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Jitljara.

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Cornell University Library

TJ1165.F4
Industrial

mathematics practically appli

3 1924 003 632 761

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003632761

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
PRACTICALLY APPLIED
AN INSTRUCTION AND REFERENCE BOOK FOR STUDENTS IN MANUAL TRAINING, INDUSTRIAL AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS, AND FOR HOME STUDY
BY

PAUL

V.

FARNSWQRTH

FORMERLY SUPERVISOR OF THE CADILLAC SCHOOL OF APPLIED MECHANICS

WITH 250 ILLUSTRATIONS AND OVER xooo PROBLEMS AND ANSWERS

NEW YORK

D.

VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY
Eight Warren Street
1921

Copyright, 1921

By D.

Van Nostrand Company

PEISTED IH THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

PREFACE
This book
is

the result of 12 years experience as supervisor

of apprentices, designing,

shop foreman and instructor in

evening classes in technical schools.

The author has made every
step

effort to simplify

and analyze,
mathematics.

by

step, the various phases of industrial

The problems, examples and
selected

illustrations

have been carefully

and chosen

to

make them

as practical

and interesting

as possible so that they will stimulate and encourage the

student to think clearly, reason and analyze for himself.

The

first

few pages are intended to be used

for review or

reference

work at the

discretion of the student, or for those
of

who have only an elementary knowledge

mathematics.

Standard formulas and data, such as are usually found in
mechanics' hand books, trade journals and technical
ture, are frequently
litera-

used and sufficient material in the

way

of explanations, illustrations and examples are given along

with each subject so that the student with them.
It is

will

become
will

familiar
this

hoped that such information
for reference

make

book

of

permanent value

and as a hand book.
V.

Paul
Detroit, Mich.

Faknsworth.

May

s,

1921.

CONTENTS
Part
I

Page

Signs, symbols, abbreviations, etc

I

Notation and numeration
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Cancellation and least

2

4
9 10
of
11

common

multiples

Common
Addition,

fractions

subtraction,
'

multiplication

and division

fractions

Decimal fractions
Addition,
subtraction,

15

multiplication

and division

of

decimals

16 19

Percentage

Weights and measures Ratio and proportion

20 24 26
28

Taper calculation
Interest

Pulley and gear diameters

30

Square

root, involution

and evolution

34
37

Cube root The circle
Review
exercises

;

39 43
51

Mensuration and geometry

Part
Progression

II

Formulas and algebraical expressions
Trigonometry
Trigonometrical functions

52

60 64
67 74

Feeds and speeds

VI

CONTENTS
77 88
91

Cost calculation
Levers
Pulleys

Screws
Inclined planes

94
95

Wedges
Gearing
definitions, etc

97 98
101

Spur gearing
Bevel gearing

105
108
111

Worm

gearing

Spiral gearing

Review

exercises

114

Part
Dovetail slides

III

116
117
121
differential

Screw threads Lathe change gears Indexing (simple, compound,
Spiral milling

and angular)

124 129

Friction
Electricity

130
133

Work, power and the steam engine Strength and proportions of gear teeth
Resolution of forces
Falling bodies

135
138

140
142 145 146 147 149 150
152

Centrifugal force

Horse power of belting

Length

of belting

Rope

drives

Cable or wire rope drives

Chain transmission
Shaft design

Bearing design
Ball Bearing Design

154 1 56
159

CONTENTS
Center of gravity, radius of gyration and moment of
inertia

Vll

161
*

Part IV
Graphical charts
Strength of materials
Springs
Pipes and cylinders

166
175

187
191

Riveted joints

194 196

Logarithms

Heat
Metal cutting
Force, work, energy

200
205

and momentum

210 216 226
231

Force, shear and bending

moment diagrams

Pendulum

Cam

design
exerc'ses

Review

236

Appendix
Decimal equivalents, squares and roots
Natural trigonometrical functions
of fractions.

(Table

I)

238 239

(Table

II)

Common

logarithms

(Table III) 242

Specific gravity of materials

Weight and

specific gravity of liquids

(Table IV) 243 (Table V) 244 (Table VI) 244 (Table VII) 245 (Table VIII) 245 (Table IX) 246
steel.

Melting point of materials
Strength of miscellaneous metals

Tapers and angles Cutting speeds

Weights and areas of round, square and hexagon
Circumference and area and
circles

(Table X) 248 (Table XI) 251 (Table XII) 251

Standard dimensions of wrought iron welded tubes.

Vlll

CONTENTS
drill sizes

Tap

(Table XIII) 252 (Table

and steel wire gages Standard key seats
Twist
drill

XIV) 253

(Table

XV)

254
257

Multiplication tables

(Table

XVI) 255

Answers to exercises

Drilling Machine

A —Feed

box.

B—

Back-gear lever.

F— Column. G— Cone pulley.
if— Back-gears.

C—Hand feed wheel.

D—Spindle.
B_Work-table.

J—Reverse
/—Feed

lever.

trip.

Universal Gear Cutter

Plain Milling Machine

PART
Signs,

I

Symbols and Abbreviations Used in Mathematics in General, with Illustrations of Their Uses

=

signifies equals, 7

and 2

=

9.

+ =
— = X =
-5-

plus,

7+2=9

7

.".

:

:

:

> <
V or
yj

yl

?
4 4
2

3

log

t
g

= 2. = 6. = divided by, 6 + 2=3. Note the alternative usage, 6/2 = 3. = therefore, if 2 + 2 = 4 4 — 2 = 2. = is to, 2 4 as 3 6. = as, 2 4 3 6. = greater than, 7 > 3. = less than 3 < 7. = radical sign or square root, V4 = 2, or V4 = 2. = cube root, V8 = 2. = fifth root, V32 = 2. = four squared (second power of 4) 42 = 4 X 4 = 16. = four cubed (3d power of 4) 4 = 4 X 4 X 4 = 64. = logarithm of, log 2056 = 3.3131. — pi or 3.1416 or (3.14159265359) or approximately 2 X x = 6.2832.
minus, 9
times,

3X2

.'.

:

:

:

:

:

:

,

3

3-$-,

acceleration of gravity
sec), 2

(32.16

ft.

per sec. per

X

g

=

64.32.

tan
cot
sin

cos


(

)

= tangent of, tan 20 = 0.36397. = cotangent of, cot 20 = 2.7475. = sine of, sin 20 = 0.34202. = cosine of, cos 20° = 0.93969. = vinculum, 2X4 + 2 = 2X6 = 12. = parentheses, 2 X (3 + 2) t 5 = 2 X

5

^

5

=

2>

2.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
{ }

braces,

=

24

-=-

{2

X
{2

(4

+
(4

2)}

=

2.

[ ]

=

brackets, [3

X

X

+

2)}]

X

2

=

72.

These signs (vinculum, parentheses, braces and
brackets) denote that the quantities included

within them are to be treated as a whole.

/ = L = _L = = =
I

I

The / of the U.S.S. thread is 6o°. The wall is at L to the floor. perpendicular, The pole stands _L to the base. parallel, The shafts of two spur gears are degree (circular arc or thermometer). The
angle,

right angle,

|

|

temperature was 8o° to-day, or
'

It is

a 30° angle.

"
h.p.

b.h.p.

= = = =

minutes or

feet, It

seconds or inches, It
horse power,

moved moved 3.125"

6' in 30' time.

in

5" time,

brake horse
12 b.h.p.

The engine develops 25 h.p. power, That gas engine develops
power,
15
is

i.h.p.

= =
=

indicated

horse

the

actual

h.p.

developed in
B.t.u.

the' cylinder.

British thermal unit,

That

lb.

of coal contains

14000 B.t.u.
kw.
m.e.p.

kilowatt or 1000 watts,

The The
The

electric generator

develops 90 kw.

= mean
80

effective
lbs.

pressure,

m.e.p.

is

about

r.p.m.

= =

revolutions
r.p.m.

per minute,

pulley

runs 300

f.p.m.

feet per minute,

The

piston travels 1500 f.p.m.

Notation and Numeration
Arithmetic
is is

the science and application of numbers.

A Number
An
only.

a unit or collection of units.

Integer or whole

number

is

composed

of

whole units

A

Concrete

Number

is

one applied to any particular thing.
bolts.

Example:

5 boys, 6

men, 25

NOTATION AND NUMERATION

3

An
thing.

Abstract

Number
5, 6,

is

one not applied to any particular

Example:
is

25.

Notation
letters.

the art of expressing

number by

figures or

Example: XII
is

=

12, 5

=
is

five.

Numeration
been expressed.
five.

the art of reading numbers which have

Example: 545
is

read

five

hundred forty

The Arabic Notation
by
2
figures.

the

method
naught

of expressing

numbers
1

Example:

=

or

cypher,

=

one,

=

two.
location of a figure in a
2 alone

The

number denotes

its

value.
is

Example:

=

two, but in 21 the value of the 2

increased by

its location.
first

In reading figures, the

one on the right

is

units

and

then in order come, tens of units, hundreds of units, thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, millions,
tens of millions, hundreds of millions, billions, tens of billions,

hundreds of Example: 845624891623125. It is customary to separate numbers into three figure groups by commas. Example: 845,624,891,623,125. Rule for Numeration or Reading. Begin at the left and read each period containing one or more figures as if it stood alone, adding its name: thus, the above number is read
hundreds of
billions, trillions, tens of trillions,
trillions, etc.

845

trillion,

624

billion,

891 million, 623 thousand, 125.

EXERCISES
1.

2.

3. 4.
5.

Write a seven figure number. Write an integer. Give an example of a concrete number. Give an example of an abstract number.
Express by Arabic notation
:

eighty-five.

6.
7.

Write out in words: 846,762,845,967,843.

Why

does the 9 in 95 represent a greater value than the 9 in 59?

8.

Separate into periods: 1648432.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Addition
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are the

most important processes necessary
lation.

in

mathematical calcu-

Addition

is

the process of finding the
sign

sum

of

two or more
is

numbers.

The
is

+

indicates that addition

to be per-

formed and

Example: 2 + 5 = 7. equality is = and is used thus: 2 The sign of In adding concrete numbers, they must be
read plus.

+5=
of the

7.

same

denomination.
Rule.

— In adding, place the numbers

in a vertical
etc.

column

with units under units, tens under tens,

Place the right

hand figure of the sum of the right hand column under units, and if there be two figures in this sum, the left hand one is Example: carried and added to tens column.
843

246
172
1261

=

(Ans.)

Subtraction
Subtraction
another.
is

the process of taking one
12

number from

Example:

5

=

7.

is the number from which the other is to be Example: 12 — 5 = 7; 12 is the minuend. The Subtrahend is the number which is to be taken from Example: 12 — 5 = 7; 5 is the subtrahend. the minuend. The Remainder is what is left after the subtrahend has been taken from the minuend. Example: 12— 5=7:7 is

The Minuend

taken.

the remainder.

The (— )

sign (called minus) indicates that subtraction
it is

is

to be performed and that the number following

to be

taken from the number before

it.

ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATION, DIVISION 5
Rule.

— In

subtraction,

the units

must

fall

under

units,

the tens under tens, etc.

Subtract the right hand figure 6f

the subtrahend from the right hand figure of the minuend and place the remainder directly below. If necessary, borrow of the next left hand figure of the minuend to make
this possible.

next.

Then subtract from the remaining minuend The sum of the subtrahend and remainder should
Example:

always be equal to the minuend.


Proof:

4625 minuend 3287 subtrahend
1338 remainder

+ 3287
=

subtrahend

4625 minuend

Multiplication
Multiplication
is

the process of taking or increasing one

number a certain numbers of times. The Multiplier is the number which shows how many Example: 5X8 times the other number is to be taken.

=

40; 5

is

the multiplier.
is

The Multiplicand is the number which Example: 5 X certain number of times.
multiplicand.

to be taken a

8

=

40; 8

is

the

The Product
the product.

is

the result obtained by taking one

number
is

a certain number of times.

Example:

5

X

8

=

40; 40

The
as

X

sign (called times) indicates that multiplication is

to be performed

and that the number following

is

to be taken

many
Rule.

times as there are units in the number before.
5

Example:

X

8

=

40.

In multiplication, the units in the multiplier are

placed under the units in the multiplicand, and the right

hand
2

figure of the product placed directly

below the other

b
right

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
hand
figures.

Each
is

figure of

the multiplicand,

be-

ginning at the right,
multiplier
is

multiplied

by each

figure of the

and the right hand

figure of each partial product

placed in turn directly under the figure used as multiplier.

Partial products are placed

on different

lines.

The sum

of

the partial products will equal the required product.

Example:

842 multiplicand

X

245 multiplier

4210
3368 1684

206290 product
Division

Division

is is

the process of determining

how many

times

one number
12/4

contained in another.

Example: 12

*

4

=

3,

=
4

3is

The Dividend
12
-4-

the

number

to be divided.

Example:

= =

3; 12 is the dividend.
is

The Divisor
12-4-4
3;

the

number by which we

divide.

Example:
is is

The

4 is the divisor. Quotient shows how many times the divisor

con-

tained in the dividend.
quotient.

Example: 12
is

-5-

4

=

3;

3

the

The

-7-

sign indicates that division

to be performed

that the

number

before the sign

is

to be divided

and by the

number following
Short Division
figure.

the sign.
is

used where the divisor contains but one
4- 8 = 18, 144/8 = 18. used where the divisor contains more
-5-

Example: 144
is

Long Division
than one
figure.

Example: 378

14

=

27.

Rule: Short Division.
the dividend separated

— Place
line

the divisor at the left of

by a

and draw a

line

under the

ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATION, DIVISION 7
dividend.

Try the
If

divisor into the

first

or

first

two

figures

of the dividend, as

is

necessary,

and place the quotient under

the line.

the divisor does not go an even
is

number

of times,

the remainder

prefixed to the next figure in the dividend
If

and the process repeated.

there

is

a

final

remainder, the

answer becomes a mixed number.

Example: 29757

*

7 '= 4251.

Solution:

|

729757
4251

Rule

:

Long

Division.

— Place the divisor at the
line,

left of

the

dividend, separated

by a

and place the quotient either

above or to the right of the dividend.
the
first

Try the

divisor into

group of figures which gives a number larger than
first

the divisor, place the

figure of the quotient
it

above the

dividend and (after multiplying

by the divisor) place this

product below the figures divided into and subtract.

The
the

remainder prefixed to the next figure brought down, forms
the

new

trial

dividend.

Repeat

until

all

figures,

of

dividend are brought down.

Example

I,

1041741

-f-

243

=

4287.

Solution:

4287

=

(Ans.)

243I1041741 972
697 486

2114
1944
1701
1701

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
pie 2,

978804

-5-

243

=

4028.

4-

CANCELLATION, LEAST COMMON MULTIPLES
Cancellation
Cancellation
is

O,

a short method for performing multiplithe dividends are placed above

cation and division, applicable in'some cases.

Rule.
the

— In cancellation,
all

all

line,

the divisors below, and

each taken out before multiplying.

product of

8,

16 and 12

factors from Example: Divide the by the product of 8, 4 and 3.

common

Solution:

4 *

4

x

$x4 x
Least

nxu=4
i

X

4

=

16.

(Ans.)

Common
is

Multiples

A

Multiple of a number

a quantity which can be divided

evenly by the number.
the least

The Least Common Multiple of two or more numbers number which can be divided evenly by both

is

of

them.
Rule.
is

—The

least

common

multiple of two or more numbers
its

found by dividing each number into

smallest factors

and then taking each factor the greatest number of times it is found in any one number. Example: L.C.M. of 12 and 15.
Solution: 12
15

= =

2

3

X X

2 5

X

3

2X2X3X5
EXERCISES
1.

=

60 L.C.M.

(Ans.)

2.

Divide the product of 48, 39 and 25 by the product of 5, 6 and 13. Divide the product of 45, 64 and 49 by the product of 7, 9 and 8.
(40

3.

X

150

X
"

10)

-r-

(100
18,

X

25)

=?
4.

4. (a)
(Jb)

Find L.C.M. of
"
"

14 and 12.

" 12, 16 and
of 3,

5.

(a)
(fr)

Find L.C.M.
"

4 and

5.

" 81

and

9.

10
6.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
(a)
(6)
7.

Find L.C.M. of
"
"

72, 3, 9, 2

and

6.

" 9 and 10.
of 1, 2, 3,

(a)
(*)

Find L.C.M.

4 and

5. 3.

2, 6, 9, -5,

4 and

Common
half or f

Fractions
it.

A Fraction of any thing = two thirds.
and
it

is

a part of

Example: \

=

one

The Denominator
line

of a fraction is the

number below the
is

indicates into

how many
;

equal parts the thing

to be divided.

Example: f 8 is the denominator. The Numerator is the number above the line and

it indi-

cates

how many
1 is

of the equal parts are to be taken.

Ex-

ample: §;

the numerator.

is one whose denominator is not Example: \, §, \. A Proper Fraction is one whose numerator is less than the denominator. Example: f. An Improper Fraction is one whose numerator is greater

A Common

Fraction

10, 100, 1000, etc.

than the denominator.

A

Simple Fraction
f.

is

Example: §. one not connected with another.
is

Example:

A Compound
ample, f of f

Fraction

a fraction of a fraction.

Ex-

A
least

Complex Fraction
one of
line
its

is

one having a fraction in both or at
2 1

terms.

Example:3

or -.
3

The

drawn between the numerator and denominator

of a fraction indicates division, or that the

be divided by the denominator.

numerator is to Example: f = 3 -5- 4. A Mixed Number consists of a whole number and a fraction written together. Example: 3! or 12 J. Rule. To reduce a mixed number to an improper frac-

tion,

multiply the whole

number by the denominator and add

ADDITION, ETC., OF FRACTIONS
the numerator, so as to form a

II

new numerator.

Example:

2

Rule.

—To reduce an improper fraction'to a mixed number,
by the denominator.
7

divide the numerator
will

The quotient

be the whole number and the remainder placed over the

divisor will be the fraction.

Example:-

=

3J.

Solution:

2

7-5-2=3
Rule.

and

1

remainder.

—To

reduce a whole number to a fraction, simply

multiply the whole
fraction desired.

number by the denominator
5 to 4ths
is

of

the

Example:

=

5 X- 4

=


4

20

Rule.

—The value of a fraction
2X2 3X2
4 = _

4

not changed by multi-

plying or dividing both terms by the same number.

Example:

or


3

2

4-4-2
.

=—
3

2

6

6H-2

or —.

4 6

Addition of Fractions
Rule.

— In

adding fractions, the least

common
this

multiple

of all of the denominators

must
in

first

be determined, and
denominator.
3
i

then

all

fractions changed

form to

Example: Add
5 3 9 -=—,-

-,

3 4

- and ~L. CM. of 6
8
1

3,

4 and 6

= 12.

=


12'

= —.
12

16

9
1

10
12

=

27

=

2

3 — 12

or 2- (Ans.).

4

12

6

12

12

12

4

Where mixed numbers
are

are to be added, the whole
result.
1

2-

ill + + 243
3"

added separate and then added to the

numbers Example:

=

13 2- + 3- + — = 512 12 12 12

6

34

or

612

(Ans.).

Rule.

—To

reduce a fraction to higher terms, divide the

12

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

required denominator by the denominator of the fraction,

and multiply

this

quotient by the numerator.

Example:

Reduce |

to 8ths; 8 -f 2

=

4.

4X1=4,

i

or -

28

=

- (Ans.).

4

Subtraction of Fractions
In subtracting fractions, the denominators must be re-

duced to a
2
*

common denominator
3

or

L.C.M.

Example:

32666
=
4
T

=-

fa 1 (AnsJ.

In subtracting fractions where the minuend is a mixed number with a fraction smaller than the subtrahend, the minuend can then be reduced to an improper fraction before
subtracting.
2

1252 = — 2323 666
=
5

Example:

4

1

=

11

'5
or 1- (Ans.).

6

Multiplication of Fractions

In multiplication of fractions, reduction to

common

de-

Example: | Xj = | (Ans.). Rule. To multiply a fraction by a whole number, multiply the numerator or divide the denominator by the whole
nominators
is

not necessary.

number.
Rule.

Example: 5

4

X

5

=

20
5

— =4
or

(Ans.).
fract ons

— To
all

mult'p y

two

more

together,
all

multiply

the numerators for a

new numerator and

the

denominators for a new denominator and then reduce to
lowest terms.

-X-X--— (Ans.); -X~X S = 216 = — (Ans.). 2 8 9 27 4 3 40 5 Rule. — To multiply two or more fractions and mixed

1313

Example:

12481

ADDITION, ETC., OF FRACTIONS

1

numbers
to

together, the

mixed number can

first

be reduced

improper fractions and then the preceding rule be used.
3 9 i-X2- = -X- =
i i

Example:

2

4248
1

27 3 — or 38

(Ans.).

Rule. To multiply fractions by cancellation, first reduce any mixed numbers to improper fractions and then cancel any factors which may be found in both the numerator and

denominator.

Example: -

X

i -

X

i -

=

I

- (Ans.).

Division of Fractions
In the division of fractions, reduction to a

common

de-

nominator

is

not necessary.

Rule. To divide one fraction by another, first reduce any mixed numbers to improper fract ons, th n nv.rt the divisor and proceed as in multiplication. Example:

— 44414
-*•

-

=

-

X

-

=

=

3.

also

-

X = ill-=
-

3 (Ans.).

EXERCISES
1.

Reduce to mixed numbers: Reduce

*/.

¥• *h ¥• X F.

12s 13 tIt- tz2.

W.

^i*

Iff.

to improper fractions: Sj, 8j, 6f, 125, 14^, 6 J, iiji,

49H. 888|f|,
3.

I2 ST
J-.

V
§,

^ nf 5 2 nf -£4 OI 5, 3 OI 16
4.

fractions: J of J, f of T'j, yj of 8 121 -,f 389 862 -fl ™f 5 T7 ot T9"' T¥5 °' ¥«? T¥3 ot 2Reduce to simple fractions:
,

Reduce to simple
2

f of yf,

~f 5 Ot j,

1

25
'

I
5.

11 f
5
'

1

13

8

II
i
'

II
1

X
*

*

S-*

3

2

Reduce
Reduce
x 4t-

to fractions: 7 to 4ths, 18 to halves, 12 to 3rds, 8 to I2ths,

5 to loths, 6 to 3rds, 4 to 8ths, 6 to 7ths,
6.

4 to

Sths, 17 to I3ths.
-%3-,

to lowest terms: T f,

^, Tff,

14&, i8 T\, I24 T ££,

SttIt7.

Reduce to higher terms:

f to 64ths, f to 48ths,

^ to I28ths,

H to 64ths,

3 Jf to i6oths, i| to 8ths, 8j to 24ths, J2 to 6ths.

14
8.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Reduce to
least

also 8|, 3§, f:

also

SA. A=
g.

also &\, 2J,

common denominator: J, §, A, sb also |, \, 2§: also si. &: also 8|, &.

f: also f,

f,

f

3i. is

:also t.

(a)
(6)

Add
"

1,

f,

2|. si.

2f, 2si. i8f, if.

10. (o)
(6)

Add
"

86S.

i i

41A. 4ItV22j, 22^, 22^, 22f.
2lJ, 48OT6. 2f.

11. (a)
(6)

Add
"

12. (o)
(6)

13.

(a)

W
14. (a)
(6)

Subtract 325 from 40. " " igf. 18J Subtract 22§ from 293. " z-k " 3-hSubtract 465^3 from 49I3. " " 98623. ioof

15. (a)
(6)

Multiply 3 by
"

£.

i

X

2i
|.

X

Si

X A-

16.

(o)
(6)

Multiply f by "

17.

(a)
(6)

18. (a)
(4)

Multiply 41 " Si X I9i Divide f by f " 2J by ii.

2^X4nXSiX 4i XiHXfX 2\.
X
Si

X

8|.

19.

(o)
(6)

Divide ii by 25.
" 843 by 17$. Divide 265$ by 4§.
sizes

20. (a)
(6)

21. If

" 489! by 93?. a machinist finds five different

on a

shaft, each
is

one being

respectively 4!", 3§", f ", f"
in inches?

and 3V'

long,

how

long

the entire shaft

22. What is the combined height of six blocks of steel placed upon each other, the sizes of each being \", f", ,&", J", &" and \\"1 23. How many hours will it take to do all the operations on S shafts,
if

the centering on each requires \ hour, the rough turning 3 hour, the

finish turning 3 24.

hour and the threading 5 hour?
if

How
ft.,

long will the front bearing on a lathe spindle be,
is

the
is

entire length
1

2 9/24

ft.,

the nose
is

5/24
25.

the rear bearing
will
it

J

ft.,

i ft., the space for the cone and the remaining end is 7/24 ft.?
is

What
if

cost to produce 12 gears at 30 cents per hour for

labor

the

first

operation requires it hours, the second if hours, and

the third 2 J hours?

DECIMAL FRACTIONS
26. If 5 hangers are used to support a line shaft

15
42J
ft.

long,

what

is

the distance between the hangers?
27.

A man purchased a 2/5 interest in a factory and after giving away
among
his three sons.

$ of this, divided the remainder

What

part of

the original factory does each own?
28.

29.

How many How many
ft.

posts 8j
ties, if

ft.

long can be cut from a tree 32§
ft.

ft.

high?

they are placed 2%
ft.

apart, will be required

for

326J

of track?

30. If a pulley is

3!

in circumference,
ft.

revolve in causing a belt 28J its length?

long, to

how many times will it make one complete travel of

Decimal Fractions

A

decimal number

is

one containing figures to the right from the unit
10.2
is

of the units place, separated

figure

by a decimal

point or period.

Example:

a decimal number.

The
etc.,

figures to the right of the decimal point are read, in

order, as tenths, hundredths, thousandths, ten thousandths,
left hand Example: 10.201 = ten and two tenths and no hundredths and one thousandth, or ten and two

each figure having one-tenth the value of the

figure preceding.

201

hundred one thousandths, or 10
1000

.

In some cases, the decimal fraction method
accurate, but for

is

not exactly

most

calculations, it is sufficiently accurate,

and much more convenient than the use of common fractions. The denominator of a decimal fraction may be determined by placing the figure I under the decimal point and a cipher under each figure of the decimal. Example:
0.465
\

1000

465/1000.

[

=

1

2/10.

The

figures at the left of the decimal point represent the

whole number and those at the right of the point the fraction.

Example: 25.45

=25
100

.

1

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

Ciphers added at the right hand side of a decimal fraction do not change its value. Example: 3.25 or 3.250 or 3.2500. A common fraction can be reduced to a decimal exactly or approximately by dividing the numerator by the denominator.

Rule.

— To reduce a common fraction to a decimal,
If it will

Example: f

=

0.625.

place

a point at the right of the numerator and divide the denominator into this number.

not go, add a cipher to
the remainder

the right of the point and proceed as in division, adding
ciphers as required.
If after several divisions,
it is

does not disappear,
pointed

probably a repeating decimal, and

the remainder should be dropped.
off

from the right as

places in the

The quotient should be number of dividend exceed the number in the divisor.

many

places as the

Example: 5/8

=

8[jvOOO
0.625 (Ans.).

5/6

=

6J J

5jOOO

0.833 (Ans.).

Moving the decimal point to the right, multiplies the number by (10) for each place moved. Moving to the left, divides by (10) for each place moved. Example:
3.45

X

10

=

34.5 (Ans.).

3.45

h-io

=

0.345 (Ans.).

Addition of Decimals
In addition or subtraction of decimals, the points should

always

fall

under each other
2.12

in the fraction

and

in the

sum.

Example:

+
Addition
is

H-3
16.42 (Ans.).

performed the same as in the addition of whole

numbers.

ADDITION, ETC., OF DECIMALS
Subtraction of Decimals

17

Subtraction

is

performed the same as

in the subtraction of

whole numbers.

Example:

34.620

-

4-315

30.305 (Ans.).
Multiplication of Decimals

In multiplication of decimals, the points are not required
to fall

under each other and the fractions are placed generally

so that the right

hand

figures in the multiplier

and multi-

plicand will

fall

under each other.
3.45

Example:

X

2.5

=

3.45

X2.5
1725

690
8.625 (Ans.).

Rule. — In multiplication
of places pointed off

of

decimal fractions, the number
in the

from the right

product should

equal the
plier.

sum

of the places in the multiplicand

and multi-

Example above.
Division of Decimals

Rule.

— Division

of decimal fractions

is

exactly the

same
is

as division of numbers, except

by the adding
off

of ciphers to

the right of the decimal point in the dividend, which

sometimes necessary.
quotient as the
the

Point

as

many

places

in

the

number

of places in the

dividend exceeds

number

of places in the divisor.
2.5
-i-

Example:

1.25

=

i-25 J2.5ol2.o (Ans.).

