This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
PRACTICE FOR PREPRATION MOULDING SAND MIXTURES (1 session) PRACTICE FOR MAKING SAND MOLDS USING DIFFERENT PATTERNS (2 sessions) PRACTICE FOR MELTING ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS (2 sessions) PRACTICE FOR MAKING SAND CASTINGS USING DIFFERENT PATTERNS (3 sessions) PRACTICE FOR MAKING CORES FOR SAND CASTING PROCESS (2 sessions) PRACTICE FOR MAKING PERMANENT MOLD CASTINGS(2 sessions) PRACTICE FOR MAKING SAND SAMPLES USING SAND RAMMER (1 session) TESTING OF GREEN & DRY STRENGTHS OF DIFFERENT SAND MIXTURES (2 sessions) TESTING OF PERMEABILITY OF A GIVEN SAND SAMPLE USIND PERMEABILITY TESTER (1 session)
10. TESTING OF A.F.S. CLAY CONTENTS IN THE GIVEN SAND SAMPLE USING SAND WASHER (1 session) 11. Theory and Practice for using coverall fluxes, exothermic compounds, degassers and mold coats. (1 session) 12. Analysis of Casting Defects. (1 session) 13. A study on molding equipments and machines. (1 session) 14. A metallographic study of Rolled, Forged, Extruded and Cast Structures. (2 session)
throw it into the pan of muller with a shovel. in which sand grains. A suitable bonding agent (clay or molasses) is mixed with the sand. Molasses and Water. Put on the fire and heat the sand for sometime. mixture is moistened with water to develop strength and plasticity and to make the aggregate suitable for molding. Continue adding and mixing molasses in the sand until sufficient strength and plasticity is developed in the sand-molasses mixture. The wheels rotation inside the muller will thoroughly mix up sand and molasses.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. When it is sufficiently hot. Procedure: 1. Different types of sand mullers are used to serve this purpose. . It is relatively cheap.TK PRACTICAL # 1 PRACTICE FOR PREPARATION OF MOLDING SAND MIXTURES Overview: Silica sand (SiO2) is used more frequently for making castings than any other moulding materials. and has sufficiently refractoriness even for steel foundry use. 5. Equipment: A. bonding agent. Hot Tray C. Take silica sand and stack it over hot tray with the help of a shovel. 3.07MET. A definite mulling action is always required for thorough mixing. Shovel Chemicals / Materials: Sand. 2. Sand Muller B. and water are rubbed intimately together. 4. Then add some amount of molasses in the sand and switch on the muller.
Graphite Powder. Equipment: A. but expert hand molding requires much skill and practice. Wooden or Steel Board E. The fundamentals of mold making are simple. mixture is moistened with water to develop strength and plasticity and to make the aggregate suitable for molding. Production line work is done today by machine molding. A suitable bonding agent (clay or molasses) is mixed with the sand. and has sufficiently refractoriness even for steel foundry use. Different Patterns F. Rammer C. Molasses . The skilled molder is replaced by a relatively untrained machine operator. Flask or Molding Box B.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. Draw spikes Chemicals / Materials: Molding Sand.07MET. It is relatively cheap. Riddle D. The resulting sand mixture is easily prepared and molded around various shapes to give satisfactory casting of almost any metal.TK PRACTICAL # 2 PRACTICE FOR MAKING SAND MOLDS USING DIFFERENT PATTERNS Overview: Silica sand (SiO2) is used more commonly for making castings than any other molding materials. in which nearly all operations are automatic.
If necessary. position the cores in the cavity of the mold and close the mold again by placing cope again atop the drag. Ram the molding sand in the flask with the help of a rammer. Remove the first bottom board which is now on top and sprinkle some amount of graphite powder (parting powder) on the surface of mold to finish it. 14.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. clamp it and over turn the whole. fill the drag-half of the flask with molding sand keeping the pattern in position. Separate cope and drag portions of the flasks from each other. 17. position the cope-half of the flask over drag and also the cope-half of the pattern. remove the rods from the cope-half and as a result holes for spruce and riser will be produced. 9. then use a metal strip to remove excess sand. 19. 20.TK Procedure: 1. Continue adding and ramming the sand until it is densely packed in the flask. place a second flat board upside down on the mold and flask. When the flask is properly rammed. 13. Now. use draw spikes to remove the pattern from the mold. 18. 6. 11. Now. 2. Place the drag-half of the flask on the bottom board and position drag-half of the pattern in it. Cut the in-gates in the mold and again sprinkle some amount or graphite powder over the surface of mold to finally finish it. Now. 15. 7. Ram the molding sand in the flask with the help of a rammer. It also acts as a parting agent. Place two rods vertically on either sides of the pattern. at a suitable distance. 4. Now. Sprinkle some amount of graphite powder in the flask and over the pattern to produce smooth surface finish. Fill the cope-half with molding sand keeping the pattern and rods in position. 16. 10. to produce pouring basin and risering system. 3.07MET. 12. Continue adding and ramming the sand until it is densely packed in the cope. 8. . First of all place the wooden or steel board (bottom board) on the table or floor. then use a metal strip to remove excess sand from the upper surface. When the flask is properly rammed. The mold is ready for pouring. 5.
