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ACTIVE DIRECTORY Easier Deployment and Management ADMT version 2.

0 migrates password from NT4 to 2000 to 20003 or from 2000 to 2003 Domain Rename--- supports changing Domain Name System and/or NetBIOS name Schema Redefine--- Allows deactivation of attributes and class definitions in the Active directory schema AD/AM--- Active directory in application mode is a new capability of AD that addresses certain deployment scenarios related to directory enabled applications Group Policy Improvements----introduced GPMC tool to manage group policy UIEnhanced User Interface Grater Security Cross-forest Authentication Cross-forest Authorization Cross-certification Enhancements IAS and Cross-forest authentication Credential Manager Software Restriction Policies Improved Performance and Dependability Easier logon for remote offices Group Membership replication enhancements Application Directory Partitions Install Replica from media Dependability Improvements--- updated Inter-Site Topology Generator forests with a greater number of sites than Windows 2000. (ISTG) that scales better by supporting

FILE AND PRINT SERVICES Volume shadow copy service NTFS journaling file system EFS Improved CHDSK Performance Enhanced DFS and FRS Shadow copy of shared folders Enhanced folder redirection Remote document sharing (WEBDAV) IIS Fault-tolerant process architecture----- The IIS 6.0 fault-tolerant process architecture isolates Web sites and applications into self-contained units called application pools Health Monitoring---- IIS 6.0 periodically checks the status of an application pool with automatic restart on failure of the Web sites and applications within that application pool, increasing application availability. IIS 6.0 protects the server, and other applications, by automatically disabling Web sites and applications that fail too often within a short amount of time Automatic Process Recycling--- IIS 6.0 automatically stops and restarts faulty Web sites and applications based on a flexible set of criteria, including CPU utilization and memory consumption, while queuing requests Rapid-fail Protection---- If an application fails too often within a short amount of time, IIS 6.0 will automatically disable it and return a "503 Service Unavailable" error message to any new or queued requests to the application Edit-While-Running 2. Difference between NT & 2000 NT SAM database is a flat database. Where as in windows 2000 active directory database is a hierarchical database. In windows NT only PDC is having writable copy of SAM database but the BDC is only contain read only database. In case of Windows 2000 both DC and ADC is having write copy of the database Windows NT will not support FAT32 file system. Windows 2000 supports FAT32 Default authentication protocol in NT is NTLM (NT LAN manager). In windows 2000 default authentication protocol is Kerberos V5. Windows 2000 depends and Integrated with DNS. NT user Netbios names Active Directory can be backed up easily with System state data 3. Difference between 2000 & 2003 Application Server mode is introduced in windows 2003 Possible to configure stub zones in windows 2003 DNS Volume shadow copy services is introduced Windows 2003 gives an option to replicate DNS data b/w all DNS servers in forest or All DNS servers in the domain. Refer Question 1 for all Enhancements 4. Difference between PDC & BDC PDC contains a write copy of SAM database where as BDC contains read only copy of SAM database. It is not possible to reset a password with out PDC in Windows NT. 5. Difference between DC & ADC There is no difference between in DC and ADC both contains write copy of AD. Both can also handles FSMO roles (If transfers from DC to ADC). It is just for identification. Functionality wise there is no difference. 6. What is DNS & WINS DNS is a Domain Naming System, which resolves Host names to IP addresses. It uses fully qualified domain names. DNS is a Internet standard used to resolve host names WINS is a Windows Internet Name Service, which resolves Netbios names to IP Address. This is proprietary for Windows

