Group photo in front of the GIZ Soc Trang office


Lecturers: Dr. Nguyen Minh Son Deputy Director, Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Mr. Le Van Thu Deputy Director, Provincial Agency for Seas, Islands and Lagoons, DONRE Thua Thien Hue Mrs. Pham Thi Chin Danang ICM Project Management Office, DONRE Danang

ICAM training agenda Day 1 – June 28 8:00 - 8:30 8:30 - 8:40 8:40 - 9:40 9:40 – 10:00 10:00 – 10:45 10:45 – 11:30 11:30 – 13:00 13:00 – 13:45 13:45 – 14:30 Day 2 – June 29 8:30 – 9:15 9:15 – 9:45 9:45 –10:00 10:00 – 11:30 11:30 – 12:00 12:00 – 13:30 13:30 – 14:30 14:30 – 14:45 14:45 – 16:15 16:15 – 16:30


Registration Welcoming Remarks Module 1:The imperatives of ICM TEA BREAK Module 2: Concept and principles of ICM Module 3: Sustainable Development Framework through ICM LUNCH BREAK Module 4: ICM program implementation cycle Module 5: Preparing an ICM program

Dr. Klaus Schmitt Le Van Thu

Pham Thi Chin Nguyen Minh Son

Le Van Thu Pham Thi Chin Presenter Nguyen Minh Son Pham Thi Chin

Module 6: Initiating an ICM program Module 7: How ICM strengthened coastal governance in Danang TEA BREAK Module 8: Development of ICM tools Open Discussion LUNCH BREAK Module 9: Experiences with ICM implementation in Thua Thien Hue TEA BREAK Open Discussion Closing speech

Nguyen Minh Son

Le Van Thu

Dr. Klaus Schmitt


Participant list of the ICAM training on 28-29.06.2012 No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Name Chế Thị Bích Trâm Đào Công Chương Hoàng Đình Quốc Vũ Huỳnh Ngọc Toàn Lâm Thị Thanh Diễm Lâm Văn Bé Lê Thùy My Nương Lê Văn Bảo Ngô Văn Phúc Nguyễn Đức Hoàng Nguyễn Quang Nam Nguyễn Thanh Phương Nguyễn Thị Kim Nguyễn Thị Mộng Thường Nguyễn Thị Phương Nguyễn Trường Giang Nguyễn Văn Lợi Nguyễn Văn Nam Phạm Thị Hương Phạm Văn Vững Tè Thị Thu Vân Trầm Trường Thịnh Trần Hoàng Dũng Trần Lệ Hằng Trần Ngọc Tùng Trần Thanh Hiền Trần Văn Hùng Triệu Thy Thanh Thảo Trương Văn Khải Võ Văn Dẹn Nguyễn Anh Dũng Phạm Thùy Dương DONRE Vĩnh Châu DPT Coordinator of Vĩnh Châu Project Team DO Finance DONRE Trần Đề Vice president-Head of TĐ project team CLD project team Office for Planning-Finance, Vĩnh Châu town Interdisciplinary planning Team Marine Resources DivisionDONRE Interdisciplinary planning Team Forest Protection Department Sub Department of Water resources Women's Union Trần Đề Sub. DONRE Trần Đề Women's Union DO Investing and Planning CLD project team Border Military Cù Lao Dung Sub. DONRE Vĩnh Châu Women's Union Coordinator of Trần Đề Project Team Interdisciplinary planning Team Aquaculture Sub-department DO Transport Interdisciplinary planning Team Sub-DECAFIREP Cù Lao Dung Women's Union Interdisciplinary planning Team Sub-NAFIQAD DO Industry and Trade DO Culture, Sports and Tourism - Sở VH-TT-DL Interdisciplinary planning Team DARD Sub Department of Water resource - Chi cục Thủy lợi Vĩnh Châu Sub. DONRE GIZ GIZ Organisation

Note - taker: Pham Thuy Duong Soc Trang, August 2012


ICAM training agenda ......................................................................................................................... 2 Participant list of the ICAM training on 28-29.06.2012 ....................................................................... 3 1. The imperatives of ICM ....................................................................................................................... 5 2. Concept and principles of ICM ............................................................................................................ 7 3. Sustainable coastal development framework through ICM ...............................................................12 4. ICM program implementation cycle ...................................................................................................14 5. Preparing an ICM program ................................................................................................................16 6. Initiating an ICM program ..................................................................................................................19 7. Zonation in ICM .................................................................................................................................24 8. Case studies ......................................................................................................................................28 Summary notes on issues of Soc Trang’s Coasts discussed by participants’ working groups ........35


1. The imperatives of ICM
Importance of marine and coastal ecosystems - Marine and coastal zones are the most populated areas and are among the highest productivity ecosystems in the world, with diverse natural resources, such as mangrove forests, coral reefs, seagrass, oil and gas, and minerals, and can produce tidal and wave energy… They also provide us with many essential ecosystem functions and services (fig. 1). Threats to coastal ecosystems - Human activities, particularly unsustainable exploitation of natural resources and economic development (industrial/ agricultural/ aquaculture/ marine transportation/ fishing), are the main causes of degradation and pollution of coastal areas. Moreover, urbanization and a high population with a high growth rate also create pressure on the environment and natural resources.

Ecosystem Services

Provisioning Services

Cultural, Research & Education

Regulating and Supporting Services

Renewable Goods

Non-renewable goods

Tourism, Leisure, Recreation & Research

Biological processes

Hazard prevention

Maritime transport



Oil and gas

Nutrient and carbon cycles

Flood and storm Protection



Sand and gravel

Waste processing

Erosion Control

Building materials

Marine minerals

Carbon sequestration

Spawning & Nursery grounds

Figure 1. Marine and coastal ecosystem services (Source: PEMSEA) Coastal zones are also vulnerable to climate change, sea level rise and natural processes/disasters such as storm surges, erosion and saline intrusion. There are coastal multi-sectoral conflicts such as industry vs. tourism, reclamation vs. mangrove protection, and shipping vs. fishing/aquaculture. In terms of management and institutions, limitations can be: poor law enforcement, no land use and water use planning orzonation, lack of stakeholder participation in policy planning and implementation, lack of coordination, limited budget or inefficient use of finances, limited capacity, lack of information, low public awareness, insufficient, or lack of, alignment between policies and laws. The threats and limitations described can result in negative impacts on coastal areas, such as: declining biodiversity and biological productivity, changing in river regimes, water pollution (ecological); increasing cost for health protection, social services, maintaining and repairing infrastructure (economic); unemployment, declining income, number of days worked and productivity (social).


