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Introduction & Classification of Edible Oil

Chapter 1

Learning Outcomes :
At the end of this chapter students should be able to:
describes about edible oil industries describe about Malaysian edible oil industry( source, cultivation, processing and products outcomes state the quality control and assurance

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Introduction
Edible means: fit to be eaten or safely to consume.(source from Wesbster) There are lot of edible oil such as: sunflower oil, Soya bean oil, coconut oil, and palm oil, rapeseed, fish oil,

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Figure: Oleochemical route from raw material


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What is oil and fats ..


Terminology: Occurred in liquid (oil) and solid (fat) Primarily of glycerides

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History
Used since primeval to make cheese or butter from animal milks Bronze Age used poppy, linseed, seed as bread Widely used all over the world as food .

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Composition in edible oil


Glycerides Most important characteristic. Fatty acid Phospolipids Tocopherols and Tocotrienols Sterol & Sterol Ester Caratenoids Minor Constituent-pesticides, trace metals
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Glycerides
Occurs about 97 % as triglycerides-triester of glycerols with fatty acids 2% as diglycerides 1% as monoglycerides
Tri, di and mono consists of 1 mol of glycerols esterified with 3mol, 2mol, or 1 mol of fatty acid

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Glycerides..
Triglycerides of naturally occurring oil and fats contains at least two different fatty acid group Chemical, physical & biological properties of oil and fats determined by type of fatty acid groups and their distribution over the triglycerides molecules Melting point increase when long chain of fatty acid or decrease of proportion of unsaturated fatty acid.
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Glycerides.
As example: milk fat (butterfat) and coconut oil which contains a high proportion of C6-C12 fatty acids- have lower melting point compare to fats such as tallow or lard which consist of C16-C18.

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Glycerides.
It is a chemical compound of one molecule of glycerol bound to three molecules of Fatty Acid:

CH2 OH + R1-COOH CH OH + R2-COOH CH2 OH + R3-COOH Glycerol Fatty Acid

CH2 COOR1 CH COOR2 CH2 COOR3 Triglyceride

3H2O Water

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Fatty Acids
Today, >200 fatty acids are known to occur in fats and oils. Only a handful have a share >3% in the triglycerides of edible oils and fats. A further handful fall in the region of 0.5-3.0%. All others exist only as traces in common oils and fats; they can be found in higher amounts in special species.
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Fatty Acids..
The initial discoveries occurred around 1820 with the basic work of Chevreuil who found butyric, capronic, and capric acid as well as palmitic and stearic acid. The others were discovered by Lerch and Fehling (caprylic acid 1844-45) and Marsson (lauric acid 1842 in the fat of laurel, Luuris nobilis).

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Fatty Acids..
Arachidonic acid was found by Gossmann (1854) in peanut oil, behenic acid by Voelcker (1 848) in behenic oil. Hell and Hermans identified lignoceric acid (1 880 in beech tree tar. Five years earlier, oleic acid had been identified as the most important component of fats and oils. A survey of the history of discovery and identification of the fatty acids is given by Hilditch and Williams (1964). Uccian (1995) gives the fatty acid composition of more than 2000 plants.

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Fatty Acid..
Naturally occurring fatty acids are usually monobasic and unbranched. the simplest lipids that exhibit the above properties They are aliphatic monocarbonic acids, mainly saturated or mono- or biunsaturated

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Saturated Fatty Acid..


of naturally occurring oil & fats with predominant even numbered, straight chain, aliphatic monocarboxylic acid with chain length ranging from C4 to C26. Distinguish by: Chain length Number & position of double bonds Position of the fatty acids within the glyceride molecule.

