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Question 1: Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? Answer: Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Research is the organized and systematic inquiry or investigation which provides information for solving a problem or finding answers to a complex issue. Research in business: Often, organization members want to know everything about their products, services, programs, etc. Your research plans depend on what information you need to collect in order to make major decisions about a product, service, program, etc. Research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems. The more focused you are about your resources, products, events and environments what you want to gain by your research, the more effective and efficient you can be in your research, the shorter the time it will take you and ultimately the less it will cost you. Manager’s role in research programs of a company: Managing people is only a fraction of a manager's responsibility - they have to manage the operations of the department, and often have responsibilities towards the profitability of the organization. Knowledge of research can be very helpful for a good manager.
Question 2: a. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. b. Briefly explain Independent, dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. Answer: a. Research design for exploratory research: Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. It is also known as formulating research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher‟s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the
study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.” Independent and dependent and extraneous variables in a research design: The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as „continuous variables‟. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called „non-continuous variables‟. In statistical term, they are also known as „discrete variable‟. For example, age is a continuous variable; whereas the number of children is a non-continuous variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables, it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable, and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable. And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price, income and price of substitute. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children‟s school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an „experimental error‟. Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables.
Question 3: a. Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘ Sample Survey’ b. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling. Answer:
a. Difference between Census survey and Sample Survey
Census Survey Sample Survey
A census measures absolutely everyone in the whole country. This obviously means that a census survey is a much bigger exercise in nature and procedures
A part of the population is known as sample
Census survey also is a very time On the other hand, sample survey is consuming exercise as information needs easier as a representative sample is taken to be collected from each and every from the population and the results individual from the population. obtained are extrapolated to fit the entire population. There are times and requirements where governments have to indulge in census survey even if it is time consuming and very expensive as it needs to formulate policies and welfare programs for the population. For example, when a government has to count heads of the population Census survey is more accurate. Sample surveys cannot count the number of people in the country but when government is planning on a welfare program for cancer patients, it can conduct a sample survey of some of the cancer patients and then extrapolate the results on the section of the population that is undergoing treatment for cancer. there is margin for error in sample survey
b. Analyse multi-stage and sequential sampling:
Multi-stage sampling: In multi-stage sampling method, sampling is carried out in two or more stages. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. First, a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn, then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit, a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling. It is also useful when a survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. Sequential sampling: Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval, conducts his study, analyses the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on. This sampling technique gives the researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. There is very little effort in the part of the researcher when performing this sampling technique. It is not expensive, not time consuming and not workforce extensive. This sampling method is hardly representative of the entire population. Its only hope of approaching representativeness is when the researcher chose to use a very large sample size significant enough to represent a big fraction of the entire population. Due to the aforementioned disadvantages, results from this sampling technique cannot be used to create conclusions and interpretations pertaining to the entire population. Question 4: List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? Answer: Measures of Central Tendency: The term central tendency refers to the "middle" value or perhaps a typical value of the data, and is measured using the mean, median, or mode. Each of these measures is calculated
differently, and the one that is best to use depends upon the situation. Analysis of data involves understanding of the characteristics of the data. The following are the important characteristics of a statistical data: Central tendency Dispersion Skew ness Kurtosis In a data distribution, the individual items may have a tendency to come to a central position or an average value. For instance, in a mark distribution, the individual students may score marks between zero and hundred. In this distribution, many students may score marks, which are near to the average marks, i.e. 50. Such a tendency of the data to concentrate to the central position of the distribution is called central tendency. Central tendency of the data is measured by statistical averages. Averages are classified into two groups. 1. Mathematical averages 2. Positional averages
Mathematical averages Arithmetic mean Geometric mean Harmonic mean
Positional averages Median Mode
Arithmetic mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean are mathematical averages. Median and mode are positional averages. These statistical measures try to understand how individual values in a distribution concentrate to a central value like average. If the values of distribution approximately come near to the average value, we conclude that the distribution has central tendency. Difference between Mean and Median: Mean (Mathematical averages) When the sample size is large and does not include outliers, the mean score usually provides a better measure of central tendency. Median (Positional averages) The median may be a better indicator of the most typical value if a set of scores has an outlier. An outlier is an extreme value that differs greatly from other values. The mean is the most commonly-used The median often is used when there are a few measure of central tendency. When we extreme values that could greatly influence the talk about an "average", we usually are mean and distort what might be considered typical. referring to the mean The mean is simply the sum of the values The median is determined by sorting the divided by the total number of items in the set data set from lowest to highest values and taking the data point in the middle of the sequence
Question 5: Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information.