In order to reduce the negative impacts on coastal areas by human and natural processes, and to resolve conflicts for sustainable coastal development, we need to apply an integrated management approach. ICAM implementation in Vietnam and the region In Vietnam, Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA) has cooperated with theVietnam Environmental Protection Agency (VEPA) in the implementation of ICAM in Da Nang since 1998. From 2001 to 2005, the VNICZM program was implemented in Hue, Nam Dinh and Ba Ria Vung Tau. Vietnam Administration for Seas and Islands (VASI) has also developed ICAM in Quang Ninh province. According to Decision No. 158/QD-TTg of 09.10.2007, the ICAM program would be implemented in 28 coastal provinces (including Soc Trang) up to 2025. PEMSEA’s ICM programs that have been implemented in East Asia, from demonstration to replication, are shown in figure 2.

Figure 2. The Sea of East Asia and PEMSEA sites – 9 ICM demonstration sites, 20 ICM parallel sites and 5 pollution hotspots (Source: PEMSEA) Integrated coastal management (ICM) has proven to be an effective tool for national and local governments, providing a comprehensive and holistic approach to solving the many conflicting uses of coastal and marine resources. ICM is a process that encourages all stakeholders to plan, develop and implement a management program designed to achieve the sustainable development of coastal and marine resources, as well as adjacent watersheds. PEMSEA established nine demonstration sites, covering a total of 917 km of coastline and 2 15,118km of land and sea areas. The inherent flexibility of ICM enables it to be re-created and adopted by local communities, as well as larger administrative regions, to fit the complexity and urgency of issues being addressed. Learning from the experience of the demonstration sites, 20 other local government units in the region began to replicate the ICM programs. (Source: PEMSEA) 6

2. Concept and principles of ICM
ICM is a resource and environmental management framework with an integrated and comprehensive approach, and a participatory planning process,r to solve complicated coastal management issues. Through integrated planning, which links coastal land and the sea, ICM overcomes the limitations of a singular sectoral territorial management approach. As a dynamic process, ICM requires active and continuous participation of local communities and relevant stakeholders in the allocation of coastal resources and in solving conflicts from multi-sectoral uses. The ultimate goal of ICM is achieving sustainable development of the coastal areas. ICM aims to strengthen the capacity and effectiveness of coastal management for the sustainable use of coastal resources and ecosystem services, and to protect the functional integrity of coastal resource systems in conjunction with economic development.

Figure 3. Coastal areas are characterized with high population, diverse socio-economic activities, complex environmental issues and conflicts of multi-sectoral uses. (Source: Ms. Chin)

Main objectives of ICM to achieve sustainable development • • • • • • • • Reducing/ solving multi-sectoral use conflicts Maintaining ecosystem functions and services Meeting local interests Mobilizing participation of relevant stakeholders Strengthening co-operation Strengthening local management capacity Improving the multi-sectoral co-ordination mechanism Enhancing the integration of policy and functionality


ICM is considered as an essential tool for achieving sustainable coastal development. Figure 4 shows progress from non-sustainable development (Issues of environmental degradation, resource depletion and multiple resource-use conflict) towards sustainable development (protection of environment and biodiversity, sustainable use of resources, minimization of resource use conflicts, and improved quality of life). Actions needed are organizing, consolidating of institutions and laws, awareness-raising, mobilizing communities, attracting investment, investigating, policy and decision-making. Process involves the steps of problem identification, planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating. To achieve ICM, three fundamental ICM principles are applied, and they are: adaptive management, integration & coordination and ecosystem-based management (fig. 5).

Figure 4. Progress towards development (Source: Ms. Chin’s)


Ecosystembased management

Integration & Coordination

Adaptive management

Figure 5. The three main principles for ensuring sustainability of ICM The hierarchy of sustainable development principles applied to ICM is shown in figure 6, in which sustainable coastal development serves as a general principle. Complementary strategies to these fundamental principles for an efficient management framework are practical principles of administrative and institutional reformation, common vision, public awarenessraising, participation of stakeholders, capacity building, financial allocation, monitoring and evaluation, and replication of ICM. Under these practical principles are technical tools such as management analysis, co-ordination mechanisms, risk assessment, environmental impact assessment (EIA), stakeholder analysis, cost8

benefit analysis, legal tools (sea and land-use planning, resource allocation…) and economic tools (subsidies, quotas, priorities…).

Sustainable Development

Level 1

Level 2 Intrageneration and Intergeneration Equality Integration and Co-ordination Ecosystem – based Management Adaptive Management

Environment Protection

Biodiversity Conservation

Development Rights

Efficient Management

International Co-operation

Hunger and Poverty Alleviation

Polluter Pays principle

Transparency principle

Food Security

Precautionary principle

Responsibility principle

Community Health

Level 3
Participatory principle

EIA & other Environmental Regulation

Resource Assessment



Level 4
Conflict Resolution Information Sharing

Figure 6. Hierarchy of sustainable development principles ICM provides an efficient alternative management system, with identification and consideration of the relationship between ecosystems and stakeholders. Thus, ICM ensures dynamic responses of economic, social and political factors to pressures on sea and coastal natural resources. Factors contributing to successful ICM are: local capacity, political commitment, multi-disciplinary cooperation, effective financial mechanisms, local champions and effective human resource management. 9

Adaptive management Adaptive management is a process of planning, implementation, evaluation, adjustment and re-doing which is repeated in order to achieve the goals (fig. 7).

Figure 7. The adaptive management cycle (Source: CSIRO) Adaptive management is a systematic process to continuously improve policies and practical management by learning from the results of previous policies and practices. Adaptive management shows how to adjust an action plan in order to meet current specific local situations, issues and interests. Adaptive management requires a willingness to conduct policy and management responses to unpredictable impacts. These impacts are often the result of changes in ecosystems or institutional conditions, which can cause obstacles for ICM initiatives. Integration and co-ordination Integration is to ensure that: • • • Policies and management activities of related sectors in ICM fit together. Improvement of policies and management activities is based on consultation with scientists. Various interdisciplinary activities are co-ordinated and adjusted to promote the replication of practical management.