2.50

To

reduce a decimal fraction to a

common

fraction, place

1

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
it

the denominator of the decimal below

and reduce

to

lowest terms.

Example:
:

0.625

4-

6.

13-

14.

15-

16.

17-

PERCENTAGE
18.

19

19.

What will 23 castings, weighing 0.5 lbs. each, cost at $0.30 per lb.? What rate must be charged for butter so that 12.5 lbs. will net

$4-0625?
20.
lbs.

What

will

be the weight of 33.25 cu.

in. of

iron

if it

weighs 0.25

per cu. in.?

Percentage

Percentage means per hundred
100

= i%.

Percent means a certain number of hundredths.

The percent
Example:

sign

is

(%)

and represents hundredths.

10% =
is

10
or 0.10 or 0.1.

100

The Base

the

number on which the percent

is

calculated.

Example: 5% of 12 The Rate percent

=
is

0.6; 12 is the base.

the

number

of

hundredths

of the base.

Example: 5% of 12 = 0.6; 5% is the rate. The Percentage is the result obtained by taking a certain number of hundredths of the base. Example: 5% of 12

=

0.6; 0.6, is the 'percentage.

The Amount
Example:

is

the

sum

of

the percentage and
12

base.

5%

of 12
is

=

0.6; 0.6

+

=

12.6,

amount.

The Difference
and the base.
difference.

the difference between the percentage

Example:

5%

of 12

=

0.6; 12

0.6

=

11.4,

Rules: Base

X

rate

=

percentage.

Percentage

-=-

rate

Percentage.-;- base

Base Base

X

(1
-4-

+
(1

rate)

= base. = rate. = amount.

Amount

+

rate)

=

base.

X

(1

rate)

=

difference.

EXERCISES
1
.

*.

3.

Find Find Find

3%

of $800.00. of 200. of 20 gallons.

4.
5.

45% 7§%

6.

Find what percent 26 is of 326. Find what percent 3 is of 2. Find what percent 45 is of 45.

20
7.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
What number
of gears

must be ordered from foundry

if

5%

are

poor castings, to have 250 good ones?
8.

9.

What number if increased by 8% of itself will give 400? What amount of money must be invested at 5% to amount
friction,
is

to

8300 in one year's time? 10. If 30% is lost through

what power

will be transmitted

from a mechanical device

if

24h.p.

supplied?

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Table of Linear Measure
12 inches
3 feet or 36 inches

Si yards or 165 feet 40 rods
8 furlongs or

= = = = =

1
1

foot

yard
rod
furlong

1 1

320 rods,
1

or 1760 yards or 5280 feet

mile

Table of Square Measure
144 square inches
9 square feet

= = =

1
1

square foot
square yard

30 j square yards or 2 72 j square feet
160 square rods or 4840 square yards or 43560 square feet

1

square rod
acre

640 acres
Table
1728 cubic inches
27 cubic feet 128 cubic feet
of

= = = = =

1
1

square mile

Cubic Measure
1
1 1

cubic foot
cubic yard

cord

Table

of

Avoirdupois

435-5 grains 16 ounces or 7000 grains

=
= = = =

1

1
1 1 1

100 pounds
20 cwt. or 2000 pounds

ounce pound hundredweight
ton
long ton

2240 pounds

Table of Troy Weight
24 grains

20 pennyweights or 480 grains
12 ounces or

5760 grains

= = =

1
1

pennyweight ounce

1

pound

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Table
of Apothecaries

21

Weight
scruple

20 grains
3 scruples or 6o grains 8

=

I

drams or 480 grains
is

12 ounces or 5760 grains

= = =

I 1 1

dram
ounce

pound

The

grain

the same in Avoirdupois, Troy and Apothecaries weights.

Table of Liquid Measure

4

gills

2 pints or 8 gills

4 quarts or 231 cubic inches 315 gallon
2 barrels

= = = = =

1 1 1 1 1

pint

quart

U.

S. gallon

barrel

hogshead

Table
2 pints 8 quarts or 16 pints

of

Dry Measure

= =
=

1 1

quart

peck
bushel

4 pecks
or 2150.42 cubic inches
1

Table

of

Angular Measure

60 seconds 60 minutes 90 degrees 360 degrees

= = = =

1 1 1

minute
degree

quadrant

1 circle

Table of Time Measure
60 seconds

60 minutes or 3600 seconds 24 hours or 1440 minutes
7

days 52 weeks or 3651 days
100 years

= = = = = =

1

minute
hour

1
1 1

day week
year

1 1

century

Miscellaneous Table
1 1

cubic foot
inch

231 cubic inches

660

feet

3 miles

23 feet

= = = = = =

7.48 gallons

25.4 millimeters
1 i

U.

S. gallon.

furlong

1 1

league
military pace

22
2 yarda

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

24! cubic feet
2150.42 cu.
in.

5760 grains 7000 grains
144 cu.
62.5
in.

= = = =
=

1 1 1

fathom
perch

U.

S.

bushel

1

pound Troy or
Apothecaries'

1

pound Avoirdupois

39.37 inches

pounds
in.

264.2 gallons

155° sq.

3.168 grains
15-432 grains

746 watts 1000 watts
0.26 lbs. cast iron

0.283 lbs. steel 0.092 lbs.

aluminum
brass

0.300

lbs.

2545 B.t.u.

= 1 board foot = 1 meter = 1 cubic foot of water at 62 = 1 cubic meter = 1 sq. meter = 1 carat = 1 gram = 1 h.p. = I k.w. = I cubic inch = 1 cubic inch = 1 cubic inch = 1 cubic inch = 1 h.p. hour

F.

Rule.

— To — To

change a quantity to a higher denomination,

divide the quantity by the

number
15
-5-

of parts of the quantity

required to

make one

of the higher denomination.

Example:

Change
Rule.

15 inches to feet.

12

=

i|

ft.

(Ans.).

change a quantity to a lower denomination,

multiply the quantity by the

number
inches.

of parts of the lower

denomination required to make one of the quantity.

Ex-

amp

e:

Change

4

feet

to

4

X

12

=

48 inches

(Ans.).

EXERCISES
1. 2. 3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

Reduce 12 rods, 4 yards to inches. Reduce 200 inches to higher denomination. Reduce 17,000 feet to miles and feet. Reduce 95 furlongs to miles and feet. Reduce 17J yards to feet and inches. Find area of field in acres which is 3 miles by 2 miles. Find number of square inches of surface on a box 3" X 4" X 5". Find number of sq. yds. and sq. ft. in tract of land 480 X 500 ft.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
9.

23

10. 11.

Reduce 122s sq. yds. to sq. ft. Reduce 127,050 sq. yds. to sq.

rds.

What

will be the cubic contents of

a box 14"

X 92" X

71"

in

cu. ft.?
12. 13.
14. 15.

Reduce a cord of wood to cubic Reduce 88 cu. yds. to cu. ft. Reduce 14s cu. ft. to cu. in.

inches.

16.
17.

18.

How many grains in 14 lbs. 12 oz. (Avoirdupois)? How many ounces in a ton? How many tons and ounces in 3,000,000 ounces? How many hundred weight in 5 tons?
Reduce to ounces, 3 tons, 4 cwt., 23 lbs. Reduce to pwt., 400 grains. Reduce to Troy ounces and grains, 50,000 grains. Reduce to Troy pounds and ounces, 75 ounces. Reduce to Troy ounces, 5 Troy pounds and 200 grains. Reduce to grains, 200 Troy lbs. Reduce to scruples, 200 grains. Reduce to drams, 1500 grains. Reduce to Apothecary lbs. and oz., 43,000 grains. Reduce to Apothecary ounces, 7 lbs. Reduce to Apothecary drams, 8 lbs. 3 oz. Reduce to barrels, 252 gallons. Reduce to quarts, 42 pints. Reduce to gills, 2 barrels. Reduce to bushels, 64 pints. Reduce to pints, 64 bushels. Reduce to gallons and gills, 180 gills. Reduce to quarts, 18 pecks. Reduce to pecks, 800 quarts. Reduce to pints, 40 bushels. Reduce to seconds, 90 degrees. Reduce to degrees and minutes, 400 minutes. Reduce to seconds, 80 degrees and 45 minutes. Reduce to minutes, 3600 seconds. Reduce to seconds, 360 degrees. Reduce to days, 14 years. Reduce to years, 32871 days. Reduce to minutes, 45 hours. Reduce to hours and minutes, 27 days. Reduce to minutes, 2 years.

19.
20. 21.

22. 23.
24.

25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

30. 31.
32. 33.

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
40.

41.
42.

43.
44.

45. 46.
47. 48.

24
49.
50,

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Reduce 4&" to millimeters. Reduce 120 millimeters to inches.

Ratio and Proportion

Ratio
12 to 8

is

the comparative size of two numbers.
12 *• 8

Example:

=

=

i|.
:

5

The sign of ratio is a colon (:). Example: 8 4. The first term of a ratio is the Antecedent. The second term of a ratio is the Consequent. The two terms of a ratio must be like numbers, as $8 $4, men to 3 men. A Compound Ratio is the product of two or more simple
:

ratios.

Example:

'

\ f I:::}

as 10

:

(?).

A compound

ratio

is

reduced to a simple one
together for a

plying the antecedents
the consequents for a |4
=

by multinew antecedent and
Example:

new consequent.
10
:

3

(?)

=

20

:

6

:

:

10

:

(?).

15=2.

A
12
is

Proportion
to 6 as 4
is

is

an equality of two
is

ratios.

Example:
Example:

to 2.

The
14
=

sign of proportion
:

the double colon

(: :).

7

:4
first

:

2.

The

and fourth terms
7

of

a proportionate are called

the Extremes and the second and third are called the

Means.

Example: 14

:

:

:

4

:

2.

E

M M
:

E
men
: :

In a Direct Proportion both couplets are direct ratios.

8

Example: 5 men men would earn

8
is

$30

:

$48.

Where the amount
one
of

required.

An
days

Inverse

Proportion
8
:

requires
: :

reversing
:

the

couplets.
is

Example

5

30 days

18 days.

Where 30

the time required for 5

men

to do a job

and the time

required for 8

men

to do

it is

wanted.

RATIO AND PROPORTION

25
is

When

3 numbers are in a proportion so that the 1st
is

to

the 2d as the 2d

to the 3d, the 2d

number

is

a

Mean

Pro-

portion between the ist and 3d.

Rules.

—The product

of

Example: 2-4-8. means = product of extremes;

The product of mean -5- extreme = other extreme The product of extremes -3- mean = other mean. The cause and effect method can be used to advantage in compound proportion by placing all the causes on one side
of the
If 11
:
:

and

all

the effects on the opposite side.

Example:

men can assemble 45 motors in 6 days of 10 hours each, how many men will it take to assemble 81 motors in 12 days
of 11 hours each?
1st cause

2d cause
f
:

1st effect
1
: :

2d

effect

men
6 in

?

men

days

-1

12 days r

45 motors

:

81 motors.

10 hoursj

[11 hoursj

extremes 11

X
12

6

means

?

X

X 10 X 81 = X n X 45
EXERCISES

9

men =

(Ans.).

1.

If 3

men can

drill

200 pieces in one hour,

how many can

8

men

drill?
i. If

one gallon of

oil will last

a department 14 days of 10 hours

each,

how many
it

gallons of oil will be used in 6 weeks of 55 hours each?
is

3. If

the payroll each week
be for 40 men?

$50° for is men, at this ratio what
ft.

would

4. If

a Frankfort gas furnace consumes 5
steel,

of gas per

when heating Novo Superior
5- If

what
ft.?

will it cost to operate

minute, the

furnace 2§ hours at 60 cents per 1000

screw and a job of 10 pitch, what gear would be used with a 40 to cut this thread?
six pitch lead
6.
it last

we have a
12 qts. of

If

oil will last

an auto owner 40 days, how long would
screw machines 12 days,

four
If

men?
last 8

7.

will

they

48 bars of stock will last 6 machines?

how

long

26
8.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
If it

takes 20 days for 30
it

men

to assemble a lot of automobiles,

how

long will

9. If

take 45 men to do it? 287,000 pieces a day can be produced by operating 7 dies at

one time,
10. If

how many days would be
5280

required to finish this

many
it

if

3 dies

only were used?

men can do a

job in 73 days,

how

long will

take 427

men

to do it?

11. If

40

S gas engines,

be required
12.

men in 15 days, working 10 hours a day can make parts for how many men in 20 days working 8 hours a day would to make parts for 12 gas engines?
tool steel at 25 cents a
lb., it costs $180 a month to supply and reamers in 20 departments. At this

With

lathe tools in 3 departments
rate

what will be the monthly cost if tool steel advances to 30 cents a lb. and three lathe and 8 drilling departments are added? 13. If it costs 30 cents to plate 240 pieces of sheet metal 4" long and 2" wide, what will it cost to plate 180 pieces 14" long and \" wide? 14. If 3 men working 6 hours a day can paint the side of a building 200 ft. long and 80 ft. high in 10 days, how long would it take 14 men working 8 hours a day to paint the side of a building 300 ft. long and
100
ft.

high?

a \" piece of metal cut from the end of a 3" diameter bar weighs 14 oz„ what would be the weight of a 3" piece cut from a round bar of the same material but 8" in diameter?
15. If

Taper Calculations

A piece is said to taper when there is a gradual and uniform
increase or decrease in its diameter or thickness.

Examples:

A

lathe center

1

P> or a wedge
of

The Amount
in

Taper

is

expressed as a certain

number

of

inches or parts of an inch per foot and indicates a variation

diameter or thickness of that amount in twelve inches of

length.

The Standard Tapers used in shop work and their approximate tapers per foot are the Morse f" per ft.; Brown & Sharpe \" per ft. Jarno 0.6" per ft. Sellers and Pipe taper
; ;

f" per

ft.

;

Pratt

&

Whitney pins J" per

ft.'

TAPER CALCULATION

27
ft.,

The
f " per

taper on the B.
I

&

S.

No. 10
it

is

0.516" per

and on

the Morse No.
ft.

to No. 6

varies as

much

as 0.025 from

Taper Turning on the lathe is sometimes accomplished by setting over the tail-stock and when this is done the taper
per unit length as well as the length of the piece
is

required.

Rule.
per
ft.

— Set the

tail-stock over half the

amount

of the taper

times the length of the work in feet.

Example: To
1:

cut a Jarno taper on a piece 9" long;
0.6

Solution No.

\ of

=
:

3/10";

3/10
9"-

X

3/4

=
2:

9/40"
0.6/2"

or
:

0.225"

se t

over

=

(Ans.);
:

Solution
:

No.

12" ::(?): 9"

=

0.3"

12"

0.225"

:

EXERCISES

&

must the tail-stock of a lathe be S. taper on piece 2§" long? v. Jarno taper on piece 6" long. 3. Morse No. 2 of 0.602" on piece 2" long. " 4. Morse No. 4 of 0.623"
1.

How

far

set

over to cut a B.

5- Sellers

6. P.
7. 8.

& W.

pin

Pipe tap Jarno
B.

& S. No. 10 a taper piece measures 0.387s at one point and 0.436s" at a point 2\" away, how far should the tail stock be set over to cut this same taper on a piece 8" long?
9.

10. If

28

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Interest

Interest

is

money

paid for the use of money.

Percent means hundredths.

Example:

6% =

.06

=

6/100.
of the

The Rate
for 3 years.

of Interest is the rate percent per

annum

principal paid for the use of

money.

Example: $100 at

— Rate

6%

of interest
is

= 6%.
Example: $100
the Amount.

The sum loaned
at

called the Principal.
is

6%
The

for 3 years.

$100

the principal.
is

principal

plus the interest

called

Example: $100 at 6% simple interest for 3 years = $100 + $18 = $118 amount. Simple Interest is interest on the principal only. Annual Interest is simple interest upon the principal and upon any interest overdue. Compound Interest is interest upon the principal and its unpaid interest combined at regular stated intervals. These
intervals

may

be annual, semi-annual or quarterly.
Interest on a

Rule.

The Simple

sum

of

money

is

found by

multiplying together the principal, the rate and the time in
years.

Example: $100 at
$100
.05

5%

for 3! years.

$5.00

= = = =

principal

rate
interest for
I

year

3*
$17.50
interest for 3§ years

=

(Ans.)

Rule. The Annual Interest on a sum of money is found by adding together the interest on the principal for the entire length of time, and the interest on each year's interest for
the time
it is

unpaid.

Example: $100 at

5%

for 35 years.

1st year's interest

=

$5.

The

interest for the first year remains unpaid for

2§ years, the interest for the second year i|

INTEREST
years,

29

and the

interest for the third year § years.

Therefore, the unpaid interest draws interest
for 2§ years, ij years

and the
($5.00 at

interest

and § year, or 4! years, upon $5.00 for that time is

5%

for

The

entire

interest

4I years) due

=
is

$1,125.

$17.50

+

$1,125

=
Rule.

$18,625 (Ans.).

— The

amount

at

Compound

Interest on a

sum

of

money

is

found by adding the simple interest to the principal

at regular stated intervals, and using this
principal.

amount

as a

new

Example: $100 at
$100
5_

5%

for 3I years.

i°5
5-25

110.25
5-51

115.76
2.89

118.65 100.00
18.65

= principal. = int. for 1st yr. at 5%. = prin. for 2d yr. = int, for 2d yr. at 5%. = prin. for 3d yr. = int. for 3d yr. = prin. for 4th yr. = int. for 6 mths. = amt. for 3! yrs. at 5%. = original principal. = compound interest.

EXERCISES
1.

Find simple interest on $ 425 for 3
"
"

yrs.

4 mo. at 5%.
6 9
'

2.

1843

"

2

"
"

" "

" "

345-

1500 " s

6%. 7%.
yrs. at

Find amount at annual interest on $ 500 for 45
1800
" compound

3%.

6.
78.

9-

10.

30

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Pulley and Gear Diameters

Where power is transmitted from one shaft to another by means of pulleys, gears, belts, chains, etc., the ratio of the
speeds
is

the inverse ratio of the diameter of the pulleys or

gears: or in other words, the pulley diameters vary inversely

as the speeds vary.

Example:
8"

A

line shaft (Fig. I) turning

at 240 r.p.m. carries a pulley 12" in diameter connected
belt to a countershaft pulley
in diameter;

by a
240

the proportion

would read to
r.p.m. :(?).

find

speed of 8" pulley.

8"

:

12"
I!'

:

:

lint

3

120

shaft

\^?40RPM
I
I

it

x
4

m=

I

360 r.p.m. (Ans.).

Countershaft'-* 'ZiORPM.

m
J

j-i-<5"

Fig. I

The above
to the gears.

rule applies to simple gearing also providing

the diameters are such as to give a whole

number

of teeth

Example:

A

gas engine crank shaft (Fig. II)

turning 2000 r.p.m. has a 24 tooth gear keyed on to it which meshes with a 48 tooth gear on the cam shaft. Find the

speed of

cam

shaft.

48 teeth

:

24 teeth

:

:

2000 r.p.m.

:

(?).

*8T...

&T-.

IO oo

tW X U =
i?>

..

,

1000 r.p.m.

(Ans.).

1000RPM.

~^^\_^/l000RPM
Fig. II

nected by

The Resultant Ratio between the first and last shaft concompound gearing can be found by dividing the product of the number of teeth on all the driving gears by
all

the product of

the driven gears.

Example:

Fig. III.

PULLEY AND GEAR DIAMETERS

Driving

Driven
".

= JW X = ft X
I

4662 W W W
X X

31

^X # X
1tor

= ~

28
1

rf0

ratio

is

288 to

(Ans.).

**

Fig. Ill

The above

rule also applies to a train of shafts

and pulleys
Ex-

connected by belts and in such cases the pulley diameters
are used in place of the

number
2

of teeth as in gearing.

ample

Fig. IV.

2

Drivers

Driven

= U" X j$" _ = t<j>" X H" ~

4
1

ratio

is

4 to

1

(Ans.).

1000

B.RM?

Fig.

IV

EXERCISES
1.

If

the front sprocket on a bicycle has 80 teeth
shaft
is

and the back one 25
wheel

and the crank go in r.p.m.?
*. If

turned 80 r.p.m.,

how

fast will the rear

the line shaft turns 280 r.p.m., and carries a 22" pulley belted

what will this run in r.p.m.? motor running at 1500 r.p.m. has a 20 tooth gear on the armature shaft, running in mesh with a 180 tooth gear on the driven
3.

to a 10" pulley,

An

electric

shaft.

What

is

the speed in r.p.m. of the driven shaft.

32

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Solve for ratio: 80 T.
30.T.

WOT.

2ST.

60 40 T.

I
5.

20 T.
18
T.

Solve for ratio:
2(

IjfanJI
im
"'

1
piiii IE 407
IIMI11

I
iOT.

3000R.P.M.

PULLEY AND GEAR DIAMETERS
What will be the gear ratio in a train of gears if 6 driver gears of 21 teeth each drive 6 driven gears of 63 teeth each? 9. Calculate the
8.

33

ttOR.P.M.

eight different spindle speeds
that will be obtained by the following sketch of a 16" back gear lathe head. 10. What is the travel forward

and

reverse

in

feet per minute of the ram of a shaper, with pul-

leys

and gears of the size given in the sketch?

'4'Diam. fOT.

34

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Square Root, Involution and Evolution

The Square Root
multiplied

of a quantity is the

number which when
Example:

by

itself will

produce the quantity.

V16

= 4, as 4 X 4 = 16. When a number is multiplied by
is

itself

one or more times,
multiplied

the process
is

called Involution.

The number thus
called the
25.

called the

a number.

Root and the products are Example: 4 2 = 16 or 5 2 =

Powers

of
is

This process

called involution.

Any number multiplied by itself once is said to be squared, and the product so obtained is called the Square or Second Power of the original number. Example: 3 2 = 9. Thus 9 is the square or the second power of 3. The small figure written near the top of a number, such as
3
2
,

-

63

is

called the
is

Index or Exponent of the number.
it

Evolution

the reverse of involution and

extract or find the root of

any given power.
is

means to Example:
is

V16 = 4 or V25 =

5.
(

This process

called evolution.
to

The
If

radical sign

V)

indicates that the square root

be extracted.

Example: V16

=

4.

a radical be raised to the same power as the index of the

radical, the radical sign is

removed, thus \2

X

2

X

2

=

2

(Ans.).

In solving square root problems, the
point and working both ways.

number must be

first

separated into two figure periods by starting from the decimal

As

4'83'92.84'6.

The index

2 need

not

be used, as

-\843.25

Example: Extract the square root of 625.
2
2
5

= =

V843.25.

(Ans.).

V6'25.

£_
(T.D.) 40

4_
2 25

_5 (R.D.) 45

225

SQUARE ROOT, INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION
Example: Extract the square root
of 119023.

35

=
(Ans.).

36
3.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Extract the square root of 49284. Extract the square root of 24640. Extract the square root of 462.846743.
Extract the square root of
1 234321.

4.
5.

6. 7. 8.

9.

10.

Find the oth power of 9. Find the ^ 6 x 6 X6. Find the 7th power of 7. Find the 2d power of 125.

EXERCISES
A. Where
altitude

B

equals the base of a right angle triangle,

A

equals the

and

H
2

the hypotenuse, the rules A*
2

+ B* = H

and

H —A
1

= B can

be used for solving for

2 H* - B* = A side. one unknown
1
,

(Fig. I.)

6

*>

4

Fig. II

B. Fig. II shows diagramatically that a right angle triangle

B of

4",

A

of

3"

will give

5" H.
ft.

1.

How How

long a ladder will reach to the top of a fence is

high,

if

the ladder
2.
if

is

placed 6

ft.

away

at the bottom?

the lines are fastened 30

long must guy lines be to support a steel stack 12s ft. high ft. from the top of the stack and the other
ft.

ends are fastened to anchors in the ground, which are located 75
the base of the stack?
3.

from
if

How much

do

I

save on a corner by cutting across lbts
I

the

point where

leave the walk

is

350

ft.

and when
corner?
4.

I

reach the walk again,

it is

from the corner 425 ft. from the

What

is

the largest size square steel stock that

will

\" round hole? 5. What length guy will I have to purchase to fasten to the top of a mast 100 ft. high, and to the ground 150 ft. away?
fit

into a

CUBE ROOT
6. If in

37

boring a jig the diagonal measures 5.124" and the distance

B

4j",
7.

what should the distance
Solve for (*)

A

measure?

S.4SZ"
9.

Solve for (x)

38

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
4th, 5th, etc. root of a given

The
which,

number

are those

numbers
a
5

when repeated
5

as factors 4,

5, etc. times, will give as

product the given number, thus

V625 equals

5,

as 5

X

X

5

X

=

625.

Example: Extract the V33076161.

3X3X3=
3
2 2

27

X
300

300

=
2

2700
5400

(-4)

3

X

X

=

THE CIRCLE
This gives us a
1st
trial figure for

39

the second figure of the root.
of the following products:

Next subtract from 6076 the sum

—The square of the
1

figure or figures already obtained

in the root,

except the last one, multiplied by 300 and this

product multiplied by the figure just obtained in the root:
(4) 3

2d

—The

X

300

X

2

=

5400.

figure or figures already obtained" in the root,

except the last one, multiplied by 30, and this product
multiplied by the square of the last figure obtained in the
root: (£) 3

3d
the
8

—The cube
5768,
is

X

30

X

21

=

360.

of the last figure obtained: (C) 2 3

=

8.
(

If

sum

of these various products (A) 5400, (B) 360,

C)

=

larger than 6076,

it

indicates that the trial

figure is too large,

and a

figure

one unit smaller should be

used.

After having subtracted 5768 from 6076

move down

the

next period of 3 figures and annex

it

to the remainder,

and

proceed as before.

EXERCISES
1.

2.

3.
4. 5.

6.
7.

Find the third power of 321. Find the ninth power of 5. Find the fifth power of n. Find the cube root of 24389. Find the cube root of 997002999. Find the cube root of 99760.2999 Find the cube root of 0.4219. Find the cube root of 512000.

8.

The

Circle

A

Circle

is

a plane figure bounded by a line
is

every point of which

an equal distance from
of a circle

the center point.

The Diameter
to the other.

is

the distance in a

straight line through the center from one edge

40

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

The Radius

is

one-half of the diameter or the

distance from the center point of the circle to

any point on the circumference measure
straight line.

in a

A

Radian

is

a part of a

circle of

such

magnitude that the length
equal to the radius.

of the arc is

The included

angle of a radian

is

equal

to 57° 17' 44-8".

l-—-r-

The Circumference of a circle is the distance around and is found by multiplying the diameter by 3.141601 roughly 3^. The figure 3.1416 is sometimes called Pi represented by the character
circle
7r.

Example: Find the circumference
ir

of

a

3"

in diameter.

Rule.

—Circumference =D X
of a circle

=

3"

X

3.1416

=

9.4248" (Ans.).

The Area

can be found by mul-

tiplying the diameter squared

by 0.7854 or
3"

(fir).

Rule.—Area =

D X
2

0.7854.
of a circle
in diameter.

Example: Find the area

A =

D*

X

0.7854

= A = 3 2 X 0.7854 = A = 9 X 0.7854 =
of a circle
is

7.0686 sq.
its cir-

in.

(Ans.).

S
A

"N

An Arc
is

purt of

cumference.

Chord

a straight line joining two points

on the circumference.

A A

Tangent of a

circle is

a straight line which

touches the circumference at one point only.
Sector of a circle
is

the space between an
to its ex-

arc and
tremities.

two

radii

drawn

To

find the area of a sector of a circle:

THE CIRCLE
Rule
I.

41

— Multiply
R
2

the length of the arc

by § the radius

= A = L X-.
Angle of sector
in degrees

Rule

II

X

ir

X

radius squared

360
ttRK

360

Example

I:

Find the area of a sector of a

circle

which

has an arc length of 4" and a 3" radius.

Rule

1.—A = L X
II:

-=
2

4

X

-

=

4

X

=

6 sq.

in.

(Ans.).

2

Example

Find the area of a 6o c sector which has a

radius of 5".

Rule

II— .4 =

—X
d>

ttR 2

=

60

X
25

3.1416

X

360
60 = —— X
360
3-I4I6

360

5

2

X

=

13.09 sq.

in.

(Aris.).

A Segment
arc

of a circle-is the space

between an

and

its

chord.

To find
|[i?(/

the area of a segment

of a circle:

Rule l.—A

=

-

c)

+

hcj

Example

I

:

Find the area of the following segment.