Answer: For performing research on the literacy levels among families, the primary and secondary sources of data can be used very effectively. More specifically the primary sources of data collection is suggested in this regard. Because personal data or data related to human beings consist of: 1. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age, sex, race, social class, religion, marital status, education, occupation income, family size, location of the household life style etc. 2. Behavioral variables: Attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions, etc. 3. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin, ownership, objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth. 4. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics, resource endowment, population, occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, talluks, districts, state and the nation. The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. Without an analysis of factual data, no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide correct answers to research questions. The relevance, adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables, which are analyzed with statistical techniques. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. Thus, the scientific process of measurements, analysis, testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. Hence, the importance of data for any research studies The sources of data may be classified into: a. Primary sources b. Secondary sources. Primary Sources of Data:
Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.g.., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour from as ample of consumers by interviewing them,. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc. Advantage of Primary Data: It is original source of data It is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. It flexible to the advantage of researcher. Extensive research study is based of primary data Disadvantage of Primary Data: Primary data is expensive to obtain It is time consuming It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. It is difficult to administer Methods of Collecting Primary Data: Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of primary
data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In such cases where the available data are in appropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. They include: socioeconomic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. Marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm managements studies, business management studies etc. There are various methods of data collection. A „Method‟ is different from a „Tool‟ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data, a tool is an instruments used for the method. For example, a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are (a) observation, (b) interviewing,(c)mail survey,(d)experimentation,(e) simulation and (f) projective technique. Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters. Secondary Sources of Data: These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e.g., census reports , annual reports and financial statements of companies, Statistical statement, Reports of Government Departments, Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India, Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks, published by the NABARD, Reports of the National sample survey Organization, Reports of trade associations, publications of international organizations such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, ILO, WHO, etc., Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations, e.g., accounting and financial records, personnel records, register of members, minutes of meetings, inventory records etc.
Features of Secondary Sources: Though secondary sources are diverse and consist of all sorts of materials, they have certain common characteristics. First, they are readymade and readily available, and do not require the trouble of constructing tools and administering them Second, they consist of data which a researcher has no original control over collection and classification. Both the form and the content of secondary sources are shaped by others. Clearly, this is a feature which can limit the research value of secondary sources. Finally, secondary sources are not limited in time and space. That is, the researcher using them need not have been present when and where they were gathered Use of Secondary Data: The second data may be used in three ways by a researcher. First, some specific information from secondary sources may be used for reference purpose. For example, the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country, their coverage of villages, their capital structure, volume of business etc., may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state. Second, secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research maybe tested, e.g., the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages; the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole; and so on. Finally, secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. Such studies as securities Market Behavior, Financial Analysis of companies, Trade in credit
allocation in commercial banks, sociological studies on crimes, historical studies, and the like, depend primarily on secondary data. Year books, statistical reports of government departments, report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises, Censes Reports etc., and serve as major data sources for such research studies Advantages of Secondary Data: Secondary sources have some advantages: Secondary data, if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. Once their source of documents and reports are located, collection of data is just matter of desk work. Event he tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided, thanks to Xeroxing facilities. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. Thus, the use of secondary data extends the researcher‟s space and time reach. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made. Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings bases on primary data. It readily meets the need for additional empirical support. The researcher needs not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected. Disadvantages of Secondary Data: The use of a secondary data has its own limitations. The most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs. The definitions adopted by those who collected those data may be different; units of measure may not match; and time periods may also be different. The available data may not be as accurate as desired. To assess their accuracy we need to know how the data were collected. The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print, because of time lag in producing them. For example, population census data are published two or three years later after compilation and no new figures will be available for another ten years. Finally, information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists. Even if the location of the source is known, the accessibility depends primarily on proximity. For example, most of the unpublished official records and compilations are located in the capital city, and they are not within the easy reach of researchers based in far off places. Evaluation of Secondary Data: When a researcher wants to use secondary data for his research, he should evaluate them before deciding to use them. 1) Data Pertinence: The first consideration in evaluation is to examine the pertinence of the available secondary data to the research problem under study. The following questions should be considered. What are the definitions and classifications employed? Are they consistent? What are the measurements of variables used? What is the degree to which they conform to the requirements of our research? On the basis of above consideration, the pertinence of the secondary data to the research on hand should be determined, as a researcher who is imaginative and flexible may be able to redefine his research problem so as to make use of otherwise unusable available data.