There are three aspects of integration, which are: integration of systems, integration of functionality and integration of policy. The Coastal zone is a unified resource system in which its components are not separated or fragmented (integration of land and sea and environmental and social components). It is an interacting system of natural and social factors and between biological and non-biological processes. The Coastal zone is a multi-function zone, thus its uses should be in accord with its functions and within its limits (integration of resource use, space use, land use). 10

Integration of policy, in both vertical and horizontal dimensions, means integration of different levels, sectors and stakeholders; integration of management policies with management activities; and integration of theory and practice. These three aspects of integration cannot be achieved without co-ordination. Co-ordination is an action tool to achieve efficiency and cost-saving for different management and policy interventions towards set objectives. This can be done by avoiding overlap, properly arranging activities and sharing knowledge and resources. A co-ordination mechanism can be in the form of a multidisciplinary organization, or a multi-disciplinary co-ordination board at central or local levels. Coordination is to ensure integration principles are applied, to solve multi-disciplinary and inter-local problems, and to attract stakeholder participation and to maintain sustained operations. Management of coastal ecosystems will be effective if the efforts of related management organizations are co-ordinated and integrated. As opposed to singular-sectoral management, ICM considers inter-disciplinary impacts and multi-objective conflicts in the coastal zone. Ecosystem-based approach An Ecosystem is a system of organism populations that exist and develop in a certain environment, and have interactions between each other and with the environment. Ecosystem-based management is an integrated and scientific approach for resource management in order to maintain quality, recovery and biodiversity of ecosystems, while allowing sustainable use of their products and services. Ecosystem-based management is a process of integrating biological, social and economic factors into a comprehensive strategy to protect and strengthen sustainability, biodiversity and productivity of natural resources. An ecosystem-based approach focuses on the integrity of ecosystems so that they can provide essential products and services for human development. A management approach based on ecosystem protection, shows that for effective ecosystem management, it is important to manage the interaction between humans and the environment. ICM overcomes disadvantages of a singular-sectoral approach to resource and environmental management by: • • strengthening awareness of the integrity of coastal resource systems integrating ecological, social and economic information promoting a multi-disciplinary approach to co-ordination and co-operation to solve complex development issues.

Sustainable Development Strategy of Seas of East Asia (SDS-SEA) In 2003, 12 nations approved the SDS-SEA. The SDS-SEA focused on programmes related to the application of international environmental tools which instructed decision-makers and management and provided a foundation for law/policy making and for programs/projects in the nations. The strategy referred to • • the relationship between socio-economic development and environmental protection relevant to East Asia seas; the linkages between poverty alleviation, sustainable livelihood programs, natural disaster vulnerability mitigation, long-term security, economic growth and the health of humans, ecosystems and natural resources; inter-disciplinary, inter-organization, inter-government and inter-project co-operation for sustainable development of the region.


3. Sustainable coastal development framework through ICM
Based on 16 years of experience in ICM implementation in the East Asian region, PEMSEA developed the Sustainable Development of Coastal Area (SDCA) Framework. The Framework is comprised of 2 main components: Governance and Sustainable Development Aspects (Figure 8).

Figure 8. Framework for Sustainable Development of Coastal Areas through ICM (Source: PEMSEA) The issues and challenges for the Governance component of the SDCA Framework are: Policy, strategies and plans – lack of policy and strategy, competition among sectors on space and resources, lack of vision for sustainable coastal development; Institutional arrangements – lack of co-ordination, lack of commitment and interaction among stakeholders in planning and implementation of plans and programs; Legislation – gaps and overlaps in legal documents, limitation in law enforcement; Information and public awareness – limited knowledge, low awareness; Financing mechanisms – competition among sectors on limited state budget, too many priorities need to be invested; Capacity development – lack of human resources, weak skills, lack of training opportunities.

The main activities of the Governance component of the Framework are: Integrating policy and ICM strategies into detailed plans in order to create favorable conditions for financial funding for the environment, ecosystems protection and management capacity strengthening; Institutional arrangements to support inter-disciplinary co-operation and co-ordination; Legislation to ensure integration in policy and functionality and providing a foundation for law enforcement; 12



Building appropriate financial mechanisms for maintaining resource and environmental management; Creating an environment for consolidation and ICM capacity development.

ICM policy sets the ultimate goals and orientates actions, strategies and plans for the protection and management of coastal resources and the environment. The making and approving of policies, strategies and action plans should be based on an ICM foundation. ICM policies also need to consider international regulations and agreements that Vietnam is a signatory to. Participation of local authorities is essential for ICM as it needs agreement and support from all levels of local authority. Real consultation is needed to form appropriate institutional arrangements. Effective organization must be accompanied by the preparation of related legal documents. A co-ordination mechanism is essential for an ICM program/project (fig. 9).

Inter-disciplinary co-ordination mechanism

Sustainable development council/ co-ordination board

Management office

Technical expert group

Figure 9. Co-ordination mechanism in ICM

Benefits of establishment and institutionalization of a co-ordination mechanism • • • • Solving overlaps in responsibility Identification of gaps in functionality Harmonizing the competitive benefits of different stakeholders Ensuring appropriate integration of policy and management interventions Providing policy consistency and co-ordination between different stakeholders

Legal documents supporting effective ICM implementation provide a legal basis for ICM action programs, enforcement and instruction for initiatives in ICM. Dissemination of information and raising public awareness about ICM are essential. An effective communication campaign can change stakeholders’ attitudes, mobilizing them and affecting decisionmaking, consolidating policy implementation and law enforcement. An increased understanding of stakeholders on ICM leads to shared views on coastal management. Creating sustainable financial resources is important to ensure sufficient, stable, long-term and selfsustained financial resources for resource and environmental protection. The identification of finance_generating mechanisms essential, for proper and timely financial allocation. An ICM program/project will have a stable and effective source of finances when it is institutionalized and integrated into a local socio-economic development plan. ICM requires working with different stakeholders and having knowledge related to coastal resources and the environment. Therefore, capacity development of professionals and managers is essential. Capacity building can be developed through activities such as training classes, study tours to gain


political commitment, learning on the job, technical support (expert network, ICM practice center, etc…). A complete ICM program includes a management structure, projects/activities solving sustainable development issues, planning and implementing cycles, and monitoring and evaluation. Sustainable development aspects relate to activities/projects in natural and man-made hazard prevention and management, habitat protection, restoration and management, water use and water supply management, food security and livelihood management, pollution reduction and waste management.

4. ICM program implementation cycle
ICM can be deployed in any coastal zone, at any time. This is a spiral process and can be divided into different cycles, from simple to complex. The time frame for an ICM cycle can be 5 – 10 years, depending on geographical scope, the extent of environmental issues, complexity of any management issue, or local institutional and financial capacities. The time frame should be in accord with the 5 – 10 year plans. To achieve set goals and visions, many ICM cycles may need to be repeated. In the new program, we should consider an expansion of the geographical scope (replication to other areas), expansion of content and take into account the time frame. The PEMSEA’s ICM implementation cycle (fig. 10) shows how the SDCA framework is operated in a clear, stageg and cyclical manner. In this cycle, there are 6 steps: preparing (1), initiating (2), developing (3), adopting (4), implementing (5), refining and consolidating (6).