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Saturated Fatty Acid((CnH2n+1COOH)


the simplest lipids that exhibit the above properties . Fats rich in saturated acids are high melting and are characteristic of many tropical species carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon tail (fatty acids). usually contain an even number of carbons If double bonds are present (unsaturation), they're usually cis. pKa of fatty acids' carboxyl groups about 4.5
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Fatty Acid
(a) Stearic acid (stearate at
pH 7), a fully saturated 18-C fatty acid (no double bonds), in its usual extended conformation (b) Oleic acid (oleate at pH 7), an 18-C fatty acid with 1 cis double bond. Double bond doesn't permit rotation, and introduces "kink" (rigid bend) in hydrocarbon tail

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Unsaturated Fatty Acid.....


Unsaturated fatty acids differ in number and position of double bonds and its configuration. Common fatty acid are know with trivial name such as: butyric, lauric, palmitic, oleic,stearic, linoleic, linolenic. Crude oil contains significant amount of Free fatty acid(FFA)

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Unsaturated fatty acid..

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Unsaturated Fatty Acids..


Two numbers separated by a colon give, respectively, the chain length and number of double bonds: octadecenoic acid with 18 carbons and 1 double bond is therefore 18:1. The position of double bonds is indicated in a number of ways: explicitly, dening the position and conguration; or locating double bonds relative to the methyl or carboxyl ends of the chain.

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Unsaturated Fatty Acids..


Double-bond position relative to the methyl end is shown as n-x or x, where x is the number of carbons from the methyl end. The n-system is now preferred, but both are widely used. The position of the rst double bond from the carboxyl end is designated x.

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Unsaturated Fatty Acids..


Alternative representations of linoleic acid (1) are 9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid; 18:2 9c12c; 18:2 n-6; 18:2 6; 18:2  9,12; or CH3(CH2)4CH CHCH2CH CH(CH2)7COOH

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Fatty acid structure


Fatty acid

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Fatty Acid (Saturated and unsaturated)

Chemical structure

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Phospolipids
Mostly present as lipoproteins and lipid carbohydrate complex. Also known as phosphoglycerides Examples of rich sources of phospolipids: oilseed, cereal germs, eggyolk and brain.

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Tocopherols &Tocotrienols
From tocols- as natural anti oxidants. Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms or isomers, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols

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Tocopherols &Tocotrienols..
All isomers have a chromanol ring, with a hydroxyl group which can donate a hydrogen atom to reduce free radicals and a hydrophobic side chain which allows for penetration into biological membranes. There is an alpha, beta, gamma and delta form of both the tocopherols and tocotrienols, determined by the number of methyl groups on the chromanol ring. Each form has its own biological activity, the measure of potency or functional use in the body.
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Tocopherols &Tocotrienols..
As a food additive, tocopherol is labeled with these E numbers: E307 (-tocopherol), E308 (-tocopherol), and E309 (-tocopherol). The stability of many vegetable oils based on presence of thes natural antioxidant.

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Tocopherols &Tocotrienols.
The actual content of Vitamin E for rich sources is stated in the following list:[2] Wheat germ oil (215.4 mg/100 g) Sunflower oil (55.8 mg/100 g) Hazelnut (26.0 mg/100 g) Walnut oil (20.0 mg/100 g) Peanut oil (17.2 mg/100 g)
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Tocopherols &Tocotrienols.
The actual content of Vitamin E for rich sources is stated in the following list:[2] Pollard (2.4 mg/100 g) Corn (2.0 mg/100 g) Asparagus (1.5 mg/100 g) Oats (1.5 mg/100 g)

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Tocopherols &Tocotrienols.
The actual content of Vitamin E for rich sources is stated in the following list:[2] Chestnut (1.2 mg/100 g) Coconut (1.0 mg/100 g) Tomatoes (0.9 mg/100 g) Carrots (0.6 mg/100 g) Crude Palm oil 600-1000ppm
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Sterols and Sterols Ester


Nonsaponifaible matter of oil and fats consists of sterols present such as fatty acid esterand glycolipids. The most improtant sterol in animal fats is cholesterol - sitosterol is predominant sterol in vegetable oil and fats.

