance outdoors is 7000 lux, then a 2.5% daylight factor will give 175 lux at the point concerned.

S 3.3.5

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3.4 Sunlight
Objectives O 3.4.1 To ensure building envelopes and internal layouts minimise energy consumed for heating and cooling.
O 3.4.2 To ensure optimum winter sunlight to north facing windows of living

areas and private open space, and appropriate shading to north and west facing glazing in summer.
O 3.4.3 To ensure a reasonable level of direct sunlight access to common

open space and open space on adjacent blocks is achieved in winter, and appropriate shading provided in summer.
O 3.4.4 To ensure apartment buildings are designed and sited to minimise

overshadowing of buildings, both within the block and on adjacent blocks. Standards S 3.4.1 No building on the site is to block sunlight to the living rooms and private open spaces of another dwelling and/or an adjacent multidwelling development so that it is reduced to less than three hours between 9 am and 3 pm on the winter solstice (June 21). S 3.4.2 Within the site, living rooms and associated private open spaces for at least 70 percent of apartments are to receive sun access for a minimum of three hours between 9 am and 3 pm on the winter solstice (June 21). The sun access is to be measured on the main window of the rooms or the front edge of the private open space. Refer S 4.2.9. Where existing site constraints mean that this standard cannot be achieved (e.g. dense urban sites), the proponent should demonstrate how the objectives are achieved.
S 3.4.3

Where windows are located on west facing facades and are subject to direct sunlight, external shading shall be integrated into the building design to protect windows in summer. Other energy saving measures such as new glass technology must be in addition to shade protection.
Guidance It is good practice to limit the number of single aspect apartments with a southerly aspect (south-west to south-east) to a maximum of 10 percent of the total units proposed.

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3.5 Acoustic Privacy


Objectives O 3.5.1 To site and design apartment buildings and associated open spaces to provide acoustic privacy, and to protect the privacy of neighbours.
O 3.5.2 To ensure building and apartment layouts are designed to maximise

acoustic privacy from airborne and impact noise generated outside the building, within other apartments and within each apartment.
O 3.5.3 To ensure building construction techniques and materials minimise

the transmission of airborne and impact noise generated outside the building, within other apartments and within each apartment. Standards S 3.5.1 To verify that the objectives and standards will be met, an acoustic report prepared by an acoustic engineer or other suitably qualified person may, as part of any development approval, be required to be submitted to the Authority for further approval. Noise External to the Residential Complex Guidance
Environmental noise standards, specified in the Environmental Protection Regulations, vary for different land use policy areas with higher values applicable within and on the boundaries of commercial land use areas than in residential land use areas. The ACT Draft Noise Management Guidelines apply to apartment developments near busy roads. Achieving the guidelines standards may require locating noisesensitive sleeping and living areas and private open spaces away from the traffic, incorporating appropriate noise reduction in the external walls of the building and/or including noise barriers around the block. Windows and doors are usually the main pathways for noise transmission from outside. With the doors and windows closed, the internal noise levels should not exceed those listed in the current version of AS/NZS 2107, namely 35 dB(A) in bedrooms or 40 dB(A) in other rooms. Achieving these standards may require particular attention to windows and door construction, such as including laminated glass or double-glazing. To be effective in reducing sound, these windows and doors need to be closed and alternative ventilation provided

S 3.5.2

Apartments near commercial activities should be designed with regard to the potential noise from those activities by locating noise-sensitive sleeping and living areas and private open spaces away from the noise source and by incorporating appropriate noise reduction measures in the external walls of the building.

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Noise Generated Within the Apartment Development


S 3.5.3

Site layout is to separate, by barriers, by distance and/or by design, noise-sensitive sleeping and living areas and private open spaces from noise-producing areas such as: active recreational areas like swimming pools and tennis courts; vehicle movement areas like parking, driveways, roller doors; and service equipment areas like pump maintenance, garbage collection. Guidance
The acoustic privacy of apartment outdoor areas, such as balconies, should be considered at the design stage. Screens for visual privacy will not necessarily provide acoustic privacy. Limits may need to be placed on the hours of use of active recreational areas and of the times for services such as commercial garbage collection.

