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Solar passive

design for new


buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City




CHAPTER 1 Solar passive design for new buildings

1.1 Solar Passive design for new buildings

1.1 Guidelines

AcIIeve LIermuI und vIsuuI comIorL InsIde LIe buIIdIng by usIng
nuLuruI energy sources und sInks, so LIuL LIere Is sIgnIIIcunL
reducLIon In energy consumpLIon by convenLIonuI uIr
condILIonIng und urLIIIcIuI IIgILIng In u buIIdIng.











Figure 1.1.1: Verandah with arches as a solar-passive strategy























Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City



1.2 Proposed mandatory clause

DesIgn exLernuI sIudIng Ior wIndows Lo cuL IeuL guIns Irom
dIrecL soIur rudIuLIon und Lo proLecL uguInsL ruIn. n uIr-
condILIoned buIIdIngs, wIndows sIouId compIy wILI LIe Energy
ConservuLIon BuIIdIng Code (ECBC) requIremenLs. RooIs eILIer
sIouId compIy wILI LIe ECBC requIremenLs or sIouId be
sIuded.

Table 1.2.1: Roof assembly U-factor requirements as per ECBC 2007
Climate zone 24-hour-use buildings
Hospitals, hotels, call
centres, etc.
Daytime-use buildings
Other building types
Maximum U-factor of the
overall assembly (W/m
2
-K)
Maximum U-factor of the
overall assembly (W/m
2
-K)
Moderate U-0.409 U-409

Table 1.2.2: Vertical fenestration U-factor and SHGC requirements (U-factor in
W/m
2
-K)
Climate
Maximum U-
factor (W/m
2
-K)
Maximum SHGC
for WWR 40%
Maximum SHGC for 40% <
WWR 60%
Moderate 6.9 0.4 0.3

















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Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit


1.3 Technical guidelines

1.3.1 Solar-passive design
SoIur-pussIve buIIdIngs ure desIgned
Lo ucIIeve LIermuI und vIsuuI comIorL
by usIng nuLuruI energy sources und
sInks, e.g. soIur rudIuLIon, ouLsIde uIr,
weL surIuces, vegeLuLIon, eLc. TIe
soIur-pussIve desIgn sLruLegy sIouId
vury Irom one cIImuLe Lo unoLIer. or
exumpIe, In BunguIore, wIIcI IuIIs In
LIe moderuLe cIImuLe zone, nuLuruI
venLIIuLIon couId be very eIIecLIve;
Iowever, In Hyderubud, wIIcI IuIIs
under LIe IoL und dry cIImuLe zone,
evuporuLIve cooIIng couId be very
eIIecLIve.
Figure 1.3.1: Forms in the
building acting as shading device

ArcIILecLs und DesIgners cun ucIIeve energy eIIIcIency In LIe
buIIdIngs LIey desIgn by sLudyIng LIe mucro und mIcro cIImuLe
oI LIe sILe, uppIyIng soIur-pussIve und bIocIImuLIc desIgn
IeuLures und LukIng udvunLuge oI nuLuruI resources on sILe.

DesIgners cun ucIIeve u soIur-pussIve buIIdIng desIgn by
IoIIowIng LIe sLeps menLIoned beIow:
1. ModuIuLIng LIe mIcrocIImuLe oI LIe sILe LIrougI
IundscupIng.
z. OpLImIzIng LIe orIenLuLIon und buIIdIng Iorm.
. OpLImIzIng LIe buIIdIng enveIope und wIndow desIgn Lo
reduce LIe cooIIng demund.
q. AppIyIng duyIIgIL InLegruLIon Lo reduce LIe urLIIIcIuI
IIgILIng demund.
. AdopLIng Iow-energy pussIve cooIIng sLruLegIes.


1.3.2 Landscaping
undscupIng by vegeLuLIon Is one oI LIe mosL eIIecLIve wuys oI
uILerIng mIcrocIImuLe Ior beLLer condILIons. Trees provIde buIIer
Lo sun, IeuL, noIse, und uIr poIIuLIon. undscupIng cun be used








Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
Lo dIrecL or dIverL LIe uIr IIow udvunLugeousIy. Trees IeIp Lo
sIude LIe buIIdIng Irom InLense dIrecL soIur rudIuLIon. Tree
specIes couId be seIecLed dependIng upon LIe cIImuLe zone und
buIIdIng desIgn.










Figure 1.3.2: Water and trees as landscape elements at Sangath, Ahmedabad

DecIduous Lrees, Ior exumpIe, provIde sIude In LIe summer und
sunIIgIL In LIe wInLer wIen LIeIr Ieuves IuII. PIunLIng LIem on
LIe wesL und souLIwesL orIenLuLIon oI u buIIdIng provIdes
nuLuruI sIude. Evergreen Lrees provIde sIude und wInd conLroI
round LIe yeur. NuLuruI cooIIng wILIouL uIr condILIonIng cun be
ucIIeved by IocuLIng Lrees Lo cIunneIIze cooI breeze InsIde LIe
buIIdIng. AddILIonuIIy, LIe sIude provIded by Lrees reduces LIe
uIr LemperuLure oI LIe mIcrocIImuLe uround LIe buIIdIng
LIrougI evupoLrunspIruLIon. ProperIy desIgned rooI gurdens
IeIp Lo reduce IeuL Iouds In u buIIdIng.

1.3.3 Water bodies
WuLer Ius u moderuLIng eIIecL on LIe uIr LemperuLure oI LIe
mIcrocIImuLe. L possesses very IIgI LIermuI sLoruge cupucILy,
mucI IIgIer LIun LIe buIIdIng muLerIuIs, IIke brIck, concreLe,
und sLone. A Iurge body oI wuLer In LIe Iorm oI u Iuke, rIver or
IounLuIn Ius LIe ubIIILy Lo moderuLe LIe uIr LemperuLure In LIe
mIcrocIImuLe. WuLer evuporuLIon Ius u cooIIng eIIecL on LIe
surroundIngs. L Lukes up IeuL Irom LIe uIr LIrougI evuporuLIon
und cuuses sIgnIIIcunL cooIIng.

1.3.4 Orientation
n soIur-pussIve buIIdIngs, orIenLuLIon Is u mujor desIgn
consIderuLIon, muInIy wILI regurd Lo soIur rudIuLIon, duyIIgIL,
und wInd. TIe orIenLuLIon oI LIe buIIdIng sIouId be bused on
wIeLIer cooIIng or IeuLIng Is u predomInunL requIremenL In LIe
buIIdIng. TIe umounL oI soIur rudIuLIon IuIIIng on u surIuce



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Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
vurIes wILI orIenLuLIon. or exumpIe, In LropIcuI cIImuLe zones,
norLI orIenLuLIon receIves soIur rudIuLIon wILI mInImum
InLensILy us sIown In Igure 1.. TIus, In u LropIcuI cIImuLe,
IIke ndIu, Iong Iuudes oI buIIdIngs orIenLed Lowurds
norLIsouLI ure preIerred. SouLI orIenLuLIon receIves muxImum
soIur rudIuLIon durIng wInLers, wIIcI Is preIerubIe. EusL und
wesL receIve muxImum soIur rudIuLIon durIng summer. WesL Is
u crucIuI orIenLuLIon, becuuse IIgI InLensILy oI soIur rudIuLIon Is
receIved durIng evenIng Iours, wIen LIe InLernuI guIns ure uIso
uL ILs peuk. TIus, desIgners need Lo be very cureIuI wIIIe
desIgnIng LIe wesL Iuude und spuces beIInd LIe wesL Iuude.
OrIenLuLIon uIso pIuys un ImporLunL roIe wILI respecL Lo LIe
wInd dIrecLIon. AL LIe buIIdIng IeveI, orIenLuLIon uIIecLs LIe IeuL
guIn LIrougI LIe buIIdIng enveIope und LIus LIe cooIIng
demund. OrIenLuLIon muy uIIecL LIe duyIIgIL IucLor, dependIng
upon LIe surroundIng buIIL Iorms, und IInuIIy dependIng upon
LIe wIndwurd und Ieewurd orIenLuLIon. enesLruLIon couId be
desIgned Lo InLegruLe nuLuruI venLIIuLIon.