Figure 10. ICM implementation cycle (Source: PEMSEA)


Experiences and lessons learned from ICM implementation • • • • • There must be consistent and synchronous direction at all levels, sectors and localities. ICM should be integrated into the socio-economic development plans of all levels, sectors. The Integration concept should be frequently disseminated and ICM capacity should be enhanced through strategy and the action plan implementation process. There should be plans for monitoring, evaluation and modification in an ICM cycle. Implementation of ICM and its action plan are the job of all in a society. This is established through the process of building the strategy and action plan. Enlisting all resources in the implementation of the strategy and action plan (local, central, international, private sources, unions, etc…).

In the 1 step of the ICM approach, the main activities are: establishment of an organizational structure, particularly the co-ordination mechanism, action and budget planning, stakeholders’ identification and initial consultation, establishment of a project monitoring program, training of core project staff, a needs assessment for the State of the Coast (SOC) and an ICM legal framework. In the 2 step of initiating ICM, the main activities are: building an integrated information management system (IIMS), preparing the State of the Coast report, building a coastal vision, drafting the ICM strategy and action plan, raising public awareness, preparing a communication plan, developing capacity and building stakeholder consensus. The State of the Coast report should show the natural and socio-economic conditions for the coast, and identify coastal challenges and opportunities. In the 3 step of developing ICM, the main activities are: development of the ICM strategy and preparation of a detailed action plan. For the completion of the ICM strategy, consultation of experts and related stakeholders is needed. Then, after having received approval from the Provincial People’s Committee, detailed action plans to implement the ICM strategy can be made. Again, these detailed action plans need input from experts and related stakeholders. Building management mechanisms for deploying the ICM strategy and action plan is essential. Institutional arrangements, co-ordination, and co-operation are needed for ensuring efficient use of time and finances. Coastal zonation planning is used as a tool to resolve conflicts involving coastal resource and space use. Integrated environmental monitoring is designed to monitor environmental changes and efficiency of management activities with the co-operation of related organizations. Various investment options, and public-private partnership are encouraged to ensure a sustainable financing mechanism. In the 4 step of the ICM approach, its management structure, coastal policy, strategy, action plan and funding mechanism are all approved. Important factors in the process are: community participation, and agreement of stakeholders in supporting the adoption of the ICM strategy, action plans and their implementation. If the head of the co-ordination board is the president or vicepresident of the People’s Committee, the consultation and adoption processes can be greatly supported. Agreement and approval of local authorities will ensure financial allocation, mobilization of resources, institutionalization of the co-ordination mechanism and integration of ICM into local socioeconomic development plans. In the 5 step of implementing ICM, co-ordination and management mechanisms are developed, legal documents supporting ICM are made and action plans are deployed. These action plans relate to capacity building, environmental and resource management, institutional arrangements and sustainable financing for ICM. For these action plans to be successful, it is essential to integrate ICM into the provincial socio-economic development plans and other related plans, as well as to integrate project management into local management institutions through legislation. Capacity building, education and training should always be maintained. Moreover, developed action plans should maintain their political support, and the interest and participation of stakeholders. Various financial sources can be used to implement the activities.
th th rd nd


In the 6 step of ICM, refining and consolidating, based on monitoring results and comparisons with set criteria, goals and objectives, the outcomes and impacts of ICM program are evaluated. The database for the integrated information management system (IIMS) and State of the Coast (SOC) information are updated. The ICM strategy, action plans, institutional arrangements, financial mechanisms, resources and capacities are refined and adjusted. Goals, approaches and activities are reviewed for the next cycle, targeting ICM recognition and certification in the process.


5. Preparing an ICM program
Preparation for an ICM program involves building a project management structure, action planning with necessary financial and human resources, identification of and consultation with stakeholders, training core staff, and building a monitoring and evaluation system. On the other hand, the local relevance of ICM implementation is also identified through the commitment of local authorities and stakeholders, the characteristics of environmental management issues, local manageability, replicability, favourable conditions and obstacles for ICM. Delineating the management/operational boundary of ICM In general, the coastal zone is defined as the transitional area between land and sea. In different fields, particularly in scientific research, the coastal zone boundary can be defined differently. Figure 11 depicts some of the versions of what constitutes the coastal zone. According to the Convention on the Law of the Sea (United Nations 1982), the maximum extent of the coastal zone can be: the territory that is defined from the shorelands to the coastal uplands of the watershed boundary (landward), and on the seaward side to the Territorial sea boundary near the edge of the continental shelf. According to Decision 158/QĐ-TTg, the coastal zone in Viet Nam is comprisedof the coastal districts and 6 nautical miles seaward from shoreland.

Figure 11. Defining ICM boundary (Source: PEMSEA) PEMSEA suggests the ideal boundary for ICM should be the entire watershed or catchment basin (landward) and 200 nautical miles seaward of the shorelands; and the operational boundary should be 16

the local administrative boundary (landward) and up to 2 nautical miles seaward (municipal waters) or key habitats (marine waters) that are of priority management concerns. For practical purposes in Vietnam, the coastal zone boundary for ICM is site specific, which varies depending on management capacity, local interests and administrative boundaries. Delineating the operational boundary of ICM requires official agreement of all stakeholders. Establishment of the ICM co-ordination mechanism The co-ordination mechanism acts as a local institution for ICM with an administrative structure and inter-disciplinary co-ordination function. The main tasks of an ICM co-ordination mechanism is to establish the project office, the multi-disciplinary co-ordination board and the technical advisor group. The project management office aims to operate the ICM project, to facilitate planning and approving processes, to organize stakeholders’ consultation workshops and to prepare action plans. The project office can be established from sub-divisions of local authority or from consultant departments. At the beginning, a planning group can be formed instead, and then later will transform into a project office. The structure of the project management office includes a project director and staff who can be recruited from related departments. The aims of the multi-disciplinary co-ordination board are to comprehensively co-ordinate, the making of policies, the issuing of management decisions at local levels, and to harmonize overlapping responsibilities and integrating activities (table 1). The co-ordination board will be established with an official decision from the president of the province. Ideally, the co-ordination board will include the president or vice-president of the province/city, leaders of departments and districts; with the head of the co-ordination board being the leader of the province/city. Table 1. Roles and responsibilities of the co-ordination board and the project office Multi-disciplinary Co-ordination Board Giving direction for policy development and instructing management Ensuring implementation of activities Reviewing and approving yearly action plans and progress reports Project Management Office Project management