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Carotenoids
Consider nonsaponifiable matter Normally consists of terpenes and terpene alcohol Carotenoids presence in oils and fats example: tetrapenes, -carotene, - carotene, lycopene and xanthophyl &etc.. Crude palm oil contains up to 500 to 700 ppm

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The common fatty acids of animal and plant origin


Systematic name Trivial name Shorthand

Saturated fatty acids

ethanoic butanoic hexanoic octanoic decanoic dodecanoic tetradecanoic hexadecanoic octadecanoic eicosanoic docosanoic cis-9-hexadecenoic cis-6-octadecenoic cis-9-octadecenoic cis-11-octadecenoic cis-13-docosenoic cis-15-tetracosenoic

acetic butyric caproic caprylic capric lauric myristic palmitic stearic arachidic behenic Monoenoic fatty acids palmitoleic petroselinic oleic cis-vaccenic erucic nervonic Polyunsaturated fatty acids*

2:0 4:0 6:0 8:0 10:0 12:0 14:0 16:0 18:0 20:0 22:0 16:1(n-7) 18:1(n-12) 18:1(n-9) 18:1(n-7) 22:1(n-9) 24:1(n-9)

9,12-octadecadienoic 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic

linoleic -linolenic

18:2(n-6) 18:3(n-6) 18:3(n-3)

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-linolenic

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Systematic name butanoic pentanoic hexanoic octanoic nonanoic decanoic dodecanoic tetradecanoic hexadecanoic heptadecanoic octadecanoic eicosanoic docosanoic tetracosanoic hexacosanoic heptacosanoic octacosanoic triacontanoic dotriacontanoic tritriacontanoic
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Trivial name butyric valeric caproic caprylic pelargonic capric lauric myristic palmitic margaric (daturic) stearic arachidic behenic lignoceric cerotic carboceric montanic melissic lacceroic ceromelissic (psyllic) geddic 4:0 5:0 6:0 8:0 9:0 10:0 12:0 14:0 16:0 17:0 18:0 20:0 22:0 24:0 26:0 27:0 28:0 30:0 32:0 33:0 34:0

Shorthand designation

Molecular wt. 88.1

Melting point (C) -7.9

116.1 144.2 158.2 172.3 200.3 228.4 256.4 270.4 284.4 412.5 340.5 368.6 396.7 410.7 424.8 452.9 481
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-3.4 16.7

31.6 44.2 53.9 63.1 61.3 69.6 75.3 79.9 84.2

495 509.1

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tetratriacontanoic

Types of Edible Oil in the World


Vegetables Oils and Fats Land Animals Fats Marine Animals Fats Synthetic Fats

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Vegetables Oils and Fats


Classification
Fruit Pulp / Mash fats
such as Palm Oil , Olive and avocado, coconut

Seed Kernel fats


Major source of oil and fats such as palm kernel oil,, corn oil, sunflower oil and etc

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Land Animals Fat


Lard-Hog(pig_ Tallow(cattle and sheep) Milk or butter(cow)

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Land Animals Fat


Lard-Hog(pig )
Composition and physical have wide variation refer to the climate which it was raised, animal diet Low in PUFA & have good an oxidative stability Lack of natural antioxidants such as(butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA), butylated hydroxytoulene(BHT) , tertiary butylhydroquinone(TBHQ)
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Land Animals Fat


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Lard-Hog(pig )..

Saponification value

193-203 45.0-70.0 < 0.1 31.5-33.0 C 1.448-1.460 C14,C16,C18 C18:1,C18:2

Ordinary lard Iodine value characterized by translucence and a poor Nonsaponifiable matter plastic range
Melting point Refractive Index at 40 C Fatty Acid

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Land Animals Fat


Tallow(cattle and sheep)
Hard fat of ruminant(Chewing cud mammals such as cow, ox, camel and etc) Contains saturated fatty acid s and at least 5% trans acids (characteristic of ruminant digestive system)