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Noise Generated From Other Residential Areas Within Apartment Building Guidance
Design for Acoustic Privacy It is good practice to design floor plans to minimise the effect of noise transmission between apartments by not locating noise-producing areas of one apartment, such as a kitchen or laundry, next to noise-sensitive sleeping and living areas of the adjacent apartments. Good practice also avoids locating sleeping and living areas adjacent to noise-producing areas of the building such as lift shafts, stairwells, service ducts, etc. Where this is not possible, the construction of walls and floors should be such that noise transmission is minimised. Construction for Acoustic Privacy - Minimum BCA Standards The Building Code of Australia (BCA) on 1 May 2004 has increased standards for sound insulation for wall and floor construction between apartments and other parts of the building. In summary, the revised BCA requires the following sound reduction standards: a) Airborne Sound: Design: Rw+ Ctr, of not less than 50. Installed: DnT,w + Ctr of not less than 45. The higher the figure the less sound is transmitted through the construction. b) Impact Sound: Design: LnT,w + CI of not more than 62. Installed: LnT,w + CI not more than 62 The lower the figure the less sound is transmitted through the construction. The installed values are typically 5 units less than the design values in order to reflect conditions in a real building are not as controlled as in a laboratory. Construction for Acoustic Privacy Guidance for better practice A wall or floor that separates an apartment from another part of the building which is a non-commercial use: a) Airborne Sound: The minimum BCA standards (listed above) are considered good practice. b) Impact Sound: It is good practice to exceed the minimum BCA standard, and a design standard for LnT,w not more than 50 is preferred.

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Noise Generated From Commercial Uses Within Apartment Building Guidance


Noise amenity impacts on apartments from commercial uses within a mixed-use building should be addressed at the outset of the design and construction. The 1 May 2004 BCA revision applies the same minimum sound insulation standard for construction elements separating apartment from apartment (listed above) as it does for construction elements separating apartments from commercial uses. The following standard 3.5.4 is higher than the minimum BCA standard because a higher standard of sound insulation to separate apartments from commercial uses is considered necessary to protect residential amenity. This standard will also ensure greater flexibility and viability of the commercial uses over time without impacting on the adjoining residents. By minimising potential conflicts between different uses within a building, the standard will also reduce the likelihood of expensive rectification works being required in the future.

S 3.5.4

A construction element that separates, or at some stage in the future could separate, commercial uses from residential apartments, must have a method of construction which can achieve the following design sound reduction standards: a) Airborne Sound Design: Rw+Ctr of not less than 55 for walls and floors b) Impact Sound Design: LnT,w of not more than 45 for floors when the commercial use is located above the residential use; and LnT,w of not more than 50 for floors when the commercial use is located below the residential use. Guidance
Airborne Sound It is good practice for the installed DnT,w +Ctr to be not less than 50 for walls and floors Impact Sound For walls, it is good practice for impact resistance to be addressed by construction methods such as: double studs, or; staggered studs, or; in the case of concrete or masonry walls, resilient mounts or resilient furring channels fixed on one side of the wall behind the final lining(s).

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Noise Generated Within Each Apartment Guidance


It is good practice for walls and floors within apartments to be constructed to minimise the effect of noise transmission within each apartment. This is not covered by the BCA. As a guide, a well constructed wall or floor within an apartment that separates a bedroom from other rooms of the apartment would have a method of construction which can achieve a design airborne sound reduction index, Rw+ Ctr, of not less than 45 and an installed performance for DnT,w + Ctr of not less than 40. A well constructed wall or floor within an apartment that separates a bedroom from other rooms of the apartment would have a method of construction which can achieve a weighted normalised impact sound pressure level, Ln,w of not more than 55.