cold body of desirable size and shape.g. Heat is then extracted from the metal by mold to re-form it into a solid. Fluxing: Assignment Degassing: Assignment . cupola furnace etc. put on the fire so that metal in the crucible can be melted. 3. electrical furnaces. The furnace which is most commonly used for melting non-ferrous metals and alloys is crucible furnace. Continue supplying heat to the metal until it is completely liquefied and fluid enough to pour into a mold. Heat is first added to the cold. Take required amount of aluminum scrap and put it into the pit furnace crucible. Crucible Chemicals / Materials: Aluminum scrap. 4. Various types of furnaces are used for this purpose e. Then.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW.TK PRACTICAL # 3 PRACTICE FOR MELTING ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS Overview: Manufacture of castings is essentially a matter of heat transfer in one or another form. Switch on the blower and turn on the gas valve. Equipment: A. 2. crucible furnace. Pit Furnace B. Flux and degasser Procedure: 1.07MET. solid metal (scrap or ingot) for melting and for superheating the molten metal until it is fluid enough to pour into a mold.
. die casting. The mold cavity has to retain its shape until the molten metal has solidified and the casting is separated from the mold. it consists of introducing molten metal into a cavity or mold of desired form and allowing the metal to solidify. Allow the metal to solidify in the sand mold for some time. 3. investment casting. In sand casting. 8. 9. most versatile. 5. Castings regularly produced range from tiny dental inlay of rare metals to complicated steel castings exceeding 2000 ton in weight. the casting is machined to get the finished shape. Aluminum metal Procedure: 1.TK PRACTICAL # 4 PRACTICE FOR MAKING SAND CASTINGS USING DIFFERENT PATTERNS Overview: The casting process is the oldest. Crucible Chemicals / Materials: Molding Sand.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. such that a liquid metal can be introduced into this cavity. When the metal in the mold is solidified. permanent mold casting. shot casting etc. squeeze / semi solid casting. 4. Almost any article may be cast with proper technique. put off the fire and hold the crucible with the help of a holder. plaster casting. and alloy of the casting that may be made. 6. and the most flexible process for forming metals. Then. Sand Molds with different shapes of cavities B. There are also some other types of casting processes: e.07MET. 7. Basically. prepare sand for sand molding according to the procedure described in Experiment # 1. Finally. break the sand mold with the help of breakers to remove the required metal casting. a mold is produced by shaping a suitable refractory material to form a cavity of desired shape. prepare a sand mold according to the procedure described in Experiment # 2. Place some weight on the mold and pour the molten metal into the mold through the spruce or pouring basin. Continue pouring until the molten metal comes out of risers of the mold. shape. melt aluminum metal or any available aluminum alloy in a pit furnace. First of all. 2. There is practically no limit to the size. Equipment: A. When the metal is liquid enough to pour into the mold.g. slush casting. After the preparation of sand mold.
Procedure: 1. Core Box B. Continue adding and ramming the moulding sand until the sand is densely and fully packed in the core box. open the core box and carefully remove the core from it. natural sand containing only 1 to 2 % clay can be used. Take a core box and fill it completely with molding sand (mixture of sand & molasses). 4. although clean.07MET. Equipment: A. Insert iron wires for reinforcement. Chemicals / Materials: Chemicals / Materials: Moulding Sand (mixture of sand & molasses). 5. .Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. 6. Most frequently. Then ram the molding sand present in the core box with the help of a rammer. Rammer C. Cores may also be made of green sand used in the dried condition. After baking. 7. The basic advantage of organic core binders (as compared to clays) is that they break down under the heat of metal (have collapsibility) and so can be easily removed from the casting as shakeout. molasses etc may be added to make the raw mixture stronger. they are bonded with organic agent such as linseed oil. Cores are usually made of synthetic sand. however. 3. 2. Then. Bake this core in an oven at about 230oC to develop the strength in core and to remove gases. cereals.TK PRACTICAL # 5 PRACTICE FOR MAKING CORES OF SAND CASTING PROCESS Overview: Cores are used to obtain the internal configurations of different castings. wash the core with refractory slurry to improve the casting surface finish.