„^---l-

Rule—A =

%\_R(l

-

c)

+ hc2 =

HJK2.356 -

2.121)

+
=
Rule

.440

X

2.121]

=

§[15(0.235)

+

0.933]
0.642 sq. in. (Ans.).

§[0.352
II.

+ 0.933]

= §[1.285]-=

— The

area of a segment

may

be found by sub-

42

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

tracting from the area of the inclosed sector the area of the inclosed triangle.
7v

Example

II:

Find the area of the segment

of the following figure.

The area
90

of a i" circle
circle.

=

3.1416 sq.

in.

=

j of a

Therefore J of 3.1416 sq.
inclosed sector.
sq. in.

in.

=

0.7854 sq.

in.
1

=
1

area of
0.500

The

area of the triangle

=

—— =
X
2
i

0.7854 sq.

in.

0.500 sq.

in.

=

0.2854

scl-

n

-

=

area of

segment.
line drawn at right angles to a diameter any circle) will be a mean proportional to the two parts of the diameter divided, i.e., the \
(of

A

length

A

:

B

:

:

B

:

C.

Example:

In the following figure

A

and
find

B
C.

given as 2" and 4" respectively to

A:B::B:C =
EXERCISES
1.

2-.4::4:8.

8

(Ans.).

What
is

area will a sector of a circle whose diameter

is

2\" have

if

the chord
2.

ij" long?

Two

round shafts

of equal

diameter will just
6

fit

side

by

side into

a 4!" pipe.
3. If

What

is

the radius of the.shafts?
is
ft.

a locomotive drive wheel a lathe job
is

in diameter,

how

long will

it

take to travel % mile, running at 200 revolutions per minute?
4.
If

per minute,

how

far

4" in diameter and is turning three revolutions would a point on the circumference travel in a

circular direction in
5.

one minute's time?

If

one pint of paint will cover 20 square feet of surface,

how
in

much
6.

paint would be required to paint a circular clock dial 12

ft.

diameter?

4

feet in

Find the number of gallons of water held by a cylindrical tank diameter 3 feet high.

MENSURATION AND GEOMETRY
7.

43

If

a piece j" thick

is

cut from the face of a sphere
is

and the diameter

of the section cut

3",

what

is

the di-

ameter of the sphere? also circumference. 8. Find the area of a 15!" circle, 9. If a ball 10" in diameter be flattened on "one side

to reduce the diameter to 9",
flat

what will be the area of the

face?

10. If a 4 ft. car wheel has a flat spot on its circumference^" long how far will the axle drop when this spot reaches the
rail?

11. If boiler pressure is 150 lbs.,

what

force will be exerted

upon a

piston 10" in diameter?
12.

Find the area of a sector of a Find the area of a sector of a
ft.

circle,

the angle being 42 deg. and

the radius 15 inches.
13.
circle

which has a 30" arc and a

radius of 4
14.

Find the area

of

a segment which has a 2" radius, 3.1416" arc,
0.586 inches.

2.828" chord and a
15.

rise of

Find the area of a circular segment which has f" radius and the included sector angle is 90 16. Find the area of a circular segment which has a 1" radius and
.

the included angle

is

6o°.

Mensuration and Geometry

A Point has position but not magnitude. A Line has length, but neither breadth nor thickness. A Surface has length, breadth but not thickness. A Solid has length, breadth and thickness. A Plane is a surface which is straight in every direction,
that
is,

one which

is

perfectly

flat.

Parallel Lines are straight lines lying in the

same plane
Circu-

that are everywhere equally distant from each other.
lar lines

which answer to

this condition are said to

be con-

centric.

An Angle
If

is

the difference in the direction of two lines.
is

the lines meet, that point of meeting

called the Vertex

of the angle,

and the

lines are called its sides.

44

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

A Right Angle
An Obtuse
angle
(a-c-e).

is

a 90 degree angle
is

(a-c-d).

Fig.

I.

Angle

one which

is

greater than a right

An

Acute Angle
>

is

one which
d

is less

than a right angle

(e-c-b).

C
Fig.
I

u

The Complement
less

of

an Angle

is

a right angle or 90 degrees,
is

the given angle.

Thus, b-c-e

complement of d-c-e. The Supplement of an Angle is two
the or

right angles

180 degrees,
b-c-e
is

less

the

given angle.

Thus

the supple-

ment of a-c-e. The center of a

circle

that just inis

cludes an equilateral triangle
Fig. II

at a

point I of the altitude of the triangle from the base (Fig. II).

A Polygon is a plain surface

bounded by straight

lines only.

Triangles, rectangles, pentagons, hexagons, heptagons, octa-

gons, decagons, dodecagons, etc.,

are

all

polygons.

The

areas of irregular shaped surfaces can be found by dividing

them

into triangles, rectangles, etc.

ADOOOO

MENSURATION AND GEOMETRY

45

46

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
of the three angles in

The sum
180
.

any

triangle always equa»

Examples:

45°

+ 90° +

45°

=

i8o°

40

+

120°

+

20°

=.i8o°

The Volume

of a Cube,

Prism or Cylinder

is

equal to the

area of the base times the height.

/

MENSURATION AND GEOMETRY

To

find the Total Surface

Area of a Cone

Rule.

— Surface

Area

H CX- + A. 2
of base.

C = circumference

H=
A =
Example: Find the
Rule.

slant height.

area of base.

total surface area of the

above cone:
3.1416

—Surface
3
2

Area

= C X

H
2

M =3X
=
28.26

X2

6

+
To

X

0.7854

=

9.42

X

3

+

7-07

+

7.07
(Ans.).

=
find the

35-33 sq.

in.

Volume of a Frustum of a Cone Rule.— V = o.26i8H(D* + Dd
Example: Find the volume
frustum:

+
+
)

d 2 ).

of the following

Rule.— V =

o. 2 6i8ff(£ 2

+
3

Dd

d1 )

= = =
To
find the

0.2618

X

1.309(16
1.309
of a

s(4 + 4 X + 12+9)
2

+

3

2

X

37

=

48.436 cu.

in. (Ans.).

Volume

Pyramid

Rule.

-V

H = —
3

X

A.

H

= A =

height.

area of base.

Example:
pyramid:

Find the volume

of

the following

Rule.— 7 =
cu. in. (Ans.».

H 3

X A
of

=-X9 = 2X9=i8
3

6

To

find the

Area

an Ellipse

:

Rule.— A = t X a

X

b.

48

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
of the following ellipse:

Example: Find the area

-a— ->t

Rule.— A =

-k

X

a

= =
To
find the

3.1416

Xb X3 X

2

18.85 sq. in. (Ans.).

Circumference of an
ir ^2{a b 1 ). above ellipse:

Ellipse

Rule.— Cir. =
Example: Find the circumference
of the

+
2

Rule.— Cir. =

ir

V2(a2

+6

2

)

3.1416 V2(3 2

+2

)

=
To

3.1416 ^2(9

+
X X

4)

=

3.1416 V2

X

13

=

3- I 4 l6

V26

3.1416
find the

X

5.099

=

16.019

in- (Ans.).

Area of a Hexagon
.D 2

Rule.— A =
agon:

0.866.

Example: Find the area of the following hex-

Rule.— A = D*

0.866

=

22

X

0.866
in. (Ans.).

=
The volume

4
of

X 0.866 =

3.464 sq.

k— -2'

any irregular shaped object may be found by the displacement method. For example: Place an object in a vessel 10" long and 6" wide and pour in sufficient water to completely submerge the object. For convenience let us
imagine that the water
is

7J" deep;

then by taking the

object out of the water, the water will lower in level an

volume of the object. Thus if the and after the object is taken out it is measured and found to be 6j" deep or a decrease of 1 \". Thus the total displacement = 6 X 10 X i\ = 75 cu. in. or the volume of the object submerged in cu. in.
to the

amount equal

water was 7§" deep at

first

The

following table gives the ratio of the length of side

to the diameter of various polygons.

set to, to space off a

Example: What must the points of a pair of dividers be 2" circle into 5 equal parts?
is

Opposite figure 5

found the figure 0.588 or the distance

MENSURATION AND GEOMETRY
for

49
to 2

0.588" or

one inch; thus for 2" the dividers would be set 1. 1 76" (Ans.).
is

X

Example: What

the length of one side of an octagon

inscribed in a 3" circle?

Opposite division No. 8

is

found the figure 0.383 or the
equal to 3

length of side for a one inch circle divided into 8 parts.

Thus
or
1.

for a

3"

circle the length of side is

X

0.383"

149" (Ans.).

No. of


6.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Find the area of the following:

7-

Find angles

A

ici'

8.

If

the center angle on a bevel gear

is

28 deg., what angle would

the back end of the tooth
9.

make with

the end of the hub?

What
high?

is

the capacity in gallons of a cylindrical tank 3' in diam.

and

8'

10.

How many

cubes of iron 2" square will go into a box 3'

X

2'

Xii'?
11. 12. 13.

Find the volume of a triangular prism 1" face, 3" high. Find the convex area and volume of a sphere 3" in diameter. Find the total surface area and volume of a cone 12" in diameter
slant height.

and 15"
14.

How many
ft.

cubic yards of earth will be removed from * round

well 4

and 40 ft. deep? weighs 0.26 lbs. per cubic inch, what will a 3" diameter round bar weigh 24" long?
in diameter
15. If cast iron 16. What will be the cost of plating both sides of a sheet of iron 24" diameter at 30 cents per sq. ft.? 17. Find the area and circumference of an ellipse with major axis 18" and minor axis of 8" 18. Find the volume of a frustrum of a cone 6" high, small diameter

in

of

2" and large diameter 4".
19. What is the volume in cubic inches of a casting which when submerged in a vessel of liquid 6" in diameter, raises the level of the liquid 2$"? 20. In a vessel 6" wide and 8" long are placed 5 castings. What is

the volume of each casting in cu. in. if the level of the liquid was raised from 3I" deep to 6j"? 21. What should a pair of dividers be set to, if it is desired to space a circle 3" in diameter into 7 equal parts?

REVIEW EXERCISES
22.
in

5
is

What What What

is

the length of one side of a pentagon which

inscribed

a 4"
23. 24.

circle?
is

the perifery length of an octagon inscribed in a 3" circle?
to, in

should the dividers be set

spacing

off

an 8"

circle

into 15 equal parts on the circumference?

REVIEW EXERCISES
1.

How many
ft.

gallons of water will a tank hold

which

is

10

ft.

long,

6

ft.

wide and 4
3. 4.
5.

deep?

(231 cu. in.

=

1 gal.)

-2.

How many military paces will be How many feet are there in half a
At 20
If

required to travel 6 furlongs?
league?
will be the cost of

cents per yard for chain,

what

40 fathoms?

6.

stone weighs 17s lbs. per cubic foot, what will 5 perch weigh? How many bushels of wheat can be placed in a bin 6 ft. deep
ft.

8

ft.

wide and 10
7.

long?
is lost

What horsepower

per hour,

if

40720
in

B.t.u. are lost

through

the exhaust steam of a steam engine in a 10 hr. run?
8.

How many
long?

feet of

lumber are there

10 pieces of 2"

X

4",

16

ft.

9. If

a gas engine has a bore of 90 millimeters, what
will a

is its

bore in

inches?
10.

What
ft.

tank of water weigh which

is

3

ft.

deep, 4

ft.

wide

and 6
11.
12.

long?

13.

What will be the weight in grains of a if carat diamond? What horsepower is represented by 3,000 k.w. generator? What will a cast iron block 3" X 4" X 8" with a 1"
If 1

square

hole cored lengthwise weigh?
14.

pound

of

carbon burned to CO2 produces 14,600

B.t.u.,

how

much energy in
15.

foot pounds should be developed

by

burning 10 pounds of carbon?

What

is

the difference in weight between
steel

bars of
16.

aluminum and

1"

X

2"

X

12"?
a pyramid

What will
of

be the height over

all of

composed

4 steel balls 1" in diameter?

PART
A Formula
letters

II

Formulas and Algebraical Expressions
is

a rule for a calculation expressed by using
of writing out the rule in words.

and signs instead

The

letters used

(algebraical expressions) simply stand in

place of the figures which are to be substituted

when

solving

problems.

Any
letters

formula

may

be transposed, that

is,

the value of

any

letter in the

formula

may

be found in terms of the other

by following

certain set rules.

Example:

b

=

a

X

c

then a

=

b\c, c

Any
a

quantity

= b/a. may be moved from
by changing

one side of the equality
thus a

sign to the other

its sign,

b

c

then

— c+ When

b.

several

numbers or quantities

in a

formula are con-

nected with signs indicating that additions, subtractions,
multiplications or divisions are to be performed, the multiplications should

operations,

be carried out before any of the other and division also preceeds additions or sub_

tractions, as 18

-f-

6

+

15

X

3

-

2

=

3

+

45

2

=

46.

When

it is

desired that certain additions

and subtractions
is

should preceed multiplications or divisions, use

made

of
J.
( )

vinculum

,

parentheses

( ),

brace

{

},

and brackets [

These indicate that the calculations included in the shall be carried out complete by itself, before the { [_ ]
}

re-

maining calculations are commenced. If a is placed inside of one another, the one inside is The order of use is as follows [{(" lated. )}].
"

(

){

}

first

or f ] calcu-

Exmple:

2

+ [10 X 6(8 + 4~-^2) - 4] X 2 = 2 + [10 X 6 X 10 X 2 = 2 + [600 - 4] X 2 = 2 + 596 X 2 = 2 +
=
1

-4]
1

192

194

(Ans.).
52

FORMULAS AND ALGEBRAICAL EXPRESSIONS

53

of 12

The line or bar between the numerator and the denominator any fraction is to be considered as a division sign, thus:

+

16

+ 22 =

50 —=
10

50

-4-

10

=

10

5 (Ans.).
is

f

In formulas the multiplication sign (X)

often omitted

between symbols or
multiplied thus a

letters,

the values of which are to be

or [ ] may be operations indicated thus, a(b
( )
{

A

_

X

b

=

ab and abcjd

=

(a

X

6

X

c)

-=-

d.

}

removed by performing the
c)

+

=

ab

+

ac.

When
removed,

a
all

(){} or
signs within
bd.

[] preceded by a minus
must be changed, thus a

sign

(— )

is

b(c

d)

=
a.b

a

be

+

A

period

is

sometimes used as a multiplication
indicates that a root
is

sign, thus

= a X b. A radical sign V
figure

to be found.

The small
the root.

$ above
is

the radical

is

called the index of

A

radical

raising both terms to the

removed by extracting the root or power of the index,, thus, if -\a = b
.

then a

=

bXbXb
=

=

b3

In the Addition of algebraical quantities,
are placed in the

all like

quantities

same column, thus: 70
7a
5a

+

26

+

4c

+

36

+

5a

+ 3c

12a

+ 26 + 4c + 3& + 3c + 56 + 7c

(Ans.).
sign, their

When
common

like quantities

have the same

sums

are

found by simply adding the numbers and annexing the
letter, thus:

+ 26 + 7a + 5a + 26 7o + 3& 12a + 5& (Ans.).
5a

36

=

When
5

like

quantities do not have the

same

sign,

the

54
positive

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

(+) and negative (— ) signs must be added separand afterward the smaller group subtracted from the greater and the sign of the greater is prefixed and the comately,

mon

letter

or

letters

added,
26
3&
b

thus:

ya

26

4c

5a

+ 36 + 3c =
ja

4c
jc
c

-

+

+

2a 4-

(Ans.).

In the Subtraction of algebraical quantities, the signs of
all

terms subtracted must be changed, and then

all

like

terms are added as above mentioned, thus:

Subtract 5x 2

2x

+

6 from iox 2 4- 4x

2

=

iox 2 4- 4%

2

_

ior* 4- 4*

5x 2

2x

+

6

5X 2 4- 2x 5x2

+

6x

— — -

2

6
8 (Ans.).

In the Multiplication of algebraical quantities, the rules
of signs

must be observed,
is

i.e.,

the product of two terms of

similar signs

positive (4~)i thus:

2X4-3=6,
is

or

— 2X
thus:

-

3

= +

6.

2X— 3=—
When
thus: 4<z&

The product

of
6,

two dissimilar terms

negative

(— ),

or—
=

2X4-3=—

6.
first

multiplying two simple expressions together,

multiply the figures and then add the exponents of the

letters,

X

2a 2 6 2

4a b
2o 2 6 2 &a 3 b 3 (Ans.).

X
Or multiplying

a44bya45="+4
a 4- 5 a 2 4- 4a 5a

+

20

a 2 -f 90 -f 20 (Ans.).

FORMULAS AND ALGEBRAICAL EXPRESSIONS
Or multiplying 2a
2ffi

55

+
4X 4*

36

4* by 2a

36

43c

=

+ 36 —

3&

2a 4a 2

+

6ab 6ab

— — — —

8ax


8ax
i6ax

g& 2

+

i2xb
i2xb

4a 2

gb

2

+ i6x + i6x

2

2

(Ans.)

In the Division of algebraical quantities, the rules of signs

must
have
signs.

also be observed,
is

quotient

positive

like signs

i.e., the sign of any term of the (+) when the dividend and the divisor and negative (— ) when they have unlike

In division the coefficient of the quotient
coefficient

is

equal to the
thus:
-=-

of

the dividend divided by the divisor,

2oa&

-4-

5<z&

=

4 (Ans.) or 10a

-4-

2a

=5

(Ans.) or 3oa 2 6 3

-

6a 2 &

= -

6 2 (Ans.).

In the division of algebraical quantities, cancellation can

be used to simplify the operation.

Thus:

2\aWx
ioa?b x
2

I2ab

$x

The use of formulas can possibly be best explained by a few simple problems as follows: (1) Find the area of a circle 2" in diameter? The formula for finding the area of a circle = D 2 X 0.7854.

D = D X
2

diameter of

circle.

0.7854

=

constant.

0.7854

=

22

X

0.7854

=

4

X

0.7854

=
(2)

3.1416 sq.

in. (Ans.).

What

is

the S.A.E. rating of a gas engine, that has

8 cylinders with a

3" bore, running at 2000 f.p.m.?

56

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

The S.A.E. formula =
f.p.m.

D XN
2

for a piston speed of iooo

2-5

D =

diameter of cylinder in inches.
cylinders.

= number of 2.5 = constant.

N

D*X N =
2-5

3

2

X8 = 9X8 =
2.5

28.8.

2.5

28.8
(3)

X

2

=

57.6 h.p. (Ans.).

What

is

the i.h.p. of a steam engine running at 125

r.p.m., with a 10" bore

and a 12"
2

stroke, with

a m.e.p. of

50

lbs.

per sq. inch?
for i.h.p.

The formula

=

PLAN
.

33000

P = mean

effective pressure in lbs. per sq. inch.

L = length of stroke in feet. A = area of piston in sq. inches. N = number of revolutions per minute. 2 = a constant which is necessary because
is

a steam engine

a double acting engine, and therefore obtains 2

power impulses per revolution.
33000
2

= number

of

ft. lbs.

per minute, equivalent to

I

h.p.

PLAN = 2X50X78.54X125 =
33000
(4)

29.75 i.h.p. (Ans.).

33000
is

What

the centrifugal force produced
ft.

by a 10

lb.

weight fastened to the end of a cord 5 velocity of 20 ft. per second ?

long, revolving at a

Formula F =

WV
£R

2
.

F=

centrifugal force.
lbs.

W = weight in

EXERCISES

57

V = g = R =
„ F =
(5)

velocity in

ft.

per second.

gravity (32.16).
radius.

WV
gR

2

=

10X20 = 10X400 = 32.16 X 5 32.16 X 5
2

24.87 lbs. (Ans.).

..

.

What

h.p. will a

2" rope transmit, running at 5000

f.p.m.?

Formula

=

h.p.

= D2 X V X

0.003

X

N.

D =
V =
0.063

diameter of rope in inches.
velocity in f.p.m.

N

= constant. = number of ropes.
= D X V X 0.003 X N = = 4 X 5000 X
2

h.p.

22

X

5000

X
=

0.003

X

1

0.003

X

1

60 h.p. (Ans.).

If h.p.

= D

2

XV X 0.003
will

X

N, then the formula to find

the diameter of the rope required can be obtained by substitution,

which

become

O = \l

>FX 0.003 X N = XN X
number

— ^

= D =

\l *=J5000 X 0.003 X X Ms
:

1

= D = V4 =
To
find the

2" (Ans.).

of ropes required, the formula

by sub-

stitution will be

N

=
2

h.p.

D X VX
(a)
(6)
2.

=
0.003

N

=
4

60

=

1

(Ans.).

X

5000

X

0.003

EXERCISES
1.

Add 60 + 56 — 30 — 46 + 60 — 36 Add 0+26+c + a— b + a + 3b
Subtract 3a2

(a) (6)

26

+ 8c from, so2

+ *. + 2c. — 46 + 6c.

Subtract I2xy2z3 from 8»jrV.

3. (a)
(ft)

Multiply a Multiply *

+ 6 by a + 4. + J by * - y.

58
4.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
(a)
(6)
5.

Divide 120b1 by 606. Divide — 20X sy1 by — S&V-

Find the value of
Find the value of


yb
3Z

— —

a?
~f~


c

when a =
x^

3, 6

=

6, v

=

2,

y

= =

5.

3%

6.

*

— —

AV

y
.*

z2

a

=

— 2y — — y2
2

when x =
7 * ,~ I2

10,

y

5,

7-

7.

Find the value of a/ 3
*

-

a/

9

when o =
2"

10,

6

=

3. 8.

=

7is

What

the true length of one coil of a spring which
for length of r — L =

is

in

diameter and a \" lead?

Formula

one

coil

=

V(2itt) 2

+ If.

radius of
lead.

mean diameter

in inches.

9.

What
long?

is

the safe load in tons of a 6"

X

6"

sq. cast iron

column

10

ft.

The formula

for cast iron

columns

in tons

=
.

5a

z—
I.

.

ioood2
o = L = d =
10.

sectional area in sq. inches.

length of column in inches.

width of sides of column in inches.

What
if

is

the b.h.p. developed by a steam engine with a Prony

brake,
scale
is

the length of brake
lbs.

arm
is

is

6

ft.,

the weight registered on the
r.p.rn.?

100

and the engine
for

running 120

Formula

Prony brake

h.p.

=

2irLWN
.

33000

L — length of brake arm in ft. = weight or pressure at end of arm in N — number of revolutions per minute. 33000 = constant,
XV

lbs.

n. The formula
follows

for the horsepower transmitted

by

belting

is

as

h.p.

=

SVW
,

33000
in

which

h.p.

=

horsepower transmitted,
stress of belt per inch of

5 = working V = velocity

width

in lbs.,

of belt in

ft.

per min.,

W

=

width

of belt in inches,

find the values of S,

V and W.

EXERCISES
12.

59
steam engine
.

The formula

for the horsepower of a
l.h.p.

is

= 2PLAN
33000

in

which

i.h.p.

=

indicated horsepower,
effective pressure in lbs. per sq. in.,

P = mean

L = length of stroke in feet, A = area of piston in sq. in., N = number of revolutions per
find the values of P, L,
13. In the
14.

min.,

A

and N.
ir(o6

formula

A =

cd) find the values of u, b, c

and

d.

Simplify

o= 2 [i7-r/jx+z(r-Af+^H].
15.

In the formula

p
find the values of
16.

A

,

V,

S and
|g<
2
,

P.

In the formula for the space passed through by a falling body,

starting

from

rest,

5 =

in

which

S =
g
J

space body

falls in feet,
ft.

= =

acceleration of gravity in

per sec. per sec,

time of
t

fall in
g.

seconds,

find the value of
17.

and

In the formula for the space passed through
initial velocity

by a

falling

body

which starts with an

V — S =
1

if

2g
in

which 5
g

= = V = v =

space body

falls in feet,

acceleration of gravity,
final velocity in ft. per sec,
initial velocity in ft.

per sec,

find the values of V, v
18.

and

g.

In the formula for triangles

H

2

=A

2

+B

1
,

in

which

H
find

=

hypotenuse,
altitude,

A = B =
H,

base,

A and

B.

6o
19.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
In the formula

PROGRESSION
Formula:

6
2

L = A

+

(N - i)D =

+
2

(5

12

1)3

=
Example: Find the
of a series of 5
first

2

+ 4X3

=

+
is

=

14 (Ans.).

term in an arithmetical progression
if

numbers,

the difference

2

and the

last

number

is

11.

Formula:

A = L - {N - i)D = 11 - (5 = 11—4X2 = 11—8 =
if

1)2

3 (Ans.).

Example: Find the number
progression,
difference

of terms in an arithmetical
is

the

first

term

2,

the last

is

20 and the
18
1
-\

is 3.

Formula:

N

=

L — A
1
-\

D

=

1

+

20


3

2

=

3

=
Example: Find the common difference
arithmetical progression,
series of 6
first

1+6
in

=

7 (Ans.).

the following

number

is 3,

the last 21 in a

numbers.

Formula:

D —

L — A

N—

=

21—3
7

1

=

18 —

=

1

6

3 (Ans.).

if

Example: Find the sum of the arithmetical progression, the first term is 3 and the last is 28, if the difference is 5.
Formula:

S =

A + L
2D
5

X
=

(L

+D-

A)

=

3

+ —

28

2X5
=
93 (Ans.).
is

X

(28

+

-

3)

— X 30 =
10

3.1

X

30

Geometrical Progression in a
gressive

series of

numbers

a pro-

increase

or

decrease in

each

term obtained by

multiplying or dividing the preceding term by a constant
called the Ratio.

Thus 1-2-4-8-16-32

etc.,

is

an increasing geometrical
is

progression with a ratio of 2 and 8 1-27-9-3- 1

a decreasing

geometrical progression with a ratio of

3.

62

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
In geometrical progression the following terms and formulas

EXERCISES

63

Formula:

S - A R = S - L
1

1 1

+ 1.3 + 1-69 + 2.19 + 2.85 + 1.3 + 1.69 + 2.19 + 2.85 -2.85

_

8^
6.18

=

1.3 (Ans.).

the

Example: Find the sum of a geometrical progression, first term is 2, the last iof, with a ratio of i\.
Formula:

if

S =

io|

X

i|

-

2

R -

1

64

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Trigonometry

Trigonometry

is

that branch of mathematics which deals

with the determination of angles and the solution of triangles.

bound by three straight sides is called a Triangle. Base (B), Altitude (^4) and Hypotenuse (H) (Fig. I-a), or more conveniently, Side Adjacent (5^1), Side Opposite (SO) and Hypotenuse (hyp) (Fig. i-b). All triangles have three angles, and their sum is always equal
figure

Any

The

sides are called

to 180 degrees (Fig. I-c).

Fig.

I-c

Two

angles are equal

when they contain

the

same number

of degrees.

Example:

(An angle may be defined as the path through which a ray
passes revolving about a fixed point called the center.)

A

Right Triangle

is

90 degree angle.

In

one which contains a right angle or a all right triangles having the same

acute angle, the sides are proportional.

Example:

4"

8"

This fact forms the working basis of trigonometry.

In

TRIGONOMETRY
practical

65

work the

right triangle

is

most often encountered,

otherwise the figure can easily be subdivided into two or

more right

triangles, as

shown

in the following:

r<
1

There are
nated sine
secant
follows:

six possible ratios

between the three

sides of a

right triangle called the trigonometric functions,
(sin), cosine (cos)

and

desig-

tangent (tan), cotangent (cot),
(esc).

(sec),

and cosecant
(Let

These are defined as
all

X equal

the angle in

cases)

(I)

66

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
F

The prefix co' in the functions comes from "complementary," the functions of an angle being the co-function of a complementary angle.
For example, sine
sec 15

X=

cos (90

X), tan 30

=

cot 60,

=

esc 75, etc.

The

trigonometric functions are numerical values which

can be determined for every angle.
entirely

However,
these

it

would be
for

impractical

to

determine

values

each

application, so complete tables have been compiled giving

the values for

all

angles,

from the

tables, sines

and the quantities are taken direct and tangents are the two most im-

portant functions.
Since most calculations can be

made with

sines, cosines,

tangents and cotangents, only these are tabulated in this
book.
-D ^-

In Fig.

II,

the functions

'^~A. are illustrated graphically

R =
A = B = C = D = E= F=
1,

radius
sine,

=

1,

cosine,

tangent,

cotangent,
secant,

Fig. II

cosecant.

Since the radius equals

the sides or numerators of the

ratios are disposed so that the

denominator

is

always the

denominator to be disregarded and only the length of the numerator considered.
radius, thus permitting the

Note.