Figure 1.3.3: Average daily solar radiation received on the north orientation
faade








Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City


Figure 1.3.4: Average daily solar radiation received on the south orientation
faade














Figure 1.3.5: Average daily solar radiation received on the east orientation faade



7




Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit





F
i
g
u
r
e

1
Fiure1.3.6: Average daily radiation received on the west orientation faade

1.3.5 Building form: surface to volume ratio
TIermuI perIormunce oI LIe voIume oI u spuce InsIde LIe
buIIdIng Ius dIrecL reIuLIonsIIp wILI LIe ureu oI LIe enveIope
encIosIng LIuL voIume. TIIs purumeLer, known us LIe
surIuceJvoIume ruLIo (SJV), Is deLermIned by LIe buIIdIng Iorm.
TIe buIIdIng Iorm uIIecLs soIur uccess und wInd exposure us weII
us LIe ruLe oI IeuL guIn und IeuL Ioss LIrougI LIe exLernuI
enveIope. A compucL buIIdIng guIns Iess IeuL durIng LIe duyLIme
und Iosses Iess IeuL uL nIgIL. n BunguIore, buIIdIngs LIuL ure
compucL und Iuve Iow SJV Lo reduce IeuL guIns ure preIerred.
our buIIdIng geomeLrIes were sLudIed Ior LIe BunguIore
cIImuLe zone Lo unuIyze LIe mosL-eIIIcIenL Iorm, wIIcI guIns
mInImum IeuL guIn Irom LIe exLernuI surIuces. TIese were
squure, recLunguIur, courLyurd, und cIrcuIur.

n LIe moderuLe cIImuLe zone oI BunguIore, LIe Energy
PerIormunce ndex (EP) oI u cIrcuIur buIIdIng Is LIe IowesL, In
compurIson Lo oLIer buIIdIng Iorms. TIIs Is becuuse u cIrcuIur
buIIdIng Ius LIe IowesL SJV. L Is observed In VIsuuIDOE
soILwure resuILs LIuL due Lo LIe cIrcuIur geomeLry, conducLIon
guIns Irom LIe buIIdIng enveIope us weII us soIur guIns Irom
wIndows ure LIe IeusL In compurIson Lo oLIer buIIdIng
geomeLrIes.
TIe buIIdIng Iorm uIso deLermInes LIe uIr IIow uround LIe
buIIdIng und Ience LIe venLIIuLIon ruLes InsIde. TIe cIrcuIur
Iorm oI u buIIdIng Is un uerodynumIc Iorm, wIIcI wouId uIso
IeIp enIunce nuLuruI venLIIuLIon InsIde LIe buIIdIng. TIe depLI
oI LIe buIIdIng deLermInes LIe umounL oI duyIIgIL, wIIcI cun








Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
peneLruLe InsIde LIe buIIdIng. TIe deeper LIe buIIdIng Is, LIe
more urLIIIcIuI IIgIL Is requIred, wIIcI Is noL preIerred In un
energy-eIIIcIenL buIIdIng.






Figure 1.8: Building forms simulated for surface to volume ratio

1.3.6 Optimization of the building envelop
CIoIce oI buIIdIng muLerIuIs Ior LIe enveIop Is ImporLunL Lo
reduce energy consumpLIon oI u buIIdIng LIrougI reduced soIur
IeuL guIn or Ioss, LIus reducIng uIr-condILIonIng Iouds.
OpLImIzed seIecLIon oI buIIdIng muLerIuIs Ior mukIng LIe
exLernuI enveIop uIso pIuys un ImporLunL roIe In ucIIevIng
LIermuI comIorL In buIIdIngs, wIere LIermuI comIorL Is
ucIIeved LIrougI pussIve-cooIIng sLruLegIes, sucI us nuLuruI
venLIIuLIon.

Building envelope
BuIIdIng enveIop componenLs ure LIe key deLermInunLs oI LIe
umounL oI IeuL guIn or Ioss und wInd LIuL enLers LIe buIIdIng.
TIe ImporLunL componenLs oI u buIIdIng enveIop LIuL uIIecL LIe
perIormunce oI LIe buIIdIng ure:

o WuIIs
o RooI
o WIndows
o SurIuce IInIsIes

1.3.7 Walls
WuIIs ure u mujor purL oI LIe buIIdIng enveIop, wIIcI ure
exposed Lo exLernuI envIronmenL condILIons (soIur rudIuLIon,
ouLsIde uIr LemperuLure, wInd, precIpILuLIon). TIe composILIon
oI u wuII und LIereby ILs IeuL-sLorIng cupucILy und IeuL-
conducLIon properLy Iuve u mujor ImpucL on Indoor LIermuI
comIorL In nuLuruIIy venLIIuLed buIIdIngs und on cooIIng Iouds In
uIr-condILIoned buIIdIngs. TIe wuII muLerIuI, LIIckness, und
IInIsIes sIouId be seIecLed uccordIng Lo LIe cIImuLe zone und
buIIdIng`s comIorL requIremenLs.




9




Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
1.3.8 Thermal storage/thermal capacity
TIermuI cupucILy Is LIe meusure oI LIe umounL oI energy
requIred Lo ruIse LIe LemperuLure oI u Iuyer oI u muLerIuI; IL Is u
producL oI LIe densILy und specIIIc IeuL und voIume oI LIe
consLrucLIon Iuyer. TIe muIn eIIecL oI IeuL sLoruge wILIIn LIe
buIIdIng sLrucLure Is Lo moderuLe IIucLuuLIon In LIe Indoor
LemperuLure.

n u buIIdIng sysLem, LIermuI muss cun be deIIned us LIe ubIIILy
oI u buIIdIng muLerIuI Lo sLore IeuL energy Lo buIunce LIe
IIucLuuLIons In LIe IeuL energy requIremenLs or room
LemperuLure In LIe buIIdIng due Lo LIe vuryIng ouLsIde uIr
LemperuLure. TIe cupucILy Lo sLore IeuL depends upon LIe muss
und LIereIore on LIe densILy oI LIe muLerIuI us weII us on ILs
specIIIc IeuL cupucILy. TIus, IIgI-densILy muLerIuIs, sucI us
concreLe, brIcks, und sLone, ure suId Lo Iuve IIgI LIermuI muss,
owIng Lo LIeIr IIgI cupucILy Lo sLore IeuL, wIIIe IIgILweIgIL
muLerIuIs, sucI us wood or pIusLIcs, Iuve Iow LIermuI muss. TIe
IeuL-sLorIng cupucILy oI buIIdIng muLerIuIs IeIp ucIIeve LIermuI
comIorL condILIons by provIdIng u LIme-deIuy. TIIs LIermuI
sLoruge eIIecL Increuses wILI IncreusIng compucLness, densILy ,
und specIIIc IeuL cupucILy oI muLerIuIs.

