These are the concepts that you should know for the exam. • The Series Rome o Vorenus and Pullo  Which one is the senator?  Which one is the assassin for hire? The order of the individuals (AKA order of the Readings) in this order: o Romulus o Numa o Coriolanus o Camillus o Tiberius o Gaius o Marius o Sulla o Pompey o Caesar o Augustus Who did Julius Caesar claim ancestry through? o The Goddess Venus through Aeneas, the son of the Goddess.  Therefore, he was a divine ruler, with divine blood The Years o 753 B.C. – Founding of Rome by Romulus o 509 B.C. – The Republic of Rome is Founded o 390 B.C. – The Gaulish Sack of Rome by Brennus o 15th May 44 B.C. – Julius Caesar is killed in the Senate by 60 senators o 31 B.C. – Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian wages the Roman Civil War – Battle of Actium – Marc Antony and Cleopatra are defeated by Octavian’s forces o 325 A.D. – The Council of Nicea – Solidifying Christianity as a single Religion. o Year of Augustus (27 B.C.) – Octavian is awarded the title of Augustus; becomes Roman Emperor. List of Individuals, and then assign them to their respective nationality. o E.G. Hanno to Carthage, Marius to Rome, Cleo to Egypt, Brennus to Gaul, and other.  There are the options of: • Roman, Carthaginian, Gaulish, Egyptian, and other, which

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could include Greeks, Trojans, etc. • Punic Wars – First and Second o Who fought who?  Rome vs. Carthage • You need to be able to identify Roman life and Carthaginian Life, and what the outcome was and why. Put in Order the Emperors of the Julio-Claudii Poplicola – Consul of the Roman Republic after the fall of the Kingdom. How is (insert random name) related to Julius Caesar? o E.G. How is Pompey related to Caesar?  He was Consul with Caesar, then waged the Roman Civil War against him, and lost. Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Augustus – Remember the order of his name. Put events in order Know a little bit about each of the Julio-Claudian Emperors o E.G. Caligula’s nickname “Little Boots” Constantine Hannibal and the Punic Wars Pontifex Maximus o What was the role of the Pontifex Maximus? Pro-Consul o What was the role of the Pro-Consul Praetor o What was the role of the Praetor? o Assassinations Tribune Sword and Shield of Rome – Marcellus and Fabius Maximus o Marcellus: o Fabius Maximus: Gracchii Popularis and Optimus o The “Citizens” and the “Greatest”  AKA the normal people and the Aristocrats Augustus’ propaganda minister Brennus Last Monarch of Egypt – Cleopatra Istanbul ~ Constantinople Pax Romana Who was the mother of Romulus and Remus? Claudius – Lame and Stuttered

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The First Triumvirate The Second Triumvirate

You need to know the following to complete the Short Answers 1. The significant reforms of the Roman Republic before the fall of the Roman Empire a. Including the Grain Laws, the Senate reforms, etc. 2. Punic Wars – Who were the major players? What was life like in the different cities? What was the outcome? 3. Caesar and Pompey and the Triumverates Also, you need to identify passages from the booklets. Mr. Feric gave my class a list of stuff we should be looking for in the readings, so these are the following: NOTE: Do not read Poplicola in depth. He is not including it in the identification of passages. 1) Julius Caesar a. Dictator for Life b. Pompeii Magnus c. Assassination in the Senate of Rome by the Senators d. Crossing the Rubicon i. “The Die is Cast” e. First Triumverate f. Captured by Pirates and he crucified them 2) Camillus a. Fought against the Gauls when Rome is attacked by Brennus b. Senators acting like statues in the Senate c. Sword on Scales d. Geese of Juno 3) Gaius Gracchus a. Grain Law