— (In

Fig. II the angle used

is

30 degrees.

Compare

the relative length of the lines with the values given in the
tables.)

Thus
is

in Fig. II,

if

the radius

is

equal to
table
of

1,

and the angle

30 degrees, according to the

trigonometrical

functions:

TRIGONOMETRICAL FUNCTIONS

67

A = B = C = D = E = F =

.50000,

.86603, -57735.
1.7320,
1.

1547,

2.0000.

Sines

The Sine of an angle is the relation of the side opposite any given angle to its hypotenuse, or vise versa.
Rules.

of

1.

Sine

A =

side opposite

hypotenuse
2.

Side opposite

=

sine
;

A X A

hypotenuse.
.

3.

Hypotenuse
1:

=
is
if

side opposite
sine

Problem No.
the

What
Ill,

,,--"A_
|l

angle

in^ Fig.

the side opposite

=0.68404"

,.--•"'

tffi"^^"" \ \
.<-'"'
I

\s

and

the

hypotenuse

=

'X^^'^

^
Fig. Ill

Q
!
:

2.000"?

Rule No.

1:

Sine

A =

side opposite

=

0.68404
2

=

0.34202.

hypotenuse

Upon

looking in the table of sines,

we

find that sine .34202 is

equivalent to 20 degrees (Ans.).

Problem No.
in Fig. Ill
if

2:

What
is

is

the length of the side opposite
is

the angle

20 degrees and the hypotenuse

2.000"?

Rule No.
.34202

2: Side opposite

=

sine

X

hypotenuse.

Since of 20 deg.

=
3:

.34202.

X

2

=

0.68404"

Problem No.
Fig. Ill
if

= side opposite (Ans.). What is the length of the hypotenuse
is

in

the side opposite

0.68404" and the angle

is

20

degrees?

68

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

Rule No.

3:

Hypotenuse

=

side opposite
; .

sine

Sine of 20 deg.

=

.34202.

0.68404"

-5-

.34202

=

2.000"

=

hypotenuse (Ans.).
all

(Note that the values of the. sines of
zero (o) to one (1) inclusive.)

angles range from

Cosines

The Cosine

of

an angle

is

the relation of the side adjacent

to that of the hypotenuse, or vise versa,

Rules.— 1. Cosine

=

side adjacent

hypotenuse
2.

Side

adjacent

=

cosine

X

-A
,

hypotenuse.
\
\

-0""

3-

Hypotenuse

=

side adjacent
;

.

cosine

Problem No.

1:

What

will

the angle be in Fig.

t-

-1.73206'

hypotenuse
IV Cosine
adjacent
side adjacent

is

2

ft.

IV if the and the side
ft.?

Fig.

=

1.73206

Rule No.
1.73206
4- 2

1

:

hypotenuse

=

.86603.

Cosine .86603

is

equivalent to 30 degrees (Ans.).

Problem No.
Fig.

2:

What
is

is

the length of the side adjacent in
is

IV

if

the angle

30 deg. and the hypotenuse

equal

to 2 ft.?

Rule No.
.".

2:

Side adjacent

=

cosine

X

hypotenuse.

Cosine of 30 deg.
.86603

=

.86603.
ft.

Hypotenuse
(Ans.).

=

2

ft.

X

2

=

1.73206
3:

Problem No.
Fig.

What
is

is

the length of the hypotenuse in
is

IV

if

the angle

30 deg. and the side adjacent

equal

to 1.73206 ft.?

TRIGONOMETRICAL FUNCTIONS

69

Rule No. 3: Hypotenuse
Side adjacent
.'.

=

side adjacent
;

.

cosine

=

1.73206

ft.

Cosine of 30 deg.

=

.86603.

1.73206

4-

.86603

=

2 ft. (Ans.).
(0) to

(Note that the values of the cosines range from zero
one
(1) inclusive.)

Tangents

The Tangent of any angle

is

the relation of the side opposite

to that of the side adjacent, or vice versa.

Rules.

1.

Tangent

side =—

opposite
.

side adjacent
2.

Side opposite

= =

side adjacent side opposite
.

X

tangent.

3.

Side adjacent
1
:

tangent

Problem No.

What

is

the angle in Fig.

V

if

the side

-<'
ir
i.

I-

1

1

1 as $

i_3L
>l

k
opposite
is

7.87S"

Fig.

V
is

equal to 1.96347" and the side adjacent
1
:

7.875"?

Rule No.
1

Tangent

=

side opposite
.

side adjacent

-96347

*

7.875

=

.24933.

Upon

looking in the table of

tangents,

we

find that tangent .24933 is equivalent to 14

degrees (Ans.).

Problem No.
Fig.

2

:

What
is

is

the length of the side opposite in
is

V

if

the angle

14 degrees and the side adjacent

7-875"?

Rule No. 2
Side adjacent

:

Side opposite

= =

side adjacent

=

7.875".

Tangent

of 14 deg.

X =

tangent.
.24933.

7.875"
6

X

.24933

=

1.96347"

side opposite (Ans.).

70

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Problem No. 3
:

What

is

the length of the side adjacent in
is

Fig.

V

if ?

the side opposite

1.96347" and the angle
side opposite

is

14

degrees

Rule No.

3: Side

adjacent

=

tangent
Side opposite
.'.

=

1.96347".

Tangent

of 14 deg.

=

.24933.

1.96347"

-r-

.24933

=

7.875"

=

side adjacent (Ans.).

(Note that the value
infinity.)

of tangents range

from zero

(o)

to

Uses of Inverse Functions
It frequently

happens that an inverse function
if it is

may

be

used to advantage, for example, in Fig. VI,
find the length of face (or

desired to

hypotenuse) of a cone for a clutch,

the following formula probably would be used

^-VHU'-*

EXERCISES
Solution of Right-angled Triangles
Sides and Angles

71

Known
Sides
Sides
c

Formulas for Sides and Angles to Be Found

and

a.

.

.

c

and

b

.

.

.

Sides a and b

.

.

.

Side Side Side

c. c.

Ang. A Ang. B.

.

a.

Ang. Ang.
Ang.

A

.

Side
Side

a.

iJ.

6.

A

.

Side

6.

Ang. B.

72
6.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
If in sighting

window

over a 30 deg. triangle, your sight would strike a a tower, the base of the tower being 200 ft. away, how high would the window be from the base of triangle? 7. If two public highways join at a certain point, one running at
in

an angle

of 32 deg. south of due east and the other 27 deg. north of east, would a man walk if he left a point 1 mile from the junction and traveled at an angle of 90 deg. from south road before he came to

how

far

the north road?
8. If in

cutting a taper of 4 degrees included angle, on a piece 10"

long,

how

far over

would you

set the tail stock

on a lathe?

Fig. VIII
9.

A

A

C is 1". The hole B is at right from A-C will intersect B. What is
to
10.

machinist in boring three holes in a jig finds the distance from angles with A-C and a line 30 deg.
the distance from
9, if

B
C?

to

C?

Using same illustration as in problem No. BtoC was 2", what would be the distance from

the distance from

A

to

X

(

(

(

(

EXERCISES
3.

73

Solve for (*):

4.

How many

5"

steel balls will

be required for a bearing, allowing
if

0.002" clearance between each ball
inside ball race has
5.

the

What

a diameter of 1.440"? diameter of outside ball race

will

be required on a bearing, using 15 balls J" in diameter, 0.002" clearance between
balls?
6.

The guy ropes
ft.

of

a

flag pole
If

make an
they ex-

angle of 35 deg. with the pole.

tend 30

from the base of the

pole,

how

long are they?
7.

A=Outsiae Diam. ofBall Race B- Inside Diam. of Ball Race
ft.?

What
If
it

included angle corresponds to a taper of 5.10" per
transit placed 10
ft.

8.

by elevating a
strikes

of 12 deg.,

above sea level to an angle the top of a tower 4000 ft. away, how high is the

tower?
9.

What will be the respective dimensions of the sides of a rectangular
fit

base that will just

in a

3"

circle, if

the sides are in a ratio of 2 to 1?

10.

What

is

the smallest size rectangular box that can be used to

pack seven 1"
11.

steel balls,

arranged in a circle?

be the included angle of a Rivett Dock 8-pitch V threading tool to cut a 60 deg. thread, if the cutter is 3" in diameter and

What must

is

ground \" below center?

12. From the top of a cliff 2000 ft. high, the angles of depression of two ships at sea are observed to be 45 deg. and 30 deg. If the line

joining the ships point directly to the foot of the

cliff,

find the distance

between the ships.
13.

Two ships leave the harbor at the same time,

one sailing northeast

74

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
and the other
sailing north at the rate of

at the rate of 8 miles per hour,

12 miles per hour.

Find the shortest distance between the ships if

hours after starting.
14.

What

is

the spiral angle of a spring 3" in diameter

and with a

f

lead?
IS- Fig. I given c 6", 16. Fig. I

B

1$ deg., find A, a

and
a,

6.

given b 0.852",

A

14 deg., find

Bo.

and

c.

17. Fig. I given c if", b if", find 18. Fig. I given c 12",

B,

A

and
b,

a.

A

42 deg., find

a and
calculate the distance

B.
19.

In the bushing plate shown in Fig.

II,

between the following holes:

A

to B,

A

to C,

20. In Fig. II, calculate the distances

U,

C to D, and C to W, X, Y, and Z.

E.

Fig.

II.

Bushing Plate for Drill Jig

Speeds and Feeds

The proper

peripheral speeds

and longitudinal feeds are

necessary in machine tool operations to obtain the

maximum

production without heating the cutting tools to a softening
point.

By

Peripheral Speed

is

a point on the periphery of the

meant the distance through which work or tool would pass in a
is

given length of time, and

usually designated in feet per

minute (f.p.m.).

FEEDS AND SPEEDS

75
be determined by

The
In

peripheral speed of a drill

may

multiplying the circumference in feet by the
all

number

of r.p.m.

turning operations on a lathe, there are three very

important questions to be considered: the cutting speed,

and depth of cut. any work on a lathe can be found by multiplying cutting speed by 12 and dividing the product by the circumference of work in inches. Cutting Speed is found by multiplying r.p.m. times circumference in inches and dividing by 12. The cutting speed on a milling machine = circumference of
the feed of the tool,

The

r.p.m. for

cutter times r.p.m.

The

peripheral speed of grinding wheels

=

circumference

of wheel in feet

X

r.p.m.

Approximate Formulas

To
is

find the revolutions per min.,

if

a certain cutting speed

wanted,
r.p.m.

=

cutting speed
ir

X

12

X

diameter

or
r.p.m.

=

3.82

X
ft.

cutting speed
;

.

diameter

To

find the cutting speed in

per min.

if

r.p.m. r.p.m.

is

given,

cutting speed

=k X

diameter
12

X

.

To

find the total time to finish cut.

Total time lo finish cut

=

length in inches
r.p.m.

X

feed per rev.

76

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

Chart Showing Approximate Cutting Speeds in Feet per Minute for
Various Machines and Materials

FEEDS AND SPEEDS
3.

77

130 r.p.m.

In drilling cast iron, using a 1" drill taking a 0.007" feed and how long would it take to drill through a piece 6|" thick?

4. How long will it take to make a cut on a piece 10" long, in a lathe with a 0.020" feed running at 180 r.p.m.?
5.

Find r.p.m.

if

a cutting speed of 50
is

ft.

per min.

is

wanted and

the diameter of cutter
6.

6".

Find cutting speed of a 6" diameter cutter which runs 60 r.p.m. How long would it take to shape off \" of the surface of a piece 6" long by 4" wide, feed 0.010", cut \" deep, and it takes 2 sec. to
7.

complete the stroke?
8.

How many

r.p.m.

would a 6" diameter emery wheel on a surface
is

grinder make, whose peripheral speed
9.

6000

ft.

per min.?

At what speed should a J"
per minute?

drill

be run to have a cutting speed of
mill be run to obtain a cutting

So

ft.

10.

At what speed should a J" end
ft.

speed of 80
11.

per minute?
the cutting speed of a lathe tool
if

What What

is

the

work

is

3"

in

diameter, running at 100 r.p.m.?
12.
is

the cutting speed of a milling cutter 8" in diameter,

running at 60 r.p.m.?
13.

How

long will
ft.

it

take to finish a cut 18" long with a 1" end mill,

running at 80
14.

per min., "with a 0.010" feed?
it

How
What
if

long will

take to

make a cut on a

shaft 14" long, using a

feed of 0.080" on a lathe running at 120 r.p.m.
15.
is the time required to drill * f" hole 1" deep in 1000 a feed of 0.010" is used, and the drill runs 300 r.p.m. pro-

brackets

viding
16.

it

takes 10 seconds to load the jig?

long will it take to cut a keyway 8" long in 750 shafts, if the cutter runs 240 r.p.m., with a 0.018" feed, allowing 30 seconds

How

time for loading fixture?
17.

What
What

speed should a gear cutter run that
ft.

is

3J"
the

in diameter to

have a surface speed of 90
18.
is

per minute?
if

the cutting speed of a lathe tool

work

is

2j"

in

diameter running at 185 r.p.m.?

Cost Calculation
In large plants, before a machine
individual part
is classified is

manufactured each

separately by the planning deis

partment and a Tool Operation Index Sheet
as shown.

made out

78

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

These operations are so arranged as good judgment and
past experience shows will be the best and most satisfactory

way

of handling the particular part in view.

This sheet gives the tool designer the sequence in which
the various operations are to be performed and he can thus

design his tools and fixtures accordingly.
gives

This sheet also
in facilitate

the

necessary

machines required and the order
in the

which they should be arranged
trucking.

department to

production and prevent any unnecessary waste of space and

When things are running smoothly in the shop a Motion Study Record, as shown, is taken by the time study departby means of a series of close observaby a stop watch. The duration of this study should be sufficiently long enough to get fair average results from which bases the piece work price is determined. This price usually holds good as long as the method, machine, tools or other working conditions are not changed. The motion study record is followed by an Instruction Card which gives to the foreman, set up man and the operator, all instructions relative to tools, jigs and fixtures
of each operation

ment

tions timed

necessary to perform an individual operation.

Also giving

time allowance predetermined by a time study, the individual time for each elemental operation, feeds and speeds,
etc.

The foreman

should see that this card

is is

followed out

in detail unless a better or

more

efficient

way

found.

For the foreman's information a Production Routing Sheet is sent him from the planning department, which
gives to

him
in

in a classified

form the various operations per-

formed

his

department, with the piece price of each

operation and other information which he should keep on

hand

for future reference.

Automatic Screw Machine

a

o X

>
o

O
00

A-BAjng^so^
Buidaax-aiuij.

^uojnc^sajj

SuiOOy

P!V

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4uauMo|dui|
OJAO)Oi

Duj+JDJfl

^buuaaujpu]
6uiuuD|d

IlUDua+UiO^
uoisiuadn^

COST CALCULATION

79

TOOL OPERATION INDEX SHEET
Part
Oper.

Name

Piston

Material Cast iron

Part No. 1024

8o

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

O w w
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Q «

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COST CALCULATION
>.

82

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

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COST CALCULATION

83

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84

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

HI

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COST CALCULATION
Cost Calculations

85

In estimating the cost of operating a machine shop, the
cost of labor,

material, overhead expenses, etc.,

must be

considered.

depreciation, supervision, etc.,

Overhead Expenses include power, heat, light, insurance, and all other expenses which
following estimates will be approximately correct for

are not classified under labor or material.

The
jigs,

a shop employing 12 men, and doing tool work, such as dies,
gages, fixtures, etc.
Cost of Materials

High carbon steel (tool steel) High speed steel Machine steel (low carbon steel) Screw stock (low carbon steel)
Cold rolled steel (low carbon
Cast iron-castings
steel)

12 cents per lb. approximately

90
5 7 5

3

Bronze
Brass

25
17

Copper

20

Aluminum
Lard oil Machine
oil ...
.

60
63
13 " "
gal.

Cost of Labor

Three first class toolmakers Three second class toolmakers

75 cents per hour " 60

Two

lathe

hands

50

" "

"
" "

"
" "

One utility man One apprentice
Overhead Expenses
Light
$3.00 per "

40
20

"

month
"

Gas for furnace Heat Power

J4.00

$S.°° average per

month

Approx. 30 cents per hour for 10 h.p.

86
f

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
foreman
of

room.

.

.

.$0.80 per hour

Supervision"!
I

manager
clerk

$1.00

"

"

Iiz.oo per week.

Insurance!
1

AccMent
Fire

.ij%

of

pay

roll.

$5.00 per $1000 per year.

Rent

J2S.00 for room 40' Depreciation on machinery
Interest

on money

—6%

— 10%
$1600

X

40'

Cost of investment: Two lathes 14" and 18"

One

universal milling machine
milling machine

1300

Hand

250 350
75 75

Shaper Speed lathe

Gas furnace Bath grinder

800 25°
drills,

Two

drill presses

Miscellaneous tools:

reamers, counterbores, etc

200

Total

{4900
for

It

would require an investment of $5000

equipment;

the payroll for 90 days would be $3000, cost of materials and

overhead expenses $2000, also a surplus of $2000 to take care of bad debts and any emergencies, making a required
capital of $12,000.

The Cost
therefore

of

Raw, Materials

is

usually quoted in pounds,

it is

necessary to find volume or weight of stock.
lbs.

Cast iron weighs 0.26

per cu.
lbs.

in.

Carbon

steel

weighs 0.28
lbs.

per cu.
in.

in.

Bronze weighs 0.31
Brass weighs 0.30
In
all

per cu.

lbs.

per cu.

in.

operations on machinery in a factory, approximately
is

10%

of time

lost in
is

changing

tools, etc.

every day.

Depreciation

the natural decrease in the value of equip-

ment.

Maintenance

is

the

amount

of

money

required to maintain

the equipment in good working condition.

COST CALCULATION
EXERCISES
1.

87

What would
long?

be the cost of a bar of high carbon steel 3" in diameter be the cost of a round bar of high speed steel 4" in

10

ft.

2.

What would
ft.

diameter by 10

long?

3. What would it cost for material to make 24 cast iron spur gears 1" wide, outside diameter 4", allowing f" for cutting off tools and \"

for finishing over all.
4.

(Cast iron weighing 0.26 lbs. per cu. in.) Find the cost of a 1" round piece of brass 12 ft. long estimating brass at 0.30 of a lb. per cu. in. 5. What would a piece of high carbon steel 4" X 4" X 10 ft. long cost? 6. What would it cost for material for 12 die blocks of high carbon steel ii" thick, 6" wide by 8" long?
7. What will be the cost of a taper piece of C.R.S. 10" long, 3" in diameter at the large end and 1" in diameter at the small end? 8. Find the cost of a 1" hex. brass bar 16 ft. long.

9.

Find the cost of 6 pieces of C.R.S. \"

X

4"

X

12".

10.

What

will be the cost of 100 pieces of high speed steel

\"

X

f"

X

2§"?
11.

Determine cost of material and machine operations on 60 tool 1" diam—ieter X 2" long X i" hole, rough size stock i-jy diameter allowing \" for
steel bushings, finished size

cut

feed per rev.,

Turn with one cut at 0.004" and 150 r.p.m. Drill at 0.005" feed and ream at 0.015"
off.

-zEE==H@v
Bushing

per rev., allowing 30 sec. for facing

and cutting off. Lost time on each piece 5 sec. for change of turret, etc., wages 37J cents per hour. 12. What will it cost to machine on a turret lathe, 100 spur gear blanks made of cast iron 4" outside diamater, ij" hole, if" wide, running
at 70 r.p.m., using a feed of 0.010" per rev.
for turning outside diameter, 0.005" feed for
drilling

and

boring,

and 0.020" feed

for

ream-

ing, allowing 2 sec. for revolving turret be-

tween operations, wages 37i cents per hour. 13. Estimate cost of cutting 30 teeth on each gear in the preceeding problem, on a
B.

&

S.

gear cutter,

if it

requires 14 sec. to
1

make each cut and

1

sec. for return

and indexing, allowing

minute

to change blanks, wages 35 cents per hour.

88
14.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Determine cost of machining and material, doing work on a lathe for a bronze bushing 3" outside <~-3diameter, 3" long and 2" hole finish size, -S-—> rough size 3I" outside diameter and 3!"

^
It

long, i|" cored hole, spindle speed 150
r.p.m., chucking

30 sec, feed for

drilling

0.005" Per rev -> Ior rough and finish boring 0.005" feed, reaming 0.020" feed,

placing on arbor 60 sec, rough
feed, for facing off each
tool,

and

finish turning

on outside at 0.006"

Snd 20

sec, allowing 50 sec. for changing each

wages 375 cents per hour. Estimate cost of material and machining on Acme automatic screw machine for making 10,000, i" hexagon head screws 2" long,
15.

body
sec.

1^"
to

long.
all

requires 30

do

operations on one

screw.

The

four operations being

done at the same time, allowing |" for cutting off; wages 45 cents
per
hr.,

one

man

running 3 ma-

J"

X

12-Hex.

Head Screw

chines and J" C.R.S. hex. stock is used. 16. What will it cost to make 10 pair of tool steels parallels J" X 5" X 6", finish size, rough size X re X 6j". Take one cut with a

&"

*1

*\%

ishing

0.005" feed per stroke overall for finon shaper. Leaving 0.016"
overall for grinding

3CZDID
Parallel.
20

and using a

cross

feed of

0.010" and 0.002" deep per
It requires

Wanted

cut on a surface grinder.

6 sec. for a cut and return for grinder,

and 3 seconds
hour.

for shaper, allowing 3 rain, for shaping off

4 min. for grinding each end.

Lost time

1/10,

each end, and wages 35 cents per

Levers

A

Lever

is

an

inflexible rod

capable of motion, about a

fixed point, called a

Fulcrum.

The rod may be

straight,

curved or bent at any angle.

There are 3 kinds of levers, or in other words 3 rangements of the force, weight and fulcrum.

ar-

LEVERS
In the Lever of the First Class, the fulcrum
the points at which the force and load act.
lies
I.

between

Fig.

K-WAr—i.

-W A.-->K—

-PAr

*j

p

®
Fig. II

i

-P.A.—
Fig.
I

-*ip

In the Lever of the Second Class, the load acts at a point

between the fulcrum and the force. Fig. II. In the Lever of the Third Class, the action of force between the load and the fulcrum.
Levers are usually used
gain
time,
lever,

is

Fig. III.
-

to
of

W. A-

power at the expense
thus,
if

in

a

first

class

the distance from the
is

k-P. A:

3

P
Fig. Ill
it

fulcrum to power
take a

5 times the
it will

distance to the weight,
will

give 5 times the power, but

movement

5 times greater

than the weight moves.

Levers of the 3d class involve a mechanical disadvantage,
as the

Law

power must always be greater than the weight. The power multiplied by its distance of Levers.
is

from the fulcrum

equal to the weight multiplied by

its

distance from the fulcrum.

The law
lines

for bent levers (Fig.

IV and

Fig.

V)
is

as for straight levers, but the length of

arms

is the same computed on

from the fulcrum at right angles, to the direction
act.

in

which the power and weight

-W.A.-

lA.
.
P.

A,

/

^-WAr-3-W
FlG.

RA.-

—J
Fig.

IV

V

90
Formulas:

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

P =

W=
PA =

WA —

Power or force. Weight or resistance. Power arm or distance from fulcrum power is applied. Weight arm or distance from fulcrum
weight or resistance
is

to point wliere

to point

where

applied.

Thus, the law of the levers becomes

P =
nt PA =

WXWA
PA
'

W=
ttta

P X PA = P X PA

WX

WA.

WA

WXWA
P
,

PX PA WA = W
will

.

weight of 300

Example: What force 15" from fulcrum lbs. 5" from fulcrum?

balance a

WXWA P =
PA
What

100
,

300X5 = P=
15

100

,. . lbs. (Ans.).
.,

3

EXERCISES
lbs.

from the fulcrum will balance a weight of 500 10" from the fulcrum in a lever of the 1st class? Of 2d class? 2. When a weight of 426 lbs. is balanced on the end of a lever of
1.

force 8

ft.

the 1st class, by a force of 60 from weight to fulcrum?
3.

lbs.

t\

ft.

from fulcrum, what
1

is

the distance

What

force
if

is

required to raise a

ton weight, using a lever of
10
ft.

the 2d class,
4.

the W.A.

= 24" and

P.A.

=

Find the weight that a force of 270 lbs. will lift with a lever of the 3d class if P.A. = 4 ft. and W.A. = 10 ft. 5. What must be the length of .W.A. to lift a 150 lb. weight with a lever of the 1st class if P.A. = 6 ft. and power = 50 lbs.? 6. What must be the length of W.A. if a force of 750 lbs. 22" from fulcrum lifts a weight of 1000 lbs. in a 2d class lever? 7. In a lever of the first class what weight will a 100 lb. force acting 4 ft. from fulcrum at an angle of 30 deg. lift, if the weight is 20" from
the fulcrum?

LEVERS
8.What
will be the force in lbs. applied at
is

91
the brake shoe,
if

a

pressure of 50 lbs.

applied with a foot at the end of

arm "A"?

9.

What

will
lb.

be the force in
force

lbs.

exerted

by rod "A,"
in sketch?

if

a person

pulls

with a 40

on the lever as shown

V////////M
10.
lbs. If

an

air

brake lay-out
100

is

as per sketch,
if

what

will
is

exerted against the brake shoe,
air pressure
is

the air cylinder

be the force in 10" in diameter

and the

lbs.

per sq. inch?

Pulleys

A Pulley is a wheel mounted to revolve -on an axis and having a grooved rim in which a cord, band or chain is
passed to transmit the force applied in another direction.

92

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

A

Pulley Block

is

a device for holding one or more puile\:

as a unit.

Fig.

I

Fig. II

Fig. Ill

Fig.

IV

Pulleys are either Fixed or Moveable, depending upon

whether they are held in a
given load.

fixed position or

move with

the

Fixed pulleys are those that have a fixed block Fig.

(I)

and are generally used
applied.

to

change the direction of the power

Moveable pulleys are those that have movable centers
(Fig. II).

Fig.
pulley.

Ill

shows a combination
the power

of a

fixed

and movable

In this arrangement, in order for the weight (W)
i

to

move
ft.,

ft.

(

P) must move through a distance

of 2

thus

W=

2 P.

Whenever

possible the pulleys should be so arranged that

come in the direction the weight is to be shown in Fig. IV. moved, as Rule for Pulleys. The force ( P) multiplied by the number of strands (N) from the movable pulley, will equal the weight (W) that can be raised, or P X N = W.
the pull would

Thus,
a

if

a force of

I lb. is

exerted in Fig. Ill, a 2

lb.

weight weight

would be raised
If
1

P X

N=

W.

1X2=2
P

(Ans.).

lb. force is

exerted at

in Fig. IV, a 3 lb.

would be

raised.

PXN=

W.

1X3 =

3 (Ans.).

PULLEYS
Fig.

93

V

shows a Differential Pulley arrangement used

extensively in the machine shop.

In this form of pulley an endless

chain replaces the rope.
pulleys at the top are of
different diameters,

The two
slightly

but rotate toIn operation,

gether as one piece.
as the

chain
it

is

drawn over the

passes around the up over the small wheel from which it is unwound, causing the loop in which the movable pulley rests to be shortened by an amountequal to the
large wheel,

lower pulley,

difference in circumference of the

two upper wheels, when they have made one revolution. this amount. Example: In Fig. V the two upper pulleys are respectively 1 6" and 15" in circumference. As the power applied moves through a distance of 16" the small pulley will unwind 15" of chain, causing a shortening of the loop c of 1", which will raise the weight (W) \" giving a ratio of load to power
This would cause the weight to raise one-half of
,

of 32 to

1.

W(R Rule.

r)

2R

2 W = R PR

EXERCISES
1.

How many movable
lb.

pulleys would be required to balance 100 lbs.

with a 50
2.

weight?

Determine weight required to balance a 1 ton weight, using 5 movable pulleys arranged as in Fig. IV? 3. What power is required to raise a weight of 150 lbs., using pulley arrangement in Fig. II? 4. Using pulley arrangement in Fig. III? 5. Using pulley arrangement in Fig. IV?

94
6.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
What weight
can be raised with a force of 80
will be required to raise
if

lbs., if

3 loose pulleys

are used, arranged as in Fig. III?
7.

What power

a weight

of

two tons with a

differential pulley,

the diameter of the two upper pulleys are 19" and

20" respectively?
8.

