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Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 40: 531± 541, 2001 Copyright # 2001 Taylor & Francis 1040-7782/01 $12.00+ .

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ANALYSIS OF THERMAL ENVIRONM ENT IN AN AIRPORT PASSENGER TERM INAL Kyung-Hwan Kim, Seok-Youn Kang, and Jae-Heon Lee
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea

Myung-Do Oh
Department of Mechanical and Information Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul, Korea
This article describes the effect of vertical air circulation on the thermal environment in an airport passenger terminal with induced ow by jet fans. In comparing the level of thermal comfort at the breathing line of 1.5 m in height, the results from the two models with or without the vertical air circulation show that the average predicted percentage of dissatis ed (PPD) is 8% in the former and 23% in the latter, respectively. It is concluded that the vertical air circulation adds to the improved thermal comfort for humans, with respect to ventilation in a large space such as an airport passenger terminal.

INTRODUCTION Large premises, such as the airport terminals or the international conference centers, have high ceilings and a large ¯ oor area. Most of passengers who use these facilities do not stay for as long a time as they do in o ces or their homes, but occupy the buildings concentrically for short periods of time. The indoor thermal environment in this kind of architecture is subject to rapid deterioration by the radiant heat or the outer thermal conditions. Furthermore, for aesthetic reasons, the glass panels are used extensively for the construction of transparent walls and roofs. The thermal environment in these structures is to a large extent regulated by the outdoor climatic changes. Further, because the space for human activity is small compared with the total available indoor space, the thermal buoyancy arising from the temperature di erence plays an important role in determining the movement of air ¯ ows in the space. It follows that many aspects of practical interest must be considered in the design of ventilation systems for large buildings. Generally, the locations of ventilation devices are determined based on designers’ experiences and current available design data, after heating and cooling

Received 3 April 2001; accepted 12 June 2001. Address correspondence to Dr. J.-H. Lee, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Heangdang-dong, Sungdong-ku, Seoul, 133-791, Korea. E-mail: jhlee@hanyang.ac.kr 531

The microventilation system is used to eliminate the partial heating load that is generated in the check-in-counter area. This is the basis of Fanger’s predicted mean vote (PMV) thermal comfort index.-H. The PMV and PPD are calculated from a knowledge of the so-called six basic parameters. To improve the thermal environment in a large space and to reduce the energy consumption. which consist of the air temperature. we introduced PPD. and the thermal comfort distributions. ± 2 (cool). a ventilation system adopted in the Kansai International Airport in Japan combines microventilation with macroventilation [1]. DESCRIPTION OF THERM AL COM FORT The thermal comfort [2± 6] has been de® ned as ``the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with a thermal environment. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the e ect of vertical air circulation in an airport passenger terminal. ‡1 (slightly warm). The macroventilation system is operated with the large air nozzle and the open air duct. the numerical calculations were performed for two designs with and without vertical air circulation to investigate the air¯ ow characteristics. the air velocity. For example.532 K. ± 1 (slightly cool). and ‡3 (hot). To estimate how many people are dissatis® ed in a given thermal environment. NOM ENCLATURE C g I k l p q ST T Tm u x. y.’ ’ The reference to ``mind’ ’ emphasizes that comfort is a psychological phenomenon. In particular. and the humidity of the environment. people may experience the thermal discomfort stemming from direct exposure to radiant heat. which is now accepted as ISO Standard 7730. The large air nozzle serves to prevent excessive indoor temperatures by generating vertical air circulation. 0 (neutral). . This kind of conventional HVAC application approach however often causes too much energy waste as a result of de® ciencies in the design concept. the temperature distributions. z turbulent model constant gravitational acceleration turbulence intensity turbulent kinetic energy mixing length pressure heat ¯ ux heat generation temperature mean temperature velocity component spatial coordinates b e m r s coe cient of thermal expansion dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy viscosity density Prandtl number Subscripts d di user i. ‡2 (warm). the radiant temperature. the recent design with vertical air circulation has been applied to create good convective ventilation. j directions l laminar t turbulent loads are calculated. In this study. as well as the clothing and the activity level of the people. KIM ET AL. The PMV is given by a large group of people exposed to the thermal conditions of interest who provide a rating on the following scale: ± 3 (cold).