If the researcher is convinced about the available secondary data for his needs, the next step is to examine the quality of the data. The quality of data refers to their accuracy, reliability and completeness. The assurance and reliability of the available secondary data depends on the organization which collected them and the purpose for which they were collected. What is the authority and prestige of the organization? Is it well recognized? Is it noted for reliability? It is capable of collecting reliable data? Does it use trained and well qualified investigators? The answers to these questions determine the degree of confidence we can have in the data and their accuracy. It is important to go to the original source of the secondary data rather than to use an immediate source which has quoted from the original. Then only, the researcher can review the cautionary and other comments that were made in the original source. 3) Data Completeness:
The completeness refers to the actual coverage of the published data. This depends on the methodology and sampling design adopted by the original organization. Is the methodology sound? Is the sample size small or large? Is the sampling method appropriate? Answers to these questions may indicate the appropriateness and adequacy of the data for the problem under study. The question of possible bias should also be examined. Whether the purpose for which the original organization collected the data had a particular orientation? Has the study been made to promote the organization‟s own interest? How the study was conducted? These are important clues. The researcher must be on guard when the source does not report the methodology and sampling design. Then it is not possible to determine the adequacy of the secondary data for the researcher‟s study.
Question 6: a. Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? b. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? Answer: a) Role of Graphs and Diagrams: In presenting the data of frequency distributions and statistical computations, it is often desirable to use appropriate forms of graphic presentations. In additions to tabular forms, graphic presentation involves use of graphics, charts and other pictorial devices such as diagrams. These forms and devices reduce large masses of statistical data to a form that can be quickly understood at the glance. The meaning of figures in tabular form may be difficult for the mind to grasp or retain. “Properly constructed graphs and charts relieve the mind of burdensome details by portraying facts concisely, logically and simply.” They, by emphasizing new and significant relationship, are also useful in discovering new facts and in developing hypothesis. The device of graphic presentation is particularly useful when the prospective readers are nontechnical people or general public. It is useful to even technical people for dramatizing certain points about data; for important points can be more effectively captured in pictures than in tables. However, graphic forms are not substitutes for tables, but are additional tools for the researcher to emphasize the research findings. Graphic presentation must be planned with utmost care and diligence. Graphic forms used should be simple, clear and accurate and also be appropriate to the data. In planning this work, the following questions must be considered. a. What is the purpose of the diagram? b. What facts are to be emphasized? c. What is the educational level of the audience?
d. How much time is available for the preparation of the diagram? e. What kind of chart will portray the data most clearly and accurately? Role of Graphs: Because graphs provide a compact, rhetorically powerful way of representing research findings, recent theories of science have postulated their use as a distinguishing feature of science. Studies have shown that the use of graphs in journal articles correlates highly with the hardness of scientific fields, both across disciplines and across subfields of psychology. Role of Diagrams: Recent technological advances have enabled the large-scale adoption of diagrams in a diverse range of areas. Increasingly sophisticated visual representations are emerging and, to enable effective communication, insight is required into how diagrams are used and when they are appropriate for use. The pervasive, everyday use of diagrams for communicating information and ideas serves to illustrate the importance of providing a sound understanding of the role that diagrams can, and do, play. Research in the field of diagrams aims to improve our understanding of the role of diagrams, sketches and other visualizations in communication, computation, cognition, creative thought, and problem solving. These concerns have triggered a surge of interest in the study of diagrams. The study of diagrammatic communication as a whole must be pursued as an interdisciplinary endeavor. Diagrams attract a large number of researchers from virtually all related fields, placing the conference as a major international event in the area. b) Types and General rules for graphical representation of data: Graphical representation is done of the data available. This is very important step of statistical analysis. We will be discussing the organization of data. The word 'Data' is