b. Younger brother of Tiberius – therefore, fearful of same fate 4) Tiberius Gracchus a. Murdered by senators – Scipio Nasica b. Older brother – no mention of Gaius Gracchus c. Attempts to legislate agregarian laws were met with much resistance d. Concern with the land crisis of Rome e. Lex Sempronia Agraria i. Lex Sempronia wanted to take land from the public and be given to the homeless and the war veterans. The large land owners were fed up with this. 5) Marius a. Against Sulla b. The fights against Jugurtha c. Created Professional army of Rome – Provisions and Military service d. Mithradates 6) Numa a. Second King of Rome – he was a Sabine b. Religious Reforms – Vestal Virgins, Festivals, the deification of Romulus into Quirinus c. Salii – The Shield that fell from the sky d. Nymph Wife 7) Gnaeus Pompeii a. His father left him a legacy of Military leadership b. Defeated Mithradates c. Defeated Marian Forces in Spain – Sirtorius d. Ends Spartacus revolt – Crassus actually put down the revolt e. Conquered Judia, Syria f. Civil War g. Killed by Egyptians 8) Romulus a. Founded Rome b. Brother of Remus, and raised by Prostitute or Wolf c. Built the sacred boundary of Rome d. First king of Rome e. Rape of the Sabine women f. Rome haven of rejects 9) Sulla a. Marched on Rome for first time b. Created Proscription Lists c. Fights Marius

d. Consulship of Rome 10) Coriolanus a. Huge Roman Hero b. Exiled by Rome because he spoke against the people and their troubles c. Attacks Rome with the Veians, but surrenders when Rome uses his mom and wife against him d. The Veians kill him for surrendering 11) Augustus a. Octavianus b. Defying Rome c. Imperial Household d. Returning power to the Senate e. Second Triumverate f. Defeats Marc Antony, Cleopatra, Egypt, Brutus, Crassus g. Also, in the DIVINE AUGUSTUS reading by the OTHER guy, not Plutarch, you should pay specific attention to the following paragraph numbers: 17, 18, 35, 52, 58. FOR THE READINGS IDENTIFY: 1) Who it’s about? 2) Who wrote it? 3) The person? 4) Relevance of the Event?


ROMULUS AND REMUS o Romulus kills Remus because Remus tries to mock the religious ceremony that Romulus was conducting o He was jumping over the Sacred Walls of Rome o If Romulus did not kill Remus, Rome would have become a footnote o The City of Rome was made up of outcasts of other societies o Any murderer, Criminal, or war refugee could come to Rome and claim Amnesty o The City of Rome grows rapidly at this time o 10’s of thousands of people flock to Rome o They kidnap the women from the Sabines -> A battle breaks out, and the women barter peace between the Romans and the Sabines. They join together. PUNIC WARS

The first Punic War 264-241 B.C.

WHY WAS ROME SUCCESSFUL THUS FAR? ● Reorganization of the Government in 367 B.C. ● Fides (Loyalty) maintained with allies ● Strong strategic alliances ● Fulfilled obligations to treaties ● Central geographical location in Italy ● Superior Military tactics and well-disciplined troops ● Sheer luck WHAT WAS GOING ON IN ROME AT THE TIME? ● Rome was a major manufacturer and exporter of ● Pottery (to regions that supplied grain in return) ● High-quality bronze products ● Stone onuments ● Construction of temples, Rome's first paved road. The Appian Way, and Rome's first acqueduct ● Development of bronze coinage

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Land was being confiscated and given to poor Roman farmers, which created large slave-run estates Production of Impressive art and architecture

WHAT WAS CARTHAGE? ● Major Hellenistic power ● Close contact with Greece, especially in rivalry over Sicily ● Extremely powerful navy made up of loyal citizens to protect commercial interests ● Fored other cities to become tribute-paying, as opposed to Rome's freedom for allies, and did not allow them to become military personnel ● Lacked large loyal sources of manpower vecause it was composed of conscripted natives, troops for hire, and mercenaries ● Controlled the richest mining resources in the Mediterranean WHAT SPARKED THE PUNIC WARS? ● A group of mercenaries were hired to plunder the city of Messana on Sicily, killing the men, taking the women, and plundering the territory. ● Syracuse attacked Messana in 265 BC, and the mercenaries appealed to Carthage for support. ● These same group of mercenaries, called the Mamertines, also appealed to Rome for military aid. Appius Claudius Caudex, Consul of that year, persuaded the Roman people to help. ● The Carthaginians withdrew, but were angry at the loss of Messana, so they went to go take it over and joined forces with the King of Syracuse. ● Claudius' army defeated the opposition, and sparked the Punic war. CAUSES FOR THE PUNIC WAR ● Rome's alliances included all of the Greek city-states in southern Italy. They were thus bound to help their allies being attacked by Syracuse, and they needed to prevent the capture by Carthage. ● Fear of powerful neighbours, as Sicily could be used to invade Rome. ● Desire for military glory ● Roman citizens supported Appius because they would receive income from the bounty what they would receive. ● Better access to grain supplies. OUTBREAK OF WAR ● Rome and Syracuse brokered a 15 year peace, and go to war with Carthage. ● 262 – Rome acquires the Carthaginian stronghold of Agrigentum ● A year later, Rome builds a new fleet. ● 260, 258 Rome defeats Carthage again. ● 255 B.C. - The Roman army advances into Africa, were the Carthaginians were waiting. Roman army defeated. ● 254 – Panormus was captured by Rome, modern day Palermo. They drove the Carthaginians out.