1.3.9 Conductivity
ConducLIvILy (K) Is deIIned us LIe quunLILy oI IeuL In LIe
sLeudy-sLuLe condILIons IIowIng LIe unIL LIme LIrougI u unIL
ureu oI u sIub oI unIIorm muLerIuI oI InIInILe exLenL und oI unIL
LIIckness, wIen unIL dIIIerence oI LemperuLure Is esLubIIsIed
beLween ILs Iuces. TIe unIL Is WJm-K (WuLL per meLer - degree
KeIvIn). TIe conducLIvILy vuIue vurIes Irom o.o WJm-K Ior
InsuIuLors Lo qoo WJm-K Ior meLuIs. MuLerIuIs wILI Iower
conducLIvILy ure preIerred, us LIey ure beLLer InsuIuLors und
wouId reduce LIe exLernuI IeuL guIns Irom LIe enveIop.

1.3.10 Thermal insulation
TIermuI InsuIuLIon pIuys un ImporLunL roIe In reducIng LIe
conducLunce or U vuIue (WJm
z
-K) oI wuIIs und rooIs.
nsuIuLIon sIouId uIwuys be pIuced on LIe IoLLer sIde oI LIe
surIuce.
TIermuI muss Is noL u subsLILuLe Ior InsuIuLIon; In IucL, u IIgI
LIermuI muss muLerIuI Is usuuIIy noL u good LIermuI InsuIuLor.
BuIIdIngs sIouId use InsuIuLIon In combInuLIon wILI IeuL-
sLorIng muLerIuIs. TIIs sLorIng muss sIouId be pIuced Lowurds
LIe InsIde In pussIveIy cooIed buIIdIngs.









Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
ECBC requirements for external walls
or uIr-condILIoned buIIdIngs, LIe ECBC recommends LIermuI
perIormunce Ior exLernuI opuque wuIIs. TIese ure menLIoned
beIow:

Table 1.3.1: Roof assembly U-factor requirements as per ECBC 2007
Climate zone 24-hour-use buildings
Hospitals, hotels, call centers,
etc.
Daytime-use buildings
Other building types
Maximum U-factor of the overall
assembly (W/m
2
-K)
Maximum U-factor of the
overall assembly (W/m
2
-K)
Moderate U-0.440 U-440

1.3.11 Optimization of roofs
Ig 1..; sIows LIuL LIe InLensILy oI soIur IrrudIuLIon Is
muxImum on LIe IorIzonLuI pIune, wIIcI Is LIe rooI.
ConducLunce oI IeuL Irom LIe rooI cun be very IIgI, II noL
InsuIuLed weII. TIIs cun resuIL In Increused cooIIng Ioud, II LIe
spuce beIow Is uIr condILIoned, or IIgI-dIscomIorL Iours, II LIe
spuce beIow Is nuLuruIIy venLIIuLed.













Figure 1.3.7: Average daily intensity of solar radiation incident on the
horizontal roof surface in Bangalore




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Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
1.3.12 Techniques to reduce heat gains through roofs

Green rooI concepL
Green rooIs Iuve LIe poLenLIuI Lo Improve LIe LIermuI
perIormunce oI u rooIIng sysLem LIrougI sIudIng, InsuIuLIon,
evupoLrunspIruLIon und LIermuI muss, LIus reducIng u
buIIdIng`s energy demund Ior spuce condILIonIng. TIe green
rooI moderuLes LIe IeuL IIow LIrougI LIe rooIIng sysLem und
IeIps In reducIng LIe LemperuLure IIucLuuLIons due Lo LIe
cIungIng ouLsIde envIronmenL.








Figure 1.3.8: Roof of buildings with roof garden

A green rooI Is u rooI oI u buIIdIng LIuL Is purLIuIIy or compIeLeIy
covered wILI vegeLuLIon und soII LIuL Is pIunLed over LIe
wuLerprooIIng membrune. I wIdeIy used, green rooIs cun uIso
reduce LIe probIem oI un urbun IeuL IsIund, wIIcI wouId
IurLIer reduce energy consumpLIon In urbun ureus.








Figure 1.3.9: Broken china mosaic can be used as an external roof finish to
reflect the incident solar radiation

Use oI IIgI reIIecLIve muLerIuIs on LIe rooI Lop
Use IIgIL-coIored rooIs IuvIng u soIur reIIecLunce Index (SR) oI
o% or more. TIe durk coIored, LrudILIonuI rooIIng IInIsIes Iuve
SR vuryIng Irom Lo zo%. A good exumpIe oI IIgI SR Is LIe
use oI broken cIInu mosuIc und IIgIL-coIored LIIes us rooI
IInIsIes, wIIcI reIIecL IeuL oII LIe surIuce becuuse oI IIgI soIur
reIIecLIvILy und InIrured emILLunce, wIIcI, In Lurn, prevenLs IeuL








Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
guIn und LIus IeIp In reducIng LIe cooIIng Ioud Irom LIe
buIIdIng enveIop.

TIermuI InsuIuLIon Ior rooI
WeII-InsuIuLed rooIs wILI LIe InsuIuLIon pIuced on LIe exLernuI
sIde ure un eIIecLIve meusure Lo reduce soIur IeuL guIns Irom LIe
rooI Lop. TIe InsuIuLed muLerIuIs sIouId be weII proLecLed by
wuLer prooIIng.

or uIr-condILIoned spuces, LIe Energy ConservuLIon BuIIdIng
Code (ECBC) recommends LIe LIermuI perIormunce Ior
exLernuI rooIs Ior uII LIe IIve cIImuLe zones In ndIu. BunguIore
IuIIs under LIe moderuLe cIImuLe zone, LIe muxImum U-vuIue
recommended by LIe ECBC Ior LIe moderuLe cIImuLe zone Is
menLIoned beIow:

Table 1.3.2: Roof assembly U-factor requirements as per ECBC 2007
Climate
zone
24-hour-use buildings
Hospitals, hotels, call centers, etc.
Daytime-use buildings
Other building types
Maximum U-factor of the overall
assembly (W/m
2
-K)
Maximum U-factor of the overall
assembly (W/m
2
-K)
Moderate U-0.409 U-409

Table 1.3.3: Examples of the ECBC-compliant roof assembly
Roof U factor
(W/m
2
-K)
U factor Btu/h
(sf-oF)
Foam concrete or perlite instead of mud Phuska 0.069 0.012
RCC slab with extruded polystyrene 2.4 36 kg/m
3
0.380 0.067
RCC slab with Extruded polystyrene 3 36 kg/m
3
0.312 0.055
RCC slab with Expanded polystyrene (thermocole) 3
24 kg/m
3