What

weight can be raised with a force of 100
if

lbs.

with a

differ-

ential pulley,

the two upper wheels have 18 and 17 teeth respectively,

2 pitch, (distance

from one tooth to another

=

1.5708"), allowing

20%

for friction?
9.

what

force is required to raise a

Using a differential block with pulley 15" and 12" in diameter, 250 lb. casting where there is a friction

loss of

15%?
a
differential block
lbs. is

10. In

with pulley 10" and 15" in diameter, a
lbs.

pull of

90

required to raise a weight of 500

How much

force

is

used up in overcoming friction?

Screws

A

Screw

is

a modified form of inclined plane.

The

lead

of the screw or the distance the thread advances in going

around the screw once being the height of the
the length of the incline.

incline,

and

the distance around the screw measured on the thread being

When
nut

a force

is

applied to raise a weight or overcome
of a screw or nut, either the screw or the

resistance

by means
is

may

be

fixed, the

other being movable.

The
The

force

generally applied at the end of a wrench or

lever arm, or at the circumference of a wheel.
ratio of the

power to weight

is

independent of the

diameter of the screw.
In actual work a considerable proportion of the power
transmitted
Rule.
is

lost

through

friction.

— The force applied multiplied by the circumference
arm moves, equals
the

of the circle through which the force

weight or resulting force multiplied by the lead of the screw
in inches.

SCREWS
Formulas

95

P :W

:

:

L

:

2irR.

I*

R—

P — Power applied. L = Lead of screw. R = Length of bar, wrench
radius of
to operate the screw.

or

hand wheel used

W=

Resulting force or weight

moved.

P =

WX
2irR

L
'

W=

P X 2TR

EXERCISES
i.

What weight can

of 75 lb. is
2.

be raised with a 4 pitch jack screw, applied to a lever 15" long?
pressure can be obtained with a

if

a force

\" X 12 screw, if a 25 lb. end of a wrench 8" long? 3. What length of wrench is required to obtain a pressure of H3iolbs. on a 1" X 8 screw, if a 25 lb. pressure is exerted on the end of the wrench? 4. If a pressure of 125 lbs. is applied to a 14" lever on a 4 pitch jack-

What

force is applied at the

s

if 20 percent is lost through friction. Estimate pressure produced on a milling machine vise if the screw has 6 threads per inch, length of handle 10" and pressure applied is 75 lbs. loss through friction 30 percent.

crew, estimate pressure
5.

6. Estimate pitch of thread required to give a pressure of 3770 lbs., a 25 lb. pressure is applied to a lever 12" long. 7. Determine leverage required for a screw of 8 pitch, to give a pressure of 5000 lbs. at end of screw, if a pressure of 25 lbs. is applied at end of lever, and loss through friction is 30 percent.
if

8. How many jack screws must be used to raise a machine weighing 14844 lbs., if the screws have a |" lead, io|" lever and 25 lb. pressure applied to lever, allowing 25 percent loss through friction?

Inclined Planes

The

Inclined Plane

is

a

flat

surface sloping or inclined
inclined plane

from the horizontal.

A

body moving up an

96

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
\

as opposed both

by gravity and
is

friction, while

one moving
is

down an
by

inclined plane

assisted

by gravity and
is

opposed

friction only.

When

the force which

is

being applied,

exerted in a
I,

direction parallel to the inclined surface, as in Fig.

it is

evident that the power must

move through

the distance

equal to the incline in order to raise a weight the desired
height.

The

gain in power will then be equal to the length

of the incline divided

by the height.

Rule.— P

:W::H:L.
P =

WXH

W=

P X L

H

If

the force acts along a line parallel to the base B, as in

Fig. II, then

P

:

W H
: :

:

B.

P =
If

WXH
B
Y
:

W

PX
H

B

the force acts at any angle to the plane as

X

in Fig. Ill,

then

P

:

W

:

:

sin

cos X.

/
/

/

/

/

/

/

/

^
100'
v

JO

.1

Fig. Ill

Fig.

IV

INCLINED PLANES

97
cos

P =

W X sin
cos

Y
-.

X

W=
is

—X
P
if

X

sin

r~zr-

Y

Grade Percent or percent grade
or elevation to the space covered,
rises
i

the ratio of the height

i.e.,

a road elevation
If

ft.

in ioo

ft. it is

called a

i%

grade.

a road rises
ft.

30
it

ft.

in 100

ft. it is

a

30%

grade.

If it rises

100

in 100

ft.

is

called a

100%

grade, or equivalent to an angle of 45

degrees (Fig. IV).

EXERCISES
(In the following problems, friction will not be considered)

what force is required to roll a 1 ton weight up the and H 8 ft.? ;s. In Fig. II, what force is required to roll a 1 ton weight up the incline if B is 18 ft., and H 8 ft.? 3. What weight can be drawn up the incline in Fig. I, if power is 1800 lbs., H is 4 ft. and B 20 ft. 4. What weight can be drawn up the incline in Fig. II, if power is 150 lbs., H is 18", and L is 72"? 5. What power will be required to hold a ball weighing 380 lbs. in Fig. Ill, if the incline is 27 deg. 26' from the horizontal, and the force
1.

In Fig.
if

I,

incline

B

is

18

ft.,

is

acting 18 deg. 45' from the incline?

6. What weight will a force of 200 lbs. acting at an angle of 30 deg. from the horizontal, sustain if the weight is on an incline whose base
is

18

ft.

and height 4
if

ft.?

7.

What
If an.
ft.

force will be required to pull a 2200 lb. automobile

up a

IS percent grade,
8.

the force

is

applied parallel with the grade?
rises to

automobile going a distance of one mile
is

an elevation
its

of 264
9.

What

the average percent grade of the road?
is

A

car with a 122" wheel base

standing on a road with

front

wheels 18.3 inches higher than the rear wheels.
percent.
10.

What

is

the grade

What

is

the grade percent of a roller coaster track,

if

the angle

of rise is 24 degrees?

Wedges

A Wedge
(Fig.
I).

is

a pair of inclined planes united at their bases

98

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

or

The power is usually applied by a blow of a heavy body by pressure. Wedges are used for splitting logs and stones, and raising heavy weights short distances. Due to the excessive friction

of wedges, they are not very efficient.

Rule.— P

:W::T:L.
P = W= T =
Power applied, Weight or resistance,
Thickness of wedge,
of wedge.

v

_

Fig.

I

L = Length
L

W= P±L T
1.

^WXT
P

T

^LXZ
W

EXERCISES
(In the following problems, friction will not be considered)

What What

force will be required behind a

wedge used to

raise

a weight

of ioo lbs.
2.

3"

high,

if

the wedge has a sliding motion of 15"?
1

length wedge must be used to raise a weight of
if

ton with a

force of 200 lbs.,
3.

the thickness of the wedge

is

2"?
lbs.

What weight can What What

be raised with a force of 300

acting on a

wedge 10" long and |" thick?
4.

force will be required to drive a

wedge 4" long and |" thick

to raise a so lb. casting?
5.

force will be required to drive a

wedge 12" long and §"

thick into a log that has a resistance of 1800 lbs. against splitting?

Gearing Definitions,

etc.
is

The Center Distance
are mounted.

of a pair of gears

the shortest

distance between the centers of the shafts, on which they

The Pitch

Circles of a pair of gears have the
fill

as a pair of friction rolls which would

the

same diameters same center
its

distance and revolve at the

same

velocity ratio.

The Pitch Diameter
circle.

of a gear is the

diameter of

pitch

a

9

w

a

f-oi

Automatic

Si

ue and Be\ el Gear Cutting Machine

Compound Rest

GEARING DEFINITIONS, ETC.
The Diametral Pitch
inch of pitch diameter.
of teeth
is

99

the

number

of teeth a gear has per

by the P.D.

dividing the

number

of
is

number The P.D. in turn may be found by teeth by the D.P.
find the D.P., divide the

To

The
line.

Circular Pitch

the distance from the center of one

tooth to the center of the next, measured along the pitch

To

find the circular pitch, divide the pitch circle

the

number The Size

a 10 pitch
of 1/10".

by w by the diametral pitch. of Gear Tooth is designated by its pitch, thus, tooth has an addendum of 1/10" and a dedendum
of teeth, or divide
is

The Tooth Thickness
is

measured along the pitch

line

and

one-half the circular pitch.

The Addendum
line.

is

the height of the tooth above the pitch

The Dedendum

is

the depth below the pitch line to which

the tooth of the mating gear extends.

The Working Depth is the depth in the tooth space to which the tooth of the mating gear extends, and is equal to
the

dedendum plus addendum. The Clearance is the distance from

the point of the tooth

bottom of the space in the mating gear. The Whole Depth is the distance from the top of the tooth to the bottom of the same tooth and consists of the addendum, dedendum and clearance. The Outside Diameter is found by adding twice the addento the

dum

to the pitch diameter.
is

The Root Diameter
tooth space.

the diameter at the bottom of the

The Face

of the gear tooth is that part of the tooth outline
line.

which extends above the pitch

The Flank
pitch line.

is

that part of a gear tooth outline below the

The

Fillet is the

rounded corner where the flank of the

tooth runs to the bottom of the tooth space.

100

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Circle
is

The Base
is

the circle from which the involute curve
to the pressure line.
Its

generated.
will

It is

drawn tangent

position

vary according to the pressure angle used.

The two

pressure angles used are the I4§ and 20 deg., the

latter being used

where a short stubby tooth
is

is

required

called the

"Stub Tooth," while the former
lie

used to the
gear,

greatest extent.

For a 145 deg. pressure angle tooth

the base circle will

inside of the pitch circle a distance

equal to 1/60 of the P.D.

Rotary Motion can be transmitted by

belts, chains, shafts,

universal joints, friction discs, gearing, etc.

A

correctly cut gear will transmit a uniform motion.

The

Principal Styles of Gearing are spur, herringbone,

bevel, spiral or helical

and worm.
are

The two standard tooth curves
Cycloidal.

the Involute and

An

Involute Curve

is

most desirable because

it will

allow a

certain

amount

of variation in the center distance

and

is

used almost universally.
is generated by unwinding a string and allowing a point on the string to describe a curve, which will be an involute. The Cycloidal will not permit any variation in the center

The

involute curve
circle

from the base

distance and

can be generated by two different

circles,

Epicycloidal by revolving a circle on the outside of base and

Hypocycloidal on the inside.

The

ratio of the speeds of

called their Velocity Ratio,
their sizes or P.D.

two gears that run together is and is in inverse proportion to
power between two shafts

Spur Gears are used

to transmit

running parallel with each other.

Herringbone Gears conform to two spiral gears, one right hand and the other left hand, fastened to each other, thus These gears are very quiet in equalizing the side thrust.

SPUR GEARING
action,

IOI
full

due to some part of the tooth always being in

action.

Bevel Gears are used to transmit power from one shaft to
another when the axes are not parallel to each other, but in
the

same

plane.
is similar to a frustum of a cone. Gears are the same as spur gears, but

A

bevel gear blank

Spiral or Helical

teeth are cut other than at right angles with the axis.

No. of Cutter

102

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
different terms

The

commonly used

for parts of a

spur

gear are as per sketch and explanation.

In

Fig. II

and III

A =

Cir. pitch or distance
-

from center of one tooth to next,
line.

measured on the pitch
of

B = Clearance. C = Addendum— top

tooth

be-

tween O.D. and P.D.

D = Dedendum— bottom
E = Whole
depth

of

tooth

between P.D. and clearance.

— addendum,
clearance.

deFig. II

dendum and

F — Working
G =

depth

—addendum and

dedendum.
Thickness of tooth
side

—width

of tooth

from outside to out-

on pitch

line.

H
I

= =

Outside diameter.
Pitch diameter or the diameter of gear from one pitch
line to the opposite

on center

line.

^'Involute—-=T^5^/^'
Fig. Ill

SPUR GEARING
Abbreviations Generally Used

103

P
O.D.

N
Np
Ng
N.R.

L
P.D.

CD.
C.P.

Wh.D. Wg.D.
Add. Ded.

C
Th.

R.D.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Diametral pitch, or pitch.
Outside diameter.

No. of teeth. No. of teeth
in pinion.

No. of teeth in gear. No. of teeth in rack. Length of rack.
Pitch diameter.

Center distance.
Circular pitch.

Whole depth. Working depth. Addendum. Dedendum.
Clearance.

Thickness of tooth.

Root diameter.
Formulas

P =
O.D.
C.P.

tt

-5-

C.P. or
-5-

N

-5-

P.D.

=
= = = = = = = = = = =

(JV

+ 2) + 2 add.
-h

P

or

(N

+

2)

X

C.P.

tt
-

or

P.D.

t

^ P
P

or P.D.
or

Xt ^
C.P.

N.
or O.D.
2 add.

P.D.

N

NX
-4-

-Mr

CD.
Clear.

(Ng
1
-5-5-

+

Np)

2P0T (Ng
-5-

+

Np)

X

C.P. -5-6.2832.

0.157

Add. Ded.

Wh.D.
Th.

P or C.P. 20. P or C.P. tt or C.P. X P or C.P. w or C.P. X 2.157 * P or 0.6866 X C.P.
-5-5-

0.318. 0.318.

1

-i-

1.5708

-J-

P

or C.P.

-5-

2.
-5-

N
X
R.D.

P X P.D. or tt X P.D. C.P. tt X N.R. + P or NX C.P. O.D. - 2 Wh.D. or P.D. - 2 (Ded. +

C).

104

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES

I.

Determine the diametral pitch of a gear whose circular pitch

is

0.5236.
*. 3.

Find addendum, dedendum and clearance of a 4 pitch gear. What is the length of add. if P.D. of gear is 2" and the gear has
Estimate clearance on a 6 pitch gear.

20 teeth?
4.
5.

Determine center distance of a 25 tooth and a 60 tooth gear,

of 10 pitch.
6.
7.

8.

What is center distance of two gears of 40 and 60 teeth, 10 P. Find outside diameter of a gear of 30 teeth, pitch diameter 5". Find outside diameter of a gear of 40 teeth and circular pitch

0.31419.

How many teeth are there in a gear of 4 pitch,

10.

Estimate O.D. of a gear whose circular pitch

8" pitch diameter? is 0.500" and

N =

60.

11. 12. 13. 14-

15. 16. 17. 18.
19.

Find the length of a rack with 30 teeth, of 6 pitch. Find the length of a rack with 60 teeth, of 10 pitch. Find addendum, dedendum and clearance of a 7 pitch gear. What is the P.D. of a gear 4" O.D. and 8 pitch. Find thickness of tooth of a 6 pitch gear. What is the O.D. of a 40 tooth gear, 4" pitch diameter? Find the clearance of a 10 pitch gear. Find the pitch diameter of a 30 tooth gear, of 6 pitch. Give all measurements accurate and complete for d toolmaker
to

who wishes

make a master gear

of 10 pitch, pitch* diameter 5".

20.

Given center distance 5",

ratio 2

to 3, pitch 10; find pitch diameter, outside diameter

and number of teeth

in

each

gear.
21.

Given approximate center distance

5s", ratio 15 to 26, 8 pitch; find pitch

diameter, outside diameter

and number
(as

of teeth in each gear.
22. If

two

parallel

shafts

per

sketch) with a center distance of 3-535"
are connected with a jack shaft at right

angles

and

parallel to the others, the jack

two gears on it with a ratio and the driving shaft having a 20 T, 10 P gear, what will be the P.D. and O.D. of the gears on the driving shaft, jack shaft and
shaft having
of 2 to 1

BEVEL GEARING

105

driven shaft, providing the ratio between the driving shaft and driven
shaft
shaft
23.
is 3f to 1 and the jack shaft and driven shaft? is

equal distance from the driving

What number

of cutter should be used for cutting a 24 tooth

gear; a 40 tooth gear?

Bevel Gearing Bevel Gears are used to transmit positive rotary motion
to shafts at

an angle
is

to each other,

and

in the

same

plane.

The

teeth of a bevel gear are

made on

a frustum of a cone

whose apex

the same point as the intersection of the axes

of the shafts.

Bevel gears usually connect shafts running at right angles.

When
ratio
is 1

the angle of the shafts
to
1,

is

90 deg. and the velocity
size,

then both gears are of the same

and are

Fig.

I

called Miter Gears.
is

If

the velocity ratio between two gears
is

other than

1

to

1,

the smaller gear
is

called the Pinion.

When

the pitch of two gears

the same, they will mesh

properly regardless of

number

of teeth, providing they

have

twelve or more teeth.

A

gear with less than 12 teeth must be cut special to avoid

interference of teeth while rolling.

The

P,

O.D. and P.D.

of a bevel gear are

always reckoned

on large end of tooth.

106

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Formulas

Tang, of P.C. ang. of pinion Tang, of P.C. ang. of gear Pitch diameter

Addendum
Dedendum
Whole depth
of tooth

= Np Ng. = Ng i\ty>. = N ¥ P. = i P or
-5-

-f-

-f-

C. P.

X X
-

0.318

or

C.P.

-*-

IT.

=
= = = = =

1

-5-

P
-^
-4-

or

C.P.

0.318

or

C.P.
2.157

+
(2

T.

P

or

cp X
+
-f-

0.687.

Pitch cone radius

P.D.
1.571

X

sin P.C. ang.).
4- 2.

Thickness of tooth
Small addendum

-s-

(P.C.R.
add.

P -

or C.P.

B)
B)

P.C.R. P.C.R.

X X

Smallthickness of tooth

(P.C.R.
thick.

-

Angle of add. Angle of ded. Face angle
Cutting angle

= Add. -^ P.C.R. = tang. = Ded. P.C.R. = tang. = 90 deg. — (P.C. ang. +
-s-

add.

ang.).

Angular addendum
Outside diameter

= = =

P.C. ang.

— X

ded. ang.

Cos. of P.C. ang.

X

add.

Ang. add.

2

+

P.D.

No. of teeth

for

which to

N
Cos. of P.C. Ang.

select cutter.

P.C. rad.

W.

of F.

Ang. add.

Add. ang.
Ded. ang.
P. line

P.C. ang. Cut. ang.

O.D.

= Pitch cone radius = Width of face = Angular addendum = Addendum angle = Dedendum angle = Pitch line = Pitch cone angle = Cutting angle = Outside diameter

= = = = = = = = =

A B
C

D E
F G
//
I

BEVEL GEARING
P.D.
P.C. ang. G. P.C. ang. P.

I07

Wh. D.
Add. Ded.
E. ang.
F. ang.

= = = = = = =
= = = = = = =

Pitch diameter Pitch cone angle of gear Pitch cone angle of pinion

Whole depth

Addendum Dedendum
Edge angle
Face angle No. of teeth in gear
No. of teeth No. of teeth
in pinion

= T = K = L = M = N = = P

= Q

Ng

Np

N
P
T
N'

Diametral pitch or pitch
Thickness of tooth

No.

of teeth for

which to

select cutter

w

,

.

iCIearrance

/
"T

FlG. II

EXERCISES
(In figuring these problems,

make the width

of face equal to | of the

pitch cone radius)
1.

Find P.C. rad. of a bevel gear whose P.D.

is

4", P.C. ang. 60 deg.

10 pitch and 40 teeth.

108
*.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Estimate cutting angle of the above gear. Estimate width of face of the above gear.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

Find addendum angle of the above gear. Find dedendum angle of the above gear. Find outside diameter of the above gear. Find pitch diameter of the above gear.

Find whole depth of tooth for a 10 pitch gear. Determine the thickness of cutter at pitch line to use for the first cut on a bevel gear of 30 teeth, 6 pitch and 60 deg. P.C. ang. 10. At what angle from horizontal would you set the dividing head
8. 9.

and 30 teeth. Estimate face angle of a bevel gear with 30 teeth, 6 pitch and a P.C. ang. of 60 deg.
to cut a bevel gear, P.C. ang. 48 deg., 6 pitch
11.

iz. Determine the whole depth of tooth at small end of a bevel gear with 30 teeth, 6 pitch and P.C. ang. of 54 deg. 13. Find the P.D. at the small end of a 40 tooth gear, 8 pitch and a

P.C. ang. of 42 deg.
14. Find the outside diameter of a bevel gear with 42 teeth, 6 pitch and a P.C. ang. of 38 deg. 15. Give measurements accurate and complete for a master bevel gear of 50 teeth, 10 pitch and 60 deg. P.C. ang. 16. If two 6 pitch bevel gears, shafts at 90 deg., have a velocity ratio of 3 to s, with 18 teeth in the pinion, what are the O.D. and face angles

of the blanks?
17.

In a pair of 2 pitch bevel gears, with shafts at 90 deg., having

a velocity ratio of 2\ to
pitch cone angle
18.

Find the face angle, 1, the pinion has 24 teeth. and cutting angle of both gears. Determine the number of cutter required to cut the bevel gear
9.

in

problem No.

Worm
Worm
is

Gearing

Gearing

is

used to transmit power between two

shafts at 90

to each other, but not in the

same

plane,

and

generally used

when

it is

desired to obtain smoothness of

action and great speed reduction from one shaft to another.

The

greatest objection to

worm

gear drives

is

the excessive

sliding friction
inefficient

between the

teeth, thus

making them very

and subject
is

to .heating.

A Worm

a screw so cut as to

mesh properly with the

WORM GEARING
teeth of a

109

worm

wheel, the included angle of the sides being

29 deg.

The

Worm Wheel

is

similar to a spiral spur gear.

It

and the tooth spaces are concave and at an angle other than 90 deg. to These teeth the side of the gear.
usually has a

concave

face

are

generally

cut

by

first

being

indexed and

gashed,

wards cut to
hob.

and aftertrue form with a

But

if

possible they should

be cut on a gear hobbing machine,
for accurate results.

A Hob
in
it

is

a cutter slightly larger

diameter than the worm,
appears somewhat like a

and

worm
Fig.
I

with the exception that
cut into
it

flutes are

to

form the cutting
is

teeth.

The Linear Pitch

the distance from the center of one
circle.

tooth to the center of the next, measured on the pitch

The Lead sometimes
distance a tooth on the
tion, or the distance

differs

from the pitch and

it is

the

worm would advance in one revoluthe worm wheel advances in one com-

plete turn of the

worm.
Formulas for the

Worm
on the worm.

Lead

=

linear pitch

X
-=-

no. of separate threads
no. of separate threads

= lead Addendum = linear
Linear pitch

on the worm.

pitch

X

0.3183.

Whole depth of thread = linear Width of threading tool at end

pitch

X

0.6866.

or width of bottom of space

=
O.D.
P.D.

linear P.

X

0.31.
(2

= P.D. + = O.D. -

(2

X X

add.). add.).

no
P.D.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

=

(2

X

center distance)

Root diameter = O.D.
Co-tangent of angle of

(2

— P.D. of gear. X whole depth of

tooth).

worm

tooth or gashing angle of wheel

=

(P.D.

X

v)

-^ lead.

Formulas for
P.D.

Worm Wheel
linear pitch of

=

(no. of teeth in gear

X

worm)

-5-

71-

Throat diameter

= P.D. of worm wheel + 2 X add. Radius of throat = \ of O.D. of worm — (2 X add. of worm). Center distance = (P.D. of worm + P.D. of gear) * 2. O.D. = (throat radius — throat radius X cosine of \ face angle) X 2 + throat diameter of wheel.

Worm A = Clearance. B = Working depth of tooth. C = Whole depth of tooth. D — O.D. of worm. E = P.D. of worm. F — Ang. of helix. G = Linear pitch.
P.

Line

Fig. III.

Worm Thread
larged view)

(en-

Fig.

II.

A = Clearance. B = Addendum. C — Dedendum.

H=
I

Lead.
or

= Thickness of end of tool J = § ang. of tooth. K = Root diameter of worm.

bottom

of space.

WORM GEARING

III

Worm Wheel
A = O.D. of worm wheel. B = Center distance of worm
and worm wheel. C = Ang. of face. D = Throat radius. E = Pitch diameter. F = Throat diameter. G = Clearance.

EXERCISES
i.

Determine, pitch diameter of

worm
.

wheel

—number

of teeth in

wheel 30 and

linear pitch 0.200"
2.

p IG jy, Worm Wheel worm wheel of 40 teeth, linear pitch of worm 0.230"3. Find outside diameter of a worm wheel whose face angle is 70
Find throat diameter of a

degrees, throat radius is §",

number

of teeth 32,

and

linear pitch of

worm
4.

0.200".

Find center distance of a

worm
5.

0.200", outside diameter of

worm gear of worm i\".

48 teeth, linear pitch of

diam. of the
6.

Find angle of worm tooth or gashing angle of wheel, if the outside worm is ij", linear pitch 0.240", with a double thread. Find root diameter of a worm whose outside diameter is ij"
Determine thickness
of thread tool at small

and

linear pitch 0.175"
7.

end for a worm
if

whose
8.

linear pitch

is

0.173".

Estimate velocity ratio of a

worm and worm

gear

the gear has

30 teeth.
9.

(Worm
is

has a triple thread.)
of curvature of the

Find radius

worm wheel

throat,

if

the pitch

of the
10.

worm

0.150" and the outside diameter

is 1"-

to

make a

Determine all measurements accurate and complete for a mechanic set of master worm gears; linear pitch of worm 0.200", double

thread, outside diameter of

worm

z\",

number

of teeth in

wheel 32,

and a

face angle of 70 deg.

Spiral Gearing
Spiral or Helical gears are used to drive shafts at angles
to each other

but not in the same plane.

112

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Velocity Ratio depends

The
and

upon the number

of teeth

their helical angles.

The

velocity ratio of

two

spiral gears is proportional to

their pitch diameters only

are the same;

or

when the spiral angles of the gears 45 deg. when the axes are at 90 deg. to
Angles of two mating gears must

each other.

The sum

of the Spiral

always equal the angle between the shafts.

The Normal Pitch
with the tooth.

is

the pitch measured at right angles

The Tooth Angle
axis of the gear.

is

the angle the tooth

makes with the

The Center Angle of a pair of spiral gears is the angle made by the axes of the gears. The Normal Diametral Pitch is the D.P. of the cutter
used for cutting the teeth in the spiral gear.

The Thickness

of Cutter at the pitch line for milling spiral

gears should equal \ of the normal circular pitch.
(Abbreviations Generally Used in Spiral Gearing)

a = A = a = r =

small gear.
large gear.
spiral angle.

center angle (or ang. between
shafts).
'

Pn = normal = N' =
C = L = Tn =
FlG
-

diameter pitch (pitch

of cutter).

N

no. of teeth. no. of teeth for
lect cutter.

which to se-

center distance.
lead of tooth helix.

normal thickness of tooth at
pitch line.

l

SPIRAL GEARING

"3

Add. Ded.

= addendum. = dedendum. W = whole depth of tooth. D = pitch diameter. = outside diameter. V = velocity of large gear. v = velocity of small gear. T — thickness of cutter. K = no. of teeth for which to

select cutter for large gear.

The Number

of Cutter to use for cutting spiral gears is

not selected with reference to the actual number of teeth in
the spiral gear, but of an imaginary spur gear arranged at
right angles to the normal pitch.

Formulas
r

=

ola

D =

+ a„. N
.

Pn cos a Da + DA

L

114

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

O = D + 2B. v V DA X
:

:

:

cos

au

:

Da X

cos

aa

-

K

=

N
(cos a) 3

Normal pitch =

P
cos of tooth ang.

EXERCISES
1.

Two

25 tooth spiral gears, with a velocity ratio of

at 90 deg. are to be cut with a 10 P. cutter.

1 to 1 and shafts Find P.D., O.D., whole

depth, add, center distance and lead of tooth helix.
t.

Two

spiral gears

with axes at 90 degrees, velocity ratio 2 to

3,

The approximate P.D. of small gear is 2J", and its tooth angle is 30 deg., and normal pitch is 10. Find the pitch diam., no. of teeth, O.D., and no. of cutters for both gears, and also center
are to be cut.
distance.
3.

ratio of 1 to
4.

Find the O.D. of two spiral gears that have 18 teeth, with a velocity 1, cut with an 8 pitch cutter, shafts at 90 deg. What will be the center distance between 2 spiral gears with a
1

velocity ratio of

to

1,

shafts at 90 deg. each having 80 teeth,

if

the

normal pitch
5.

is 12.

Two

spiral gears are required to

have a velocity ratio of

1 to 1,

shafts at 90 deg. to each other, a 6 pitch cutter to be used with

an O.D. to be as close as possible to 5"Find P.D., number of teeth, normal cir. pitch, center distance and number of cutters to cut the above gears.
6.

Two

spiral gears

2 to 1,

normal pitch

12, center distance 2\".

with axes at 90 deg. to each other, velocity ratio number of teeth in small

gear 12, tooth angle 38 deg. 20 min.
pitch,

Find P.D., O.D.,

cir.

pitch,

normal

and number

of cutter for both gears, also

number
if

of teeth

and

tooth angle of large gear.
7.