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249 – Rome lost major battle at Drepana. The Carthaginians broke the Roman Blockade. However, an internal governmental dispute arose for the Carthaginians, as a group led by Hanno defeated the previous government. The Carthaginian fleet was recalled back to reclaim Africa for the new government.

WINNING THE WAR ● Rome persuaded the wealthy to build a new fleet. The fleet went into Sicilian waters, and defeated the largely untrained Carthaginian fleet. Carthage surrenders. ● Carthage was made to abandon Sicily, and pay an indemnity of 3200 talents in 10 yearly installments, surrender all lands in Sicily and Italy, and to keep their ships out of Roman waters. EFFECTS OF WAR ● Rome had become a major naval power ● Carthage's sea power was broken ● Hundreds of ships and tens of thousands of men were lost in the war. The Second punic war – Surprisingly, I don't have any notes on this war. However, I do know that this is where Marcellus and Fabius Maximus come in, and it's when Hannibal marches over the Alps to try to defeat Rome, but Marcellus and Fabius come up with such a smart plan... I just can't remember what it is. Anyways, Carthage is defeated once again, but this time Rome burns Carthage to the ground. Wikipedia will be our best friend for this. o o o o After Punic Wars, Jugurtha attacks North Africa Consul allows Marius to go to North Africa, but is summoned back. Marius gains consulship so that he can go to North Africa However, Senate does not allow citizen army, so… MARIUS’ ARMY o He enlists the poor with promises of: o Food o Arms and Armour and Uniform o Pay o Spoils – Booty o Land Therefore… he creates the first STATE FUNDED PROFESSIONAL ARMY OF ROME Marius refines the army: o Legion: 6,000 men (Soldiers + Others) o Centuries: 80 Soldiers (+ others)

o Decade: 8 Soldiers (+others) o 6-7 Legions in an Army Marius offers Citizenship if other people join the army from non-Roman backgrounds. He was worried about the allies gaining leverage, because in the old army, the allies of Rome had more people in the army than the Romans did. In this new army, the Roman soldiers have all the power, and the allies of Rome had little to no leverage.

In 95 B.C. o The Consuls are L. Licinius Crassus and M. Mucius Scaevola o Pass a lay to ban non-citizens from the City of Rome o The Allies give their money to Tribune Drussus to pass a bill to enstate a law that gives citizenships to the allies SENATE: Oh no you didn’t! Kill Drussus! ALLIES: Oh no you didn’t! Revolt! MEANWHILE 106 – King Bocchus of Mauretania hides King Jugurtha. In 104, He is killed by Marius during his triumph in the streets of Rome. Year 101 – C. Marius and Catalus are Consul Marius has 5 years of Consulship. The Allies of Rome begin to revolt against Rome, and Sulla decides to attack the allies and ends the revolts. Marius heads North, Sulla heads south. 90 B.C. – Social War Two Armies for Rome crushing the Allies of Rome  Marius – Sulla Pompey Strabo – L. Iulius Caesar North Rome – South Rome Sulla gains the GRASS CROWN and becomes a hero of Rome. The Social War is concluded with… 91 B.C. – Lex Iulia – Grants Citizenship to Allies Senate is afraid of Marius, though, and asks Sulla for assistance ROUND ONE