S 3.5.5

Continuous noise from air conditioning, mechanical ventilation or other equipment that is provided within an apartment as part of the building should not exceed 35 dB(A) in bedrooms or 40 dB(A) in other rooms of that apartment, in accordance with the procedures of the current version of AS/NZS 2107. Guidance
The above standard is covered by AS/NZS 2107 Acoustics Recommended design sound levels and reverberation terms for building interiors. It is not covered by the BCA. This requirement does not apply to other equipment, such as dishwashers and kitchen exhaust fans, that may be installed by the developer.

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Public Areas and Open Space

Well-designed public areas contribute to the creation of a pleasant, safe and attractive living environment that is responsive to the specific character of the site and neighbourhood. Apartment developments will often be located in established areas as part of second-generation development as well as on previously undeveloped sites. Developments are to integrate and contribute to existing public areas and established landscape, and establish new areas such as streets and parks. Common spaces are shared facilities available to all residents within a development and can include indoor recreation facilities (such as gymnasium or lounge area) and outdoor open space. Apartment developments also require private open space for each apartment. It is important that the role of each space is clear and that the boundaries between each different type of space are clearly defined. The design and materials used in the open space should perform multiple functions including provision of: amenity for residents through useable and safe spaces; a diverse range and quantity of vegetation; positive contribution to the streetscape and public domain; consideration of sustainability in design and materials selections; and harvesting of stormwater for on site detention and reuse.

4.1 Streetscape and Public Areas


Objectives O 4.1.1 To ensure any proposed changes to public areas address the immediate and local context.
O 4.1.2 To respect, retain and conserve the important existing streetscape

elements in established areas (e.g. street trees, verge treatments, lighting).


O 4.1.3 To ensure provision of public amenities are equal to existing and/or

meet current guidelines and standards.


O 4.1.4 To ensure landscape and infrastructure development contributes to

the energy efficiency, safety and sustainability of the development.


O 4.1.5 To site buildings and basements such that an appropriate streetscape

response is achieved.

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Standards S 4.1.1 Buildings are to be sited and designed to avoid excessive cut and fill, particularly adjacent to boundaries.
S 4.1.2

On major avenues, where a proposal does not build to the side boundary, at least one side boundary setback should be available for deep-rooted planting.

Figure 25: Deep-root planting in a side setback

Guidance
Developments with significant changes in level between the street and ground floor level relate negatively to the streetscape, particularly where pedestrian entries are below street level. For commercial units, such a treatment reduces the visibility of commercial frontages and restricts pedestrian access. Excessive excavation for residential dwellings creates poor internal environments for residents, particularly in regard to outlook, access to daylight, sunlight and ventilation.

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4.2 Open Space


Objectives O 4.2.1 To ensure common and private open space(s) provided in apartment developments is clearly defined, useable and meets user requirements for privacy, access, outdoor activities and landscaping.
O 4.2.2 To maximise the environmental performance of open space

associated with an apartment development.


O 4.2.3 To enhance residential amenity through design, siting and planting of

areas of open space.


O 4.2.4 To visually enhance the buildings and their setting. O 4.2.5 To contribute to the quality and amenity of open space on rooftops

and car park structures. Standards Common Space


S 4.2.1

Common open spaces are to be not less than 20% of the total site area. The calculation of the common open space is not to include front setbacks or narrow strips of residual land not visually or physically incorporated into the area, or areas not readily accessible by residents. The provision of common open space as per S 4.2.1 may be varied at the discretion of the Authority following a review of the proponents Site Analysis. Guidance
A proposal with less than 20% common open space may be considered appropriate where a proposed development: a) is less than 20 apartments; or b) is located in a constrained urban area. For example, parts of Civic; or c) is adjoining a large area of public open space; or d) includes appropriate shared indoor facilities for use by all residents in lieu of outdoor space. Shared facilities could include a gymnasium, pool, reading room and/or lounge room.