A value of PMV equal to 0 is neutral and provides comfort conditions with an associated PPD of 5%. and the glass is 3. and its overall heat transfer coe cient is 0. 18.’’ then the PMV would be ‡1. The ¯ oor is made of concrete (including pebbles and the soil).359 W in the second ¯ oor. Design Wit hout Vert ical Air Circulat ion Figure 1 shows the schematic of the lobby region of an airport passenger terminal employed in the present study.5 m high. and southern walls.018 m thickness. The design temperature for cooling is set to be 26¯ C. The PPD is related to the PMV and is based upon the individual variation of response for a given set of conditions. and some low velocity devices (S17± S32) are placed along the lobby center.57 W=(m2 K). A PMV of ‡1 or ± 1 provides a PPD of around 25%. while that of the improved design also has the jet fan and the open air duct to increase the vertical air circulation. The exhaust di users are also found in the toilets (E17± E20) and the smoking areas (E21± E22).60 W=(m2 K). western. and lighting in the lobby region are estimated to generate a total heat of 146.THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN AN AIRPORT TERMINAL 533 If the average sensation over the large group of people was ``slightly warm. The shadow coe cient of the glass is 0. respectively. In this article. Design w it h Vert ical Air Circulat ion The preliminary design may be expected to have a high roof temperature because of the hot air rising by heat strati® cation from the ¯ oor level.55. western. The eastern. The overall heat transfer coe cient of the outer wall is 0. and 100 m long. Thirty-two supply di users (S1± S32) and 22 exhaust di users (E1± E22) for space cooling are installed in the lobby region to eliminate the design cooling load. Some supply di users consisting of a supply slot are attached to the grounds of the ® rst ¯ oor (S1± S12) and the second ¯ oor (S13± S 16) along the eastern. People generate 26. The roof above the lobby is made of stainless-glass ® ber-steel compound material with the overall heat transfer coe cient of 0. people.013 W of heat in the ® rst ¯ oor and 27.3 W=(m2 K).000 m3=h and the temperature of 18¯ C. The HVAC system of the preliminary design has the general supply di user and the exhaust di user. O.632 W based on the indoor load calculation [7]. To reduce the .49 W=(m2 K). machinery. DESIGN The present study introduces two designs in order to evaluate the thermal comfort in an airport passenger terminal. the y axis the southern wall direction.P denotes the reference location from which the x axis is measured along the roof direction. and southern walls are made of the outer wall of aluminum-uretan bobbling plate or glass of 0. The lobby region consists of the ticketing=arrival lobby on the ® rst ¯ oor and the departure lounge on the second ¯ oor. and the z axis the eastern wall direction. Its dimensions are 25 m wide. In Figure 1. Ventilation facilities for cooling are concentrated in the activity zone on the ® rst and the second ¯ oors. The cooling air comes from the supply di user with the ¯ ow rate of 107. There are exhaust di users on the top wall of the ® rst stair (E1± E10) and on the side wall of the second stair (E11± E16).

(Only the devices in the rectangular box are applicable to the design with vertical air circulation. Schematic diagram of an airport passenger terminal without vertical air circulation.534 Figure 1.) .