7. Types of DNS Servers Primary DNS Secondary DNS Active Directory Integrated DNS Forwarder Caching only DNS 8. If DHCP is not available what happens to the client Client will not get IP and it cannot be participated in network. If client already got the IP and having lease duration it use the IP till the lease duration expires. 9. what are the different types of trust relationships Implicit Trusts Explicit TrustsNT to Win2k or Forest to Forest 10. what is the process of DHCP for getting the IP address to the client There is a four way negotiation process b/w client and server DHCP Discover (Initiated by client) DHCP Offer (Initiated by server) DHCP Select (Initiated by client) DHCP Acknowledgement (Initiated by Server) DHCP Negative Acknowledgement (Initiated by server if any issues after DHCP offer) 12. What are the port numbers for FTP, Telnet, HTTP, DNS FTP-21, Telnet 23, HTTP-80, DNS-53, Kerberos-88, LDAP-389 13. what are the different types of profiles in 2000 Local Profiles Roaming profiles Mandatory Profiles 14. what is the database files used for Active Directory NTDS.DIT 15. What is the location of AD Database %System root%/NTDS/NTDS>DIT 16. What is the authentication protocol used in NT NTLM (NT LAN Manager) 17. What is subnetting and supernetting Subnetting is the process of borrowing bits from the host portion of an address to provide bits for identifying additional sub-networks Supernetting merges several smaller blocks of IP addresses (networks) that are continuous into one larger block of addresses. Borrowing network bits to combine several smaller networks into one larger network does supernetting 18. what is the use of terminal services Terminal services can be used as Remote Administration mode to administer remotely as well as Application Server Mode to run the application in one server and users can login to that server to user that application. 19. what is the protocol used for terminal services RDP 20. what is the port number for RDP 3389

1. what is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP To avoid problems in the network causing by mis-configured DHCP servers, server in windows 2000 must be validate by AD before starting service to clients. If an authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server in the network it stops serving the clients 2. Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for replication. Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site. Inter-site replication can be done between two different sites over WAN links BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Inter-site replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site. We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocol where as Domain partition is not possible to replicate using SMTP

3. How to monitor replication We can user Replmon tool from support tools 4. Brief explanation of RAID Levels RAID 0 Striping RAID 1- Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required) RAID 5 Striping with Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required) RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy 5. What are the different backup strategies are available Normal Backup Incremental Backup Differential Backup Daily Backup Copy Backup 6. What is a global catalog Global catalog is a role, which maintains Indexes about objects. It contains full information of the objects in its own domain and partial information of the objects in other domains. Universal Group membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GCs in the forest. 7. What is Active Directory and what is the use of it Active directory is a directory service, which maintains the relation ship between resources and enabling them to work together. Because of AD hierarchal structure windows 2000 is more scalable, reliable. Active directory is derived from X.500 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like structure. Active directory depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP. Information in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol 8. what is the physical and logical structure of AD Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows ForestsTreesDomainsChild DomainsGrand Childetc Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions 1. Configuration partition 2. Schema Partition 3. Domain partition 4. Application Partition (only in windows 2003 not available in windows 2000) Out of these Configuration, Schema partitions can be replicated between the domain controllers in the in the entire forest. Whereas Domain partition can be replicated between the domain controllers in the same domain 9. What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000? After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated this is used to encrypt the time stamp of the client machine. User name and encrypted timestamp information will be provided to domain controller for authentication. Then Domain controller based on the password information stored in AD for that user it decrypts the encrypted time stamp information. If produces time stamp matches to its time stamp. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket to client in an encryption format. Again client decrypts and if produced time stamp information is matching then it will use logon session key to logon to the domain. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket when accessing network resources 10. What are the port numbers for Kerberos, LDAP and Global catalog Kerberos 88, LDAP 389, Global Catalog 3268 11. What is the use of LDAP (X.500 standard?) LDAP is a directory access protocol, which is used to exchange directory information from server to clients or from server to servers 12. What are the problems that are generally come across DHCP? Scope is full with IP addresses no IPs available for new machines If scope options are not configured properly eg default gateway Incorrect creation of scopes etc 13. what is the role responsible for time synchronization PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization. Time synchronization is important because Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information 14. what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS TTL is Time to Live setting used for the amount of time that the record should remain in cache when name resolution happened. We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS 15. How to take DNS and WINS, DHCP backup %System root%/system32/dns