What

is

the velocity ratio of 2 spiral gears

the large gear has a

P.D. of 5" and tooth angle of 60 deg. and the small gear has an approximate P.D. of 25" with a tooth angle of 30 deg.

REVIEW EXERCISES
was 2/7 under water, the water rose 8 was as much under water as had been above water
1.

A

pole

ft.;

and then there

before.

How

long

is

the pole?

REVIEW EXERCISES
z.

115
10 miles an hour

A boat goes

i6| miles per hour

down stream and

22I hours longer in coming up stream than going down, how far down did it go? 3. Land worth $1000 an acre is worth how much a front foot of 90

up stream.

If it is

ft.

depth, counting
4.

off

1/10 for streets?

off a piece of round cast iron >" deep; the piece was 8" in diameter and 6" long. How much did the

A

machinist took a cut on a lathe

material weigh that
5.

was cut away?

Find the length of a minute hand on a clock whose extreme point moves 4" in 3 min. 28 sec. 6. How many 1" balls can be put in a box which measures inside 5" X 10" X 10" deep? 7. A 12" ball is is the corner where walls and floor are at right angles. What must be the diameter of a ball placed in the back of this, and which will touch the 12" ball and also the same floor and walls?
8.

If

cistern

1" of rain fell, how many barrels of water which drains a flat roof 52 ft. by 38 ft.?

will be caught

by a

9. What peripheral distance would a lathe tool travel on threading a piece of work 2" in diameter and 10" long, if the lead is |"? 10. Four holes are required in a jig as per sketch below. Find dimen-

sions

(xi,

X2

and

xi).

11. If IS

men

cut 480 cords of

wood

in 10

days of 8 hours each,

how many boys

will it

take to cut 1152 cords of wood only 2/5 as
hard, in 16 days of 6 hours each, provided

that while working, a boy can do only f as much as a man, and that \ of the boys are
idle at

a time throughout the work?
Extract the cube root of 14172488.

12.
13. 14.

Extract the cube root of 2.6 (to three' decimals).

What would a

taper piece of cast iron weigh, which was 10" long,

end and 3" in diameter at the large end? round cast iron stock would you order to make the above piece without allowing for waste on ends and on large

I"

in diameter at the small

15.

How many

pounds

of

diameter.

PART

III

Dovetail Slides
In the shop dovetail slides are usually measured by placing round plugs or rods of such diameter that they will bear on the angular surface and then measuring overall or the
distance between the plugs or rods.

Dovetails are generally dimensioned as

shown

in Fig.

I,

and the above method is used for checking the dimensions as in the shop it is impossible to measure accurately the overall dimensions from edge to edge due to these edges or
measuring surfaces not being absolutely sharp.

Fig.

I

To

obtain the dimensions

X

and

Y

(Fig. II)

which are

Fig. II

necessary for the practical measuring of dovetail slides, the
following formulas

may

be used:

X

= A - [Z)(i Y = D(i + cot
116

+
Y

cot

U)l,
B.
slide
if

\<j>)

+

Example: Find the distance

on a dovetail

the

DOVETAIL SLIDES
blue print gives the dimension

117

A

as 3",

B

as 1.846" and the

angle 6o

G
,

providing plugs 0.750" in diameter are used.

Formula:

+

1.846

Y = D{i + cot §0) + 5 = 0.750(1 + 1.732) = 0.750 X 2.732 + 1.846 = 2.049 + 1.846 = 3.895" (Ans.).

Example: Find the distance
Formula:

X in the above
=

problem.

=

3

-

[0.750(1

X = A - [Z)(i + cot §0)] + 1.732)] = 3 - [o.7SO X
3

2.732]

-

2.049

=

0.951" (Ans.).

EXERCISES
1.

What

will

be the overall length in measuring a male dovetail,
is

if

the following data

given on the blue print: angle 70

,

width at bottom

2.886", providing plugs f" in diameter are used.
2.

What

will be the distance

between to f" plugs placed in a female

dovetail which measures 2" wide at the bottom
is

and the included angle
is

60°?
3.

What

will be the length

Y

in Fig. II,

if

the angle

50 degrees,

D =
4.

0.750" and the width

B is

6"?
If

Find the distance

X

in Fig. II?

D

is

\".

<t>

=

6o°, the

depth

equals one inch and the width
5.

A

is

2.640".

What

should be the distance

Y

of a properly
if

machined dovetail
is

to

fit

the dovetail in the above problem,
fit,

a clearance of 0.002"

allowed

for

a sliding

providing J" plugs are used?

Screw Threads
There are several different forms of threads such as the United States Standard, Sharp V, Square, Whitworth, Acme,
Briggs pipe, etc.

The most commonly used
Standard Sharp
is

threads are the United States

standard, sharp V, and square threads.

V

Thread

(Fig.

I).— The

sides

of

the

thread form an angle of 60 degrees with each other, and
theoretically sharp at the top

and bottom.

p

=

1

pitch
no. threads per inch

Il8 d

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
depth

=

= p X

cos 30 deg. or 0.866

p or
0.866
no. threads per inch

D =

outside diameter (Fig. II).

"IT

1
*!

Yf

Fig.

I

P.D.

= =

pitch diameter

= D — = D —

d or

D — D —
if

/ 0.866
I

R.D.
/

root diameter

(2d) or

X

\
2
I

=

lead

=

distance the screw advances

turned around one
a
single

complete

revolution.

In

threaded
In a'

screw the pitch and the lead are equal.
double threaded screw the lead
is

equal to

twice the pitch, etc. (Figs. Ill and IV).
p-p-'p-i-*!

-t—

-91

Fig. III.

Single Square Thread

Fig. IV.

Double Square Thread

United States Standard Thread
this

(Fig.

V).—The

sides of

thread also form an angle of 60 degrees with each other,
is

but the thread
flat is

flattened at the top

and bottom and

this

equal to 5 of the pitch.

SCREW THREADS
p

119

=

pitch
no. threads per inch

Fig.

VI

d

=

depth

=

f

X

p

X

cos 30 deg., or 0.6495

X

p or

0.6495
no. threads per inch

D =
P.D.

outside diameter (Fig. VI).

= =

pitch diameter

= D —

d or

D

0.6495

N
D —
1

R.D.

root diameter
1
:

= D —
at top

(2d) or

( 0.6495
\

N

X

\
2
I
.

/

f

flat

=

width of

flat

and bottom

8

X

no. threads per inch

The
thread

pitch diameter

is

generally measured directly with a

micrometer,
for

but

a

method

measuring accu-

by means of an ordinary micrometer and three wires of
rately the pitch diameter

-CZ3

equal diameter, can be used.

The three as shown
of thread

wires are arranged
in
Fig.

VII, one

wire being placed in the angle

on one

side of the

Fig. VII

120
screw,

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
and the other two on the opposite
if

side,

then measwill

uring over the whole with a micrometer.

The reading

be according to the following formulas,
is

the pitch diameter

correct.

For sharp

V

thread.

For U.S.S. thread.

D =

M

M - 2,W + 1.732P.
1.732/)

D =

= D -

+

3W.

M

- sW + 1.5155P. - I.5155P + 3W. = D
diamalways a
little larger,

M

The Tap

Drill size theoretically is equal to the root

eter of the given tap,

but in practice

it is

to prevent excessive strain

on the tap, thus increasing prois

duction.

(See appendix, table VIII.)

The Briggs standard
60 degrees.

pipe thread

made with an

angle of

rounded at the top and bottom. The taper of the thread on the diameter equals 1/16" per
It is slightly

inch or 3/4" per foot.
drill sizes, etc.

For number of threads per inch, tap

(See appendix, table IX.)
(Fig. VIII).

Square Thread

— The
width
teeth.

sides of the square thread
is

are parallel and the depth of the thread
of

equal to the

space

between
is

the

This space
to

theoretic-

a

l-f K~f
Fig. VIII

ally equal

one-half of

the

pitch.
tice to

It is necessary in prac-

make

the space in the

nut a
fit

trifle

wider than the thread so as to have a running
(angle of helix)

between the screw and nut.

The Screw Thread Angle The
following formula

(<f>)

Fig. II varies

with the P.D. and the lead of the screw.

may

be used:

lead

=
7T

P.D.

X

tang, of helix angle.

The

following graphical

method
i-lead

may

be used:
Circumference

LATHE CHANGE GEARS
EXERCISES
*.

121

*.

3. 4.
5.

Find the depth of V and U.S.S. threads of i" pitch. Find the depth of V and U.S.S. threads of 1/12" pitch. What is the R.D. of a |" X 10 U.S.S. thread? What is the P.D. of a 1" X 8 V thread? What is the theoretically correct tap drill size for a |"

Xu V
X
9

thread?
6.

What What

is

the theoretically correct tap drill size for a J"

U.S.S. thread?
7.
is

the theoretically correct tap

drill size for

a §"

X

16

V
7

thread?
8.

What must

be the width of

flat

on a U.S.S. thread having
size of

threads per inch?
9.

Also one having 2! threads per inch? a 1", \" pitch, square

Find the width of tool and boring

thread.
10. What multiple thread must be cut on a screw so that it will advance i" in two-thirds of a revolution, providing the screw has a J" pitch, square thread. Also figure the distance the tool must be fed into

the work.
11.

Give

all

dimensions necessary for making a master plug gage

if"
if

X

6 standard sharp

V thread.
micrometer reading of a \"
is

12.

What

will be the

X

12 U.S.S. thread

the three wire system

used, providing the wires used are 0.070"

in diameter?
13.

What
if

will be the correct
is

micrometer reading of a 2}"
used,

X
in

10

V

thread
eter?
14.

the three wire system

and the wires are 5/64"

diam-

What

will be the correct
if

micrometer reading of a 2-f%"
is

X

16

U.S.S. thread

the three wire system

used, wire being 0.075" in

diameter.
IS-

Also find the P.D. and R.D. Find the helix angle of a \" P. screw, 1" P.D.

Lathe Change Gears
In cutting threads on a lathe, the lead screw must be

taken as the
If

first

factor

and the main spindle as the second.
will travel

the lead screw has 5 threads per inch, and the lead screw
five

makes
inch,

complete revolutions, the carriage

one

or the threading tool will have traveled the
If

distance along the piece to be threaded.

same the spindle and

122

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

lead screw are geared one to one, the spindle will

make

the

same number the same lead
If

of revolutions as the lead screw.
will

Therefore

be cut on the work as on the lead screw.
is

the gear on the spindle

\ the size as that on the lead

screw, the spindle will

make

twice the

number

of revolutions

as the feed screw, the spindle revolving 10 times while the
tool
If

moves one

inch.

Therefore 10 threads will be cut.

the gear on the lead screw and main spindle are con-

nected with an idler gear (which does not change the ratio)
this is called

Simple Gearing
it is

(Fig. I).

Sometimes

not possible to obtain the correct ratio

with two gears, then two more gears must be put into the
gear train; this
is

called

Compound Gearing
is

(Fig. II).
in

To

find the gear ratio

between spindle and lead screw
used:

simple gearing, the following formula

Threads per Threads per

in. of
in.

lead screw

teeth in gear on spindle stud
teeth in gear on lead screw

to be cut

To

cut 12 threads per inch with a lathe that has a 6 pitch

lead screw according to the above formula.

6 30 — = - or — = teeth =
i

in gear

on

spindle.

12

2

60

teeth in gear on lead screw.

For compound gearing the same formula as above is used, except that we divide both numerator and denominator into

two

factors.

Thus:
6
12

2X3 4X3
P

30 60

X X

40 drivers. 40 driven.

The

following are the standard gears put out with a Reed
lead screw:

lathe having a 5

25-30-35-40-40-45-50-55-

60-65-69-70-75-80-90.

The
Pratt

following are the standard gears put out with the

&

Whitney

lathe,

having a 6 P lead screw: 30-40-50-

60-65-70-75-80-90-95-100-105-1 10-1 15-120.

LATHE CHANGE GEARS

123

Work..

Fig.

I.

Simple Train of Gears for Thread Cutting

Stud Gear**

Work..

Fig.

II.

Compound Gears for Thread Cutting

124

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
i.

What change

gears can be used to cut a 13

P

thread with a lathe

that has a 4 P, lead screw, using a stud gear of 20 teeth? 2. What change gears can be used to out a nj P thread

when

lead

screw
3.

is

5 P, using a 30 tooth gear

on stud.
teeth.

Find the stud gear to be used to cut 18 threads per inch, when
is

lead screw
4.

6 P,

and screw gear has 90

What

pitch thread can be cut with a 6

P

lead screw

if

the drivers

have 75 and 80 teeth and the driven gears have 50 and no teeth? 5. What screw gear will be used to cut a 24 P double-thread screw when lead screw is 6 P and the stud gear has 60 teeth?
6.

What change

gears can be used to cut a 5
is

P P

thread
thread

when the when
lead

lead screw on the lathe
7.

6 P?

What change
is

gears can be used to cut a 9

screw
8.

6 P, and the smaller gear in the set has 30 teeth? The spindle gear in a compound gear train has 25 teeth.

On
make

the

idler stud are

two

gears, driven 60 teeth

and driver 30

teeth,

and the
for

lead screw has 80 teeth.

How many

turns does the spindle

one turn of the lead screw?
9.

the stud,

Using an .80 tooth gear on the lead screw, and a 25 tooth gear on how many threads can be cut per inch if the lead screw has

8 threads per inch.
10.

Using a

no

compound driven and

gear on the lead screw and a 7S on the stud, with driver gears of 50 and 80 teeth respectively, how
if

many

threads per inch will be cut

the lead screw

is

6

P?

Indexing

piece of

The Dividing Head work into any

is

used to divide the periphery of a

desired

number
list

of spaces or divisions.

There are generally three interchangeable plates with each
dividing head.

The

following

gives the usual

number

of

holes per circle on the three plates.
Plate
1

Number

of Holes in the Various Circles

15-16-17-18-19-20

*

21-23-27-29-31-33

3

37-39-41-43-47-49

Some

dividing heads have only one plate, in this case the

ft

H

<

u
(5

& O
B
03

a
<:

o
3 «

Simple Indexing

Differential Indexing

INDEXING
plate has holes

125

on each

side as follows:

One

side

and on the other 49-51-53-54-57-58-59-62-66.
30-34-37-38-39-41-42-43;

side

— 24-25-28—46-47-

On

all

standard dividing heads

it

requires 40 turns of the

index crank to revolve the dividing head spindle once.

Simple Indexing

To

find the

Number

of

number

of divisions necessary

Turns of the index crank for any on the work, divide the numof divisions

ber of turns required for one revolution of the dividing head
spindle (40) by the

number

wanted.

N

= Number R = Number

of divisions required.
of turns of the

crank for a given division.

R =

40

N
for 50 divisions.

Example: Find the indexing required
Solution:

40/iV or 40/50 or 4/5 of a revolution. Any plate divisible by 5 may be used. In this case, taking the

R =

20 hole

circle.

of holes to be

Then moved

4/5 of 20, or 16 will equal the

number

in the 20 hole circle, for each division.

Compound Indexing

Compound Indexing

is

sometimes used to obtain divisions

which cannot be secured by simple indexing. In this method the crank is first turned a certain amount in the regular way,

and then the index plate
proper position.

is

also turned either in the

same or

opposite direction in order to locate the index crank in the

The back

locating pin not being adjust-

able, is in line only with the outside circle of holes in the index
plates. Thus, the circles with the 20, 33 and 49 hole circles must be used for compounding. This method was used extensively in the past, but the chances of errors are too great in making the complicated

126

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
if

indexing moves, and even
is

properly operated, the spacing

is very seldom used at present, and has been largely superseded by

more or

less inaccurate.

Therefore this method

differential indexing.

To
(a)

indexing, the following

can be used in compound method must be used: Set down the number of divisions required and resolve
find
circles of holes

what

into factors.
(b) Choose at random two circles of from the other and factor the difference.
(c)

holes, subtract

one

Place the factors (a) and

(6)

above a horizontal

line.

(d)

Factor the number of turns of index crank required
(40).

for

one revolution of the spindle

(e)

Factor the number of holes in each of the chosen
Place the factors obtained in (d) and

circles (6).
(/)
(e)

below the

horizontal line.
If all

the factors above the line can be cancelled by those
line,

below the

the two circles chosen will give the required
If

number

of divisions chosen.
trial

not, other circles

must be
circles

chosen and another

made.
20

Example: If 50 divisions are required and that and 16 are to be chosen for trial divisors.
a
b

= =
= =

50 20

=

5X5X2.
16


=

=

(4)

=

2

X

2.

£=5X5X2X2X2.
d
e

40

(20)

2X2X2X5. =5X2X2.

(16)

7=2X2X2X5X5X2X2X2X2X2X2. 5X5X2X2X2 = — 2X2X2X5X5X2X2X2X2X2X2 64
1

=2X2X2X2.

(Ans.)

Thus, the product of the remaining factors below the

line

=

64.

This means that we can index 1/50 of a revolution

INDEXING'

127
in the 20 hole circle in the 16 hole circle.

by turning the crank forward 64 holes and the index plate backward 64 holes
This movement
hole circle
circle,

may

also be reversed, 64 holes in the 16
in the 20 hole

and the index plate backward 64 holes
result.

without affecting the

Differential Indexing

Differential Indexing

is

on the same principle as compound
is

indexing except that the index plate
gears which connect
it

revolved by suitable

to the spiral

head spindle.

The rotary or differential motion of the index plate takes when the crank is turned, which turns the plate either forward or backward as may be required.' The result is that the actual movement of the crank, in indexing, is either more or less than the movement in relation to the index
place
plate.

The

differential

method cannot be used

in connection with
is

spiral milling, because the spiral

head spindle

geared to the

lead screw of the milling machine.

The amount

of rotation of the index plate

may

be regulated

by the difference in velocity ratios of the change gears. Example: Find the indexing required for 81 divisions. Solution: By simple indexing the index crank would be
rotated through 40/81 of a turn for each division, but as there
is

no plate with 81 divisions, the spacing
is

is

impossible:
is

therefore another fraction

selected

whose value
giving 81

near

40/81, say 40/84 or 10/21, then a 21 hole circle can be used,

indexing in this

way

for 81

divisions,

X

10/21

=
or

810/21 or 38 I2/21 complete turns of the index crank
1

9/21 turns less than the 40 required for one complete

turn of the work.
to
1,

By

using gears in the ratio of

1

9/21

the index plate will

make

1

9/21 revolutions, which

with 38 12/21 turns of the crank will
required.

make

the 41 turns

Thus the

gears will be in the ratio of

128
9 —
21
If

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

I

or

— 6X5
30
21

48
or

7X3

X —— 40
56

driven
(Ans.).

X

24 drivers

the motion of the index plate must be in the direction

opposite to the

movement

of the index crank,

idler gears

must be

used.

The

following gears are generally available for differential
:

indexing

24-24-28-32-40-44-48-56-64-72-86-100.
Angular Indexing

With the standard index head, where 40 turns
of the

of the index

crank are required, for one revolution of the work, one turn
Thus,

crank equals 1/40 of 360 deg. or 9 deg. if one complete turn of the index crank equals 9

deg.,

2 holes in the 18 hole circle or 3 holes in the 27 hole circle

must equal I deg., or I hole in 18 hole circle will equal \ and 1 hole in the 27 hole circle will equal \ of a deg.
EXERCISES
What
2
is

deg.,

the simple indexing for 12 divisions? " *'

3

4
5
6.

7 8

9
10.

11

13

14
IS 16
17

18 19

20

Spiral Milling

D—Gear on screw

A —Gear on worm (driven). B—First gear on stud (driver). C—Second gear on stud (driven)
(driver).

a

a

H

D
a o z

SPIRAL MILLING
Spiral Milling

129

Spiral Milling

is

attained by the use of an index head so

geared to the longitudinal feed screw of the milling machine,
to

impart a rotary motion to the work as

it is

fed along under

the cutter by the action of a train of gears.

The Lead
full

of a Helix or Spiral

is

the distance, measured

along the axis of the work, which the spiral makes in one
turn around the work.
the

By

Lead

of the Milling

Machine

is

the table will travel while the index head spindle

meant the distance makes one

complete revolution when the gear ratio between the feed
screw and the
Rule.

worm

gear stud

is 1

to

1.

machine equals the revolutions of the feed screw required for one revolution of the index head
of milling

— Lead
Lead
Lead

spindle with equal gears times the lead of the feed screw.
of spiral
of

product of driven gears
product of driving gears

machine

In finding the change gears to be used in a

compound

train,

place the lead to be cut, in the numerator, and the lead
of milling

machine, in the denominator, then resolve the

fraction into its factor

and multiply each pair

of factors'

by

the

same number

until suitable

number

of teeth in

change

gears are obtained.

The

following change gears are available on most milling

machines: 24-24-28-32-40-44-48-56-64-72-86-100.

Example: Find required gears to cut a 24" lead with a 10" lead milling machine.
24
10

_

6X4
2.

_

(6
(2

X

S

X X

12)
12)

X X

(4
(5

X X

8) 8)

72

24

X X

32

40

= driven gears = driving gears
(Ans.).
set in spiral

The Helix Angle,
milling, is

or angle to which the table

is

found by the following formula:

130

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

tangent of helix angle

=

x

X

diameter of work
lead of

work
is

A

graphical
in Fig.
I.

method

of

determining the helix angle

shown

p
;

Draw

a base line equivalent

to the lead

and a vertical

line

I

equal to the circumference, then

-LeadorS.A. FlG x
-

-H

DV connecting these two lines u a U A by hypotenuse and measuring
4-

the angle (0) with a protractor the approximate helix angle

may
i.

be obtained.

EXERCISES
What change
gears are required for a spiral index head to cut a

48"

spiral or lead?
1.

3.
4.

What change gears are necessary to cut a 40" lead? What change gears are necessary to cut a i|" lead? What lead will the following gears cut gear on worm 56.
:

1st gear

on stud
5.

2d gear on stud 24, gear on screw 48? What lead or spiral can be cut with the following gears: gear on
28,

on stud 24, 2d gear on stud 24, gear on screw 32? what angle must the milling machine table be set at to cut a spiral groove, one complete turn on a piece 8" long and 2" in diameter?
40, 1st gear
6.

worm

What

gears and

7.

What

angle must a milling machine table be set at,

if

the following

gears are used: gear on

worm

86, 1st gear

gear on screw 44, to cut a spiral

on stud 48, 2d gear on stud 56, groove, one complete turn on a piece

2"

in diameter?
8.

9.

10.

What gears are required to cut a 60" lead? What gears are required to cut a 32" lead? What gears will be necessary to cut a 20 deg.

spiral

groove one

complete turn on a piece 5.460" in circumference?

Friction

Friction is the resistance to motion which takes place between two bodies at their surface of contact, and depends upon the force with which the bodies are pressed together

and upon

lubrication.

The

force of friction will always act

FRICTION
in a direction opposite
to,

131

that in which the body tends to

move.
Coefficient of Friction
slide
is

the ratio of the force required to

a body along a horizontal plane surface to the weight
a

of the body.

When
the

body

W

is

just

amount

of friction

on the point of moving by a force between the body and the table

F,
is

called Static Friction.

Example:
surface.

A body weighing 30 lbs.
lbs. (F).

(W)
it

rests

on a horizontal

The
is
rr

force required to keep

in

motion along the
friction.

surface

6

Find the coefficient of

Coefficient of friction /

^

=

— = — or W 30
6
is

F

0.20 (Ans.).

The

coefficient of friction
is

equal to the tangent of the

angle of repose, which

the angle of inclination to the hori-

F=6

lbs

zontal of an inclined plane on which the body

will just

over-

come by 8.

its

tendency to

slide.

This angle

is

usually denoted

Coefficient of friction/

=

tangent

6.

f = 0.20 = tang. 9 or 11 deg. 19 min., or the angle at which the above weight would repose.

A
rest

greater force

is

required to start a body from a state of
it

than to merely keep
is

in motion, because the friction

of rest

greater than the friction of motion.

When
motion
is

a body

rolls

on a

surface, the force resisting the

termed Rolling Friction, and has a different/ value
friction.

than sliding

132

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

Let

W=
|

total weight in lbs. of rolling

body or load on

w

wheels.
Force

R =
"

radius of wheel, in feet.
coefficient of rolling friction.

,

$@/j

/ =

Then
resistance to rolling in lbs.

=

WXf
R
Low
Pressures

when

force

is

applied radially, and parallel to plane.
of Coefficient of Friction (/) for

Table

—Value

(Sliding Friction)

Bronze on bronze (dry Bronze on cast iron (dry) Cast iron on cast iron (lubricated)
Cast iron on hard wood (dry) Cast iron on hard wood (lubricated)

0.20
0.21

0.15

0.49
0.19 0.56

Leather on cast iron (dry)

Hardwood on hard wood
Steel

(dry)

0.48

on cast iron on brass Steel on steel
Steel
.

0.20
0.15

0.14

Rolling Friction

Iron on iron

0.003 0.005 0.018 0.025

on wood Iron on wood Rubber on asphalt

Wood

EXERCISES
1.

What
a 175

is

the / between two bodies,

if it

requires a 50 lb. force to

move
2.

lb.
is

weight?
the / between cast iron,
the / of cast iron,
its
if it

What What
What

requires a pull of 15 lbs.
its

to slide a lathe carriage which weighs 80
3.
is
if it

lbs.

upon

ways?
lb.

requires a 26

force to slide a

145

lb.

shaper ram upon
is

ways?
if it

4.

the angle of repose of bronze on cast iron,

requires a

force of 1 lb. to slide
5. 6.

a 48

lb.

weight?

What What

is is

the angle of repose for bronze on bronze?
the angle of repose for hardwood on hardwood?

ELECTRICITY
7.

133

What
If

is

the angle of repose for steel on cast iron?
is

8.

the angle of repose

8 deg. 32 min. for cast iron
pull

on cast

iron,

what

force will

be required to

a 500

lb. cast iron

weight upon a

cast iron surface plate?
9. A flywheel weighing 400 lbs. is being rolled into a doorway 3! ft. above the ground on a plank 16 ft. long. How much power must be applied parallel to the plank to keep the flywheel from rolling back?

10.
roll

What

force applied parallel

with the
along a

floor, will floor, if/is

be required to equal to 0.012?

a 36" armature weighing 4125

lbs.

Electricity

A Volt

is

a unit of electrical pressure or potential difference

(P.D.) or the electro-motive-force (e.m.f.) required to cause

a current of one ampere to flow through a resistance of

one ohm.

An Ampere

is

a unit of current strength, or the quantity

of flow, or the quantity of current

which

will flow

through a

resistance of one
volt.

ohm

under an electro-motive-force of one

An Ohm

is

a unit of resistance, or the resistance of a conwill pass

ductor through which a current of one ampere

under
h.p.

an electro-motive-force of one

volt.

A

Watt

is

a unit of power or energy, 746 watts

=

1

A watt is
ampere

the

amount
is

of electrical energy being used

when one

of current
is

flowing under a pressure of one volt.

A A

Kilowatt

equal to 1000 watts.
is

Kilowatt-Hour

equal to a kilowatt of electrical energy
its

continued for one hour or

equivalent.

The

resistance of conductors of the

directly in proportion to their length

same material are and inversely in pro-

portion to their cross section.

of a wire doubles its resistance,

makes the
1000
ft.

resistance \ as

That is, doubling the length and doubling its diameter great, since it makes the cross
copper wire (0.102" diameter)
I

section 4 times as great.
of

No. 10 B.

&

S.

has an approximate resistance of

ohm.

134
Formulas:

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

C=

E —
J?

,

E = CX E = R =
C =

R,

R=—,.
C
ohms.

E

£XC = watts.

electro-motive-force in volts.
resistance in

current in amperes.

Problem
100 volts?

I

:

How many

amperes

of current is flowing in a
is

circuit with a resistance of

20 ohms when the pressure

C =
Problem
rent
is

E —
J?

C =
is


20
5

100

=

5

amperes (Ans.).

2:

What
R,

the pressure

when

5

amperes
is

of cur-

flowing in a circuit in which the resistance

20 ohms?

E = CX
Problem
3:

E =
is

X

20

=

100 volts (Ans.).

What

the resistance of a circuit

when

5

amperes of current flow under a pressure

of 100 volts?

R =
Problem
4:

E —
£-

,

R =

—=
100
5

20 ohms (Ans.).
be consumed, when a

How many
is

watts

will

10 ampere current

flowing under a pressure of

no

volts?

E X C=
1.

watts,

no X
1

10

=

1100 watts (Ans.).