Preparing instructions and detailed action plans Ensuring products are completed in a timely manner Preparing progress reports for the co-ordination board to approve Supporting and monitoring implementation progress Acting as the co-ordination board’s secretary board Collecting documents from local and national experts Co-ordinating the activities of consultant experts, reviewing reports and giving support by providing recommendations for implementation Reviewing project products, preparing technical reports, organizing workshops, compiling information into working models

Ensuring the integration of ICM activities is a task for local authorities

Co-ordinating with local and national departments on what should be the scope and responsibilities of the project office

Monitoring and instructing the activities of the project office

Providng support to facilitate the effective implementation of the project


The technical advisor group acts as a scientific advisory board to solve problems, designing action plans, supporting policy-making, interventions and management decisions. The technical advisor group aims to ensure the technical and scientific quality of project reports and products. It also conducts detailed technical tasks. The technical advisor group is made up of representatives from universities, research institutes and experts from many different fields. Building and approving project action and financial plans Action and financial planning involve stakeholder consultation, preparation of plans, and financial and making other administrative resource arrangements. Stakeholder consultation involves giving stakeholders an understand about ICM and its benefits, as well as having an initial consultation for the preparation and making of work plans. Stakeholder consultation aims to promote agreement with ICM, minimising obstacles, building consensus, raising awareness of responsibility and gaining commitment. Approaching stakeholders in the ICM preparation step can be done through organizing an initial workshop to introduce the ICM program and to collect information, opinions of stakeholders. Workshops are organized with stakeholders to discuss on their participation and commitment. Work plans should identify tasks, the main steps to conduct these tasks, time schedules, implementing organizations/persons and any other human and financial resource requirements. These work plans should be prepared with stakeholder consultation. There should be official agreement for the recognition of stakeholder participation and commitment. Work and financial plans should be approved by stakeholders and the co-ordination board. Financial resources for ICM implementation will mostly come from the local budget. Additional support can come from public-private partnerships, environmental funds, etc… To acquire management and financial resources, it is essential to build consensus, maintain commitment and support from local authorities, the community and stakeholders, by good communication on the economic and social benefits of ICM, and by encouraging active participation. Core staff training Strategies for core staff training are: learning from the best practices of other successful ICM projects, organizing training courses, learning on the job and practical application. Training steps include: evaluation of local capacity for implementing working plans; identification of capacity building demands, target groups, opportunities for capacity development and resource requirements; and, organizing capacity-building activities which have been identified. Table 2. Preparation of core staff training Who should be trained? Capacity requirements Knowledge and concepts of ICM, its principles, framework and process Staff of local departments who are participating in the project Environmental management Personal skills to co-ordinate, mobilize and manage Project design, operation and management Specific skills for specific activities in ICM implementation Other stakeholders Knowledge of project procedures Knowledge of different aspects of ICM 18

Building a project monitoring and evaluation system The role of a monitoring and evaluation system is to implement a monitoring and evaluation plan which requires the identification of baseline data and the use of performance indicators to generate results for improving the ICM program. ICM progress and implementation are monitored and evaluated in terms of the project’s social, economic and environmental impacts. The results are used for the optimization of resource use, upgrading project activities, improving the quality and impacts of the program’s products, as well as facilitating knowledge transfer and program replication (Table 3). Table 3. Monitoring and evaluation through-out the ICM process Steps of an ICM cycle Activities Identifying roles, responsibilities and organization structure Building indicators for implementation Preparing Building a monitoring and evaluating program with a time schedule Assessing needs to prepare the State of the Coast (SOC) report Initiating Identifying baseline conditions or, the State of the Coast, for the project area Evaluating achieved results of ICM, which correspond to set goals and refining implementation methods and techniques Refining and Consolidating Evaluating effectiveness and appropriateness of the monitoring and evaluating system All steps Monitoring the program and periodically evaluating project implementation based on identified indicators/parameters

Tools which should be considered when building ICM’s indicators/parameters are: Agenda 21, the Millennium Development Goals, the Action Plan for the World Strategy for Sustainable Development (WSSD), local conditions and ICM standards.

6. Initiating an ICM program
Initiating an ICM program involves identification of interests in resource and environmental management, setting priorities for these interests, building a database and information management system, community awareness-raising and mobilizing stakeholder participation, and building a strategic vision and long-term action framework for coastal development and management. The advantages of ICM are: providing a common framework and process for stakeholders to work together to solve identified priority problems with a holistic, comprehensive, integrated and participatory approach. A limitation of ICM however, is that it cannot solve all coastal problems immediately. Therefore, it is necessary to identify priority issues in order to provide corresponding strategies/actions. Tools that support priority identification scientifically and systematically, as well as building visions and a general strategy, are: the coastal environmental profile, the state of the coast (SOC), the integrated information management system (IIMS) and environmental risk assessment.


The Coastal Environmental Profile is a document comprehensively describing natural, social, economic and environmental conditions, natural resources; institutional mechanisms and coastal environmental management activities. It is a database which serves various ICM project activities. The State of the Coast (SOC) is a document comprehensively reflecting the demographic, economic, social, and environmental status and the management activities of a particular part of the coast; and including a database for ICM, particularly for the assessment of coastal change. The State of the Coast is a system of reports based on a sustainable coastal development framework through ICM application, with the addition of evaluation indicators from PEMSEA. The State of the Coast provides information from many different sources; reports on trends, goals and management responses; identifies important information, gaps in data and supports ICM implementation.

Figure 12. The Process of making a State of the Coast report (Source: PEMSEA) Figure 12 shows the steps in making a SOC report. Figure 13 shows an example of indicators used in a SOC report taken from the report on Batangas province, Philippines. An Integrated Information Management System (IIMS) is a system of storage, processing and management of information and data for coastal management. An IIMS arranges and stores information/data systematically for easy updating and accessing. An IIMS supports using information/data for policy-making and decision-making. An IIMS helps in sharing information/data and limits overlaps in information/data collecting, and researches activities using resources to create information/data. Figure 14 summarizes data types and applications of an IIMS. For example, in the application of coastal zonation, an IIMS can provide information on population, natural resources (coral reefs, mangroves, etc…), economic activities (aquaculture, fishing, port and marine transportation, industries, agriculture, etc…), policy and institutional data, and water quality.