0.409 0.072
RCC slab with Phenolic foam 2.4 32 kg/m
3
0.363 0.064
RCC slab with phenolic foam 3 32 kg/m
3
0.301 0.053
RCC slab with polyurethane spray 2.4 42 2 kg/m
3
0.319 0.056
RCC slab with polyurethane spray 3 42 2 kg/m
3
0.259 0.046



13




Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
RCC slab with polyisocyanurate spray 2.4 42 kg/m
3
0.329 0.058
RCC slab with polyisocyanurate spray 3 42 kg/m
3
0.267 0.047

nsuIuLIon + cooI rooI
AIong wILI LIe Iower U vuIue Ior rooIs, LIe ECBC uIso
recommends cooI rooIs. CooI rooIs ure rooIs covered wILI u
reIIecLIve couLIng LIuL Ius IIgI emIssIvILy properLy, wIIcI Is
very eIIecLIve In reIIecLIng LIe sun`s energy uwuy Irom LIe rooI
surIuce. TIese cooI rooIs ure known Lo sLuy 1o16C cooIer LIun
normuI rooIs under u IoL summer duy. TIIs quuIILy greuLIy IeIps
In reducIng LIe cooIIng Ioud LIuL needs Lo be meL by LIe HVAC
sysLem. A combInuLIon oI un InsuIuLed rooI uIong wILI u cooI
rooI Ius IIgIer energy-suvIng poLenLIuI.


ExLernuI sIudIng oI rooIs
SIudIng oI rooIs LIrougI desIgn IeuLures, IIke pergoIu or soIur
pIoLovoILuIc puneIs, IeIps reduce LIe IncIdenL dIrecL soIur
rudIuLIon on LIe rooI surIuce. TIIs, In Lurn, IeIps Lo reduce LIe
soI uIr LemperuLure oI LIe rooI und conducLIon guIns In LIe
spuce beIow. L Is observed usIng soILwure sImuIuLIons LIuL
sIudIng oI rooI Ius equuI poLenLIuI In reducIng LIe energy
consumpLIon by uIr condILIonIng Lo LIuL oI un InsuIuLed rooI.

TIermuI properLIes oI u Iew buIIdIng und InsuIuLIng muLerIuIs
Ior reIerence ure gIven beIow In TubIe 1..q.











Figure 1.3.10: Roof of buildings with roof shading








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Table 1.3.4: Thermal properties of building and insulating materials at a mean
temperature of 50C
Sl. No. Type of material Density Thermal
conductivity*
Specific heat
capacity
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Kg/m
3
W/ (m-K) KJ /(kg-K)
Building materials
1. Burnt brick 1 820 0.811 0.88
2. Mud brick 1 731 0.750 0.88
3. Dense concrete 2 410 1.74 0.88
4. R.C.C. 2 288 1.58 0.88
5. Limestone 2 420 1.80 0.84
6. State 2 750 1.72 0.84
7. Reinforced brick 1 920 1.10 0.84
8. Brick tile 1 892 0.798 0.88
9. Line concrete 1 646 0.730 0.88
10. Mud Phuska 1 622 0.519 0.88
11. Cement mortar 1 648 0.719 0.92
12. Cement concrete 1 762 0.721 0.84
13. Cinder concrete 1 406 0.686 0.84
14. Foam slag concrete 1 320 0.285 0.88
15. Gypsum plaster 1 120 0.512 0.96
16. Cellular concrete 740 0.188 1.05
17. AC sheet 1 520 0.245 0.84
18. GI sheet 7 520 61.06 0.50
19. Timber 480 0.072 1.68
20. Timber 720 0.144 1.68
21. Plywood 640 0.174 1.76
22. Glass 2 350 0.814 0.88
23. Alluvial clay (40% sans) 1 958 1.211 0.84
24. Sand 2 240 1.74 0.84
25. Black cotton clay
(Madras)
1 899 0.735 0.88



15




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26. Black cotton clay
(Indore)
1 683 0.606 0.88
27. Tar felt (2.3 kg/m
3
) - 0.479 0.88
(Source, Handbook on Functional Requirements of Buildings, SP:411987, BIS)

Sl. No. Type of material Density Thermal
conductivity*
Specific heat
capacity
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Kg/m
3
W/(m-K) KJ/(kg-K)
Insulating materials
1. Expanded polystyrene 16.0 0.038 1.34
2. Expanded polystyrene 24.0 0.035 1.34
3. Expanded polystyrene 34.0 0.035 1.34
4. Foam glass 127.0 0.056 0.75
5. Foam glass 160.0 0.055 0.75
6. Foam concrete 320.0 0.070 0.92
7. Foam concrete 400.0 0.084 0.92
8. Foam concrete 704.0 0.149 0.92
9. Cork slab 164.0 0.043 0.96
10. Cork slab 192.0 0.044 0.96
11. Cork slab 304.0 0.055 0.96
12. Rock wool (unbonded) 92.0 0.047 0.84
13. Rock wool (unbonded) 150.0 0.043 0.84
14. Mineral wool
(unbonded)
73.5 0.030 0.92
15. Glass wool (unbonded) 69.0 0.043 0.92
16. Glass wool (unbonded) 189.0 0.040 0.92
17. Resin bonded mineral
wool
48.0 0.042 1.00
18. Resin bonded mineral
wool
64.0 0.038 1.00
19. Resin bonded mineral
wool
99.0 0.036 1.00
20. Resin bonded glass
wool
16.0 0.040 1.00
21. Resin bonded glass
wool
24.0 0.036 1.00
22. Exfoliated vermiculite
(loose)
264.0 0.069 1.00
23. Asbestos mill board 1 397.0 0.249 0.88
24. Hard board 979.0 0.279 0.84
25. Straw board 310.0 0.057 1.42
26. Soft board 320.0 0.066 1.30
27. Soft board 249.0 0.047 1.30
28. Wall board 262.0 0.047 1.30
29. Chip board 432.0 0.067 1.26








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30. Chip board (perforated) 352.0 0.066 1.26
31. Particle board 750.0 0.098 1.30
32. Coconut pith insulation
board
520.0 0.060 1.09
33. Jute fiber 329.0 0.067 1.09
34. Wood wool board
(bonded with cement)
398.0 0.081 1.13
35. Wood wool board
(bonded with cement)
674.0 0.108 1.13
36. Coil board 97.0 0.038 1.00
37. Saw dust 188.0 0.051 1.00
38. Rice husk 120.0 0.051 1.00
39. Jute felt 291.0 0.042 0.88
40. Asbestos fiber (loose) 640.0 0.060 0.84


1.3.13 Fenestration and shading
OI uII LIe eIemenLs oI u buIIdIng enveIop wIndows und gIuzed
ureus ure mosL vuInerubIe Lo IeuL guIns. WIndows ure requIred
Lo brIng InsIde nuLuruI duyIIgIL und wInd; Iowever, wILI IIgIL IL
uIso brIngs In IeuL. Proper IocuLIon, sIzIng und deLuIIIng oI
wIndows und LIe sIudIng Iorm ure LIereIore very ImporLunL
uspecLs In u soIur-pussIve buIIdIng desIgn. Hence, LIe wIndow
desIgn Ius been deLuIIed ouL us sepuruLe guIdeIInes, wIIcI
sIouId be reIerred sepuruLeIy.