aluminum. A pre-measured amount of molten metal is poured into the permanent mold under gravity. Brushes Chemicals / Materials: Aluminum scrap. Pour the molten aluminum metal from the crucible into permanent mold. Higher production rates are obtained in permanent mold castings than sand casting. lead. zinc. Then. and cast iron. graphite. 7. Permanent molds are made in two halves. 2. 4. 5. machine the casting to get the finished shape.07MET.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. The metal molds are coated with a mold surface coating and preheated before being filled with molten metal. Finally. plaster. or simply heavily tapered metal cores which are removed while the casting is still hot. 6. Allow the sufficient time for the casting to solidify. 8. molten metal is poured into metal molds and around metal cores.TK PRACTICAL # 6 PRACTICE FOR MAKING PERMANENT MOLD CASTINGS Overview: In permanent mold casting method. Clean the mold by brushing or blasting with warm air. and from their alloys. Equipment: A. refractory wash Procedure: 1. Paint or spray the mold surface with a thin refractory wash or blacken it by depositing carbon from a reducing oil or gas flame. copper. and aluminum are also being used. . collapsible metal cores. The mold material is usually a good grade of cast iron. Cores for permanent molds can be sand. copper. Insert cores. 3. magnesium. although die steel. Permanent Metal Mold B. they may be designed with vertical parting line or with horizontal line as in ordinary sand molding. open the metal mold and eject the casting from it automatically or by hand. if necessary and close the mold by hand or automatic action if available. Maintain it at proper casting temperature by a gas or oil flame. Permanent mold castings have been made commercially of tin.
The machine is so constructed that the ram is brought up by the crank and is then caused to drop to strike and drive down the tamping bar at the lower end of which is fixed a tamping plate which slides into a sand tube to press the sand tube into a certain size with certain energy. tamping bar and lever.07MET. Sand stripping bar Chemicals / Materials: Testing sand Figure: Sand Rammer . ram.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. Sand Rammer B.TK PRACTICAL # 7 PRACTICE OF MAKING SAND SAMPLES USING SAND RAMMER Overview: The sand rammer is a machine for preparing specimens for testing of the permeability and strength of moulding sand and is comprised mainly of a base. Equipment: A. Sand tube C.
5. . 4. Caution: The machine is subjected to considerable impact in use so that it should be installed in the rigid concrete base preferably in a height of 500-600 mm. the test specimen should not be withdrawn from the sand tube but be applied to the permeability tester immediately together with the sand tube. 3. 2.TK Operating Procedure: Preparation of Strength Test Specimen: 1. if the pointer provided on the tamping bar stops within the tolerable range on the scale. The tolerances ±1 mm graduated above and below the base line. and prepare the test specimen. the compacted sand is usable as a test specimen of a standard size (height 50 mm). remove the sand tube and set it over the sand stripping bar to withdraw the standard sand specimen from the sand tube. then load the sand tube having the sand charged together with the rest on the base. 3. Next. Then. Set the sand tube on the rest. 6. perform ramming three times. The specimen height shall comply with the standard 50 mm (tolerance ±1 mm). turning the lever forward. and if the pointer does not remain within the tolerable range. repeat the foregoing procedure. raise the ramming plate. such specimen is not usable as a test specimen. introduce about 140 g to 175 g of the test sand gently so that the sand surface is level. 7. Set the sand tube in the tube rest for about 15 mm. Then. pull the handle toward you to force the tamping bar up. and holding it by hand.07MET. as in the case of the strength test specimen. adjusting the quantity of sand to be introduced in the sand tube properly. With the sand thus rammed. and introduce the ramming head quietly into the sand tube until it is held by the sand surface. 2. so that it should be discarded. with about 140 g to 175 g of the test sand fed. In the case of testing the permeability of green sand.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. When a specimen of standard size is obtained. Preparation of Permeability Test Specimen: 1.
with a consequent increase of a load on the test specimen. molasses.TK PRACTICAL # 8 DETERMINATION OF GREEN & DRY STRENGTH OF DIFFERENT SAND MIXTURES Overview: Strength or bond strength is the property of sand whereby it offers resistance to deformation and enables the sand to hold together under pressure.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. The green strength of sand is usually lower than its dry strength. Universal Sand Strength Testing Machine: The Universal Sand Strength Testing Machine consists of three major parts. pendulum weight and pusher arm. A magnetic bar is moved up the calibrated scale by the pendulum weight and indicates the point at which the specimen collapses. through a gearbox. The pusher arm is motivated by means of a small handwheel. The pendulum weight swings on a ball bearing and can be moved by the pusher arm. linseed oil etc.07MET. Bond in moulding sand is due to the presence of binders such as clay. The machine can be calibrated in g / cm3. from a vertical position. Figure: Universal sand testing machine . via test specimen. rotates a pinion engaged in a rack on the quadrant. which. core gum. Green strength is referred to the strength of moist or tempered sand whereas dry strength is strength of sand dried at 110oC. frame.