Figure 13. Indicators used in the State of the Coasts report on Batangas province, Philippines (Source: PEMSEA, 2008)


Data query for making report

Reports as tables and graphs

Applications: • • Environmental Profile & Atlas Environmental Risk Assessment Resource & Environmental Assessment ICM Strategy Zonation Oil spill response plan Environmental investment Administration, governance Deployment of action plans

IIMS Database Geographic data Demographic data Socio-economic data Biological data Institutional data Pollution sources data Water resource & management data Natural disaster, environmental risk data Environmental monitoring data Hydro- geological data

• Connecting database with GIS

• •

GIS database

• • •

Spatial analysis •

Data screening, sorting, normalization & encryption

Providing products and services for users Maps Environmental monitoring

Data collection

Figure 14. Data types and applications of an IIMS Environmental Risk Assessment is a systemic and scientific assessment of information to identify and set priorities for addressing the probability of human activities causing negative impacts to humans and ecosystems. It converts technical information into different levels of risk (fig. 15).

Figure 15. The levels of approach to risk assessment and risk management Environmental risk management integrates technical information and identifies (1) environmental issues of priority concern, (2) important data gaps, (3) areas/problems without clear conclusions and 22

the need for further assessment. It requires a reliable scientific base and correct information. It provides a foundation for policy recommendations and setting priorities for management. Examples on how results of risk assessment can be applied are shown in table 3. Table 3. Examples on applications of the results of risk assessment Examples Action planning How results of risk assessment are applied Information on concerns which are identified through risk assessment are used for setting priorities in strategies and action plans By identifying area of concern to management, risk assessment allows proper allocation of limited resources and not a waste of resources on minor issues Priorities, information/data gaps and lack of reliability of results identified in risk assessment provide input for building a longterm, and cost-effective inter-disciplinary monitoring program.

Environmental investment

Integrated environmental monitoring

An ICM strategy is a common framework for planning and integrated management of coastal areas and their resources. It presents common long-term visions of stakeholders with the scope of time normally in the range of 20 – 25 years. It is a process of connecting stakeholders in solving priority issues that threaten coastal sustainable development. Key elements of the coastal strategy (Fig. 16) are: coastal long-term vision, missions based on the expected results of stakeholders; strategies presenting an approach to achieve the vision; strategy objectives presenting the necessary approach to achieve the vision and mission; and action plans showing ways to achieve the objectives.

Vision & Missions



Objective 1

Objective 2

Objective 3

Action plan 1.1

Action plan 1.2

Action plan 2.1

Action plan 2.2

Action plan 3.1

Action plan 3.2

Responsible organization

Implementation mechanism

Figure 16. Key elements of a coastal strategy


Building the coastal strategy approach • • • Identification and consolidation of coastal information Organizing training workshop for stakeholders Consultation with stakeholders Consolidation of consultation results, integrating the results into the strategy and then organizing extension workshops Completing and submitting the strategy to the co-ordination board for approval Organizing a workshop for official approval and announcement of the strategy Preparation of the coastal strategy’s implementation plan

• • • •

A requirement for the building of the coastal strategy approach is a commitment of human and financial resources. In order to achieve political support and commitment, coastal the strategy’s content should be converted into documents that are easy to understand for communication and public awareness-raising in communities. Capacity building and participation should be enhanced in project planning and management (e.g. resource conservation, rehabilitation; pollution mitigation; waste management, alternative livelihood programs, etc…), as well as in monitoring and evaluating activities (state of coastal resources and environmental quality). It is essential to mobilize stakeholder participation and to encourage the sharing of social responsibility. In conclusion, in initiating an ICM program, we need to identify, and set priorities for, management concerns, because the issues will require different policies and management interventions. Therefore, the main activities for the initiatial steps of ICM focus on identification of priority issues and building corresponding strategies. The main tools used to identify these priority concerns are: the State of the Coast (SOC) report/ the Coastal Environmental Profile, Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) and the Integrated Information Management System (IIMS). Results from the SOC, ERA and IIMS will be used to produce the coastal strategy. The application of these tools and measures requires multidisciplinary knowledge, stakeholder participation, and local training and capacity building. The communication plan helps to direct and concentrate efforts for public awareness-raising. The commitment of the local authority is needed for the application of the results of these steps, and for products in other activities in the ICM cycle.

7. Zonation in ICM
Zonation is the spatial division of an area according to its characteristics or functionality. The general aim of zonation is to solve conflict and support development. There are 2 types of conflicts: (1) conflicts between human use and environment (user >< environment) and (2) conflicts between human activities (user >< user). A zone is identified by certain criteria: it is a geographical unit in the area of concern with similar ecological, economic and social properties; there is often an association between resources and their types of use; in a zone, resource use issues and requirements are similar. A matrix of conflicting uses for each zone is prepared, to evaluate compatibility. Regulations (allow, not allow and limit) are made, based on conflict analysis (Fig. 17) and they should be the result of consultation and agreement from stakeholders. The ICM approach should be applied in zonation. Categorized in terms of development level, zonation includes a developed zone, a buffer zone and a conservation zone. The developed zone can be divided into a zone with low intensity use, a zone with high intensity use and a multi-use zone. A zone with low intensity use can function as a buffer zone for a zone with high intensity use.


Categorized in terms of function, zonation includes a harbour zone, a tourism development zone, a fishing zone, a near shore industrial zone, a mining zone, a conservation zone, a reserve zone, a recovery zone, etc… Building map layers on: Current resource use Resource use planning Spatial planning Natural conditions, related infrastructures Coastal management institution analysis: - Policies, legal documents - Management mechanism, responsibility - Multi-disciplinary organizations


Development plans of different sectors

Current coastal resource use regulation

Distribution problems/ Conflict of use

Zonation (proposal)

Regulations of use (proposal)


Zonation plan Zonation map System of regulation Recommendation on institutional enhancement to implement the plan Implementation arrangement

Figure 17. The zonation process

Conservation, protection zone Criteria • • • Important land/water zones for biological conservation and protection Zones with unique natural habitats and high biodiversity Zones with ecosystems supporting lives of endemic, rare and threatened species Management policy Following planning of a national system of conservation zones until 2020 (Decision 1479/QĐ-TTg on 13/10/2008) Protection and conservation of habitats/ecosystems and related organisms (in the sea as well as on the land), preservation of biodiversity Protection and preservation of its natural functions Protection and preservation of endemic, rare and threatened species Protection and preservation of zones with valuable natural landscape




Recovery zone Criteria • Designated zone for recovery of degraded natural resources/habitats Management policy Recovery of important natural and historical values Recovery of landscape, water quality and natural habitats while allowing some types of use with low intensity, not affecting these values Protection of environmental quality according to specific standards Finding opportunities to develop it into protection zone


Buffer zone Criteria • Zone adjacent to protected or preserved zone and with limited use, designated to consolidate strict protection efforts Can be sensitive zone with protective function (isolated, limited); protected from negative potential impacts of surrounding development Some activities with low intensity are allowed, usually along islands, peninsulas and estuaries Management policy Allocating buffer zones surrounding a conservation zone, protection zone and recovery zone to mitigate impacts of development activities around them, as well as to increase the stability and effectiveness of conservation, protection and recovery Preventing uncontrolled activities while still allowing some traditional resource uses and activities with strict regulations Preventing activities that can cause degraded landscapes and environmental quality