EXERCISES
(a)

Find the resistance of
1 ft._of

mile of No. 12 copper wire,

if

the

resistance of

No. 12 wire

is

0.002476 ohms.

of

(6) What length of wire will have a resistance of 125 ohms? Find the resistance of 1000 ft. of No. 6 aluminum wire if 1 mile this wire has a resistance of 3.3687 ohms. 2.

3.

What
What

is

the resistance of 100

ft.

of

German

silver wire,

if

n"

of this wire has a resistance of 0.022
4.
is

the resistance in

ohms? ohms of a

no

volt line carrying a 10

ampere current? 5. Find the resistance

of a 220 volt line carrying a 25

ampere current

WORK, POWER AND THE STEAM ENGINE
6.

I35

What

current in amperes

is

carried

on a

line that

has a resistance

of 0.8
7.

ohms on a
ohms?

no

volt circuit?
is

What ampereage

there in a 220 volt line which has a resistance

of 50
8.

What kw. motor can be run with a

50 ampere current on a 220

volt line?
9.

What What

e.m.f. is there

on a

line that

has a resistance of 200 ohms,
resistance of 0.25

when a 10 ampere current
10.
is

is

flowing?

the voltage of

a battery that has a

ohms and a
11.
is

6

ampere flow?
e.m.f. exists

What

100 ohms,
12.

when How much

the wire

between the ends of a wire whose resistance is carrying a current of 0.7 amperes? current will flow between two points whose P.D. is
with a wire having a resistance of 350

8 volts, if they are connected

ohms?
13.

What

will it cost per
If

hour to operate a 5 ampere soldering iron
is

on a

no

volt circuit.

10 cents

being paid per kilowatt-hour.
five

14.

What

will it cost per year to
If

burn

40 watt lamps on an average

of 3 hours per day.

6 cents

is

paid per kilowatt-hour.

Horse Power Calculations,

etc.

Work. The unit of work is the foot pound or the amount work in overcoming a pressure or weight equal to one pound through one foot space, and the time in doing this is
of

not considered.

Formula: Weight

in lbs.
lifts

X

distance in feet

=

ft. lbs.

Example: bench 3 ft.

If

a

man

a casting weighing 100 lbs. on a
is

high, the

work done
is

300

ft.

lbs.

100

X

3

=

300 (Ans.).

Power.

— H.p.

in

mechanics

the power exerted or work
lbs.

done
550

in lifting a

weight of 33000

one foot per minute or

lbs.

one foot per second.

Time
of

to do the

work

is is

always

considered in h.p.

The power

an average horse

about

f h.p. and that of an average man is about 1/7 h.p. Example: To lift a 3300 lb. casting 200 ft. high in 2 min., a 10 h.p.
engine would be required.

136

THE STEAM ENGINE
i.h.p.

137

X

33000

m.e.p.

area

X

stroke

X

r.p.m.

X

2

r}

Gas Engine H.P. Formulas
Brake
h.p.

= power

actually delivered

or i.h.p.

minus

friction of engine.

Formula

2:

A.L.A.M. rating
h.p.

=

Z> 2

X N -—
2-5

D =

Diameter

of cylinder in inches.

N=
This formula

No. of cylinders.
is

taken as a standard for 4 cycle singlewill

acting engines at a piston speed of 1000 feet per minute.

Example:
32J h.p.

A

4 cylinder engine with \\" bore

develop

Formula

3:

I.h.p.

=

D

2

XPXLXRXN
;

.

1

,000,000

D =

Diameter or bore of cylinder.

P — m.e.p. average about 80 lbs. R = r.p.m. N = No. of cylinders. L.= Length of stroke in inches.
Example: What is the i.h.p. of a 4 cyl. engine 45" bore and sf " stroke running at 1000 r.p.m. with a m.e.p. of 80 lbs.?
Solution:

20.25X80X575X1000X4 =
1,000,000

37.26

,..,
i.h.p.

,.

.

(Ans.).

138

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
1.

How much work

in

ft.

lbs. will

a

man do
ft.

per 10 hr. day,

if

he

places 3800 bricks per hour on a

wagon 23

high, each brick weighing

86 oz.?
2.

8

ft.

What force in lbs. does a man exert if he lifts a 1750 high with a crane having a velocity ratio of 10 to 1?

lb.

casting

3.

What horse power does this man exert
the casting in 180 seconds?

(above problem), providing

he

lifts

4. A locomotive having two cylinders with a running at 60 r.p.m. with a m.e.p. of 90 lbs. will 5. How much work must be done to raise 120 a mine 216 ft. deep? What must be the hp. of

26" bore, 36" stroke,
develop what hp.?
long tons of coal from

an engine

to do

it

in

four hrs.
6.

if

the friction of the machinery increases the
ft.

work

10 percent?
ft.

A

cylindrical well 4
it.

in diameter

and 72

ft.

deep has 16

of

water in

What must

be the h.p. of the engine to empty this well in

40 minutes?
7.

What must What
What
is

be the bore of an engine to develop 25 h.p. running

275 r.p.m. with a 12" stroke and a m.e.p. of 60 lbs.?
8.

the A.L.A.M. rating of a 2 cylinder gas engine having a the i.h.p. of a 4 cylinder gas engine running at 1200 35" bore and 3!" stroke, with a m.e.p. of 90 lbs. (using

4" bore?
9.
is

r.p.m. having a

formula No.
10.

3).

r.p.m., with

h.p. will a 4 cylinder motor cycle develop running at 1400 a 2" bore and 3" stroke, m.e.p. 80 lbs.? (Using formula No. 2 and No. 3.)

What

Strength and Proportion of Gear Teeth

The strength

of gear teeth

and the
it

h.p.

that

may

be

transmitted by them depends upon so
uncertain factors that sometimes

many

variable and

involves rather compli-

cated formulas.

The
1.

various elements which enter in the constitution of a

formula to represent the working strength are as follows:

The

strength of material, which

is

often a variable quan-

tity.
2. 3.

The shape of tooth, which is sometimes under-cut. The point of application of the load (pitch line or extreme end). Some authorities differ on this subject.

STRENGTH AND PROPORTIONS OF GEAR TEETH
4.

1 2,9

Whether we consider the load applied
teeth.

to one or

more

5. 6.

Pitch line velocity.

Factor of safety.

Formula

I

for cast iron gears:

0.910
h.p.

X VX P X F
+0.65F
ft.

Vi

V = P = F =
The width
Formula
h.p. 2

velocity of pitch line in
circular pitch in inches.

per sec.

face of gear in inches.

of face is generally 2 to 3 times the circular pitch.

=

pitch diameter

X

r.p.m.

X

C.P.

X

face

X

200

126050
C.P.

X

face

=

126050

X

h.p.
'

P.D.

X

r.p.m.

X

200

EXERCISES
1.

What What

h.p. will the following gear safely transmit:

24" P.D..

3.1416 C.P. 4" face, running at 100 r-p.m.?
2.

h.p.

can be transmitted with a cast iron gear 2§" P.D.,

10 P, 1" face, running at 500 r.p.m.?
3.

What What
What

pitch gear

must be used

to transmit 1 H.P. with a cast

iron gear 3.151'' P.D., running at 200 r.p.m., with a 1" face?
4.

size face will be required

on a gear 8" P.D., 3 P, running

at 350 r.p.m., to transmit
5.
lift

20
ft.

h.p.?

pitch gear will be required on a

a 66000
6.

lb.

casting 10

hand crane, to be able to high in 10 minutes, the pinion having a 2"

8" P.D., being turned by a crank at the rate of 50 r.p.m.? What must be the width of the face of a pinion 10" P.D., 1 P, on a steam engine, running at 200 r.p.m., driving a derrick that is
face,

capable of lifting a 10 ton
7.

I

beam 33

ft.

in 1 min.?
face,

What What

h.p. will

a gear of 10 P, 2" P.D., ij"

transmit running

at 600 r.p.m.?
8.

h.p.

can be safely transmitted with a 6 P gear, 6" P.D„

with a 1"

face,

running at 250 r.p.m.?

140
9.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
What width
face will be required

on a gear that

is

20" P.D.,

2 P,

running at 200 r.p.m., to transmit the
m.e.p. 120 lbs.?

maximum

strain produced

steam engine running at 27s r.p.m. with a 12" stroke,

by a 8" bore and

10. A 10 h.p. engine driving a stone crusher through spur gears running at 150 r.p.m., having 10" P.D., gears and 2" face, will require

approximately what pitch gears?

Resolution of Forces
single force which produces the same effect on a body combined action of two or more forces is called the Resultant of those forces. The resultant of two or more

Any

as the

forces can be found either graphically or algebraically.

The
line, in

resolution of

two

forces acting in the
is

same

straight

the

same

direction,

the

sum

of the given forces.

Example:
direction

A

force of 5 lbs.

and

7 lbs. acting in

an easterly
lbs. in

on a body

(.4) will create

a force of 12

the

easterly direction.
<

5 lbs-.-*

RESOLUTION OF FORCES
The
other
resultant of

141

any two

forces acting at

an angle

to each

may

be found by completing the parallelogram .upon

the forces as sides, and drawing the diagonal.

Example:

Suppose a force of 6
easterly direction,

lbs. is

acting on an object, (A) in an
of 8
lbs.

and a force

in

the southerly

direction, then the resulting force will be equal to the diagonal,

or 10

lbs., in

the southeasterly direction.

Graphical Representation.
Fig. Ill

Fig.

IV

Suppose a crane (Fig. IV) lifting a 1000 lb. weight: what would be the compression in lbs. on member B, and what would be the tension on tie rod A, if angle C was 60 deg.
S.O.

=

1000 sine of 30 deg.
lbs.

=

0.5000.

Hyp.
B.

=

S.O./sine

or 2000

=

compression on

member

S.O.

X

cotang.

=

S.A.

or

1000

X

1. 7321

=

1732. 1

lbs.

=

tension

on

tie

rod A.

EXERCISES
two locomotives, one of 700 h.p. and the other 800 h.p. to pull a freight train, what is the total power in ft. lbs. per minute? *. If there are 10 men, each pulling with a force of 60 lbs. on one end of a rope, and 12 men on the other end pulling with a 50 lb. force, what is the tension on the rope in ft. lbs., and what will be the direction
1.

If it

requires

of the resultant force?
3.

Two

running north and south.
hour.

boys are rowing a boat in the middle of a river 1 mile wide, "A" rows east at the rate of 3 miles per "B" rows west at the rate of 41 miles per hour. Which boy
will
it

and how long
4.

take him to reach shore?
is lifting

If in Fig.

IV, a crane

an

8 ton weight,

C

is

50 deg., what will be the tension on

A

and the angle and compression on B.

142

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
5.

Three ropes are fastened to a

ring,

and

^ A° 5

lbs,

is

pulling on a rope with a force of 50 lbs. east.

A B

is

pulling on a rope with a force of 50 lbs. south.
force will a man have to on the third rope to keep the ring stationary. is acting vertically upward and is resolved into

I

BO lbs

^' what angle and with, what
pull

6.

A

force of 20 lbs.

two

direction

lbs.

one of which is horizontal and equal to 10 lbs. and magnitude of the component? 7. If a casting on a truck requires a force of 1000 to move it, what two equal forces will be required
forces,
it if

What

is

the

1000

to

move
8.

the forces are acting at right angles to

lbs.

each other?

What

will be the direction

force to equalize a force of 100 lbs. in

and magnitude of a an easterly direc-

a southerly direction? and magnitude of a force to equalize a force of two tons in a southerly direction and a 3500 lb. force in an
tion
9.

and a

force of 200 lbs. in

What

will be the direction

easterly direction?
10.

What

will be the pulling strain

force of 50 lbs.

on a rope if a boy pulls with a on one end, and two boys pulling in the opposite direction
lbs.

with a force of 25

each?

Falling Bodies

Gravity attracts

all

bodies toward the center of the earth

with an acceleration which varies with the location of the

body

Telative to the distance from the center of the earth.
Js

Theoretically acceleration

the

same on

all

bodies, inde-

pendent of their

size,

weight or shape.

A

freely falling body, or a

body moving under the
ft.

influence
first

of gravity (friction not considered), at the

end of the

second, will have a velocity of 32.16

per second.

During

the next second, giving
it

it will

acquire 32.16
ft.

ft.

additional velocity,

end of the second Each succeeding second will add 32.16 ft. to the velocity the body had at the end of the preceding second. This acceleration as it is called, due to gravity or 32.16 ft. in formulas, is designated by the letter "g."
a velocity of 64.32
at the

second.

FALLING BODIES

1

43

V = g = T = 5 = H=
To
any number
of a falling

velocity in feet per second. acceleration due to gravity.

time in seconds.
space in
feet.

height in feet.

find the Velocity (TO of a falling

of seconds, multiply 32.16
fallen.

seconds the body has

body at the end of by the number of Example: Find the velocity
32.16

body

at the end of 10 seconds. T.

Formula:
(Ans.) or

V = G X V = 2S/T.

V =

X

10,

or

321.6

ft.

The

distance (S) through which a body

falls in

a given

time equals the square of the number of seconds during

which the body has
distance fallen

fallen, multiplied

=

5.

by 16.08 or Jg. Total Example: Find the total distance a
io 2

body
or

will fall in 10 sec.

Formula:

S = \VT
The time

S = V- X \g = or S = V*/2gs
(

X

16.08

=

1608

ft.

(Ans.)

in seconds

T) required for a body to

fall

a given

distance equals the square root of the distance expressed in
feet,

divided by 4.01.

Example: Assume that a stone
ft.

falls

through a distance of 1608

How

long will

it

take to

drop?

Formula:

^ = 4S = T
4.01

V1608
4.01
(

=

10 sec. (Ans.) or

/A

x

T =
it

V —
g

or

T =

25 —

V

The
which

velocity

V) of a falling body after

has fallen through

a given distance equals the square root of the distance through
it

has

fallen,

times 8.02.
is

1

Example: What
Formula:

the velocity of a falling body after
ft.?

it

has fallen through a distance of 1608

V =

8.02

X V3

1

.

8.02

X

V1608

=

321.6

ft.

per sec. (Ans.) or

V =

^2gS.

144

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
height (H) through which a body must
fall

The

to acquire

a given velocity equals the square of the velocity divided

by 64.32 or (2 X G). Example: From what height must a body fall to acquire a velocity of 321.6 ft. per sec?
Formula:
If its

V321. H-—=
2g 64.32
is

2

=

1608

ft.

(Ans.).
velocity,

a body

thrown

vertically

upward with a given
falling.

velocity will be retarded during each second in the
as
it is

ratio

accelerated

when

A

same body thrown

vertically

upward

in the air will return to the
it

exactly the same velocity as that which
up.

ground with had when thrown
be equal to the
is

At any point the

velocity going

up

will

velocity going

down

except that the direction

reversed.

EXERCISES
1.

z.

3. 4.

a body obtained after having fallen 5 seconds? How far will a body fall in 15 seconds? in 30 seconds? How many seconds will it take for a body to fall 1000 ft.? A body has fallen 100 ft. Find its velocity in ft. per sec. at the
velocity has

What

last sec.
5.

How

far

must a body
falls

fall

to acquire a velocity of

50

ft.

per

sec?

— 100
A
An

ft.

per sec?

6.

person

What
7.

will be the velocity of the

from a 22 story building which is 200 ft. high. body? How long will it take the body

to drop?

object

is

per sec.

When
it

does

thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 100 ft. it reach the highest point and start to return?
in 10 seconds.

How

high will

go?

8.

A A
far

body

falls

from a balloon to the earth

What

is

the height of the balloon?
9.

What

is

the velocity of the falling body?

falling

per second.

How
10.

body passes a given point (A) at a velocity of 15 ft. far below the point (A) is the body after 5 seconds? does the body fall during the fifth second after passing the

How

given point (A)?

With what

velocity

must a

ball be shot
is

upward to
ft.

rise to the

height of the Washington

Monument, which

555

high?

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
Centrifugal Force.

1

45

When a body revolves in a curved path, it exerts an outward force called Centrifugal force upon the arm or cords which restrains it from moving in a straight line. Example of this action, mud flying from a carriage wheel, bursting of emery wheels and fly wheels. This force depends upon the
mass, velocity and radius of the revolving mass.

F =

centrifugal force.

R —

radius in feet.
r.p.m.

W = weight or mass.
V =
velocity in feet per sec.

N

= G =

gravity or 32.16.

Formulas:

WV

2

GR'
FRG

FG

'

V \

WR

FRG

spokes of a

Example: Find the centrifugal force or tension on the fly wheel which is 6 ft. in diameter, running at
lbs.

60 r.p.m., providing the rim weighs 300

Formula:

WV* = F =

300

X

GR

X 6 Xtt) = 32.16 X 3
(1
2

1

104.8 lbs. (Ans.).

,.

N

For Thin Disks such as an emery wheel, rotating about
center, the

its

sum

of all radial or- centrifugal forces that tend

to rupture the disk equals 0.00000835

WRN

2
.

EXERCISES
1.

What

is

the centrifugal force on a

fly

wheel 10
lbs.?

ft.

in diameter

running 60 r.p.m., providing the rim weighs 500
2.

A

body weighing 200
ft.

lbs. is

moving with a velocity

of.

40

ft.

per
it

sec. in

a circle 10

in diameter.

What

pressure

is

required to keep

in its
3.

path?

What
is'

will be the
lb. air

there

a

1

unbalanced strain on an automobile wheel, if valve on the rim 18" from center, and the wheel

running at 500 r.p.m. (about 55 miles per hour)?

146
4.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
What
will
lbs.

be the strain on an emery wheel 24" in diameter,
ft.

weighing So
5.

running at 4000 surface
be the

per minute?
fly

What
ft.

will

maximum

weight of a rim of a
lbs.?
ft.

wheel,

it

being 4
6.

in diameter,

running at 60 r.p.m., and the spokes are of such

size that

they can
will

resist

a strain of 600

What
in

be the

maximum
in the

speed in

per min. that a fly wheel
lbs.,

6

ft.

diameter can be run, the rim weighing 400

with spokes

above problem? 7. What diameter can we make a fly wheel within a safe limit, running at a surface speed of 3600 ft. per min., the rim to weigh 600 lbs.
of the

same strength as

and the spokes to
8.

A locomotive weighing
What
ft.

per hour.

a strain of 2000 lbs.? 100 tons, is running at a speed of 15 miles side pressure will the rail receive when passing around
resist

a curve 120
9.

radius?

What will be the strain on an emery wheel 6" in
ft.

diameter, running
long

at a surface speed of 5000
10.

per min., the wheel weighing 36 ounces?
ft.

A

iq

lb.

weight fastened on the end of a cord 5

is

revolved

at the rate of 100 r.p.m,

What

is

the tension on the cord?

Horse Power

of Belting

The

h.p. a belt

can safely transmit depends principally

upon the velocity of the belt, the working stress or pull in pounds per inch of width the coefficient of friction and the arc of contact. The most economical speed for belting is between 4000 and 4500 ft. per min. In higher speeds than The most this, the action of centrifugal force is a hindrance.
satisfactory working stress'
in. of belt section.
is

about 575 to 850

lbs.

per sq.

A commonly
is

used value for the effective

pull of a single belt is 35 lbs. per in. width,

double

belt.

A

single belt

and 60 lbs. for about 3/16" thick and weighs

approximately 16

oz. per sq. ft.

A

double belt

is

twice the

thickness and weight.

The

ultimate strength of oak tanned
in.
ft.

leather runs from 3000 to 7000 lbs. per sq.

Rule
will

1.

—A
I

single belt 1"
I

wide running at 1000

per min.

transmit

h.p.

Formula
h.p.

P XD X NX = 4 X 33000

W
,

m = h.p. X 33000 X 4 W P

XDX N

,

HORSE POWER OF BELTING
Formula 2
h.p.

1

47

=

PVW
,

W=
Trr

h.p.

X

33000

33000

PV
in inches.

D =

Diameter of driving pulley

V = Velocity of belt in ft. per min. N = r.p.m. of driver. P = Effective pull of belt per inch of W = Width of belt in inches.
EXERCISES
1.

width in

lbs.

What

h.p. will

a 6" single belt transmit running at 4000

ft.

per

minute, using rule 1?
2.

What width
ft.

belt

must be used to transmit 25
1?

h.p.

if

the belt

is

running at 4500
3.

per minute, using rule

What

h.p. will
ft.

a single belt 10" wide transmit

if

it is

running

over two 10
transmit?
4.
if it is

pulleys, running

no

r.p.m.

What

will

a double belt

5.

What width double belt must be used to safely transmit 50 h.p., running at 4500 surface ft. per min., using formula 2? What width single belt must be used to transmit 30 h.p. if the
is

driver
6.

A

4 ft. in diameter, running at 400 r.p.m.? 10" double belt driven by a 3 ft. driver, running at 300 r.p.m.

will transmit
7.

what

h.p.?

Using rule

i,

what

h.p. will a

5" single

belt transmit,

running at

4500 surface ft. per minute? 8. According to rule 1, what width belt must be used to transmit
8 h.p.
9.
if

the belt

is

running at 5000 surface

ft.

per minute?

A

10 h.p. stationary gas engine, running at 400 r.p.m., has a

driving pulley 10" in diameter.
belt to safely transmit its full
10.

What must

be the width of a double

power?
having a driving pulley 8" in diameter

What must
of

be the width of a single belt to safely transmit the

power

a 7§"

h.p. motor,

running at 1500 r.p.m.?

Length

of Belting

When

Both Pulleys are

of the

Same

Size.

— Multiply the

diameter of either one of the pulleys by t and add to this
twice the distance between the shafts.

I48

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

When One Pulley is Considerably Larger than the Other.—
Square the distance between centers of the shafts, and add
to this the square of the difference

between the

radii of the

two

pulleys.

From

this total, extract the

square root, and

multiply by 2 (calling this A). Add the diameter of the two pulleys and multiply by 1.57. Add this result to A, which will be the total length of belt. Formula:

Length

=

[{

Vc.D. 2

For Cross Belts.
(.4)

+

(R

-

r) 2 }

X

2]

+

[_(D

+

d)

X

1.57]-

Square the diameter of the large pulley and the

dis-

tance between centers, add together and extract the square
root.

(5) Square the diameter of the small pulley and the
distance

between centers, add together and extract the

square root.
(

C)

of the

To the sum of the two square roots, add the product sum of 2 pulley diameters X I-57- The total will be

the required length.

Formula:

Length

=

[ V(Z> 2

+ CD. +
2
)

V(rf 2

+ C.D^ )] + i(D + d) X
2

1.57].

EXERCISES
1.

What
ft.

will be the length of the cross belt required to

go over two
both being
ft.

pulleys 2
2.

and 4

ft.

in diameter, shafts being 25

ft.

apart?

What

will be the length of belt to use over pulleys,
ft.

3

ft.

in diameter, shafts 12
3.

apart?

(For cross

belt.)

Two

pulleys 52"

and 24"

in diam., are

on separate shafts 15

between centers.
4.

What

will be the length of belt required?

What What
ft.

is

the length of cross belt running over two pulleys 16"
ft.

and 24"
5.

in diameter, shafts being 20
is

apart?
ft.

the length of cross belt 18
3
ft.

between center of pulleys
the center distance

that are 8
6.

and
is

in diameter?
if

What

will be the length of belt required,

between shafts

15

ft.,

the driver being 8" in diameter, running at

1500 r.p.m. and the driven at 27s r.p.m.?

ROPE DRIVES
7.

149

A

gas engine has a drive pulley 10" in diameter, running at 900

r.p.m., driving

a

line shaft 15 ft.

away

at 500 r.p.m.

What

will be the

length of cross belt required?
8.

Two

pulleys 2

ft.

and

5 ft. in

diameter, on separate shafts 12

ft.

apart will require what length of belt?
9.

What

will be the length of cross belt required for the

above

problem?
10.

What

is

the length of cross belt, shafts being 30

ft.

between

centers, pulleys being

60" and 48" in diameter?

Rope Drives Rope Drives
are used for long distant transmission,

and

the effective pull of the rope depends upon the friction in the

V

shaped grooves on the pulley.

These grooves are between
diameter of the pulleys

45 and 60 degrees.

Rope Pulley Diameters.

— The

should not be smaller than 30 times the diameter of the
rope to prevent internal wear, due to the fibers sliding upon

each other.

Speed for Rope Transmission.
If

— The

rope should be run

at a speed between 4000 and 5500 surface feet per minute.

they are run

faster, the action of the centrifugal force is a

hindrance.
is

The

tensile strength of

manila rope in some cases

as high as 50,000 lbs. per sq. in.
is

The

strength of cotton

rope

about four-sevenths

of that of

manila rope.
size of the pulleys
less

Center Distance depends upon the
the size of the rope.

and

This should not be

than 25 feet

and not

series of drives

If a longer drive is necessary, a be arranged, or else the rope must be supported by loose pulleys to prevent excessive sag.

over.

300

feet.

may

safe

Ropes from 1" to if" in diameter are generally used. The working stress for rope is about 200, lbs. per square inch

of sectional area.

Formula:
of rope.

D X
2

0.3

=

approx. weight in

lbs.

per linear

ft.

15°

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
h.p.

Formula:

= D2 X V X
velocity in

0.003

X

N.

D =

diameter of rope in inches.
ft.

N
D =
yj V

V = =

per minute.

no. of ropes.

h.p.

X

0.003

XN

N= D*

h^
X VX
0.003

EXERCISES
1.

2.

3. 4.
5.

running at 5000 ft. per minute? 2" rope transmit, running at 5000 ft. per minute? Find the weight of 500 ft. of i\" rope. What is the weight per ft. of a ij" rope? of a 3" rope? An engine having a 20 ft. drive wheel, running at 80 r.p.m.,
h.p. will a

What What

h.p. will a 1" rope transmit,

driving a line shaft with 10
6.

1\'-'

ropes will transmit what h.p.?
h.p.,
if

How many
is

i\" ropes must be used to transmit 100

the

surface speed

4500 ft. per minute. 7. How many 1" ropes are required to transmit 17s h.p. pulley is 10 ft. in diameter, running at 150 r.p.m.?
8.

if

the drive

What
is

will

be the total weight of rope in the above problem
long?

if

each rope
9.
I

125

ft.

drive pulley.

have a 50 kw.. motor running at 500 r.p.m. with a 3 How many 1" ropes should I use?

ft.

10. What size rope must be used to safely transmit the full power produced by a Corliss engine, having a 36" stroke, 24" bore, running at 150 r.p.m. with a m.e.p. of 125 lbs., providing 10 ropes are to be used on a drive wheel 10 ft. in diameter?

Cable or Wire Rope Drives

Wire Rope Drives
or

are used for long distance transmission
will

where atmospheric conditions

not

permit other

methods.

The

effective pull of the wire rope

depends upon
the radius of

the friction at the bottom of the grooves,

which should be slightly larger than that of the rope.

These

grooves, are generally lined with leather, wood, rubber, or

some other similar material to increase the friction between the rope and sheave and at the same time to reduce the wear of the rope to a minimum.

CABLE OR WIRE ROPE DRIVES
Cable Pulley Diameters should not be
five
less

15I

than seventy

times the diameter of the cable.

Speeds for Cable Transmission should be between 4000 and 5000 surface feet per minute and the lower rope should be the one under tension to increase the arc contact. Center Distance depends upon the size of pulleys and the If a size of cable. It should be between 60 and 400 feet. longer drive is necessary, the cable must be supported by
loose pulleys to prevent excessive sag or a series of drives

may
ft.

be arranged.
Z> 2

Formula:
of cable.

X

1.58

=

approx. weight in

lbs.

per linear

Formula:
steel wire,

h.p.

= D1 X V X
2.

0.060

X N for iron wire.

For

multiply by

No. of cables

=

*

D*XVX 0.060
EXERCISES

»">/-, VFx

'

0.060

XN
ft.

1.

What What

h.p. will

a \" iron cable transmit, running at 5000

per

minute?
2.

h.p. will

two f "

steel cables transmit,

running at 4000

ft.

per minute?

Find the weight per ft. of a 1" cable. Of a i|" cable. What is the weight of 700 ft. of f" cable? 5. How many 1" iron cables must be used to transmit 125 h.p. if the surface speed is 5000 ft. per minute? 6. What h.p. can be transmitted by a f" iron cable, at 100 r.p.m. on a 5 ft. diameter drive sheave?
3. 4.
7.

f

I

have a 200 kw. motor running at 200 r.p.m., with an 8
should
I

ft.

drive

wheel.
8.