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Land Animals Fat


Tallow(cattle and sheep)
To undergo rendering processs (wet / dry) for meat fat but before that impurities such as proteins and free fatty acid . Cause black spot (proteins turns into black due direct contact to steam during steam distillation)

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Land Animals Fat


Tallow(cattle and sheep)
Two processes:
Filtration-bleaching earth added and wash with water Water washing- 10% of capacity but not practically . Needs extra centrifuges and cant removed 100%

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Land Animals Fat


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Tallow(cattle and sheep)


Contain: red & yellow pigment High level of saturated fatty acid, Consistent at room temperature.
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Saponification value Iodine value Nonsaponifiable matter Melting point Refractive Index at 40 C Fatty Acid

190-202 40.0-49.0 < 0.8 45.0-48.0 C 1.448-1.460 C16,C18, C16:1, C18:1,C18:2

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Vegetables Oils and Fats.


Palm Oil: composition
C12:0 C14:0 C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 Lauric - 0.2% Myristic - 1.1% Palmitic - 44.0% Stearic - 4.5% Oleic - 39.2% Linoleic - 10.1%

saturated fatty acid unsaturated fatty acid

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Vegetables Oils and Fats.


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Palm Oil characteristics:


Saponification value Iodine value Nonsaponifiable matter Melting point Refractive Index at 40 C Carotene Content
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195-205 44-58 0.5% 36-40 C 1.453-1.456 50-2000 ppm

Vegetables Oils and Fats.


Olive Oil :Obtained from olive fruit:
C16:0 Palmitic - 16.0% C18:0 Stearic - 4.0% C18:1 Oleic - 64.0% C18:2 Linoleic - 5.0% acid C18:3 Linoleic-b - 5.0%
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saturated fatty acid

unsaturated fatty

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Vegetables Oils and Fats.


Olive Oil characteristics:
Saponification value Iodine value Nonsaponifiable matter Melting point Refractive Index at 25 C 185-196 80-88 < 1.4% -3 C 1.466-1.468

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Vegetables Oils and Fats.


Avocado Oil
From Persea Gratissima L tree.: C16:0 C18:0 C16:1 C18:1 C18:2
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Palmitic - 7.0% saturated fatty acid Stearic - 2.5% Palmitoleic - 76.0% unsaturated Oleic - 10.0% fatty acid Linoleic - 5.0%
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Seed Kernel Fats


Lauric Acid Oils Palmitic-Stearic acid Oil Palmitic Acid Oils Oleic-Linoleic Oils Leguminous Oil Cruceferous Oil Conjugated Acid Oil Substituted Fatty Acid Oils
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Seed Kernel Fats(Lauric Acid)..


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Lauric Acid Oil


Saturated Fatty acid with chain C12 & C14(myristic)
Saponification value 250-262 Coconut Oil characteristics: Iodine value Nonsaponifiable matter Melting point Refractive Index at 40 C 7-10 0.15-0.60 % 20-28 C 1.448-1.450

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Seed Kernel Fats(Lauric Acid)..


Coconut Oil composition:
C12:0 C14:0 C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 Lauric - 41.0% Myristic - 18.0% Palmitic - 9% Stearic - 3.0% Oleic - 76.0% Linoleic - 10.0% saturated fatty acid

unsaturated fatty acid

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Seed Kernel Fats(Lauric Acid)..


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Palm Kernel Oil characteristics:


Saponification value Iodine value Nonsaponifiable matter Melting point Refractive Index at 40 C 242-254 16-19 0.2-0.8 % 23-30 C 1.449-1.452

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Seed Kernel Fats(Lauric Acid)..


Palm Kernel Oil composition:
C12:0Lauric - 45.0% saturated C14:0 Myristic - 17.0% fatty acid C16:0 Palmitic - 10 % C18:0 Stearic - 3.0% C18:1 Oleic - 18.0% unsaturated C18:2 Linoleic - 3.0% fatty acid

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Seed Kernel Fats(Lauric Acid)..