1.3.14 Finishes
TIe exLernuI IInIsI oI u surIuce deLermInes LIe umounL oI IeuL
ubsorbed or rejecLed by IL. or exumpIe, u smooLI und IIgIL-
coIored surIuce reIIecLs more IIgIL und IeuL In compurIson Lo u
durk surIuce. IgIL coIors Iuve IIgIer emIssIvILy und Ience
sIouId be preIerred In moderuLe cIImuLe zones, IIke BunguIore,
wIere LIe InLensILy oI soIur rudIuLIon Is very IIgI.
EmIssIvILy Is LIe meusure oI LIe cupucILy oI u surIuce Lo emIL
rudIuLIon.
TIe InLernuI surIuces sIouId uIso be IInIsIed In IIgIL coIors, us
LIuL IeIps In obLuInIng IIgIer reIIecLunce oI IIgIL InsIde LIe
spuce

1.3.15 Daylight integration
DuyIIgIL Is u nuLuruI source oI IIgIL, wIIcI meeLs uII LIe
requIremenLs oI good IIgILIng. DuyIIgIL provIdes u dynumIc
envIronmenL InsIde LIe buIIdIng In consonunce wILI LIe nuLure



17




Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
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ouLdoors. WIndows In buIIdIngs esLubIIsI conLucL wILI nuLure
LIrougI u dIrecL vIew und udmIL duyIIgIL InsIde. AdequuLe
provIsIons oI duyIIgIL In buIIdIngs LIrougI u proper pIunnIng
Ior wIndows In respecL oI LIe posILIon, ureu und sIupe, ure
LIereIore un ImporLunL uspecL oI u good buIIdIng desIgn.
DuyIIgIL InLegruLIon IeIps reduce dependence on urLIIIcIuI
IIgILIng und LIus IeIp reduce eIecLrIcILy consumpLIon oI LIe
buIIdIng. DeLuIIs on duyIIgIL InLegruLIon ure purL oI LIe wIndow
guIdeIIne.


1.3.16 Building envelop optimization for naturally ventilated buildings to achieve
thermal comfort

BuIIdIng enveIops ure opLImIzed Lo reduce IeuL guIns und
muxImIze LIermuI comIorL In u nuLuruIIy venLIIuLed buIIdIng.

TIe requIremenL oI opLImIzIng u buIIdIng enveIop Is one oI LIe
mosL ImporLunL sLruLegIes Lo Iower down IeuL buIIL-up In LIe
InLerIor spuce und Ience pIuys u vILuI roIe In ucIIevIng LIermuI
comIorL us prescrIbed In LIe NuLIonuI BuIIdIng Code zoo Ior
nuLuruIIy venLIIuLed buIIdIngs.

Envelop
Boildings occopied Ior q hoors
Residences
or LIe ucIIevemenL oI LIermuI comIorL In LIe nuLuruIIy
venLIIuLed spuces oI resIdences, LIe IoIIowIng guIdeIInes
sIouId be IoIIowed:
1. or LIe eIIecLIveness oI nuLuruI venLIIuLIon, wIndows
sIouId be desIgned us per LIe guIdeIIne ouLIIned In
WIndow DesIgn Ior NuLuruI VenLIIuLIon.
z. WIndows sIouId be IuIIy sIuded In order Lo muxImIze
LIermuI comIorL In LIe spuce.
. BuIIdIng enveIops sIouId be us per LIe
recommenduLIons IncIuded In LIIs guIdeIIne. TIIs
recommended enveIop desIgn Is Ior nuLuruIIy venLIIuLed
resIdenLIuI spuces wILI 6 uIr cIunge per Iour.

BuIIdIngs occupIed Ior duy LIme Iours (q Iours)
Offices
or LIe ucIIevemenL oI LIermuI comIorL In LIe nuLuruIIy
venLIIuLed oIIIce spuces, LIe IoIIowIng guIdeIInes sIouId be
IoIIowed:








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or LIe eIIecLIveness oI nuLuruI venLIIuLIon, wIndows sIouId be
desIgned us per LIe guIdeIIne ouLIIned In WIndow DesIgn Ior
NuLuruI VenLIIuLIon. WIndows sIouId be IuIIy sIuded In order
Lo muxImIze LIermuI comIorL In LIe spuce. BuIIdIng enveIops
sIouId be us per LIe recommenduLIons IncIuded In LIIs
guIdeIIne. enveIop TIIs recommended enveIop desIgn Is Ior
nuLuruIIy venLIIuLed oIIIce spuces wILI 6 uIr cIunge per Iour.

Optimom boilding envelop conIigorution Ior nutorully
ventiluted residences und oIIices
TIe recommended enveIop oI LIe spuce sIuII be us per LIe
IoIIowIng properLIes:
Table 1.3.5: Envelop specifications
Envelop with
brick wall
Composition U-value
Wall Plaster + brick + plaster 2.203
Roof (insulated)
Plaster + concrete + expanded
polystyrene + plaster + stone
0.349
Floor Floor + stone + concrete 0.417
Glass for opening Single glazing unit fully shaded -

Envelop with
concrete wall
Composition U-value
Wall Plaster + concrete + plaster 3.443
Roof (Insulated)
Plaster + concrete + expanded
polystyrene + plaster + stone
0.349
Floor Floor + stone + concrete 0.417
Glass for opening Single glazing unit fully shaded -

Envelop with
mud-block wall
Composition U-value
Wall Plaster + mud block + plaster 3.443
Roof (insulated)
Plaster + concrete + expanded polystyrene +
plaster + stone
0.349
Floor Floor + stone + concrete 0.417
Glass for opening Single glazing unit (fully shaded) -

1. TIe U-VuIue prescrIbed In LIe LubIe sIouId be Luken us u
recommenduLIon wIIIe desIgnIng LIe rooI, wuII, und
IIoor componenLs.
z. or LIe cIurILy oI LIe user, IL sIouId be noLed LIuL LIe
dIIIerenL combInuLIons oI enveIops dIIIer Irom eucI



19




Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
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oLIer wILI respecL Lo onIy LIe wuII muLerIuI, wIIIe LIe
rooI , IIoor und gIuzIng Lype remuIn LIe sume.















Figure 1.3.11: Zone temperature conditions of non-air-conditioned spaces in
residences on the hottest day (April 11) of the year.
















Figure 1.3.12: Zone temperature conditions of non-air-conditioned spaces in
the office on the hottest day (April 11) of the year.