Marius + L. Iulius Caesar


L. Cornelius Sulla + L. Pompeus Strabo

o Marius bribes Sulpicius, the Tribune of the People and head leads the assembly of the people. o Sulla gains consulship o Sulla listens to the Senate, and begins to march on Rome with the Veterans, and ends the bribery of Marius. o Sulla crosses the Pomerium, the sacred boundary of Rome, and enacts the Proscription Lists. o Marius flees from Rome. o Sulla is dictator of Rome. o Sulla then goes to Athens, besieges it, destroys the Piraeus, and decimates Athens. 86  Gaius Marius and Cinna are consuls, when L. Pompeus Strabo, father to Pompey Magnus, is killed. Marius dies, and Cinna is driven out of Rome. The Proscriptions Lists of Sulla names enemies of the Senate. Gnaeus Pompeus and Julius Caesar are two prominent figures of Rome. Pompey is summoned by Sulla to attack Marian forces. Julius Caesar is a boy, learning the political and military aspects of Rome. Pompey Magnus is sent by Sulla to North Africa after Marian forces go there to incite revolt against Sulla’s forces, as North Africa is loyal to Marius. Pompey is victorious, and demands a triumph and Pro-Consular Imperium. Marian Forces in Hispania  Sertorius. He is killed by his own General, who thought that he was better. Turns out he wasn’t, and Pompey crushes them too. So… 71 BC  M. Licinius Crassus is fighting the Spartacus Revolt, with is the 3rd Servile Revolt. Pompey kills Spartacus by Crucifying him, and takes the credit for killing him, when Crassus was really the major player in the defeat of the Revolt. By this time, Pompey has accomplished: ● ● ● ● ● ● The Reclamation of Sicily The Reclamation of North Africa The Reclamation of Hispania The Destruction of Pirate Forces The Defeat of the Slaves The Claim of Syria and Judea

● The Defeat of Mithridates in Pontus ● Pro-Consular Imperium Pompey thus wants to stand for Consulship. Therefore, in 69 B.C…. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and M. Licinius Crassus are CONSULS. G. Julius Caesar returns from Athens. Marc Antonius is commander of the Pirate decimation by Pompey. Magnus takes control of the Mediterranean into 13 district, and defeats the pirates in less than a year. ARMENIA  Under Command of King Tigranes Pompey takes over Armenia, and kills Tigranes. Middle East is then annexed into the Roman Republic. POMPEIUS finally returns to Rome. Finally, the FIRST TRIUMVERATE is formed. GNAEUS POMPEIUS MAGNUS MARCUS LICINIUS CRASSUS GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR Reasons for the Triumverate: 1) Crassus wanted Consulship and Parthia, however he dies in Parthia 2) Caesar wanted Consulship, Gaul, and the position of Pontifex Maximus 3) Pompey wanted land for his veterans Each of the three members of the triumverate could offer what the others wanted. Crassus could give Pompey land, Pompey could give Caesar and Crassus the ability to go to Gaul and Parthia, and Caesar could bolster support for both. Each of their terms pass, and Crassus is dead, and neither are consuls. 63 B.C.  Cicero is Consul. He is neither noble nor patrician, and is called a “Homo Novum,” or new man, the term referred to those who are not of noble blood who ascend to this rank. Cicero is from Arpineum. o Cataline attempts to overthrow the Government. o Cataline dies in the attempt o Because he was a Roman Citizen, he might not have had that much effect on Cicero. However, Cicero has him killed without  SENATUS CONSULTUM ULTIMUM • Thus, Cataline’s death is technically illegal.