%System root%/system32/WINS %System root%/system32/DHCP 16. What is recovery console? Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all booting. We can perform fallowing operations from recovery console We can copy, rename, or replace operating system files and folders Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer Repair the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record Create and format partitions on drives 17. What is DFS & its usage? DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and folders even when they are shared in different servers physically. There are two types of DFS domain DFS and Stand-alone DFS. We cannot provide redundancy for stand-alone DFS in case of failure. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Stand-alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Both the cases we need to create DFS root (Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links (A logical link which is pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared) The maximum number of Dfs roots per server is 1. The maximum numbers of Dfs root replicas are 31. The maximum number of Dfs roots per domain is unlimited. The maximum number of Dfs links or shared folders in a Dfs root is 1,000 18. What is RIS and what are its requirements RIS is a remote installation service, which is used to install operation system remotely. Client requirements PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1.00 or later NIC, or a network adapter that is supported by the RIS boot disk. Should meet minimum operating system requirements Software Requirements Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network Domain Name System (DNS Service) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Active directory Directory service 19. How many root replicas can be created in DFS 31 20. What is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS Refer question 17. 1. Can we establish trust relationship between two forests In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In Windows 2003 it is possible 2. What is FSMO Roles Flexible single master operation (FSMO) roll are Domain Naming Master Schema Master PDC Emulator Infrastructure Master RID Master 3. Brief all the FSMO Roles Domain Naming master and schema master are forest level roles. PDC emulator, Infrastructure master and RID master are Domain level roles; First server in the forest performs all 5 roles by default. Later we can transfer the roles Domain Naming Master: Domain naming master is responsible for maintaining the relation ship between the domains. With out this role it is not possible to add or remove any domain. Schema Master: Schema contains set of classes and attributes. eg User, computer, printer are the objects in AD which are having their own set of attributes.. Schema master is responsible for maintaining this schema. Changes to the schema will affect entire forest. PDC Emulator: Server, which is performing this role, acts as a PDC in a mixed mode to synchronize directory information between windows 2000 DC to Windows NT BDC. Server, which is performing this role, will contain latest password information. This role is also responsible for time synchronization in the forest. Infrastructure Master: It is responsible for managing group membership information in the domain. This role is responsible for updating DN when name or location of the object is modified. RID Master: Server, which is performing this role, will provide pool of RID to other domain controllers in the

domain. SID is the combination of SID and RID SID=SID+RID where SID is Security identifier common for all objects in the domain and RID is relative identifier unique for each object 4. How to manually configure FSMO Roles to separate DCs We can configure manually by two ways Through MMC We can configure Domain Naming Master role through Active directory domains and trusts We can configure Schema Master Role through Active Directory schema Other Three roles we can configure by Active directory users and computers Through command promt By using command NTDSUTILtype ROLEStype CONNECTIONSCONNECT TO SERVER SERVERNAME where server name is the name of the domain controller that you want to assign role---- Type transfer role, where role is the role that you want to transfer. For a list of roles that you can transfer, type? at the fsmo maintenance prompt, and then press ENTER, or see the list of roles at the start of this article. For example, to transfer the RID master role, type transfer rid master. The one exception is for the PDC emulator role, whose syntax is transfer pdc, not transfer pdc emulator. 5. What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore In authoritative restore, Objects that are restored will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. This can be used specifically when the entire OU is disturbed in all domain controllers or specifically restore a single object, which is disturbed in all DCs In non-authoritative restore, Restored directory information will be updated by other domain controllers based on the latest modification time. 6. what is Active Directory De-fragmentation De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by deleted objects and reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation)

7. Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation Online De-fragmentation will be performed by garbage collection process, which runs for every 12 hours by default which separate used space and white space (white space is the space created because of object deletion in AD eg User) and improves the efficiency of AD when the domain controller up and running Offline defragmentation can be done manually by taking domain controller into Restoration mode. We can only reduce the file size of directory database where as the efficiency will be same as in online defragmentation 8. What is tombstone period Tombstones are nothing but objects marked for deletion. After deleting an object in AD the objects will not be deleted permanently. It will be remain 60 days by default (which can be configurable) it adds an entry as marked for deletion on the object and replicates to all DCs. After 60 days object will be deleted permanently from all Dcs. 10. What are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Heath. How to define alert mechanism Spot Light, SNMP Need to enable. 11. How to deploy the patches and what are the softwares used for this process Using SUS (Software update services) server we can deploy patches to all clients in the network. We need to configure an option called Synchronize with Microsoft software update server option and schedule time to synchronize in server. We need to approve new update based on the requirement. Then approved update will be deployed to clients We can configure clients by changing the registry manually or through Group policy by adding WUAU administrative template in group policy 12. What is Clustering? Briefly define & explain it Clustering is a technology, which is used to provide High Availability for mission critical applications. We can configure cluster by installing MCS (Microsoft cluster service) component from Add remove programs, which can only available in Enterprise Edition and Data center edition. In Windows we can configure two types of clusters NLB (network load balancing) cluster for balancing load between servers. This cluster will not provide any high availability. Usually preferable at edge servers like web or proxy. Server Cluster: This provides High availability by configuring active-active or active-passive cluster. In 2 node activepassive cluster one node will be active and one node will be stand by. When active server fails the application will

FAILOVER to stand by server automatically. When the original server backs we need to FAILBACK the application Quorum: A shared storage need to provide for all servers which keeps information about clustered application and session state and is useful in FAILOVER situation. This is very important if Quorum disk fails entire cluster will fails Heartbeat: Heartbeat is a private connectivity between the servers in the cluster, which is used to identify the status of other servers in cluster. 13. How to configure SNMP SNMP can be configured by installing SNMP from Monitoring and Management tools from Add and Remove programs. For SNMP programs to communicate we need to configure common community name for those machines where SNMP programs (eg DELL OPEN MANAGER) running. This can be configured from services.msc--- SNMP service -- Security 14. Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how? In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In windows 2003 it is possible. On Domain controller by going to MYCOMPUTER properties we can change. 15. What is SOA Record SOA is a Start Of Authority record, which is a first record in DNS, which controls the startup behavior of DNS. We can configure TTL, refresh, and retry intervals in this record.

16. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it. Stub zones are a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to streamline name resolution, especially in a split namespace scenario. They also help reduce the amount of DNS traffic on your network, making DNS more efficient especially over slow WAN links. 17. What are the different types of partitions present in AD Active directory is divided into three partitions Configuration Partitionreplicates entire forest Schema Partitionreplicates entire forest Domain Partitionreplicate only in domain Application Partition (Only in Windows 2003) 18. What are the (two) services required for replication File Replication Service (FRS) Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) 19. Can we use a Linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain We can use, but the BIND version should be 8 or greater 20. What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6 Refer Question 1 21. What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it ASR is a two-part system; it includes ASR backup and ASR restore. The ASR Wizard, located in Backup, does the backup portion. The wizard backs up the system state, system services, and all the disks that are associated with the operating system components. ASR also creates a file that contains information about the backup, the disk configurations (including basic and dynamic volumes), and how to perform a restore. You can access the restore portion by pressing F2 when prompted in the text-mode portion of setup. ASR reads the disk configurations from the file that it creates. It restores all the disk signatures, volumes, and partitions on (at a minimum) the disks that you need to start the computer. ASR will try to restore all the disk configurations, but under some circumstances it might not be able to. ASR then installs a simple installation of Windows and automatically starts a restoration using the backup created by the ASR Wizard. 22. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy We can apply group policy at SITE level---Domain Level---OU level 23. What is Domain Policy, Domain controller policy, Local policy and Group policy Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain, because by default it will be associated with domain GPO, Where as Domain controller policy will be applied only on domain controller. By default domain controller security policy will be associated with domain controller GPO. Local policy will be applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only.