1.3.17 Low-energy passive-cooling strategies for Bangalore
BunguIore IuIIs under LIe moderuLe cIImuLe zone wILI IuvorubIe
ouLdoor condILIons Lo desIgn IybrId Iow-energy buIIdIngs. A
weuLIer unuIysIs Ior BunguIore sIows LIuL desIgn sLruLegIes,
sucI us sIudIng Irom dIrecL soIur rudIuLIon und nuLuruI
venLIIuLIon, ure very eIIecLIve In ucIIevIng comIorL In non-uIr-








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condILIoned IIvIng spuces. HIgI LIermuI muss und evuporuLIve
cooIIng ure oLIer eIIecLIve desIgn sLruLegIes sIown In LIe IIgure
beIow:

















Figure 1.3.13: Various design strategies reflected in the psychrometric chart
for the climate of Bangalore (Reference: Climate Calculator)

1.3.18 Ventilation
VenLIIuLIon IuIIIIIs u number oI requIremenLs ussocIuLed wILI
Iumun comIorL:
o HeuILI: respIruLIon, odor uvoIdunce und poIIuLunL
removuI.
o CooIIng: removuI oI IeuL produced by InLernuI und soIur
guIns, boLI durIng duyLIme und nIgIL LIme.
o ComIorL: provIsIon oI uIr movemenL Lo Increuse
perceIved cooIIng.

Methods oI ventilution
VenLIIuLIon requIremenL couId be meL by LIe IoIIowIng wuys:
1. NuLuruI venLIIuLIon
z. MecIunIcuI venLIIuLIon
. MIxed mode venLIIuLIon

Nutorul ventilution
NuLuruI venLIIuLIon sysLems reIy on pressure Lo move IresI uIr
LIrougI buIIdIngs. TIe pressure dIIIerence cun be cuused by



21




Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
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wInd (cross-venLIIuLIon) or LIe buoyuncy eIIecL creuLed by
LemperuLure dIIIerences or dIIIerences In IumIdILy (sLuck
eIIecL). n boLI LIe cuses, LIe umounL oI venLIIuLIon crILIcuIIy
depends on LIe desIgn oI openIngs, LIeIr sIze und pIucemenL.
NuLuruI venLIIuLIon, unIIke Iorced venLIIuLIon, uses nuLuruI
sources, IIke wInd und buoyuncy, Lo deIIver IresI uIr InLo LIe
buIIdIng.

Cross-ventilution
A pressure Is generuLed on u surIuce wIenever movIng uIr Is
obsLrucLed or deIIecLed. TIe dIsLrIbuLIon oI pressure depends
upon LIe wInd dIrecLIon und LIe geomeLry oI LIe surIuces.
Pressures wIII generuIIy be posILIve on LIe wIndwurd sIdes oI
buIIdIngs und neguLIve on Ieewurd sIdes. TIe IuLeruI pressure
dIsLrIbuLIon gIves rIse Lo cross-venLIIuLIon, LIuL Is, uIrIIow Irom
LIe wIndwurd Lo LIe Ieewurd sIde oI LIe buIIdIng. TIIs requIres
LIuL LIe InLerIor oI LIe buIIdIng Is noL seuIed by dIvIdIng wuIIs or
LIuL wIere rooms ure doubIe-bunked; openIngs uL LIe IIgI IeveI
ure provIded.
Cross-venLIIuLIon wus ussIsLed by IuvIng IIgI-IeveI openIngs In
LIe InLernuI wuIIs und over doors In LrudILIonuI Iouses.









Figure 1.3.14: Cross ventilation achieved through openings

Stuck eIIect
AIr moves LIrougI u sLrucLure In response Lo pressure
dIIIerences generuLed by eILIer LIe LIermuI buoyuncy (sLuck
eIIecL) or wInd. Buoyuncy pressures ure generuLed by uIr
wurmer LIun ILs surroundIngs us LIe wurmer uIr Is oI Iower
densILy LIun LIe cooIer uIr.













Solar passive
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Figure 1.3.15: Stack effect through openings at different level.











Figure 1.3.16: Effect of area of openings on average indoor wind velocity










Figure 1.3.17: Nocturnal cooling

TIe pressure generuLed Is dependenL upon LIe uveruge
LemperuLure dIIIerence beLween InsIde und ouLsIde und LIe
IeIgIL oI LIe 'sLuck' or coIumn oI wurmer uIr. WIere LIere ure
openIngs uL LIe Lop und boLLom oI LIe sLuck, LIe cooIer IeuvIer
uIr wIII enLer LIe Iower openIngs und dIspIuce LIe wurmer
IIgILer uIr uL LIe Lop.
TIIs Is known us 'dIspIucemenL venLIIuLIon', und II LIere Is u
source oI IeuL wIIcI muInLuIns LIe sLuck, LIe IIow wIII conLInue.
L Is ImporLunL Lo noLe LIuL under LIese condILIons, uIr
LemperuLures reduced wIII be cIose Lo ouLdoor LemperuLures und
LIose IIgIer wIII be wurmer.




23




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TrudILIonuIIy, LIIs concepL wus used very commonIy by IuvIng
IIgI ceIIIngs In conjuncLIon wILI venLIIuLors und Iow-IeveI
openIngs, courLyurds und uLrIu.

Probuble indoor wind speed
TIe uvuIIubIe wInd speed In u room wILI u sIngIe wIndow on LIe
wIndwurd sIde Is ubouL 1o% oI LIe ouLdoor speed. TIe vuIue,
Iowever, Is Increused by up Lo 1% wIen Lwo wIndows ure
provIded InsLeud oI one und wInd ImpInges obIIqueIy on LIem.
TIe eIIecL oI un ureu oI openIngs on LIe Indoor wInd veIocILy Is
depIcLed In LIe grupI beIow.

Boilding design goidelines Ior nutorul ventilution

MuxImIze wInd-Induced venLIIuLIon by orIenLIng LIe
Ionger Iuudes oI LIe buIIdIng Lowurds predomInunL
wInd dIrecLIon. However, II LIIs Is noL possIbIe, IL couId
be orIenLed uL uny convenIenL ungIe beLween o und o
wILIouL IosIng uny beneIIcIuI uspecL oI LIe breeze.
nIeL openIngs In LIe buIIdIngs sIouId be weII
dIsLrIbuLed und sIouId be IocuLed on LIe wIndwurd sIde
uL u Iow IeveI, und ouLIeL openIngs sIouId be IocuLed on
LIe Ieewurd sIde uL u IIgIer IeveI, Lo muxImIze LIe sLuck
eIIecL.
BuIIdIngs sIouId be sILed wIere obsLrucLIons Ior
summer wInds ure mInImum.

NuLuruIIy venLIIuLed buIIdIngs sIouId Iuve u nurrow
IIoor wIdLI; In IucL, IL Is dIIIIcuIL Lo nuLuruIIy venLIIuLe
buIIdIngs wILI u IIoor depLI more LIun q IL.












Figure 1.3.18: Direct evaporative cooling, source Passive cooling
techniques, B. Mohanty








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or u LoLuI ureu oI openIngs (InIeL und ouLIeL) oI zoo%
oI LIe IIoor ureu, LIe uveruge Indoor wInd veIocILy LIuL
couId be ucIIeved Is uround o% oI LIe ouLdoor wInd
veIocILy. Even on IncreusIng LIe sIze oI LIe wIndow
IurLIer, LIe muxImum Indoor wInd veIocILy does noL
exceed qo% oI LIe ouLsIde wInd veIocILy.