S 4.2.2

S 4.2.3

Location and treatments of open space is to take account of site features (e.g. existing vegetation, views) to improve on-site amenity.

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S 4.2.4

Ensure sufficient deep soil zones are provided within the common open space to enable the establishment and healthy growth of deeprooted plants into natural subsoils. Guidance
Where open space is located over building structures, adequate soil depths need to be provided to support appropriately scaled trees and/or trellises and shade structures that support climbing plants. There is no minimum standard of soil depth that can be applied to all situations as the requirements vary with the plant materials and design intent. As a minimum, the following should be considered and addressed in documentation: growing media and mulch materials - composition, depth and volume; plant materials - description of forms, functions and species; and watering and drainage systems - including reuse of site stormwater. Other issues to be addressed include: environmental protection mechanisms for chemical applications e.g. fertilising and herbicides; and tree anchors or other stabilising mechanisms. Planting is to be selected and sited to: include medium to large trees with spreading crowns; allow a diverse range of shrubs, trees, ground covers and climbers, including ones that will grow to upper level private open spaces and or building facades; optimise daylight and sun access to apartments and open spaces in winter and shade in summer; shelter apartments from winter winds; and contribute to the character of neighbourhood. Design of common spaces is to include safe and informal outdoor recreation opportunities for residents e.g. childrens play area, seating, a water feature.

Private Open Space


S 4.2.5

The minimum area of screened private open space for each ground floor apartment is 24 m2. The minimum dimension in one direction is 4 m, to be directly off a main living area and is to be located to maximise solar access. Space for service functions, such as air conditioners, is to be additional to this minimum area. Refer 5.4, 5.5 Further to 4.2.5, ground floor apartments in Non-Residential Land Use Policy areas may not be required to have the minimum private open space standard. This will be determined at the discretion of the Authority following a review of the proponents Site Analysis. Refer S 2.1.5 Upper level balconies/terraces located adjacent to a main living area are to be a minimum area of 6 m2 and a minimum dimension of 1.8 m. Wider balconies are preferred.

S 4.2.6

S 4.2.7

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S 4.2.8

Private open space is to be directly accessible from at least one living area. All balconies/terraces are to be integrated into the overall architectural form and detail of the building. Successful integration of balconies shall not negatively impact on solar access to apartments.

S 4.2.9

S 4.2.10 Balconies should be designed to provide privacy to residents and to

screen household items. Use of fully transparent balustrades to balconies should be avoided on lower level balconies facing public areas.

Guidance
Secondary private open spaces, including Juliet balconies and operable walls with balustrades, should be considered for additional amenity and diversity. The design and detailing of the balcony should integrate drainage pipes with the overall building design. For example, down pipes are often highly visible in taller buildings and can negatively impact on the overall facade Ground floor private open spaces and surfaces are to be capable of supporting at least one small tree (4 m height) per residence.

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Site Facilities

Site facilities are the functional components of an apartment development, and include parking, storage, clothes drying and services. These guidelines provide appropriate site facilities that are convenient, accessible and functional for residents. The guidelines require site facilities to be integrated within the design of an apartment development and maintain a positive contribution to the streetscape. Site facilities can make a significant contribution toward achieving sustainable development through: minimising water use, e.g. through installing water efficient fixtures and appliances in buildings, storing and using rain water to irrigate gardens; minimising energy consumption, e.g. through provision of outdoor clothes drying areas; supporting measures that encourage non-car based travel; and facilitating use of recycling facilities through accessible and convenient waste and recycling containers. Appropriate consideration to the requirements for site facilities in the early stages of designing an apartment development will help ensure these are an integral part of the development.

5.1 Car Parking


Objectives O 5.1.1 To integrate the location and design of car parking within the design of the site and the building.
O 5.1.2 To provide safe and convenient car parking.