24. What is the use of SYSVOL folder Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replicating all policies and scripts 25. What is folder redirection? Folder Redirection is a User group policy. Once you create the group policy and link it to the appropriate folder object, an administrator can designate which folders to redirect and where To do this, the administrator needs to navigate to the following location in the Group Policy Object: User Configuration\Windows Settings\Folder Redirection In the Properties of the folder, you can choose Basic or Advanced folder redirection and you can designate the server file system path to which the folder should be redirected. The %USERNAME% variable may be used as part of the redirection path, thus allowing the system to dynamically create a newly redirected folder for each user to whom the policy object applies. 26. What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed, native & intrim.etc) Different Active Directory features are available at different functional levels. Raising domain and forest functional levels is required to enable certain new features as domain controllers are upgraded from Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003 Domain Functional Levels: Windows 2000 Mixed mode, Windows 2000 Native mode, Windows server 2003 and Windows server 2003 interim ( Only available when upgrades directly from Windows NT 4.0 to Windows 2003) Forest Functional Levels: Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 27. Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003. Microsoft doesnt recommend Internet Protocol security (IPSec) network address translation (NAT) traversal (NAT-T) for Windows deployments that include VPN servers and that are located behind network address translators. When a server is behind a network address translator, and the server uses IPSec NAT-T, unintended side effects may occur because of the way that network address translators translate network traffic If you put a server behind a network address translator, you may experience connection problems because clients that connect to the server over the Internet require a public IP address. To reach servers that are located behind network address translators from the Internet, static mappings must be configured on the network address translator. For example, to reach a Windows Server 2003-based computer that is behind a network address translator from the Internet, configure the network address translator with the following static network address translator mappings:

Public IP address/UDP port 500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 500. Public IP address/UDP port 4500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 4500.

These mappings are required so that all Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec NAT-T traffic that is sent to the public address of the network address translator is automatically translated and forwarded to the Windows Server 2003-based computer 28. How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage? An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can host a replica of an application directory partition. Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store application-specific data. Application directory partitions can contain any type of object, except security principals. TAPI is an example of a service that stores its application-specific data in an application directory partition. Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that will use them to store and replicate data. For testing and troubleshooting purposes, members of the Enterprise Admins group can manually create or manage application directory partitions using the Ntdsutil command-line tool.

29. Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relationship in windows 2003? Implicit Transitive trust will not be possible in windows 2003. Between forests we can create explicit trust Two-way trust One-way: incoming One-way: Outgoing

30. What is universal group membership cache in windows 2003? Information is stored locally once this option is enabled and a user attempts to log on for the first time. The domain controller obtains the universal group membership for that user from a global catalog. Once the universal group membership information is obtained, it is cached on the domain controller for that site indefinitely and is periodically refreshed. The next time that user attempts to log on, the authenticating domain controller running Windows Server 2003 will obtain the universal group membership information from its local cache without the need to contact a global catalog. By default, the universal group membership information contained in the cache of each domain controller will be refreshed every 8 hours. 31. GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003? GPMC is tool which will be used for managing group policies and will display information like how many policies applied, on which OUs the policies applied, What are the settings enabled in each policy, Who are the users effecting by these polices, who is managing these policies. GPMC will display all the above information. RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Administrator, including Administrative Templates, Folder Redirection, Internet Explorer Maintenance, Security Settings, Scripts, and Group Policy Software Installation. When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example, site, domain, domain controller, and organizational unit), the results can conflict. RSoP can help you determine a set of applied policies and their precedence (the order in which policies are applied). 32. Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how? Through Group policy you can Assign and publish the applications by creating .msi package for that application With Assign option you can apply policy for both user and computer. If it is applied to computer then the policy will apply to user who logs on to that computer. If it is applied on user it will apply where ever he logs on to the domain. It will be appear in Start menuPrograms. Once user click the shortcut or open any document having that extension then the application install into the local machine. If any application program files missing it will automatically repair. With Publish option you can apply only on users. It will not install automatically when any application program files are corrupted or deleted. 35. PPTP protocol for VPN in windows 2003? Point-to-Point-Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual private networks (VPN), enableing remote users to access corporate networks securely across the Microsoft Windows NT Workstation, Windows 95, and Windows 98 operating systems and other point-to-point protocol (PPP)enabled systems to dial into a local Internet service provider to connect securely to their corporate network through the Internet