WIndow openIngs sIouId be operubIe by occupunLs. n
uddILIon Lo LIe prImury consIderuLIon oI uIrIIow In und
ouL oI LIe buIIdIng, uIrIIow beLween LIe rooms oI LIe
buIIdIng Is ImporLunL. AL uII possIbIe sILuuLIons, InLerIor
doors sIouId be desIgned Lo be opened Lo encouruge
wIoIe-buIIdIng venLIIuLIon.


Use oI cIeresLorIes or venLed skyIIgILs: u cIeresLory or u
venLed skyIIgIL wIII provIde un openIng Ior sLuIe uIr Lo
escupe In u buoyuncy venLIIuLIon sLruLegy. TIe IIgIL weII
cun uIso ucL us u soIur cIImney Lo uugmenL LIe IIow.
OpenIngs Iower In LIe sLrucLure, sucI us busemenL
wIndows, musL be provIded Lo compIeLe LIe venLIIuLIon
sysLem.
Ivuporutive cooling
EvuporuLIve cooIIng Iowers LIe Indoor uIr LemperuLure. TIIs
cooIIng sLruLegy Is uIso eIIecLIve In LIe moderuLe cIImuLe oI
BunguIore. n evuporuLIve cooIIng, LIe sensIbIe IeuL oI uIr Is
used Lo evuporuLe LIe wuLer, LIereby reIeusIng energy und uIr
geLs cooIed, wIIcI, In Lurn, cooIs LIe Indoor IIvIng spuces.











Figure 1.3.19: HUL solar passive building in Bangalore with ponds
integrated in the circulation areas to integrate evaporative cooling.




25




Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
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ncreuse In conLucL beLween LIe uIr und wuLer Increuses LIe ruLe
oI evuporuLIon. WuLer bodIes, IIke ponds, Iuke or IounLuIns, In
LIe Iundscupe IeIp reduce LIe mIcrocIImuLe uIr LemperuLure
uround LIe buIIdIngs.
TrudILIonuIIy, evuporuLIve cooIIng Ius uIso been used Lo cooI LIe
IoL breeze. WuLer wus used commonIy Lo reduce IocuI
LemperuLures by evuporuLIve cooIIng, Lo IumIdIIy LIe uIr und
uIso Lo cIeun LIe uIr by cupLurIng dusL purLIcIes. L Ius been
cuIcuIuLed LIuL LIe LemperuLure oI 1 m oI uIr wIII be reduced by
1C by LIe evuporuLIon oI o gm oI wuLer .n pubIIc buIIdIngs,
wuLer In pooIs und IounLuIns cun be used us u cooIIng eIemenL
combIned wILI u cross-venLIIuLIng urrungemenL oI openIngs.








Figure 1.3.20: Ways of integrating evaporative cooling


1.3.19 Radiative cooling
PrIncIpIe: I Lwo eIemenLs uL dIIIerenL LemperuLures ure kepL
IucIng one unoLIer, u neL rudIuLIon IeuL Ioss Irom LIe IoLLer
eIemenL wIII occur unLII u sLuLe oI equIIIbrIum beLween LIe Lwo
eIemenLs Is ucIIeved.
n order Lo Iuve un upprecIubIe neL IeuL IIux beLween LIe Lwo
bodIes, LIe LemperuLure dIIIerence sIouId be sIgnIIIcunL.

Low-energy pussive-design strutegies in u residentiul
boilding typology in the Bungulore city

TIermuI comIorL LIrougIouL LIe yeur cun be eusIIy ucIIeved In
resIdenLIuI buIIdIngs In BunguIore by udopLIng LIe IoIIowIng
pussIve desIgn sLruLegIes:
ong Iuude orIenLed Lowurds norLI-souLI
EusL und wesL Iuudes Lo be sIuded
SoIur cIImney InLegruLIon Lo enIunce nuLuruI
venLIIuLIon
nsuIuLed rooI
RooI pond In cerLuIn ureus Ior rudIunL cooIIng
DIrecL evuporuLIve cooIIng








Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City

1.3.20 Some low-energy cooling and design strategies that could be adopted in
residential buildings in Bangalore are described below. These strategies were
analysed in the TRNSYS software.

1. Lon jccde oriented toucrds northsouth: LIIs Is
bused on LIe soIur rudIuLIon unuIysIs Ior LIe BunguIore
cILy. EusLwesL Iuudes receIve IIgIer InLensILy oI soIur
rudIuLIon LIrougIouL LIe yeur und Ience sIorL Iuudes
oI LIe buIIdIng sIouId be orIenLed Lowurds eusLwesL.
TIIs ensures mInImum soIur IeuL guIn InsIde LIe
buIIdIng.
z. Insulcted rooj: soIur unuIysIs oI BunguIore predIcLs IIgI
InLensILy oI soIur rudIuLIon beIng receIved on IorIzonLuI
surIuces. To reduce conducLIon guIns Irom LIe rooI, IL Is
very essenLIuI Lo InsuIuLe LIe rooI Irom ouLsIde.
. Solcr chimnes to enhcnce ncturcl tentilction, throuh
stccl ejject: nIeL openIngs provIded uL u Iower IeveI und
un ouLIeL openIng LIrougI u soIur cIImney Increuse LIe
LemperuLure dIIIerence beLween LIe IoL uIr und cooI uIr,
LIus enIuncIng LIe uIr movemenL und LIereIore nuLuruI
venLIIuLIon. NuLuruI venLIIuLIon Is very eIIecLIve In LIe
moderuLe cIImuLe oI BunguIore us LIe ouLsIde uIr
LemperuLure IuIIs under comIorL zone.
q. Rcdicnt coolin: IL Is uIso eIIecLIve In BunguIore und
LIereIore rooI ponds couId be provIded, wIerever
possIbIe.

. Etcporctite coolin: In LIe summer monLIs In
BunguIore, wIIcI ure AprII, Muy, und June, evuporuLIve
cooIIng Is eIIecLIve, us LIe ouLsIde LemperuLure Is IIgI
und reIuLIve IumIdILy (RH) Is Iower. TIIs cun be
InLegruLed In buIIdIngs LIrougI evuporuLIve cooIers weL
KIus KIus InLegruLed uround wIndows und LIrougI
desIgnIng wuLer bodIes In LIe Iundscupe.