plural for 'datum'; datum means facts. Statistically the term is used for numerical facts such as measures of height, weight and scores on achievement and intelligence tests. Graphs and diagram leave a lasting impression on the mind and make intelligible and easily understandable the salient features of the data. Forecasting also becomes easier with the help of graph. Thus it is of interest to study the graphical representation of data. The graphical representation of data is categorized as basic five types: 1) Bar graph 2) Pie graph 3) Line graph 4) Scatter plot 5) Histogram Examples of graphical representation of data: Let us see some examples of graphical representation of data. 1) Bar chart: A Bar chart (or diagram) is a graphical representation of data using bars (rectangles of same width). It is one dimensional in which case only the height of the rectangle matters. year populatio n of a place 1931 6000 1941 7600 1951 8900 1961 12000 1971 13500 1981 18000
Solution: scale: Y axis 1 cm = 1000 years Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 1
Graphical Representation of Histogram:
A histogram (or rectangular diagram or block diagram) is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution in the form of rectangles one after the other with height proportional to the frequencies. It is two dimensional in which case the height as well as width of the rectangle matters. Que:Represent the following data by means of a Histogram: Age( in years) Number of workers 2025 3 2530 4 3035 5 3540 6 4045 5 4550 4 5055 3
Frequency Polygon of a Line Graph:
A frequency polygon can be constructed for a grouped frequency distribution, with equalinterval, in two different ways:
Represent the class-marks along the x-axis. Represent the frequencies along y-axis. Join these points, in order, by straight lines. The points at each end is joined to the immediate higher(or lower) class mark at zero frequency so as to complete the polygon.
Method II: Represent a histogram of the given data. Join the mid points of the tops of the adjacent rectangles by straight lines. The mid points at each end are joined to the immediate higher (or lower) at zero frequency so as to complete the polygon. The two classes, one at each end, are to be included. Construct a frequency polygon for the following data: Monthly pocket expenses of a student Number of students Solution: Here we have Monthly pocket expenses of a student(in $) 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 class- marks 2.5 7.5 12.5 17.5 22.5 27.5 32.5 37.5 Number students 10 16 30 42 50 30 16 12 of 0-5 10 5-10 16 10-15 30 15-20 42 20-25 50 25-30 30 30-35 16 35-40 12
Cumulative Frequency Curve(ogive):
The Cumulative frequency curve for a grouped frequency distribution is obtained by plotting the points and then joining them by a free-hand smooth curve. This is also known as ogive. Method:
Form the cumulative frequency table. Mark the upper class limits along the x-axis. Mark the cumulative frequencies along the y-axis. Plot the points and join them by a free-hand smooth curve.
Draw a cumulative frequency curve for the following data: Marks Number of students 0-4 4 4-8 6 8-12 10 12-16 8 16-20 4
The cumulative frequency table is as follows: Marks 0-4 4-8 8-12 12-16 16-20 Total Number of students 4 6 10 8 4 32 cumulative frequency 4 4+6=10 10+10=20 20+8=28 28+4=32
Joining these points by a free-hand smooth curve, we have the following cumulative frequency curve:
Pie-chart or Pie-
It is drawn by first drawing a circle of a suitable radius and then dividing the angle of 360 degree at its centre in proportion to the figures given under various heads. Solution: <AOB = 14 x 360 /100 = 50.4 <COD = 29 x 360 /100 = 104.4 <EOF = 16 x 360 /100 = 57.6 <BOC = 16 x 360 /100 = 57.6 <DOE = 17 x 360 /100 = 61.2 <FOA = 8 x 360 /100 = 28.8 Take a circle with centre O and unit radius.
Master of Business Administration Semester III MB0050 – Research Methodology- 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206) Assignment Set-2 (60Marks)
Q 1. What is questionnaire? Discuss the main points that you will take into account while drafting a questionnaire? [10marks].
Answer : A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton. Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. However, such standardized answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them. Thus, for some demographic groups conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be practical. The main points that you will take into account while drafting a questionnaire * Use statements which are interpreted in the same way by members of different subpopulations of the population of interest. * Use statements where persons that have different opinions or traits will give different answers. * Think of having an "open" answer category after a list of possible answers. * Use only one aspect of the construct you are interested in per item. * Use positive statements and avoid negatives or double negatives. * Do not make assumptions about the respondent. * Use clear and comprehensible wording, easily understandable for all educational levels * Use correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. * Avoid items that contain more than one question per item (e.g. Do you like strawberries and potatoes?)