ANALYSIS Governing Equat ions The ¯ ow under consideration is three dimensional and turbulent. This design is contrived to reduce the roof temperature by way of macro air circulation. the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy. S T represents volumetric heat generation. the turbulent kinetic energy. the vertical air circulation is employed as a ventilation system design with the jet fans and the open air ducts.THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN AN AIRPORT TERMINAL 535 roof temperature e ectively. has four additional jet fans and four open air ducts to induce the macro air circulation. Each jet fan is located 11 m above the bottom with a sprayed ¯ ow rate of 3. . and the thermal equations as follows: q (rui ) ˆ 0 qxi q qp q quj qui (rui uj ) ˆ ± ‡ (ml ‡ m t ) ‡ qxj qxi qxj qxi qxj q q (rui k) ˆ qxi qxi q q (ruie) ˆ qxi qxi ml ‡ ml ‡ mt qe se qxi mt qk sk qxi ‡ rgi b(T ± T m ) (1) (2) ‡ Gk ‡ Gb ± re (3) e e2 ‡ C1e (Gk ‡ C3e Gb ) ± C2e r k k ml mt qT ‡ sl st qxi Cm rk 2 e ‡ ST (4) q q (ruiT ) ˆ qxi qxi mt ˆ Gk ˆ mt (5) (6) (7) quj qui quj ‡ qxi qx j qx i mt gi b qT st qxi C2e ˆ 1:44 C3e ˆ 1:44 Gb ˆ Cm ˆ 0:09 sk ˆ 1:0 C1e ˆ 1:44 (8) se ˆ 0:9 sl ˆ 1:0 st ˆ 1:0 (9) In Eq. as shown in Figure 1. The open air duct has the thin membrane structure 7 m inches wide and 21 m inches long and is located on the upper side of the jet fan. The present design. compared with the previous design. (5).000 m3=h and velocity of 17 m=s toward the indoor space. The governing equations solved include those expressions for conservation of the mass. and has a steady state. the momentum.

T ˆ 18¯ C v ˆ ± 1:5 m=s. I is the turbulence intensity assumed to be 5% in this study. q ˆ 21:8 W=m2 u ˆ v ˆ w ˆ 0. The k and e of impinging ¯ ow to the space through the supply di user. qT =qxi ˆ 0 v ˆ ± 0:19 m=s. Boundary and internal conditions for the present investigation Location S 1 ¹ S 3 . as follows: k d ˆ 1:5(ud ¢ I) 2 0:75 ed ˆ Cm ¢ k 1:5 =l d (10) (11) where ud is the di user velocity. Boundary and Int ernal Condit ions To obtain the physically meaningful solution to the problem in question.673 W in the lobby region. E 21 E 19 . was used to analyze the air ¯ ow. S 10 ¹ S 12 S4 ¹ S 9 S 13 ¹ S 16 S 17 ¹ S 32 E 1 ¹ E 10 E 11 ¹ E 16 E 17 . and resident regions. w ˆ ± 1:5 m=s. supply di users. the temperature distribution. qT =qxi ˆ 0 v ˆ ± 0:21 m=s. q denotes the heat ¯ ux from the surfaces and * is applicable only to the design with vertical air circulation. Table 1. T ˆ 18¯ C u ˆ 2:69 m=s. q ˆ 18:3 W=m2 S T ˆ 11:9 W=m3 S T ˆ 10:2 W=m3 S T ˆ 6:9 W=m3 w ˆ ± 17 m=s * Applicable only to the design with vertical air circulation. T ˆ 18¯ C u ˆ 0:47 m=s. qT =qxi ˆ 0 u ˆ v ˆ w ˆ 0. qT =qxi ˆ 0 v ˆ ± 0:19 m=s. qT =qxi ˆ 0 v ˆ ± 2:43 m=s. PHOENICS. of which 135. and the thermal .536 K. which is based on the transfer function method (TFM). qT =qx i ˆ 0 u ˆ v ˆ w ˆ 0. we must specif y the thermal and ¯ ow conditions of roofs. Table 1 provides the summary of boundary and internal conditions. The thermal boundary conditions are obtained from the heat ¯ ux rate using the Air-Conditioning Load Calculation Program [7]. KIM ET AL.041 W is through the wall. Numerical Met hod In the present study. It is supposed that 70% of the daylight through the glass is absorbed by the ¯ oors. q ˆ 28:4 W=m2 u ˆ v ˆ w ˆ 0. q ˆ 8:6 W=m2 u ˆ v ˆ w ˆ 0. a general-purpose commercial code. In the table. E 18 E 20 . and jet fans are calculated. respectively. q ˆ 18:3 W=m2 u ˆ v ˆ w ˆ 0. w ˆ 1:5 m=s. E 22 East wall. exhaust di users. walls. This calculation gives the maximum cooling load of 281. and l is the mixing length. devices. T ˆ 18¯ C u ˆ 0:37 m=s. west wall South wall North wall Roof 1st floor 2nd floor 1st floor activity zone 2nd floor activity zone Roof ¹ 2 m below roof Ventilation fan* Conditions u ˆ 1:3 m=s.-H.