27




Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
1.3.21 Example of a naturally ventilated office building in Bangalore

TER`s souLI regIonuI oIIIce Is IocuLed In BunguIore, wIIcI
Iorms un exumpIe oI u pussIve buIIdIng In
LIe moderuLe cIImuLe zone oI ndIu.
TIe IoIIowIng ure some oI LIe key
IeuLures oI LIe buIIdIng:
TIe buIIdIng Is orIenLed wILI Iong
Iuudes orIenLed norLI-souLI.
TIe buIIdIng Ius muxImum openIngs In
LIe norLI Iuude, wIIcI IeIp brIng InsIde
LIe buIIdIng gIure Iree duyIIgIL und cooI
breeze.
TIe skyIIgILs ure orIenLed Lowurds norLI,
wIIcI provIdes unIIorm gIure Iree
duyIIgIL LIrougIouL LIe buIIdIng.
WuIIs on LIe souLI Iuude ure exLernuIIy
IInIsIed wILI bIuck kuduppu sLone wILI u
cuvILy wuII. TIIs beIuves us u soIur
cIImney. TIere ure no openIngs uL LIe
Iower IeveI In LIIs wuII, ; onIy venLIIuLors
uL LIe Lop oI LIe wuII ure provIded Ior IoL
uIr Lo rIse und escupe. TIIs creuLes u
neguLIve pressure und sLurLs puIIIng IresI
cooI uIr Irom LIe norLI sIde oI LIe
buIIdIng.
Figure 1.3.21: TERI-SRC building and its energy
efficient design features

TIe buIIdIng works In LIe nuLuruI venLIIuLIon mode LIrougIouL
LIe yeur, und LIIs Is ucIIeved us LIere ure no IIoor-Lo-ceIIIng
purLILIons In LIe wIoIe buIIdIng.
TIere ure rooI gurdens desIgned, wIIcI provIde good InsuIuLIon
und moderuLe IIucLuuLIons In LIe LemperuLure.
TIe monLIIy bIII Ior energy consumpLIon Is ubouL Rs o,ooo Ior
LIe enLIre compIex, wILI duIIy uveruge demund oI 1z kW (peuk
uL 18 kW). WILI LIe IIoor ureu beIng z6,66 squure IeeL, LIe
specIIIc energy bIII works ouL Lo be Rs 1.1z per squure IooL,
wIIcI Is uImosL one-LenLI oI LIuL In cuse oI u convenLIonuI
buIIdIng wILI uIr condILIonIng.

1.3.22 Summary:
TIe IoIIowIng ure some recommenduLIons Ior uIr-condILIoned
buIIdIngs:








Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
ong Iuude preIerubIy Lowurds norLIsouLI
EusLwesL Iuude Lo be sIuded
WIndows Lo compIy wILI LIe ECBC requIremenLs.
RooI Lo eILIer compIy wILI LIe ECBC guIdeIInes or Lo be
IuIIy sIuded
CIrcuIur buIIdIng Iorm Is preIerubIe.
IgIL coIor exLernuI IInIsI.

1.3.23 Naturally ventilated building recommendations
ong Iuude preIerubIy Lowurds norLIsouLI
EusLwesL Iuude Lo be sIuded
WIndows Lo be IuIIy sIuded
RooI Lo be InsuIuLed or Lo be sIuded
IgIL coIor exLernuI IInIsI.















29




Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City
Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Payback Period
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Years
A
m
o
u
n
t

i
n

l
a
k
h

r
u
p
e
e
s
Incremental Investment
Cumulative savings
1.4 Benefits:

BeneIits oI the Inergy Conservution Boilding Code
{ICBC) compliunt window und rooI in compurison
with u conventionul boilding envelop Ior uir-
conditioned boildings in Bungulore

AdopLIon oI ECBC-compIIunL wIndows und rooIs In uIr-
condILIoned buIIdIngs Ius IIgI energy-suvIng poLenLIuI. An
energy sImuIuLIon engIne Is used Lo quunLIIy LIe energy-suvIng
poLenLIuI In u duyLIme oIIIce buIIdIng.

n duy-use uIr-condILIoned buIIdIngs, LIe unnuuI suvIngs
In energy consumpLIon Is up Lo g% by udopLIon oI
ECBC-compIIunL wIndows und rooIs.
PercenLuge IncremenL In LIe InILIuI InvesLmenL Is up Lo
,%.
Puybuck perIod oI LIe IncremenLuI cosL Is Iess LIun
yeurs (reIer Lo Ig. 1 beIow).
















Fig. 1.4.1: Integration of energy-efficient windows and insulated roofs,
compliant to ECBC guidelines, in air-conditioned buildings has a payback
period of less than 2 years.








Solar passive
design for new
buildings.
Guidelines
Proposed
Mandatory Clause

Technical Guidelines Benefit
Development of Building Regulations and Guidelines to
Achieve Energy Efficiency in Bangalore City

21 M/s. Digiflic Controls
(India) Pvt Ltd,

Sit2e8 /03/2008 No. 9, 2nd Cross,
Rajagopala Nagar, Main Road
Bangalore
Pin : 560058
Tel : 080-28366839
Fax : 080-28362689
Email : sales@digiflic.com
22 M/s. Kateel
Engineering Industry
(P) Ltd

19 & 20, Bhadrappa Estate,
Magadi Main Road,
Kamakshipalaya, Unit I, Bangalore
Pin : 560079
Tel : 23481305,23484179
Fax : 23481305
Email : info@kateel.com
23 M/s Solar Hitech
Geysers
No. 4, Sri Krishna, Behind Bhima Jyothi LIC
Colony, West of Chord Road, Bangalore 560
079
Fax: 080-23223152, 23221511
e-mail: solarhitech@gmail.com
24 M/s. EmmVee Solar
Systems Pvt. Ltd.,

#55, Solar Tower, 6th Main, 11th cross,
Lakshmaiah Block, Ganganagar,
Bangalore 560 024.
Tel: 080-23337428, Fax: 080-
23332060
e-mail: info@emmvee.in
25 M/s. Vijaya
Industries,

Katapady 574 105, Udupi Dist, Karnataka

Tel: 0820-2557127
Fax: 0820-2557327, Mobile:
09448377327
e-mail: vijayasolar@yahoo.com
26 M/s. Rashmi
Industries,

No.60 & 61, Begur Road, Hongasandra,
Bangalore 560 068
Tel: 080-25734114 / 15
e-mail: rashmisolar@gmail.com
website: www.rashmisolar.com
27 M/s. Orb Energy Pvt.
Ltd.,

No.893, 3rd Cross MC Layout Vijayanagar,
Bangalore 560 040
Tel: 080-23145931-35,Fax: 080-
23145930
e-mail: kn.ramesh@orbenergy.com
website: www.orbenergy.com
28 M/s. Anu Solar
Power Pvt. Ltd.,

248 3rd Cross, 8th Main, 3rd Phase Peenya
Industrial Area, Bangalore 560 058.

Tel: 080-28394259, 28393913
e-mail: info@anusolar.com
website: www.anusolar.com
29 Wipro Eco Energy
(A division of Wipro
Ltd.)
Wipro Eco Energy, S.B.Towers.
88, MG Road, Bangalore-560001
Tel: 080-41994004, 91-9900582662
sudarshan.ananth@wipro.com
30 M/s Hamshine
Electronics & Energy
System
B.Katehalli Industrial Area, Plot No.7A/1,
Hassan 573201 (Karnataka)

Tel: 8172-240219
Mob: 9448140219
e-mail: hamshine@hotmail.com
31 M/s. Legend Solar
Energy Systems
Private Limited
295B, KIADB Industrial Area Bommasandra
Jigani Link Road, Jigani Bangalore.
Tel:- 80-7825595 ,
e-mail:-sunakti@legendkingdom.com
web-site:- www.legendkingdom.com
32 M/s. G.C. Solar
Industries


977, Ground Floor, ITI Society Layout,
Outer Ring Road, Nagarabhavi
Road, Banglore 560072
Tel: 080-23210848/ 23183060/
9845023816 (Mob)
Fax: 080-23210848
e-mail:
info@gcsolarindustries.com
website: gcsolarindustries.com