Q 2. What do you mean by primary data? What are the various methods of collecting primary data? Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.g.., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour from a sample of consumers by interviewing them,. Primary data are first hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc.
Methods of Collecting Primary Data
Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources.
In such cases where the available data are inappropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. They include: socio economic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. Marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm managements studies, business management studies etc. There are various methods of data collection. A „Method‟ is different from a „Tool‟ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data, a tool is an instruments used for the method. For example, a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are (a) observation, (b) interviewing, (c) mail survey, (d) experimentation,
(a) observation:Observation means viewing or seeing. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. Observation is classical method of scientific study. (b) interviewing:Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant, initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. It involves not only conversation, but also learning from the respondent‟s gesture, facial expressions and pauses, and his environment. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. (c) mail survey:The mail survey is a data collection process for researchers. Research practitioners should recognize that this is a viable means of collecting specific market data. (d) experimentation:The popularity of experimentation in marketing research has much to do with the possibilities of establishing cause and effect. Experiments can be configured in such a way as to allow the variable causing a particular effect to be isolated. Other methods commonly used in marketing research, like surveys, provide much more ambiguous findings. In fact, experimentation is the most scientific method employed in marketing research.
Q 3. a. Analyze the case study and descriptive approach to research. b) Distinguish between research methods & research Methodology.
a) Case Study and descriptive approach to research: Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how...Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation.Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are.In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. But there are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you e.g. finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease
thus; more people will live a healthy life.Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies, but instead it can utilize elements of both, often within the same study. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive statistics tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect. A case study is a research method common in social science. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. The latter type is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. They may be prospective, in which criteria are established and cases fitting the criteria are included as they become available, or retrospective, in which criteria are established for selecting cases from historical records for inclusion in the study. Rather than using samples and following a rigid protocol (strict set of rules) to examine limited number of variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal (over a long period of time) examination of a single instance or event: a case. They provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing information, and reporting the results. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did, and what might become important to look at more extensively in future research. Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypotheses. Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy, an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. Case study research means single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Single-subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data b) Distinction between research methods and research Methodology: Research Methods Research methods are the various procedures, schemes, algorithms, etc. used in research. All the methods used by a researcher during a research study are termed as research methods. They are essentially planned, scientiﬁc and valueneutral. They include theoretical procedures, experimental studies, numerical schemes, statistical approaches, etc. Research methods help us collect samples, data and ﬁnd a solution to a problem. Particularly, scientiﬁc research methods call for explanations based on collected facts, measurements and observations and not on reasoning alone. They ac- cept only those explanations which can be veriﬁed by experiments. Research Methodology Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. Essentially, the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology. It is also deﬁned as the study of methods by which knowledge is gained. Its aim is to give the work plan of research.
Question 4: Explain the important concepts in Research design? Answer:
The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. It specifies the objectives of the study, the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. It constitutes the blue print for the plan is the overall scheme or program of research. A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting, analysing and interpreting observations. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz, Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe, “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.” Components of Research Design: It is important to be familiar with the important concepts relating to research design. They are: 1. Dependent and Independent variables:
A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as “continuous variables. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called” non-continuous variables. In statistical term, they are also known as „discrete variable. For example, age is a continuous variable; whereas the number of children is a non-continuous variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables, it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable, and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable. And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price, income and price of substitute. 2. Extraneous variable:
The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children‟s school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an „experimental errors Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. 3. Control:
One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. Technically, the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. The term control is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions.