Standards S 5.1.1 Resident parking is to be provided behind the front building line.
S 5.1.2 S 5.1.3

Ramps to basements shall be wholly within lease boundaries. If visitor parking is provided in the basement level, it is to: a) be located separately from secured resident parking area e.g. before security gate; and b) allow visitors safe and direct pedestrian entry to the common building entry foyer.

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Guidance
Relevant Guidelines: ACT Parking and Vehicular Access Guidelines Natural ventilation of basements reduces energy consumption and operating costs of buildings. However, the configuration and design of ventilation openings should minimise visual impact on the streetscape and landscape as well as be located to avoid potential noise impacts on adjoining residents. Where basements are higher than street level, basement ventilation grilles should be either screened from public view or well integrated into the architectural design using high quality finishes. Measures to address excessive light spill from basements, when viewed from outside the site at night, are also required, e.g. louvres or baffle screens For developments with more than 50 dwellings, consideration should be given for the short stay parking requirements of large furniture delivery and removalist vans.

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5.2 Bicycle Parking


Objectives O 5.2.1 To provide secure bicycle parking on site for residents.
O 5.2.2 To provide visitor bicycle parking for larger apartment developments.

Standards S 5.2.1 Apartment developments shall provide secure, undercover bicycle storage for residents at a rate of 1 space per each apartment. Bicycle storage for an apartment may be included in that apartments storage rate required by Element 5 of these guidelines.
S 5.2.2

Developments in excess of 50 apartments shall provide secure visitor bicycle parking at a rate of 1 rail per 12 dwellings. Visitor bicycle parking shall be publicly accessible i.e. located outside any secure parking for residents. All bicycle parking is to be provided in accordance with AS2890.3.

S 5.2.3

Guidance
Secure bicycle parking is generally one of the following: a rail to which the bicycle frame and both wheels can be locked; or a locked enclosure or cage accessed by residents only; or a fully enclosed individual bicycle locker. an additional space within individual secure parking and/or storage area. Bicycle dimensions of 1.7 m x 0.7 m x 1.05 m (based on AS 2890.3) should be used to calculate the additional space required. Refer 5.3.1 Storage. In mixed use developments, facilities associated with commercial use are often provided on the verge (eg lighting, seating, bins) as off-site works. Bicycle parking for visitors may be appropriate on the verge adjacent to the apartment development, subject to approval by the Territory. In commercial developments (including mixed use), bicycle parking for staff should be provided as per ACT Parking and Vehicular Access Guidelines.

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5.3 Storage
Objectives O 5.3.1 To provide a convenient area suitable for storage of everyday household items within easy access of the apartment.
O 5.3.2 To ensure a minimum space provision for sporting, leisure fitness and

hobby equipment. Standards S 5.3.1 Storage facilities for residential buildings shall be provided at the following minimum rates: Studio &1 bedroom apartments 2 bedroom & 3+bedroom apartments
S 5.3.2

4 m2 at a minimum 2 m high 5 m2 at a minimum 2 m high

A minimum 50% of this storage area is to be provided within the apartment and accessible from either hall or living areas. Where bicycle storage is provided within the apartment storage rate the storage is to be configured to allow for unimpeded storage and removal of bicycles.

S 5.3.3

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5.4 Clothes Drying


Objectives O 5.4.1 To ensure clothes drying facilities are appropriately screened from public view. Guidance
To reduce energy consumed by clothes drying machines, apartments are encouraged to provide secure, open air clothes drying facilities.