Apply a load to the test specimen by turning the hand wheel at uniform rate (approximately 30 g / cm3 / sec) until the specimen collapses.F. 4.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. Green Compression Strength: Test Procedure: 1.S. Remove the sand from the compression heads. 2. 5. If this clearance is insufficient. 3. Raise the weight arm slightly and insert an A. Care should be taken not to damage the specimen. Raise the weight arm slightly and insert an A. 6. 5. standard 50 mm X 50 mm test specimen between the compression heads so that the face that was uppermost in the ramming operation is facing the right-hand compression head. 2. standard 50 mm X 50 mm test specimens between the heads. Ensure that the magnetic rider is resting against the pusher plate and that there is at least 6mm clearance between the rubber bumper and the lug on the weight arm. Read the lower edge of the magnetic rider on the scale designated “Green Shear Strength”.TK A. it means that the specimen is smaller than the permitted tolerance and should be discarded.07MET. 6. Apply the load uniformly until the specimen shears.F. Place the compression heads in the lower position as shown in the figure. with the head having the half round holder attached to it in the pusher arm. Place the shear test heads in the lower position in the machine. Return the weight to zero by gently reversing the rotation of the hand wheel. Return the weight to zero by reversing the rotation of the hand wheel. 4. Green Shear Strength: Test Procedure: 1. reading the scale designated “Green Compression Strength”. Ensure that the magnetic rider is resting against the pusher arm and that there is 6mm clearance between the rubber bumper and lug on the weight arm. Remove the sand from the shear heads. B. . Record the reading shown on the lower edge of the magnetic rider. 3.S.
Return the weight to zero by reversing the rotation of the hand wheel. D.TK C.F. . When cool. standard 50 mm X 50 mm test specimen in the usual way and dry in an oven at 110oC for few hours. 4. 2. place in position between test heads and adjust clearance between rubber bumper and the lug on weight arm to approximately 13 mm using the adjusting screws in the pusher arm. Remove the sand from the compression heads. test specimen in the usual way and dry in an oven at 110oC for few hours. Red the scale designated “Dry Compression Strength” according to the test heads being used. 5. place in position between test heads and adjust clearance between rubber bumper and the lug on weight arm to approximately 13 mm using the adjusting screws in the pusher arm.S. When cool.F. Apply the load as for “Dry Shear” until the specimen shears. This position increases the load applied by factor of 5. Remove the sand from the shear heads. Return the weight to zero by reversing the rotation of the hand wheel.Dry Shear Strength: Test Procedure: 1.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW.07MET.S. Apply the load as for “Dry Compression” until the specimen collapses. 4. Place the shear heads in the top position of the machine. 3. standard 50 mm X 50 mm. Prepare A. 3. Place the compression heads in the top position of the machine. Red the scale designated “Dry Shear Strength” according to the test heads being used. 6. 5. 6. Dry Compression Strength: Test Procedure: 1. 2. Prepare A. This position increases the load applied by factor of 5.
07MET.TK PRACTICAL # 9 DETERMINATION OF PERMEABILITY OF GIVEN SAND SAMPLE USING PERMEABILITY TESTER Overview: Permeability is that property which allows gas and moisture to pass through the moulding sand. in height at a pressure of 1 gram per square centimeter in 1 min. water gauge is called Permeability Number.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. which is connected to the water manometer and an expandable “O” ring for sealing the specimen tube. P = Permeability Number v = Volume of air passing through the specimen (cubic centimeter or in mil) h = Height of specimen (centimeters) p = Pressure difference between upper and lower surfaces of test specimen (in centimeter of water column) a = Cross-sectional area of specimen (square centimeter) t = time (minutes) Permeability Meter: The body of the Permeability Meter is an aluminum casting of a water tank and base. The volume of air in cm3 / min. cm area and 1 cm. . It also accommodates the orifices.F.S. is called the Permeability Number and is computed by the formula: P = (v x h) / (p x a x t) Where. standard rammed specimen under a standard pressure. passing through a specimen of length 1 cm. and cross sectional area of 1 cm2 under a pressure difference of 1 cm. Inside water tank floats a balanced air drum carefully weighed and designed to maintain constant pressure of 10 cm during its fall. The outlet from the air drum is connected to a centre post in the base via three way air valve. The centre post incorporates a pipe for measuring pressure. Permeability Number: The volume of air passing through a sand specimen 1 sq. It is determined by measuring the rate of flow of air through A.