62 B.C.  Publius Claudius Pulcher o The Bona Dea scandal o While Julius Caesar was having a celebration, he dressed as a woman to have an affair with Julius Caesar’s wife. Pulcher causes scandal.  Cicero chastises Claudius, because Cicero once held respect for him and his family. He is set to be exiled, but bribes the prosecutor.  Julius Divorces his wife  Pulcher hates Cicero now. 61 B.C.  Julius Caesar convinces the Senate to allow Pulcher to be adopted by the plebian ranks of Pulcher’s family. o Pulcher’s family is a powerful patrician family. o His name is changed to Publius Clodius Pulcher, because Clodius is the Plebian part of Claudius’ family. o Lex Clodia was a law that punished anyone who killed a Roman Citizen unlawfully. Cicero is thus exiled because of it. HOWEVER. Cicero was invited into the Triumvirate, but he REJECTED it, because he feared the implications. Pompey returns to Rome in 61 B.C. o He finds that power is not given to him. o The people believe he has too much power. However, Pompey just wants his soldiers to have land. 59 B.C.  Caesar is Consul, and begins to pass laws for his friends. o Crassus is granted an army to go to Parthia o Julius gaines the favour of Clodius and gets Pompey land. o Julius now controls the Senate AND the Assembly of People o Julius is given Pro-Consulship of Trans-Alpine Gaul 58-53 B.C.  Julius controls Trans-Alpine Gaul and wants to Conquer the rest of Gaul. Crassus Dies. CAESAR CONQUERS GAUL AND ESTABLISHES FOOTHOLD IN BRITANNIA. HE SENDS MONEY BACK TO ROME TO PAY FOR PANEM ET CIRCENSIS  BREAD AND CIRCUS, FOOD AND ENTERTAINMENT FOR HIS PEOPLE. “Julius Caesar – Husband to all women and wife to all men.” Now comes the information presented in HBO: ROME. For review of the series, you can log onto to, and click on the SERIALS option in the left hand menu. Then click Rome, and select the episode you wish you watch.

JUST SOME CLARIFICATION: Pullo and Vorenus don’t actually exist. Atia’s Husband, Lucius Marcius Phillipus is actually alive during the events of the series. Pompey wanted Anenobarbus to attack Caesar, but he denies. Caesar takes Rome, drives Pompey to Greece. He goes to Spain and crushes the Pompey forces there. Caesar moves to Greece, and ace off at Munda, and Pompey defeats Caesar, and kills 1,000 of Caesar’s elite army. However, Caesar somehow defeats Pompey and is driven to Egypt, where Ptolemy XIII kills him. Caesar cries over this, kills Ptolemy XIII, and installs Cleopatra as the ruler. He returns to Rome, and Cato and Scipio raise armies in Africa. Marc Antony has promised his armies in Rome things he cannot fulfill, and a riot breaks out. When Caesar arrives, he promises the soldiers to give them money after he goes to Africa. The armies clammer to join him, as he act as though he does not need them, and refer to them as citizens. He then uses them to defeat Scipio and Cato in Africa. CAESAR is then made Consul for Life is made Eternal Dictator is given an elite bodyguard for life is made Commander of all armies VENI, VIDI, VICI  The Defeat of Pontus. Temple of Venus Genetrix Caesar built the temple of Venus, and as he is sitting in the temple, the Senate sends a delegation to him to discuss the state of Rome. Caesar did not rise, perhaps due to epilepsy, hypoglacemia, or others. However, they believed that it was insubordination, so Brutus and the Senate plot his death. In 44, the Senate wants Caesar dead. They assassinate him. After that, Antony names Octavian as Caesar’s heir, and he comes to claim his stuff. However, he finds that Antony is taking advantage of the Army. He forms a 5 year contract with Leppidus, and Marc Antony, which forms the SECOND TRIUMVERATE. He then re-enacts the proscription lists, and names 300 Senators and 2000 Knights to be put to death, and Cicero is killed. The Battle of Actium After the Triumverate’s 5 years is finished, Brutus and Cassius, the perpetrators of Caesar’s demise, are killed by Octavian. He then wages war with M. Antony, and defeats

him at Actium. Then, Egypt rises against Octavian. Marc Antony and Cleopatra try to defeat Octavian, but they are unsuccessful, and are defeated. Octavian takes personal control of Egypt. 31 B.C.  Octavian is sole leader of Rome, and is named Divus Filius, and is adopted into the posthumous Julius Caesar’s family. He is given the title Augustus by the Senate, and he reinstates the entire Senate, and returns some power to them. GAIUS MAECENAS Octavian needed a propaganda minister, and Maecenas was it. The greatest poets and writers were paid by this man to write about the euphoric greatness of Augustus, and would become his greatest asset. Also, Emperor Augustus put his friends Agrippa and Tiberius in charge of his army. THE ROMAN EMPIRE IS BORN. Caesar Augustus • • • • • • • • • 63 BC – 14 AD Won 18 Year war against Marc Antony Adopted into Caesar’s Family Given the name Augustus, meaning greatest one, divine one. REIGN OF AUGUSTUS returned to the basics of the Republic (in theory) Senate received nominal powers of governing. Allowed free elections Accepted the name of “princeps civitatis” or First Citizen. Held a variety of jobs but ruled effectively regardless of position