Others sources of Lauric Acid:
Babassu oilfrom babassu palm Laurel treee Myristica officinalis-brazil Cuphea-mexico

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Seed Kernel FatsPalmitic Stearic Acid.. Cocoa(koko) butter(Thebroma cacoa) Oil characteristics:
Saponification value Iodine value Nonsaponifiable matter Melting point Refractive Index at 40 C 190-200 35-40 0.2-0.5 % 28-36 C 1.453-1.458

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Seed Kernel FatsPalmitic Stearic Acid.. Cocoa(Koko) Butter Oil composition:


C12:0 C14:0 C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 Lauric - 46.0% Myristic - 21.0% Palmitic - 12% Stearic - 3.0% Oleic - 37.0% Linoleic - 4.0% saturated fatty acid

unsaturated fatty acid

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Seed Kernel FatsPalmitic Acid Oil..


Cottonseed Oil Kapok & related oil Pumpkin seed oil Corn(maize)oil

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Seed Kernel FatsPalmitic Acid Oil..


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Corn(maize)oil
Saponification value Iodine value Nonsaponifiable matter Refractive Index at 40 C 187-196 109-133 1.3-2.0 % 1.453-1.458

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Seed Kernel FatsOleic-Linoleic Acid Oil.. Sunflower Sesame oil Linseed Oil Perilla Oil Hempseed oil Teased oil Safflower and Niger Seed Grape Seed Oil Poppy Seed Oil
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Seed Kernel FatsOleic-Linoleic Acid Oil..

Sunflower oil from sunflower seed


Saponification value Iodine value Nonsaponifiable matter Refractive Index at 40 C 188-194 125-144 0.4-1.4 % 1.466-1.468

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Seed Kernel FatsOleic-Linoleic Acid Oil..

Sunflower oil Oil composition:


C16:0 C18:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2
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Palmitic - 8.0% Stearic - 6.5% Stearic - 3.0% Oleic - 34.0% Linoleic - 73.0%
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saturated fatty acid unsaturated fatty acid

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Seed Kernel FatsLeguminous Oil..

Types:
Soybean oil Peanut Oil Lupine oil

Soybean oil spec:


Saponification value Iodine value Solidification point Nonsaponifiable matter Refractive Index at 40 C 188-195 120-136 -15 to - 8C 0.5-1.5 % 1.465-1.469

flake

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Seed Kernel FatsLeguminous Oil..


Soybean oil composition:
C16:0 Palmitic - 10.0% C18:0 Stearic - 6.0% C18:1 Oleic - 25.0% C18:2 Linoleic - 57.0% C18:3 Linoleic-b - 11.0% saturated fatty acid unsaturated fatty acid

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Seed Kernel FatsCruciferous Oil..


Rapeseed oil Mustard seed oil

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Seed Kernel FatsConjugated Acid Oil.. Tung Oil & Related Oil Oiticica Oil

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Seed Kernel Fats .Substituted fatty acid oil


Castor oil Chaulmoogra,Hydnocarpus and gorli oil

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Seed Kernel Fats .Land Animal fats.. Lard Beef Tallow Mutton Tallow Horse, Goose & Chicken fats

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Seed Kernel Fats .Marine Animal fats..


Whale oil Fish Oil

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Standard and quality control


Issued by:
Afnor-France Standard AOAC-American Chemist ASTM-American Standard BSI-UK DGF-Germany MPOB/Sirim -Malaysia

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Domestic: MAIN COMMODITY


Oil Palm and its product: great gift of nature and can be used to gain: palm oil, cattle food, house hold, furniture, fertilizer and many more. Govern by: Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB ) facilitates such as:
Planting Oil Palm Promoting Palm Oil Controlling and Monitoring the palm oil based activities Collecting information all over the world pertaining to palm oil. 30303 SEM JULY 2012 CPB And many mores..

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Standard and quality control .


Three ideas about standard:
Sampling Raw material Oil and fats characterizations

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Standard and quality control .