S. standard specimen of sand. 5. Before stripping from tube place in position on the centre post and seal by rotating the knurled ring anti-clockwise. . Sand Permeability Tester B.07MET. 4. 3. Prepare an A. 6. Check that the open orifice is in the position in the centre 2. Calculate the permeability by applying the given formula.S Standard Time and Pressure Method) 1.TK Equipment: A. Time the descend of the air drum between zero and 2000 ml mark with a stop watch and record the pressure indicated on the manometer during the descend of the drum.F. Testing sand specimens Figure: Sand Permeability Tester A.F. Check water level in the tank.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. Allow the air drum to descend by turning the air valve to a position midway between “CLOSED” and “VENT”. Turn air valve to “NENT” and slowly raise drum until it is out of water. Standard Permeability Test: Test Procedure: (A.
and determine permeability in usual way. 4. Place permeability tube in position in permeability meter. remove the tube. When cool. and ram according to standard procedure. 2. and insert steel ring in bottom of tube. baked or cured sand specimens. Dry Permeability Test: The permeability of a moulded mass of sand dried at 105oC to 110oC is called Dry Permeabilty. 6. and place it in a desiccator to cool. Test Procedure: 1. Weigh out sufficient sand to produce a test specimen of standard dimensions. place specimen in a core permeability tube. 7.07MET. Place core in an oven and dry at 105oC to 110oC for one hour or until dry. 8. and place specimen on drier. Release clamp on specimen container. Remove the specimen from oven. Clamp the specimen firmly in position.TK B. Tighten clamp on split specimen tube. as described above. 3. The clamp is then release and the core is stripped. Place split specimen tube on pedestal. 5. It is used for dried. .Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW.
siphon and timer. 6. Again allow the supernatant water to flow out by the siphon until the height from the bottom becomes 2. Stir it sufficiently. Then allow it to stand in a desiccator for cooling. and weigh 50 g of sample accurately . Then. and stir sufficiently for about 10 minutes. Double the difference between the weight of washed sand particles and the weight of original sample is the percent of clay content. add 475cc of 20 to 25 oC distilled water and 25cc of caustic soda solution (with 30 g of caustic soda dissolved into 970 cc of water).000 rpm). and comprises 1 /20HP single phase motor (steplessly adjustable between 600 and 3. and pour water in it. and move the sand along with filter paper to a large wash glass.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. vane shaft. add water again up to 15 cm depth. 7. Caustic soda solution Operating Procedure: 1. put into the beaker. Sand Testing washer B. using about 9 cm filter paper in a Buchner funnel. to wash the sand adhering to the wall into the beaker. . 4. Dry the sand for one hour at 105 ± 5oC. Take out the beaker. up to about 15 cm depth in total. Equipment: A.F. and allow it to stand for about 10 minutes and allow supernatant water to flow through siphon bringing the level down to 2. 9. 10. stir it sufficiently and allow it to stand for 5-10 minutes. Dry it perfectly at 105 ± 5oC and cool in a desiccator.07MET.5 cm. 8. 11. beaker. 5. and allow it to stand for about 10 minutes. and stir sufficiently. Place the motor slowly on the beaker. Filter the sand particles remaining in the beaker. CLAY CONTENTS IN THE GIVEN SAND SAMPLE USING SAND WASHER Overview: Sand testing washer is used for measuring the clay contents and sand contents of general moulding sand in percentage. Repeat the same operation until the discharged water becomes clear. 2. Timer Chemicals / Materials: Testing sand. Add 20 to 25oC distilled water again up to 15 cm depth.5 cm. 3.S.TK PRACTICAL # 10 DETERMINATION OF A.
.TK Remarks: 1. and 1.07MET.Casting & Working of Metals Lab Manuals WWW. 3. and that the mathematical mean value of test results within deviation ±5 % should be taken as the result of the test.800 rpm for 60 Hz). It is desirable that test should be conducted twice or more for the same sample. ordinary water can be used. 2. If the distilled water is not available. The motor speed can be adjusted steplessly between 600 and 3. the speed can be adjusted arbitrarily (standard speed is 1. and therefore when it is desired to shorten the time or to change stirring eddy current.000 rpm.500 rpm for 50 Hz.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.