The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable, when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. Research hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods, it is known as research hypothesis. The research hypothesis is a predictive statement which relates a dependent variable and an independent variable. Generally, a research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable. Whereas, the relationships that are assumed but not be tested are predictive statements that are not to be objectively verified are not classified as research hypothesis. Experimental and control groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an experimental hypothesis-testing research, it is known as „control group. On the other hand, when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition, it is known as an „experimental group. In the aforementioned example, the Group A can be called a control group and the Group B an experimental one. If both the groups A and B are exposed to some special feature, then both the groups may be called as „experimental groups. A research design may include only the experimental group or the both experimental and control groups together. Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. In the example considered, the two treatments are the parents with regular earnings and those with no regular earnings. Likewise, if a research study attempts to examine through an experiment regarding the comparative impacts of three different types of fertilizers on the yield of rice crop, then the three types of fertilizers would be treated as the three treatments. Experiment: An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to a given research problem. For instance, experiment may be conducted to examine the yield of a certain new variety of rice crop developed. Further, Experiments may be categorized into two types namely, absolute experiment and comparative experiment. If a researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular variety of rice crop, then it is known as absolute experiment. Meanwhile, if the researcher wishes to determine the impact of chemical fertilizer as compared to the impact of bio-fertilizer, then the experiment is known as a comparative experiment. Experiment unit: Experimental units refer to the predetermined plots, characteristics or the blocks, to which the different treatments are applied. It is worth mentioning here that such experimental units must be selected with great caution. Question 5: What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. Answer:
Observation vs. interviewing as Methods of Data Collection: Collection of data is the most crucial part of any research project as the success or failure of the project is dependent upon the accuracy of the data. Use of wrong methods of data collection or any inaccuracy in collecting data can have significant impact on the results of a study and may lead to results that are not valid. There are many techniques of data collection along a continuum and observation and interviewing are two of the popular methods on this continuum that has quantitative methods at one end while qualitative methods at the other end. Though there are many similarities in these two methods and they serve the same basic purpose, there are differences that will be highlighted in this article. Observation: Observation, as the name implies refers to situations where participants are observed from a safe distance and their activities are recorded minutely. It is a time consuming method of data collection as you may not get the desired conditions that are required for your research and you may have to wait till participants are in the situation you want them to be in. Classic examples of observation are wild life researchers who wait for the animals of birds to be in a natural habitat and behave in situations that they want to focus upon. As a method of data collection, observation has limitations but produces accurate results as participants are unaware of being closely inspected and behave naturally. Interviewing: Interviewing is another great technique of data collection and it involves asking questions to get direct answers. These interviews could be either one to one, in the form of questionnaires, or the more recent form of asking opinions through internet. However, there are limitations of interviewing as participants may not come up with true or honest answers depending upon privacy level of the questions. Though they try to be honest, there is an element of lie in answers that can distort results of the project. Though both observation and interviewing are great techniques of data collection, they have their own strengths and weaknesses. It is important to keep in mind which one of the two will produce desired results before finalizing. Observation vs. interviewing: Observation Observation requires precise analysis by the researcher and often produces most accurate results although it is very time consuming. Interviewing Interviewing is easier but suffers from the fact that participants may not come up with honest replies.
Interview format: Interviews take many different forms. It is a good idea to ask the organisation in advance what format the interview will take. Competency/criteria based interviews: These are structured to reflect the competencies or qualities that an employer is seeking for a particular job, which will usually have been detailed in the job specification or advert. The interviewer is looking for evidence of your skills and may ask such things as: µGive an example of a time you worked as part of a team to achieve a common goal.
Technical interviews: If you have applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge, it is likely that you will be asked technical questions or has a separate technical interview. Questions may focus on your final year project or on real or hypothetical technical problems. You should be prepared to prove yourself, but also to admit to what you do not know and stress that you are keen to learn. Do not worry if you do not know the exact answer - interviewers are interested in your thought process and logic. Academic interviews: These are used for further study or research positions. Questions are likely to centre on your academic history to date. Structured interviews: The interviewer has a set list of questions, and asks all the candidates the same questions. Formal/informal interviews: Some interviews may be very formal, while others will feel more like an informal chat about you and your interests. Be aware that you are still being assessed, however informal the discussion may seem. Portfolio based interviews: If the role is within the arts, media or communications industries, you may be asked to bring a portfolio of your work to the interview, and to have an in-depth discussion about the pieces you have chosen to include. Senior/case study interviews: These ranges from straightforward scenario questions (e.g. µWhat would you do in a situation where to the detailed analysis of a hypothetical business problem. You will be evaluated on your analysis of the problem, how you identify the key issues, how you pursue a particular line of thinking and whether you can develop and present an appropriate framework for organising your thoughts. Specific types of interview The Screening Interview: Companies use screening tools to ensure that candidates meet minimum qualification requirements. Computer programs are among the tools used to weed out unqualified candidates. (This is why you need a digital resume that is screening-friendly. See our resume centre for help.) Sometimes human professionals are the gatekeepers. Screening interviewers often have honed skills to determine whether there is anything that might disqualify you for the position. Remember they do not need to know whether you are the best fit for the position, only whether you are not a match. For this reason, screeners tend to dig for dirt. Screeners will hone in on gaps in your employment history or pieces of information that look inconsistent. They also will want to know from the outset whether you will be too expensive for the company. Some tips for maintaining confidence during screening interviews: Highlight your accomplishments and qualifications.