Standards S 5.4.1 If open air, common clothes drying facilities are provided, they are to be easily accessible to all residents and visually screened from streets and other public areas.
S 5.4.2

If clothes drying facilities are located on private balconies, 2 m2 is to be provided in addition to the minimum private open space requirements and screened when viewed from outside the development. Refer S 4.2.7

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5.5 Services
Objectives O 5.5.1 To locate common and private services such that streetscape and residential amenity are maintained.
O 5.5.2 To provide convenient access to common and private services for

residents, and for maintenance and repair when required. Standards S 5.5.1 Waste and recycling enclosures, electrical substations and switchboards are to be located within the block and to be designed and sited to minimise impact on the streetscape.
S 5.5.2

Waste and recycling facilities are to be accessible for residents. Hinged door access to waste hopper enclosures must be provided for residents. Siting of waste containers should minimise any negative impact on resident amenity, in particular when the facilities are being collected, and from odour and visual impacts. Guidance
Refer also to the Development Control Code for Best Practice Waste Management in the ACT on the Register of Planning Guidelines.

S 5.5.3

Reticulation of cabled services shall be underground from the point of connection. A cable reticulation plan may, as part of any development approval, be required to be submitted to the Authority for further approval. Mechanical plant is to be designed as integral to the building and structure. Mechanical plant for individual apartments (such as air conditioner heat pumps) is to be visually and acoustically screened from public spaces and neighbouring dwellings. Refer Acoustic Privacy. Any area occupied by mechanical plant is to be in addition to minimum required private open space areas. Air conditioning condenser units are to be plumbed. Mailboxes are to be convenient for residents and delivery services. They should be provided in a safe, secure, well-lit location.

S 5.5.4

S 5.5.5

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Glossary
Amenity Qualities of an environment that combine to create places that work and make people feel comfortable.

Continuous accessible path of travel

Is an uninterrupted path of travel to and within a facility (whether a building or not). This accessible path should not incorporate any steps, humps, stairways, revolving doors, escalators or other impediments, which prevent the path being utilised by people with disabilities. An apartment with aspect to two different directions with openings to more than one side of a building. Includes cross through and cross over apartments. As defined in the Territory Plan. Areas of an apartment that are frequently occupied for extended periods and include living room, lounge room, and eating rooms/spaces. Areas that are publicly accessed, including streets, parks, verges, and footpaths. It also includes leased land offered for public purposes, e.g. forecourts. An apartment with windows on one side only. Enables designers and assessors to appreciate more clearly the development context and the issues to which the design must respond. It assists in identifying the relationship of the site to adjacent properties and in testing whether the proposed development recognises any constraints that may apply. An apartment building limited in height due to the number of stair flights a person will reasonably climb without a lift.

Dual aspect apartment

Habitable room Living areas

Public areas

Single aspect apartment Site analysis

Walk-up apartment

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References
AS/NZS 2107 Acoustics Recommended design sound levels and reverberation times for building interiors. Standards Australia, 2000. AS/NZS 2890.3 Parking Facilities Part 3: Bicycle Parking Facilities. Standards Australia 1993. Department of Infrastructure The New Provisions of ResCode. Victorian Government, 2001. Docklands Authority Melbourne Docklands ESD Guide. October 2002. North Sydney Council North Sydney Council Development Control Plan. 2002. NSW Environment Planning and Assessment Act 1972, State Environmental Planning Policy No 65 Design Quality of Residential Flat Development, gazetted 26 July 2002. ACT Planning and Land Authority The Canberra Spatial Plan, March 2004 ACT Planning and Land Management The Territory Plan 2002, Department of Urban Services, ACT Government 2002 Planning NSW Residential Flat Design Code. Urban Design Advisory Service, 2002 Sydney City Council Central Sydney Development Control Plan. 1996

References from ACT Register of Planning Guidelines


ACT Planning and Land Authority ACT Interim Planning Guidelines for Access and Mobility 2003. ACT Planning Authority ACT Draft Noise Management Guidelines 1996. Department of Urban Services, Development Control Code for Best Practice Waste Management in the ACT, 1999 Planning and Land Management ACT Crime Prevention and Urban Design Resource Manual. ACT Government, 2000. Planning and Land Management ACT Parking and Vehicular Access Guidelines. ACT Government, 2000.

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