AUGUSTINIAN CODE Roman Law was rewritten and solidified Basis of Western Laws today Equity Honest Government Road System Postal System and City Infrastructure Standardized Currency System Improved Harbours The introduction of the Imperial Household.

MILITARY of AUGUSTUS He reduced the size of the army, but created permanent armies. Territorial Expansion  Largest Expansion of Rome to ensure peace at the borders. Generalship is given to loyalists Tiberius and Agrippa German Defeat  Herman the German (haha.) Central Europe and the Balkans under Roman control. Hispania consolidation Africa, Egypt under Augustus’ command. PAX ROMANA – Two Centuries of Roman Peace for 60 Million People. WORSHIP of Roma et Augustus Deifying the City Rome. Succession was a problem No Male Heir He adopted his step son, Tiberius, after his other heirs are killed Allowed for Stable leadership despite inept Emperors because of Imperial Household. TIBERIUS was the first one to take the title Imperator Augustus, which means Commander or Supreme Imperial General. Julio-Claudians  Reigned for 50 years. Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.

Lacking any male child and heir, Augustus married his only natural daughter Julia to his nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus. However, Marcellus died of food poisoning in 23 BC. Augustus then married his widowed daughter to his loyal friend, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. This marriage produced five children, three sons and two daughters: Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Vipsania Julia, Agrippina, and Postumus Agrippa. Gaius and Lucius, the first two children of Julia and Agrippa, were adopted by Augustus and became heirs to the throne. Though, Augustus also showed great favor towards Livia's children from her first marriage, Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus and his brother Tiberius Claudius Nero. They were successful military leaders who had fought against the barbaric Germanic tribes. Agrippa died in 12 BC, and Tiberius was ordered by Augustus to divorce his wife Vipsania Agrippina and to marry the twice widowed Julia. Drusus, the brother of Tiberius died in 9 BC, as he fell from a horse. Tiberius shared in Augustus' tribune powers, but shortly thereafter in 6 BC, he departed for Rhodes, into voluntary exile. After the early

deaths of both Lucius (2) and Gaius (4), Augustus, forced Tiberius to become the next Roman emperor. banished Postumus Agrippa (around 6 or 7) to the small island of Planasia. Tiberius was recalled to Rome and was officially adopted by Augustus.

On 19 August 14, Augustus died. Tiberius had already been established as Princeps in all but name, and his position as heir was confirmed in Augustus' will. Despite his difficult relationship with the Senate, Tiberius's first years were generally good. He stayed true to Augustus’s plans for the succession and favored his adopted son Germanicus over his natural son, Drusus, as did the Roman populace. On Tiberius's request, Germanicus was granted proconsular power and assumed command in the prime military zone of Germania, where he suppressed the mutiny there and led the formerly restless legions on campaigns against Germanic tribes from 14 to 16 AD. Germanicus died at Syria in 19 AD and, on his deathbed, accused the governor of Syria, Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, of murdering him at Tiberius’s orders. With Germanicus dead, Tiberius began elevating his own son Drusus to replace him as the Imperial successor. By this time Tiberius had left more of the day-to-day running of the Empire to Lucius Aelius Sejanus. Sejanus created an atmosphere of fear in Rome, controlling a network of informers and spies whose incentive to accuse others of treason was a share in the accused's property after their conviction and death. Treason trials became commonplace; few members of the Roman aristocracy were safe. The trials played up to Tiberius' growing paronoia, which made him more reliant on Sejanus, as well as allowing Sejanus to eliminate potential rivals. Tiberius, perhaps sensitive to this ambition, rejected Sejanus's initial proposal to marry Livilla in 25 AD, but later had withdrawn his objections so that, in 30 AD, Sejanus was betrothed to Livilla's daughter, Tiberius' granddaughter. Sejanus’ family connection to the Imperial house was now imminent, and in 31 AD Sejanus held the Consulship with the emperor as his colleague, an honor Tiberius reserved only for heirs to the throne. When he was summoned to a meeting of the Senate on 18 October in that year he probably expected to receive a share of the tribunician power. Instead, however, Tiberius' letter to the Senate completely unexpectedly requested the destruction of Sejanus and his faction. A purge followed, in which Sejanus and his most prominent supporters were killed. Rome’s second Emperor died at the port town of Misenum on March 16, 37 AD, at the age of seventy-eight in a reign of 23 years. Suetonius writes that the Prefect of the Praetorian Guard Naevius Sutorius Macro smothered Tiberius with a pillow to hasten Caligula's accession. According to Suetonius, he was known for his cruelty and debauchery through his perversion on the island of Capri where he forced young boys into sexual pleasure and orgies. On one account when one of the boys complained, Tiberius broke his legs. However Suetonius' claims have to be taken with a degree of scepticism.