“Sea belt” zone Criteria • Coastal zone with maximum tide, about 50 200m landward; strictly control development to prevent negative impacts from the sea, such as erosion, which can destroy marine habitat, and generate harmful changes in hydro-geo-dynamic processes, usually around islands, peninsulas and estuaries Management policy Preventing uncontrolled activities while still allowing some traditional resource uses Preventing activities that can cause landscape degradation, water pollution, erosion, sedimentation and changes in the form of the natural coastal line Mitigate impacts of land-based development



Tourism development zone Criteria • • Zone with tourism development potential Zone for cultural, ecological tourism and entertainment activities Management policy Tourism development without exceeding the natural capacity of the area Protection and conservation of landscapes, ecosystems and environmental quality of the tourist area Expanding opportunities and access for the community


Harbor operation and maritime transport zone Criteria • Sea harbours, ports and zones for maritime transport and other related commercial and service activities Management policy Maintaining a balance between the many activities related to a sea harbour and port Increasing effective spatial use and protecting characteristic landscapes, which are valuable for tourism Encouraging development and modernization with a planned, scientific and reasonable spatial zoning Preparing, and completing, a plan and developing services and equipment for, responding to oil spills Determining solutions for passage-way maintenance and dredging, and locations for dumping dredged material Assigning routes (flow in and out), anchorage areas





Fishing zone Criteria • • Zone for fishing, applying sustainable use measures Fishing zones can be divided into smaller zones corresponding to different scales of fishing in order to prevent conflicts between commercial and recreational fishing activities Management policy Protection of fish and aquatic resources by preventing overfishing and destructive fishing, regulating use and access to aquatic resources, protecting nursery grounds Increasing management, monitoring of commercial, as well as recreational (incl. small scale for livelihood) fishing, in nearshore areas Determining solutions for passage-way maintenance and dredging, and a position on dumping dredged materials Assigning routes (moving in and out), anchorage areas





Multi-use zone Criteria • Zone for various activities such as industry, trade, production, tourism, recreation and subsistence while still maintaining ecological, landscape and environmental values Near-shore water areas which can meet commercial, industrial, production, tourism and recreational activities dependent on water Management policy Designating coastal areas for activities such as production, trade and recreation which are suitable for sustainable development goals Maintaining a balance between different activities Ensuring resource conservation, protection and recovery if there are changes in traditional activities or new developments in types of use Protecting marine habitats from changes/ activities in the area Maintaining environmental quality in the area and its surroundings



8. Case studies Danang
Since 2000, Danang has been chosen as the national demonstration site for ICM in the framework of the regional co-operation program for East Sea environmental management (PEMSEA), supported by the Global Environmental Fund, UNDP and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) (Fig. 18).

Figure 18. Relative boundary of the Danang ICM project core area


Roles of the ICM project in strengthening Danang’s coastal governance • Creating a multi-disciplinary co ordination mechanism for coastal resource and environmental disciplinary co-ordination management

resources Most of the programs and development plans for the city, which are related to coastal resource and the environment, have been prepared in consultation with all relevant departments and districts. Community awareness-raising, as well as capacity building for local staff contributed remarkably to staff, the success of ICM in Danang. The multi multi-disciplinary co-ordination mechanism (Fig. 19) helps ordination investment projects to fit in with the city coastal strategy (which considers risk management, city’s recovery and protection of habitat, waste management, prevention and mitigation of pollution) and pollution), action plans for coastal resource and environmental protection have been implemented synchronously and harmoniously Such as action plans include: waste separation at source, public armoniously. : awareness-raising on beach cleaning, environmental monitoring, investigation of marine resources, raising and project planning for the coral reef protection zone in the Southern part of Son Tra peninsula.

Figure 19 Danang’s ICM co-ordination mechanism. 19. • Creating technical tools to support integrated coastal resource and environmental management

Based on the ICM strategy approved in 2001, Danang’s Peoples’ Committee issued regulations for the management and protection of coral reefs and ecosystems related to the coastal areas from Chao islet to Nam Hai Van and the Son Tra peninsula. Zonation planning for Danang’s coastal use includes c categorization of coastal spatial use uses, regulations on coastal use, a coastal use zoning plan and an institutional framework for implementation. This zoning plan has had a big impact on the achievement of reasonable coastal use . and the mitigation of conflict. The Integrated Environmental Monitoring program was approved by Danang’s People Committee on Peoples, May 4, 2006 with 47 monitoring points for water ( (covering rivers, the sea, lakes and groundwater), sedimentation, soil, and air qualit Since then, DONRE has co-ordinated with other related quality. ordinated 29

departments to conduct regular monitoring, as well as irregular monitoring, in order to evaluate environmental quality in the whole city, and to assess the state of the coast. The Integrated Information Management System (IIMS) has been established as a socio-economic, resource and environmental database system for Danang for risk management, developing strategies, environmental monitoring, and coastal use zoning, as well as other related activities supporting state management. • The integrated coastal resource and environmental management model has been widely applied by organizations, faculties, and authorities, as well as communities

Components of the environmental protection model, such as waste separation at source, planting trees, etc., have been implemented by many social organizations and unions. The movement,GreenClean-Beautiful Sunday, has spread all over the city. The model of the “Community club of coastal sustainable economic development” developed by the Farmer Association of Tho Quang ward, has been a typical model which would be replicated in other places in the city. • Organizing inspections and conducting checks on the implementation of regulations and coastal resource and environmental protection

In recent years, inspections, and conducting checks on the implementation of regulations on ICM have been actively conducted, particularly in Son Tra and Ngu Hanh Son districts. Limitations and lessons learned Since ICM is a new management approach, knowledge and experience on ICM of local staff is still limited. There is a lack of information related to resource values, as well as a lack of human resources. Moreover, there is lack of experts in new areas such as zonation of coastal uses and institutional arrangements. Following are the lessons learned from the implementation of ICM in Danang. (1) Ensuring capacity for project operation, management and implementation The establishment of the Project Co-ordination Board, with the Board’s Chairman being the Vicepresident of Danang’s People’s Committee, and with members being heads of relevant departments and districts, has created a synchronous and united management and co-ordination system for Danang. This has helped to mobilize the active participation of all stakeholders in the planning and implementation of the project.The Project Office was also founded with the selection of qualified personnel to advise and assist the Project Co-ordination Board. (2) Organizing public awareness-raising activities as soon as possible Awareness-raising activities on ICM have been organized and developed quickly for staff of local authorities as well as for the communtiy, in order to build a consensus of appreciation of the importance and values of the coasts for the city’s sustainable development. This helps to create a high level of commitment and agreement from all stakeholders in the application of ICM. (3) Developing the interest and support of stakeholders The support of stakeholders is essential for the success of the project. The commitment and active direction of Danang’s Peoples’ Committee shows a high level of determination and support for the project. This creates favourable conditions for ICM implementation, as well as mobilizing the interests and participation of stakeholders. Support from individuals and the community is a prerequisite for sustaining project activities. The active participation of departments, faculties, local authorities and communities helps the project to identify possible challenges in its implementation, and thereby be able to recommend solutions for problem-solving.