Get into the straightforward groove. Personality is not as important to the screener as verifying your qualifications. Answer questions directly and succinctly. Save your winning personality for the person making hiring decisions! Be tactful about addressing income requirements. Give a range, and try to avoid giving specifics by replying, "I would be willing to consider your best offer." If the interview is conducted by phone, it is helpful to have note cards with your vital information sitting next to the phone. That way, whether the interviewer catches you sleeping or vacuuming the floor, you will be able to switch gears quickly The Informational Interview: On the opposite end of the stress spectrum from screening interviews is the informational interview. A meeting that you initiate, the informational interview is underutilized by jobseekers who might otherwise consider themselves savvy to the merits of networking. Jobseekers ostensibly secure informational meetings in order to seek the advice of someone in their current or desired field as well as to gain further references to people who can lend insight. Employers that like to stay apprised of available talent even when they do not have current job openings, are often open to informational interviews, especially if they like to share their knowledge, feel flattered by your interest, or esteem the mutual friend that connected you to them. During an informational interview, the jobseeker and employer exchange information and get to know one another better without reference to specific job opening. This takes off some of the performance pressure, but be intentional nonetheless: Come prepared with thoughtful questions about the field and the company. Gain references to other people and make sure that the interviewer would be comfortable if you contact other people and use his or her name. Give the interviewer your card, contact information and resume.· Write a thank you note to the interviewer. The Directive Style: In this style of interview, the interviewer has a clear agenda that he or she follows unflinchingly. Sometimes companies use this rigid format to ensure parity between interviews; when interviewers ask each candidate the same series of questions, they can more readily compare the results. Directive interviewers rely upon their own questions and methods to tease from you what they wish to know. You might feel like you are being steam-rolled, or you might find the conversation develops naturally. Their style does not necessarily mean that they have dominance issues, although you should keep an eye open for these if the interviewer would be your supervisor. Either way, remember:· Flex with the interviewer, following his or her lead.· Do not relinquish complete control of the interview. If the interviewer does not ask you for information that you think is important to proving your superiority as a candidate, politely interject it. The Meandering Style: This interview type, usually used by inexperienced interviewers, relies on you to lead the discussion. It might begin with a statement like "tell me about yourself," which you can use to your advantage. The interviewer might ask you another broad, open-ended question before falling into silence. This interview style allows you tactfully to guide the discussion in a way that best serves you. The following strategies, which are helpful for any interview, are particularly important when interviewers use a non-directive approach: Come to the interview prepared with highlights and anecdotes of your skills, qualities and experiences. Do not rely on the interviewer to spark your memory-jot down some
notes that you can reference throughout the interview. Remain alert to the interviewer. Even if you feel like you can take the driver's seat and go in any direction you wish, remain respectful of the interviewer's role. If he or she becomes more directive during the interview, adjust. Ask well-placed questions. Although the open format allows you significantly to shape the interview, running with your own agenda and dominating the conversation means that you run the risk of missing important information about the company and its needs. Question 6: Strictly speaking, would case studies be considered as scientific research? Why or why not? Answer: Case studies are a tool for discussing scientific integrity. Although one of the most frequently used tools for encouraging discussion, cases are only one of many possible tools. Many of the principles discussed below for discussing case studies can be generalized to other approaches to encouraging discussion about research ethics. Cases are designed to confront readers with specific real-life problems that do not lend themselves to easy answers. Case discussion demands critical and analytical skills and, when implemented in small groups, also fosters collaboration (Pimple, 2002). By providing a focus for discussion, cases help trainees to define or refine their own standards, to appreciate alternative approaches to identifying and resolving ethical problems, and to develop skills for analyzing and dealing with hard problems on their own. The effective use of case studies is comprised of many factors, including: appropriate selection of case(s) (topic, relevance, length, complexity) method of case presentation (verbal, printed, before or during discussion) format for case discussion (Email or Internet-based, small group, large group) leadership of case discussion (choice of discussion leader, roles and responsibilities for discussion leader) outcomes for case discussion (answers to specific questions, answers to general questions, written or verbal summaries) Research methods don't seem so intimidating when you're familiar with the terminology. This is important whether you're conducting evaluation or merely reading articles about other studies to incorporate in your program. To help with understanding, here are some basic definitions used. Variable: Characteristics by which people than one level; in other words, to be person/object, or from person to person, attributes, cannot be manipulated by the or things can be described. Must have more able to change over time for the same or object to object. Some variables, called researcher (e.g., socioeconomic status, IQ