Caligula “Little Boots”
The death of Tiberius, another tragedy for the Julio-Cladian Dynasty, precipitated the accession of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, who was born on August 31, 12.

Most commonly known as Caligula, he was the third Roman Emperor ruling from 37 to 41. When Tiberius died on March 16, 37, Caligula was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius’s will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus as joint heirs. Caligula ordered Gemellus killed within a matter of months. Backed by Naevius Sutorius Macro, Caligula asserted his dominance. There were several unsuccessful attempts made at Caligula's life. The successful conspiracy that ended Caligula's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard. The historian Josephus claims that the conspirators wished to restore the Republic while the historian Suetonius claims their motivations were purely personal. On January 24, 41, the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Caligula alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. Together with another aggrieved tribune, Cornelius Sabinus, he also killed Caligula's wife Caesonia and their infant daughter, Julia Drusilla by smashing her head against a wall.

After Caligula’s death, the senate attempted and failed to restore the Republic. Claudius, Caligula's uncle, became emperor by the instigation of the Praetorian Guards. Claudius' reign also included several attempts at his life. In order to gain political support, he married Agrippina the Younger and adopted her son Nero. With his adoption on February 25, 50 Nero became heir to the throne. Claudius died on October 13, 54 and Nero became emperor. A number of ancient historians accuse Agrippina of poisoning Claudius, but details on these private events vary widely.

Nero became emperor in 54 at seventeen, the youngest Emperor yet. Ancient historians describe Nero's early reign as being strongly influenced by his mother Agrippina, his tutor Seneca, and the Praetorian Prefect Burrus, especially in the first year. In 55, Nero began taking on a more active role as an administrator. He was consul four times between 55 and 60. Nero consolidated power over time through the execution and banishment of his rivals and slowly usurped authority from the Senate. In 64 Rome burned. Nero enacted a public relief effort as well as large reconstruction projects. To fund this, the provinces were heavily taxed following the fire. By 65, senators complained that they had no power left and this led to the Pisonian conspiracy. The conspiracy failed and its members were executed. Vacancies after the conspiracy allowed Nymphidius Sabinus to rise in the praetorian guard. In late 67 or early 68, Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis in Gaul, rebelled against the tax policies of Nero. Lucius Virginius Rufus, the governor of superior Germany was sent to put down the rebellion. To gain support, Vindex called on Galba, the governor of Hispania Citerior in Spain, to become emperor. Virginius Rufus defeated Vindex's forces and Vindex committed suicide. Galba was declared a public enemy and his legion was confined in the city of Clunia.

Nero had regained the control of the empire militarily, but this opportunity was used by his enemies in Rome. By June of 68 the senate voted Galba the emperor and decared Nero a public enemy. The praetorian guard was bribed to betray Nero by Nymphidius Sabinus, who desired to become emperor himself. Nero reportedly committed suicide with the help of his scribe Epaphroditos. With his death, the Julio-Claudian dynasty came to an end. Chaos ensued in the Year of the four emperors. Refer to the Powerpoint for more information on these people. Also, go to: All that’s left is to review any notes.

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