(4) Role of experts The expert group plays an important role in providing technical advice. Danang has organized a multidisciplinary expert group, which includes scientists, engineers and managers. Throughout the project, from building strategies to implementation of sub-projects, the advice of the multi-disciplinary group has been listened-to and considered as part of an integrated approach to complete the project’s products and to ensure their feasibility. (5) Information collection Right from beginning, Danang started collecting relevant information for the project. All information on environmental resources, and economic, social, cultural, and historical aspects have been collected and analyzed for building the database. This database is vital for ICM implementation.

Thua Thien Hue
Thua Thien Hue is one of the 3 provinces (the other two are Nam Dinh province in the North and Ba Ria Vung Tau province in the South) chosen as pilot sites for the Vietnam Integrated Coastal Zone Management (VNICZM) Project - supported by the Netherlands and MONRE (2000 – 2004). Later, Hue also became an ICM parallel site, supported by PEMSEA (Fig. 20).

Vision of Hue’s Coastal Zone • • • A coastal area with a specific lagoon ecosystem, a Ramsar zone, a marine protection zone and a world natural heritage zone. A coastal area with comprehensive natural, cultural, historical, ecological, landscape and environmental values. A safe place for living, working, and investment, and where all people can exercise their ownership and enjoyment

Figure 20. The coastal zone of Thua Thien Hue province 31

While the coastal zone accounts for only 30% of the province’s area, it encompasses 80% of Hue’s population. The densely populated coastal area of Hue has been under pressure of economic development, rapid urbanization and vulnerability to natural disaster. Therefore, socio-economic livelihoods, environmental considerations and public safety have to be balanced and weighed against each other, and plans should be coordinated in an integrated approach. The ICZM strategy provides a direction for the province in tackling complex issues caused by conflicts in the multiple use of coastal resources. Building and implementing ICZM would help Thua Thien Hue’s local authority and its people to achieve sustainable coastal development (Fig. 21). In 2002 – 2003, the Peoples’ Committee of Hue has drafted its first long-term provincial ICZM strategy for the introduction of integrated planning and development of Hue’s coastal zone.

Figure 21. ICZM balancing interests for sustainable development (Source: Hue’s ICZM Action Plan 2005-2008) The general objectives of the ICZM strategy for Thua Thien Hue province are to: optimize the use of resources in a sustainable way, protect and improve environmental quality, minimize and mitigate the negative impacts of natural disasters, improve socio-economic development in order to improve and enhance the living conditions of local communities. The ICZM strategy comprises 4 main strategic components (table 4): 1. ICZM capacity building (9 action plans) 2. Protection of resources and environment (7 action plans) 3. Integration of natural disaster management (NDM) with coastal resource management (3 action plans) 4. Sustainable use of coastal resources (8 action plans) Out of these 27 action plans, 9 action plans were selected as Priority Action Plans (PAPs): For strategy component 1, priority action plans are (1) ICZM awareness-raising, (2) ICZM administrative procedures and legal adjustment. For strategy component 2, PAPs are (3) Identify and establish conservation areas, (4) Mitigate environmental pollution.


For strategy component 3, PAPs are (5) Natural disaster management zoning and policy development, (6) Integrated responses for natural disaster management. For strategy component 4, PAPs are (7) Assess carrying capacity of ecosystems, give advice on wise use, (8) Sustainable aquaculture, (9) Sustainable tourism. Table 4. Summary the ICZM Strategy for Thua Thien Hue Province with Priority Action Plans (Source: Hue’s ICZM Action Plan 2005-2008)


Lessons learned in ICZM strategy building and implementation 1. For acquiring human and financial resources, a steering committee is established with a leader of the Provincial Peoples’ Committee acting as head of the board; and a provincial multi-disciplinary expert group is established with national and international advisors. 2. Regularly organizing training on ICZM for staff capacity building. 3. The ICZM strategy and action plans should be developed by the provincial expert group. 4. Co-ordination of as many sectors as possible, creating favourable conditions for unions and communities to participate (consultation). 5. Enlisting maximum consensus of leaders from ministries, provinces, departments and localities, by enabling them to see the benefits of ICZM. 6. The ICZM strategy should be integrated into socio-economic development plans at all levels in departments and agencies (Fig. 22). 7. The strategy should be practical to implementat 8. There should be plans for monitoring and evaluation and adjustment in the ICZM cycle.

Figure 22. Actors in socio-economic development planning & their relationship with ICZM (Source: Hue’s ICZM Action Plan 2005-2008) The relationship between the ICZM strategy and socio-economic development planning is depicted in Figure 22. The ICZM strategy and action planning precedes the socio-economic development planning (SEDP) process and forms an important input for integrated SEDP, which will be done by DPI. This gives guidance to the Provincial Peoples’ Committee, departments and agencies on sustainable decision-making processes.


Summary notes on issues of Soc Trang Coasts discussed by participant working groups ummary Trang’s Potential and Opportunities - Long coastline of 72 km - Large areas of mudflat with high potential to benefit from aquatic resources - Biodiversity of mangrove ecosystems - Potential for agriculture and aquaculture, salt production - Potential for ecotourism - Potential for wind energy - International investment/support /support/projects (World Bank, IUCN, GIZ...) - Government has a program on consolidating sea dykes in Vinh Chau and Cu Lao Dung. - Potential for marine transportation. Tran De port is one of the essential ports at the national level. Challenges - Most of the population living along the coast is poor - Low public awareness, low educational level - Climate change impacts, such as salinization, floods... - Erosion, landslides river dykes in Cu Lao Dung... - Natural disasters such as flooding and broken ri - Environmental pollution depletion over-fishing, over- Unsustainable use of natural resources, depleti of natural resources due to over exploitation aquaculture - Destroying mangrove forests for aquacultur production - Limited management capacity, lack of co co-ordination and over-lapping among different disciplines. lapping - Limited information and communication - Limited budget


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