Sampling:
Special sampling apparatus used-uniform Frequency of sampling-uniform Method of sampling-uniform Volume of sample-uniform

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Standard and quality control .


Raw materials:
Max content of moisture in raw material-constant Comminuted size-constant

Determine fat content, method:


Extracted comminuted samples with solvents and determined the solution by:

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Refractometer-meter Gravimetrically-titration(time consume-but reliable) Densitometrically-density measurement Dielectric constant-probe


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Standard and quality control .


NMR( Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) or Near Infrared Absorption (NIR) determine solid fat content Water and volatile matter determine by sample weighing before and after heating under standard condition.

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Standard and quality control .


Crude oil sample analyzed by:
Water & volatile matter Color Dirt content Phospatides FFA

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Standard and quality control .


Example: Crude Palm oil ( CPO)
Substances Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Gums (phospholipids, phosphotides) Dirt Shell Moisture and Impurities Trace metal Oxidation Products Total Carotenoids
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Content 3 - 5% 300 ppm 0.01% Trace 0.15% 0.50% Trace 500 - 1000 mg/ke
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Standard and quality control .


Oil & Fats:
Determination of quality by:
Physical methods Chemical methods

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Standard and quality control .


Physical methods:
Density/specific gravity
Weighing known volume( mass/ volume), determine buoyancy

Refractive index
Refractometer (ABBE)at 20 C for oil Refractometer (ABBE)at 40,60 or 80C for fats(solids)

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Standard and quality control .


Physical methods:
Slip point / melting point the point of incipient fusion & complete fusion

Flow and drop points-Ubbelohde apparatus


Important for technical greases & plastics fats

Cloud point-temperature at which an oil or molten fats begins to become turbid when cooled under control condition

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Standard and quality control ( Physical methods

).
Smoke point-temp smoke 1st detected in draft free illumination. Flash point-temp volatile product can be ignite Fire point-temp product can continue combustion Color Lovibond tintometer(popular)
Match in standard cell 1,5 1/4 , with yellow, blue or red.

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Standard and quality control ( Physical methods

).
Infrared & ultraviolet
Fatty acid does not exhibit clearly in UV but after Isomerization IR used to identify specific group such as hydroxyl and trans double bonds.

Mass Spectometry such GC determine the structure of oxidation & substituted fatty acid.

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Standard and quality control .


Chemical Methods
Involving analysis values defined as equivalent amounts of certain reagent which react with specific Recently upgraded use analytical equipment

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Standard and quality control Chemical Methods .


Saponification value:
is number of miligramms of potassium hydroxide reuqired to saponify(hydrolyze) 1g of fat and related to the molecular mass of the fat.

Hydroxyl value:
is number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralized acetic acid needed to acetylate 1 g of fat.

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Standard and quality control Chemical Methods .


Carbonyl value:
No of miligramms of CO(carbonyl group)per gram of fat

Peroxides value:
Miliequivalents of active oxygen per 1000g of fat which oxidized potassium iodide or milimoles per kilogram.

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Standard and quality control Chemical Methods .


Anisidine Value
1000 times the absoprtion of a 1%sample solution in a 1-cm cell after reaction with anisdine.

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Standard and quality control Chemical Methods .

iodine value % by weight of iodine bound by 100 g of fat & approximate to measure degree of unsaturated.

Totox value Combination with peroxide value to characterize the overall autoxidative state of an oil or fat(totox value)
Totox value= 2x peroxide value + 1x anisdine value

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Edible oil players in Malaysia:


Acidchem International Sdn Bhd Akzo Nobel Oleochemicals Sdn Bhd Congis Oleochemical Sdn. Bhd. IFFCO (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. Natural Oleochemical Sdn Bhd Palm Oleo Sdn Bhd Pan-Century Oleochemicals Sdn Bhd Southern Acids (M) Sdn Bhd. Uniqema (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd Felda More..
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