. and the average temperature is less than the Figure 2. To ® t the irregular shape of the terminal.5 m from the western wall of z ˆ 0.000 grid cells used in the present study. the body-® tted coordinate system was adopted. As can be seen from the distribution of velocity.5 m above the second ¯ oor of x ˆ 5:5 m where the breathing line of a passenger is deemed to be present. Therm al Environment in t he Design Wit hout Vert ical Air Circulat ion Figures 2a. the grid lines were arranged to match the physical bounding surfaces [8± 9].2 m=s. and 2b show the distributions of velocity and temperature at the selected vertical plane in the design without vertical air circulation. the air ¯ ow near the ceiling appears stationary. There are 700. which took about 50 hours on a personal computer with 600 MHz clock speed and 256 M RAM. i. while the later is an y± z plane 1. The former is an x± y plane 58. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS To analyze the thermal environmental characteristics of two designs with and without vertical air circulation.THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN AN AIRPORT TERMINAL 537 environment in the space. The temperature distribution ranges from 24¯ C to 25¯ C on the second ¯ oor. except in the region around the low velocity device. .000 iterations were required to secure the convergence. (b) temperature contour. In particular. we selected two planes of interest: vertical and horizontal. Computation results at the vertical x-y plane of the preliminary design without vertical air circulation (z ˆ 58:5 m): (a) velocity vector. respectively.e. More than 5. the air ¯ ow for most of the vertical plane is below 0.

and 3c. clothing Figure 3.78 W=m2). and PPD at the selected horizontal plane are shown in Figures 3a. which is because of the solar pond e ect resulting from temperature strati® cation through the ¯ ow stagnation. .2 met (69. To calculate the PPD distribution. However. KIM ET AL. which shows the eastern half of the terminal.-H.2 m=s in the other regions. design temperature of 26¯ C. local temperatures as high as 30¯ C± 50¯ C are found at the ceiling. temperature. 3b. Distributions of velocity. which is lower than the design temperature of 26¯ C. (c) PPD contour.538 K.5 m=s around a handrail because of the low velocity device and is below 0. This considerable temperature di erence between the second ¯ oor and the roof generates the noticeable radiant heat exchange. we assume that the metabolic heat generation is 1. which can results in thermal discomfort for passengers. The ¯ ow distribution results of Figure 3a indicate that the velocity magnitude is 1. The temperature distribution in Figure 3b reveals the temperature range of 18¯ C± 26¯ C and the average temperature of about 25¯ C. Computation results at the half horizontal y-z plane of the preliminary design without vertical air circulation: (a) velocity vector. (b) temperature contour.

9. As shown in Figure 4a.’’ Although the distribution of temperatures in human activity regions show values lower than the design temperature. The mean radiant temperature (MRT) [8] is 31. And it shows that the improved design produces a roof temperature ranging from 26¯ C to 31¯ C. As seen in Figure 3c. This outcome may be attributed to the presence of radiant heat.5 clo (0. the stationary zone near the ceiling disappeared and the velocity was 0. which is 10¯ C lower than that of the preliminary one. the jet ¯ ow sprayed from the jet fan generates 3 m=s velocity along the open air duct. In addition. That is.9¯ C with the aid of the mean wall surface temperature. and 4b show the distributions of velocity and temperature at the selected vertical planes in the design with vertical air circulation.THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN AN AIRPORT TERMINAL 539 insulation is 0. respectively. which in turn is a result of the thermal storage e ect in the ceiling shown in Figure 2. Computation results at the vertical x-y plane of the improved design with vertical air circulation (z = 58. Figure 4. the thermal comfort is hard to attain in the lobby designed without vertical air circulation.078 m 2K=W). the improved design yields a smaller temperature di erence between the roof and the second resident region. the range of PPD distribution is 5± 30% except very near the di users. It is also noted that the average PPD is about 23% and the average PMV is about ‡ 0. and the relative humidity is 50%. giving a level of thermal comfort that may be considered ``slightly warm.3 m=s higher than that of the preliminary one in the second ¯ oor. Comparing the velocity distribution of the preliminary design without vertical air circulation with the improved design. .5 m): (a) velocity vector. but it also interrupts the radiant heat from the ceiling to the human activity regions. the jet fan does not only generate the vertical air circulation. (b) temperature contour. Therm al Environment in t he Design w it h Vert ical Air Circulat ion Figures 4a.