score, race, gender, etc.). Some variables can be manipulated but are not in a particular study. This occurs when subjects self-select the level of the independent variable, or the level is naturally occurring (as with ex post facto research). Manipulation: Random assignment of subjects to levels of the independent variable (treatment groups). Independent variable: The treatment, factor, or presumed cause that will produce a change in the dependent variable. This is what the experimenter tries to manipulate. It is denoted as "X" on the horizontal axis of a graph. Dependent variable: The presumed effect or consequence resulting from changes in
the independent variable. This is the observation made and is denoted by "Y" on the vertical axis of a graph. The score of "Y" depends on the score of "X." Population: The complete set of subjects that can be studied: people, objects, animals, plants, etc. Sample: A subset of subjects that can be studied to make the research project more manageable. There are a variety of ways samples can be taken. If a large enough random samples are taken, the results can be statistically similar to taking a census of an entire population--with reduced effort and cost. Case Study: A case study is conducted for similar purpose as the above but is usually done with a smaller sample size for more in-depth study. A case study often involves direct observation or interviews with single subjects or single small social units such as a family, club, school classroom, etc. This is typically considered qualitative research. Purpose: Explain or Predict Type of Research to Use: Relational Study In a relational study you start with a research hypothesis, that is, is what you're trying to "prove." Examples of research hypotheses for a relational study: The older the person, the more health problems he or she encounters. 4-H members attending 4-H summer camp stay enrolled in 4-H longer. The greater the number of money management classes attended, the greater the amount of annual savings achieved. Types of relational studies include correlational studies and ex post facto studies. Correlational Study: A correlational study compares two or more different characteristics from the same group of people and explains how two characteristics vary together and how well one can be predicted from knowledge of the other. A concurrent correlational study draws a relationship between characteristics at the same point in time. For example, a student's grade point average is related to his or her class rank. A predictive correlational study could predict a later set of data from an earlier set. For example, a student's grade point average might predict the same student's grade point average during senior year. A predictive correlational study could also use one characteristic to predict what another characteristic will be at another time. For example, a student's SAT score is designed to predict college freshman grade point average. Ex Post Facto (After the Fact) Study: An ex post facto study is used when experimental research is not possible, such as when people have self-selected levels of an independent variable or when a treatment is naturally occurring and the researcher could not "control" the degree of its use. The researcher starts by specifying a dependent variable and then tries to identify possible reasons for its occurrence as well as alternative (rival) explanations such confounding (intervening, contaminating, or extraneous) variables are "controlled" using statistics.
This type of study is very common and useful when using human subjects in real-world situations and the investigator comes in "after the fact." For example, it might be observed that students from one town have higher grades than students from a different town attending the same high school. Would just "being from a certain town" explain the differences? In an ex post facto study, specific reasons for the differences would be explored, such as differences in income, ethnicity, parent support, etc. It is important to recognize that, in a relational study, "cause and effect" cannot be claimed. All that can be claimed is that that there is a relationship between the variables. For that matter, variables that are completely unrelated could, in fact, vary together due to nothing more than coincidence. That is why the researcher needs to establish a plausible reason (research hypothesis) for why there might be a relationship between two variables before conducting a study. For instance, it might be found that all football teams with blue uniforms won last week. There is no likely reason why the uniform color had any relationship to the games' outcomes, and it certainly was not the cause for victory. Similarly, you must be careful about claiming that your Extension program was the "cause" of possible results.