Figures 5a. 5b.540 K. the PPD distribution except very near the di users is between 5% and 15%. and 5c show the distributions of velocity. It is seen from Figure 5b that the temperature varies from 18¯ C to 28¯ C with a mean temperature of 25.’’ . (c) PPD contour. KIM ET AL. which is slightly higher than the mean temperature of the previous design because the cooling air from the low velocity device and the hot air in the ceiling are mixed. It is also noted that the average PPD in this design is 8% and the average PMV is ‡ 0. giving rise to the level of thermal comfort that may be characterized as ``neutral’ ’ or ``comfortable. both designs considering here show the similar characteristics of the velocity distribution.5¯ C in the design with vertical air circulation. Computation results at the half horizontal y-z plane of the improved design with vertical air circulation: (a) velocity vector. From Figure 5a. As shown in Figure 5c.-H. Figure 5. (b) temperature contour. and PPD.3.5¯ C. The mean radiant temperature for evaluation of PPD distribution is calculated as 25. respectively at the eastern half of the selected horizontal plane in the improved design with vertical air circulation. temperature.

ASHRAE Transactions. American Society of Heating. no. Korean Journal of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering. 1995. H. Lee. 6. J. New York. 1970. K. vol. the macromovement of air with vertical air circulation can improve the human thermal comfort in a large space using ventilation. the temperature in the human activity region is less than the design temperature of 26¯ C. Proc. The level of thermal comfort is ``slightly warm’’ for the preliminary design without vertical air circulation. Q. Refrigerating. . CHAM. M. T. 3. England. and D. 1998. Thermal Comfort: Analysis and Application in Environmental Engineering. pp. Part B. 1763± 1771. Sinclair. Hassani and P. 2. 2nd ed. Qin. REFERENCES 1. 9. J. Thermal Comfort and Cold Air Distribution. ASHRAE T ransactions. Thermal Comfort. 1997. Guelph. H. Part B. Case Studies of Thermal Comfort for People with Physical Disabilities.THERMAL ENVIRONMENT IN AN AIRPORT TERMINAL 541 CONCLUSIONS In the present study.. 684± 691. 1998. Parsons. GA. and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Hirosima. 1999. Denmark. H. S. 1989. 5. O. 1997. pp. T he PHOENICS Reference Manual T R=200. the thermal environments in two designs of an airport passenger terminal with or without vertical air circulation have been investigated using numerical simulation. W. and H. pp. Development of a TFM Load Calculation Program Based on Thermal Response Factor. 1982. McGraw-Hill. while it is ``neutral’ ’ for the improved design with vertical air circulation. Canada. Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. pp. Miller. V. compared with the conventional design without it. Copenhagen. C. Howell. Field Experiment on Indoor Climate of Passenger Terminal Building of Kansai International Airport. R. Danish Technical Press. pp. C. L. 883± 892. P. Ko. Fanger. 3. For both designs. A Catalog of Radiation Con® guration Factors.. vol. ASHRAE Atlanta. 8. 1. CFD V entilation Study: Korea W orld Trade CenterÐ Convention Hall. Y. SHASE. Takeo. Choi. 255± 370. Webb and K. 5. Ryu. B. Japan. R. Ontario. 4. J. L. 1493± 1500. Therefore. 7. Spalding. Ludwig.