How many 1" cables How many f" cables
is

use?
if

are required to transmit 200 h.p.

the

surface speed

4000

ft.

per minute?

9. What size iron cables must be used to transmit the full power developed by a cross compound Corliss engine, having a 4 ft. stroke. The high pressure cylinder has a bore of 24" and a m.e.p. of 80 lbs., and the low pressure cylinder has a 44" bore and a m.e.p. of 25 lbs. Two ropes are used on a drive wheel 20 ft. in diameter, running at 6s r.p.m.

152
10.
I

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
have an 80
h.p. gas engine

drive pulley, driving a line shaft 50
steel cable

running at 300 r.p.m., with a 5 ft. ft. away at 200 r.p.m. What size

must be used and what

will be the weight of the cable?

Chain Transmission

Chain Drives are used for positive transmission of very heavy powers at rather slow speeds. There ,are several different types of chains, the round link chain used considerably on agricultural machines,' the flat link and block chain as used on bicycles, and the silent chain. Chains should be
well lubricated, or
if

possible run in

oil.

Size of Sprocket

Wheel.

— The
is

number

of teeth in the

sprocket should be as large as
ditions.

consistent with other con-

The

best conditions are obtained with 16 or

more

teeth,

although as few as 10 teeth can be used for slow

speeds.

The bottom diameter should be
on
this

as accurate as

possible, for

diameter the chain

rests.

To

obtain

best results sprockets should always be machine cut.

Speed
minute.
ft.

of

Chain Drives should not exceed 2000

ft.

per

Best conditions are obtained with a speed of 1000

or under.

Center Distance should not be
longer
series

less

than i| times the
ft.

diameter of the large sprocket, nor more than 12
drives
of

If

are

necessary,

a
ar-

drives or else

should
the

be

ranged;

chain must

be supported by loose pulleys to

prevent
causes

excessive

sag,

which

the

chain to whip.

The
the

center distance should be adjustable
if

possible,

to

regulate

amount of sag. The Safe Working Load
of rivet bearing surface,
tensile

of a chain

depends on the amount

and

varies from 1/10 to 1/40 of the

strength, according to the speed, size of sprocket, etc.

CHAIN TRANSMISSION
Chain Sprocket Diameters,
etc.

153

Fig. II

P =

Pitch.

N
6

= Number of teeth. = Diameter of round
(.325" for 1" P,

part of chain block
for

and .532"

i|" P).

B =
A =

Center to center of holes in chain block (.400" for 1" P, and .564" for i§" P). Center to center of holes in side bars (.600" for 1" P, and .936" for i|" P).

180
Sin
;

TanC =

N
180°

B —+ A
=

Pitch diameter

=
Sin

Cos
P.D.

-t—

C

N

O.D.

+

b.

B.D.

=

P.D'.

-

b.

To
next whole

Calculate Length of Chain

As a_chain cannot contain a fractional part of a pitch, the number above the calculated number of pitches The chain length in inches is found by is generally used. multiplying the number of pitches by the pitch in inches.
EXERCISES
1.

What

is

the P.D. of- a 10 tooth sprocket wheel with a 1" pitch

chain?

154
2.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
What
is

the O.D.

and B.D.

of

an 18 tooth sprocket JKith a

i"

pitch chain?

Fig. Ill

P =
C —

Pitch of chain.

Center distance in pitches.

N =

Number of teeth on large sprocket. n = Number of teeth on small sprocket. N _ „ L = Chain length in pitches = 2C H
,

22
. 1

n

,

0.0257W

1

^~
C

«) 2
.

3.

(using the
4.

is the distance A-B and diameter 6 of a if" pitch chain? same proportions as a 1" pitch chain). Find the P.D., O.D. and B.D. of a 30 tooth sprocket for a i|"

What

pitch chain.
5.

Find the B.D. of a 16 tooth sprocket for a i|" pitch chain.

.

Shaft Design
Shafting
is

generally

made

of cold rolled steel (C.R.S.),

and

is

subject to two stresses: Shear stress due to the tension

of the belt

and weight
is

of the shaft

and pulleys: and twisting

or torsional stress produced due to the resistance of the. load.

Shafting

generally calculated for torsional stress only
etc.,

although for light shafting with heavy pulleys,
stresses

bending

must be taken into consideration.

Pulleys should be fastened as close as possible to the bearing
to prevent excessive deflection.

The Allowable
lbs.

Stress for shafting varies from 5000 to 9000

per sq.

in.

SHAFT DESIGN
H.p. formulas:

155

For long main power transmission shafts
h.p.
3 =D N
. .

Diameter

80

= \

3/80 h.p.
.

\

N
54 h.p.

For regular

line shafts carrying drive pulleys

h.p.

= D*N
54

.

Diameter

= \

,

>

N

For small short shafts well-supported
h.p.

= D

3

N
.

n _ ^ Diameter
,

3/40 h.p.

40

\

N

Angle

of torsional deflection for

round shafts:

583-erL A = B^E

.

The

torsional deflection of

round shafts

is

70%

greater than

that of a square one.

A =

angle of deflection in degrees.

D =
E =
L = = T =

diameter of shaft in inches.
torsional

modules

of

elasticity

about 12,000,000 for

steel shafting.

length of shaft in inches.
r.p.m.

^V

twisting

moment

in inch pounds.

Torsional deflection of shafting should not exceed 5 min.,
or about 0.08 deg. per linear
ft.

D =

4.6-1/—*-.

\

N

Linear deflection or sag should not exceed 0.012" per linear
ft.

The maximum distance

in

feet

between bearings in

order to prevent excessive sag should be calculated according
to the following formula:

L =

-\Zi4oD 2

.

156

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES

Find the torsional deflection of a 3" shaft 6 ft. long, subject to a twisting moment of 25000 in. lbs. z. What should be the diameter of a line shaft to transmit 7§ h.p., shaft running at 275 r.p.m.? 3. What h.p. will a 2" shaft transmit, shaft running at 350 r.p.m.?
I
.

(using formula for short shafts).
4.

r.p.m., with
5.

Find the diameter of a line shaft to transmit 50 h.p. at 100 a torsional deflection not to exceed 0.08 deg. per linear ft.
should be the

What

shaft?
6.

—for a 2" shaft?
Find the

maximum

length between bearings for a

1"

h.p. that

can be transmitted by a i\" shaft, at 150
is

r.p.m.? (using formula for short shafts).
7.

What

diameter shaft

required to transmit 700 h.p., running at

125 r.p.m.?
8.

Find the torsional deflection

of

an 8" shaft 10

ft.

long, subject

to a twisting
9.

moment

of 20,000 in. lbs.

What

should be the

maximum

distance between bearings for a

3" shaft? 10. Find the diameter
with a

of line shaft to transmit 500 h.p. at

200 r.p.m.,

maximum

torsional deflection of 0.07 deg. per linear

ft.

Scraped
'Bearings

ou-

B earing Design
The
Size of Bearing required depends upon the bearing
oil

material, quality of

used, speed, bearing pressure running

conditions, etc.

BEARING DESIGN
The Projected Area
of a

157

Journal

(Fig. I) is the size used in calculation

of the bearing surface; thus, the area
of

bearing surface
is

journal

3"

X

for a 3" X 10" 10" or 30 sq. in.

The Amount
lowed per

of

Pressure (P)

al-

sq. in. of projected area of
lbs.

Fig. I

bearings varies from 400 to 2000

The Diameter
and
rigid

of shaft or pin

must be designed strong

enough to carry the required load. To do this the approximate length must be known. The Length of Bearing must be designed to have the
proper bearing surface so that the unit pressure shall not
In general practice the length of

exceed the allowable load.
bearing
is

from one

to three times the shaft diameter.

Formulas:

A =

allowable pressure per sq.
bearing.

in.

of

projected area of

D =

diameter of bearing in inches.
quantity

depending
of oiling

on

drop feed 800,
force feed or ring oil 1400,

method

best conditions 2000.

L = N=

length of bearing in inches.
r.p.m.

400 to 600 for shaft bearings,

P = maximum
pressure

800 to 1000 for car journal,
safe

unit

1200 to 1400 for crank pins,

1600 to 2000 for wrist pins

and

sliding shoes.

W=

total load

upon bearings

in lbs.

PY A = {DN) +

Y'
sliding shoes or.

For bearings in the form of a

ways, the

I58
quantity 250 V
formula.
per sec.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
is

substituted for the quantity

DN

in the
ft.

V
To

is

the velocity of the rubbing surface in

find the proper length of bearing use the follow-

ing formula:

L =
If

W
PY

(-!)
known, the following
1.

the above formula gives a journal too long for practical

use, the

proper proportion of diameter and length should be

adjusted to meet the required conditions.
If

the required projected area

is

formula

may

be used to get the proper proportion of the

length to the diameter:

L D
:

:

:

(J ViV)

:

EXERCISES
1.

What

will be the allowable pressure per sq. in.
if

on a car

journal,

using drop feed lubrication,

the journal

is

4"

in diameter, running at

80 r.p.m.?
2.

What

length bearing will be required in the above problem

if

there are 8 such bearings under a box car which weighs 18 tons and

has a carrying capacity of 80,000 lbs.?
3.

providing a 16" shaft

Design a main bearing and an outboard bearing for an engine, is to be used. The weight of the flywheel, shaft,

crank-pin and i of connecting rod and other movable parts supported by bearings weigh 100,000 lbs. and 3/5 of this weight comes on the

main bearing, and the remainder on the outboard bearing, the engine
running at 100 r.p.m.
4.

(Ring oiling system to be used.)

What

length of crank pin bearing must be used for an engine with

a 10" bore, running at 100 r.p.m.,

maximum steam
is

pressure of 125 lbs.

and

2J" in diameter? 5. The 21V' diameter line shaft in Dept. T-20 is 62 ft. long, with bearings 10 ft. apart, total weight of 27 pulleys and belt strain being
force feed lubrication,
if

the crank pin

approximately 3360
used,
6.
if

lbs.

What

should be the length of the journals

the shaft turns 280 r.p.m.?

What

should be the length of 2 journals on an electric motor
providing the shaft

running at 1190 r.p.m., the armature, commutator, pulley, belt strain

and shaft weigh 1500
ring oil lubrication?

lbs.,

is

2"

in diameter, using

BALL BEARING DESIGN

159

if

7. What should be the bearing surface on the V's of a planer table the table and work weighs 45000 lbs., and the maximum pressure
is

produced by cutting
of 2
ft.

700

lbs.,

with a

maximum

rate of table travel
of

per second, using ring oil lubrication

and allowing a factor

safety of 4?
8.

If

24 square inches

is

required for project area of a bearing,
:

what will be its size according to formula (L D 1) if the (5 ViV) number of revolutions per min. is 300. 9. What should be the length of two bearings on a lathe if an ij" shaft is used, and the weight of cone pulley, shaft, and pressure of maxi:
:

:

,

mum

bearing,

lbs., providing 3/5 of the pressure is on the front and the maximum number of revolutions per min. will be 1200? 10. What must be the length of two bearings to support a 10 ton fly wheel on a 7" shaft running at 150 r.p.m., providing the wheel is 2 ft. from the center of one bearing and 3 ft. from the center of the other

cut equals 1000

bearing,

if

force feed lubrication

is

to be used?

Ball Bearing Design
Ball Bearings can be divided into 3 groups; Radial, those

that carry a radial load;

Thrust, those that take a thrust

or end load and the Combination Radial

and Thrust, which
and

take both a radial and thrust load.
Ball bearings are especially adapted for high speed
light

running machines.

They

are used in preference to

due to the following reasons: less loss of power on account of the smaller coefficient of friction, less danger of bearing heating, and also because shorter bearing
sliding bearings

can be used.
Rolling friction
Friction of balls
used.
Ball bearings should always be lubricated, preferably with
is
is

always

less

than sliding

friction.

independent of viscosity of the lubricant

hard

oil. Nothing but tool steel or alloy steel should be used for high grade work although case hardened machine

steel balls are

sometimes used

for large balls
>

and

light

running

conditions.

The

carrying capacity of a ball bearing

is

directly propor-

i6o
tional to the

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

number

of balls

and

to the square of the ball

diameter.

The Permissable Load

that annular ball bearing will carry

can be determined approximately by the following formulas:

p =

0.65

x yx

jy

X

N,

N
0.65

XFXfl

1

D

VcTe ..65

XYX N
balls,

P = D =

load capacity in pounds,

diameter of
unit
of

taking \" as a

diameter.
3),

Example

(I"

D =

N

= number of balls, Y = constant which varies
tions

with condiof

and

type

bearings,

also material

and speed.

Fig.

I.

Radial Type

Y = Y = Y =

10 for 500 r.p.m.
7.5 for iooo r.p.m.
5 for 1500 r.p.m.

EXERCISES
1.

What

is

the allowable load on a ball bearing having

1

4"

balls

on a shaft running at 1500 r.p.m.? 2. How many 5" balls are necessary
1,000 lbs.?
3.

in

a

ball race to carry a load of

for 2,000 lbs.?

(Shaft running at 1,000 r.p.m.)
of 300 lbs. providing

What

size balls

must be used to carry a load must be used
in bearings of

10 balls are to be used, shaft running at 1,000 r.p.m.?
4.

What

size balls

an

electric

motor

if

total load

on the two bearings is 700 lbs., 12 bearing and motor is running at 1500 r.p.m.?
5.

balls to

be used in each
«

What

size balls are required in

each bearing

if

the load consists

of a 900 lb. fly wheel,

the

fly

wheel

is

5

ft.

and a 267 lb. shaft running at 1,000 r.p.m. providing from one bearing, and 23 ft. from the other, and
balls

50 balls are to be used in each bearing?
6.

How many H"

can be placed around a shaft which

is

2"

in

diameter?

CENTER OF GRAVITY, ETC.
7.

161
11 balls

What

size balls

must be used

if

I

want to put
if

around a

shaft 2.550" in diameter?
8.
is

How many

J"

balls

can be put in a bearing

the outer ball race

1.456" in diameter?

Centers of Gravity and Gyration, and

Moment of Inertia,
is,

etc.
if

Center of Gravity of a body
suspended,
will
all

is

the point about which,

the parts will be in equilibrium, that

there

be no tendency to rotate.

The
any

center of gravity of a
line,
lies

on that line. draw a line B- C To find the center of gravity of (Fig. I), and perpendicular limited lines B-E and F-C. Divide B-C into any number of equal parts, and erect
figure,

symmetrical about a center

figure,

perpendiculars

a, b, c, d, etc.

at their middle points.

The area
middle

of each section is the

product of the length of

line multiplied

by width

of section.

Fig. II

The Moment
the middle
line.

of

Area about the

axis

E-B

is

found by

multiplying each area by the distance from the axis

E-B

to

The sum
area
is

of the total

moment

of area divided

by the

total

equal to K, or the distance from axis

E-B,
K, or

to the

center of gravity of the area.

Sum

of

moments

of area

=

total area times

K=

sum

of

moments
total area

of area

1 62

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
turning the figure 90 deg. and repeating the process,
(Fig. II) is found.

By

L-M

The

intersection of these lines

is

the center of gravity of the whole figure.

The
will

greater the

number
which

of divisions, the

more accurate

be the result

obtained.

The

center of gravity of an irregular shaped
is

body

lies in

a plane,

found by the same method.
products of each weight of

Sum of all

section multiplied
total weight

by distance

The
Y <—

center of gravity of a

body which does not

lie

in a plane

may be found by taking the moment about 3 planes which
are at right angles to each
other.

The Center
a-

of Gravity of
of sev-

Figure

if

composed

eral rectangles, triangles, etc.

can easily be found in the
lowing manner:
li

fol-

A, B,

C =

area of rect,

angle; a,

a', b,

V

c, c'

=

disA'

tance the center of gravity of each rectangle

is

from axis
Y.

and

Y,

which was conveniently selected
is

;

x,

y

distance the

center of gravity of whole figure

from axis
b)

X and
X
c)
,

Then

x

= (A X
(A

a)

+

(B

X

+

{C

A + B + C

X

a')

+(BX

b')

+(CXc')
=
center of

A + B + C
Then
the point. of intersection of the lines at
gravity.

The

center of gravity of any triangle

is

located at the

intersection of lines

drawn through $

of the altitude,

and

parallel with the bases.

CENTER OF GRAVITY,
The Moment
to

ETC.

163

of Inertia of a

body

(or section) with respect

an

axis, is

the

sum

of the products obtained

the weight (or area) of each elementary particle

by multiplying by the

square of

its

distance from the axis.
I.

It is generally repre-

sented by the symbol
to the position of axis.

The value of it varies according The moment of inertia is smallest
axis
is

when the axis passes through the center of gravity. The moment of inertia of any section about any
equal to
its

moment

the center of

about a parallel axis through gravity, plus the product of the area and square
of inertia

of the distance
If I'

between the

axis.

— Moment

of inertia

about an axis through center
axis.

of gravity of section.

I = Moment of inertia about any parallel A = area of cross-section. r = distance between axis of I' and /. Then I = I' + A X r2 .,

The value
an
axis,

of

moment

of inertia of various sections
is

about
given

passing through center of gravity of section,

in table V,

(page 114).
the section of a
in

Example: Find the moment
of

inertia

of

beam shown

Fig.

IV about
Divide

the horizontal axis

E—F through

the center of gravity.

the figure into 3 rectangles A,
B, C.

The

center of gravity of
will lie

each rectangle

on a

line

1 64

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Area Area Area
of of of

A = B = C =

X6 = 3 X i\ = if X 3 =
i|

9

sq. in. sq. in. sq. in.

4!


18

Total area

=

sq. in.

x

=

sum

of

moments

total area
(9

X

f)

+

(4I

X
18

3)

+

(4*

X
-

si)

2 9/16".

Distance of center of gravity

4 B

from

£-F
E-F
3"

(a')

=
Distance of center of gravity
Distance of center of gravity

2

9/16"

f"

=

1

13/16".

from

(b')

= =
Moment
of inertia of rectangle
is

-

2 9/16"
(c')

=

7/16".

C from E-F
Si

~

29/16" =
its

2 11/16".

about

neutral axis (axis

through center of gravity)
Therefore

bd 3 /i2 (from table V, page 114).

moment moment moment

of inertia of

A = B =
C

la

=

6

X

(1J)

3

•=

1.69,

12
of inertia of

lb

=
12 3

3.38,

/•

^-

01 inertia of

r

^ =

Ic

t

=

X

(I2)

—=

0.84.

12

Moment
I'a
I'b
Z'e

of inertia

about the new axis
(1

E-F is:

=

7a
lb
Ic

=
=

+9 X + 4| X + 4^ X

13/16)
2

2

(7/16)
(2

n/16) 2

= = =

1.69

3-38

0.84

+ 29.51 = 31.20. + 0.86 = 4.24. + 30.55 = 31-3966.83 (Ans.).

Required total moment of inertia

=
The Center
at which,
if

I'a

+ I'b + I'c =
an
is

of Gyration with respect to

axis, is

a point
its

the entire weight of a body

concentrated,

moment

of inertia will

remain unchanged; or

in a revolving

RADIUS OF GYRATION
body the point
in

165
of the

which the whole weight

body may

be considered to be concentrated.

Radius of Gyration
center of gyration.

is

the distance from the axis to the

= moment of inertia of = moment of inertia of W = weight of the body. G = radius of gyration. A = area of section. I = W XGK V = A X G
I
I'
2
.

a body.
a section.

The value

of radius of gyration for several sections can be

found from table

V

(page 114).

EXERCISES

X

Find the distance of center of gravity of an angle section 6" 1", from the back of each leg (Fig. I).
1.

X

4"

-6"--

PART

IV

Graphical Charts
In

many

instances records, statistics, data,

etc.,

of in-

dustrial organizations are kept,

by means of graphical charts, which provide a quick and accurate method of tabulating; same also being valuable to the busy executive, who can
find at a glance, the information desired.

Charts of this nature are also used frequently by
ticians,

statis-

engineers,

production managers, and experimental

laboratories for keeping records, plotting values, etc.

Graphical charts

may

be constructed in

many

forms,

depending upon the nature of the work to be tabulated.

The

following are a few of the methods generally used and

should prove of value to those

who
is

desire to

become

familiar

with keeping records graphically.
Fig.
I

shows a chart which
production.

frequently used in keeping
is

track

of

The chart

outlined

in

advance

according to the production schedule desired;
if

for instance,

the

management

decides that they desire to manufacture

3000 machines between the months of January and October
inclusive.

The chart

is

divided into months as shown horithe

zontally

together with

number
is

of

parts desired

per

month.
scale

In this chart each month

divided into 3 divisions

representing 100 parts each, although any other convenient

may

be used.

On

the

left

hand

side

and

vertically are

placed the

name and number

of the parts.

As the

parts are

machined

in the

shop the production clerk blocks

in the space

opposite each part, thus the length of the blocked line after

each part shows at a glance the total production up to date.

For instance

in the

month

of April 1200 gears

No. 3876

166

GRAPHICAL CHARTS
have been made which
is

167

just

even with the advanced

schedule, while only 1100 levers No. 4401 have been

made

showing a shortage of 100 thus

it will

be necessary to speed

up production on
until

this

part.

pins No. 5628 have been

The chart shows that 2400 made and as this is sufficient to last

August thus the machine or machines making these work on some other parts for a few months. Charts of this form are usually fastened to a board on the wall and are filled in by means of a color crayon or in some
pins can be set to
cases tacks are

production advances.
chart shows the
NAME
Gear
Lever
NO.

moved along The

a line opposite the parts as the
location
of

the tacks on

the

maximum

production up to date.

"Jro

Se Oq

-s e .»o ,5© 3-cvj S °t h,*fl So* < ~-

eg Jg *8
-3

«s-8
t/)C-i

— -}w

<(^J

3876
4401

Rod

778J

Bushing 3274
Pinion

9?3B

Pin

B6J8

Fig.

I

Fig. II

is

also

an advance production chart although
other purposes.

it

can be used for

many

Thus
in

if

a concern decides to

make 1200 adding machines
lines repre-

one year a chart

may

be plotted as shown;
vertically

senting

months are drawn
horizontally.

and

lines representing

quantities of 100 per division,

more or

less as desired, are
left

drawn

A

line

connecting the lower

hand

point with the upper right hand point will be the theoretical
line. As shown January production was 30 February 70 machines, thus the sum of the months production is always added to the total sum of the

production
machines,

production up to the preceding month to obtain the location

1

68

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

of

the production point for the

month

in

question.

70
will

machines being made in February the production point
the end of February.

be 30 plus 70 equals 100 machines or total production up to
In March 75 machines were made, thus 100 plus 75 equals 175 or the location of the production point for March. By placing the production points in for
the various
will

months and connecting same a production curve
the total
it

be generated, which will show the number of machines

to

made each month, any month and

will also

number of machines made up show how close the actual

production curve follows the theoretical one.
1700
1100

1000

mil— -n~~z-2=:£^
«**

900 800
700

600
500

^

400
J00

200
100

^-^L -^Jan.
Feb.

,__. £

_^._

May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.

—Nov.

Mar.

Apr.

Dec.

Fig. II

Fig. Ill

shows a monthly chart which

is

laid

out for a

daily record of the
in a large

number
II after

of cars assembled

and shipped
is

automobile plant.

The body

of the chart

laid

out the same as Fig.

which the daily reports can be

located on the chart and lines connecting these points will be

a broken curve showing the daily fluctuation.

To

distinguish one curve from another a combination of
lines,

broken

as shown, can be used or

if

desired inks of

various colors can be used which will give a pleasing contrast.

GRAPHICAL CHARTS
Fig.

169

IV

is is

a chart somewhat different from the preceding very simple and easy to understand.
It

ones and

can

be laid out vertically or horizontally as desired with the
overall length representing the whole or

100%.

Then, by
differ-

dividing the overall length into lengths of such proportion
as are desired

and shading or coloring each proportion
is

ently a very effective chart

produced.

w

7

__

170
Fig.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

V

is

a rather peculiar form of chart which

is

easily

constructed and shows the distribution of the units very
effectively.

The proportion
is

of the chart that

is

of most

importance

usually turned to face in one direction as
of the proportions

shown (25% work) while the remainder
face in the opposite direction.
100

90
80
4-'

25 PerCent Work

70

£60

BPerCent.
Friction

"50
»40
O-

ZS PerCent Exhaust

30
?0
10

SB Percent docket Water
? PerCent Radiation and
unaccountable Losses

Fig.

V

This chart shows the distribution of heat in the average
gasoline
engine.
is

Thus

the

total

heat

as

developed

by
fric-

burning fuel
tion,

distributed as follows:

25%

work,

13%

25%

exhaust,

35%

through the water which circulates

around the cylinders, and
countable
Fig.
losses.
is

2%

due to radiation and unac-

VI
tell

a chart which was used in a press room although

applicable in a variety of ways, so that the superintendent

could

the proportion of time the various presses were in
Night

Noon
I I 4 5

Night
I I

a
No""iz

l?3456789

1011 \l

I

67 8

91011

K

I

4

5 6 7 8

9

10

II

It

\ldle

•Itingup

\,l

.j Repairs

WiUWaiHnatbrStock

Fig.

VI

GRAPHICAL CHARTS
actual operation or whether they were
idle,

171
or inoperative

due

to setting up, repairs or waiting for stock.
so-called overtime or night portion of the chart

The

was

underlined heavily, as shown, so that any overtime would

show up more distinctly as it was time work down to a minimum.

desired to keep the over-

Fig. VII

No.
1.
\i.

Operation

Time
10
5

Place in chuck
Start machine

3.

Face

off

ends

4° 60
38
10
5

4.
5.

Turn diameter Cut groove
corners

6. File off
7.

Stop machine

8.

Gauge

piece

8

9.

Remove from chuck
Total

4

=
is

1.80

Fig.

VII

is

a circular form of chart which
usually subdivided
into

used quite

extensively for graphical representation of proportions.

The

circumference
desired, after

is

the

proportions

the center.

which lines are drawn from these points toward These wedge shaped divisions afterward being

172

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
of time or percent which they

numbered showing the unit
represent.

Frequently

the

wedge

shaped

divisions

are

colored in various shades to bring out distinction.
Fig.

VIII
is

is

reality it

another form of circular chart although in form of chart similar to Fig. Ill developed

common center. This chart was used by an employment manager and showed the total number of men hired per month. As shown in the chart, 50 men were hired during the month of January, 65 irf February, 60 in March,
around a
etc.

Jan

July

Fig. VIII

Fig.

IX

is

a chart plotted from a well-known 6 cylinder

GRAPHICAL CHARTS

173

automobile gas engine having a 2>\" bore and a 5" stroke to show the horse power and torque in foot pounds at different speeds ranging from 200 to 2400 r.p.m., equivalent to a car
velocity of 4.3 to 51.V miles per hour respectively. As shown, the h.p. and torque were plotted at steps of an increase of 200 revolutions each

these points gave the h.p.
h.p. or torque

and a curve drawn through and torque curve from which the
all

can be obtained for

intermediate speeds.

"45

40 35
30
140
135

u
0)

130
Q.
125

4,120

u

r

o

0-115
IB ,0)10

.105

3IOO
95

90
85

174

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

2. Lay out a chart similar to Fig. II showing a theoretical production curve for a period of 6 months, if it is desired to make 12,000 three inch

shells. Also show the actual production curve from the following data: January 500, February 1600, March 1800, April 2500, May 2000 and June 3600.
3.

Make a monthly

chart for an

employment

office

similar to
for skilled

Fig. Ill for a period of one year,

showing two curves, one
if

and the other for unskilled hired per month.
Month

labor,

the following

number

of each were

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
9.

175

Plot a horse power and torque curve similar to Fig.

IX from

the

following data obtained from a 6 cylinder gas engine in a
test.

dynamometer

R.P.M.

176

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
(I):

Formula

P= A Xp=

(6

X 6) X 250 =
forces.

36

X

250

=

9000

lbs. (Ans.).

A

Strain

is

the deformation or alternative produced on a

body by external

When external forces act on a body
Tensile, Compressive, Trans-

they produce stresses within the body.
Stresses are of five kinds:

verse or Bending, Shearing and Torsional.

In most cases a

combination of these stresses
in the
If

is

produced.

Any

stress (how-

ever small) in a body, produces a deformation or alternation

shape of the body.
is

the stress

not too large, the body will return to
size

its

original shape

and

This property of
original size
If

when the external force is removed. a body which, enables it to return to its
is

and shape,

called its Elasticity.
its

the force be great enough the body will not return to

original size or shape

when

released,

but assumes a new

shape, which

is

called a set,

and we

say, "its Elastic Limit

has been exceeded."

Up

to the elastic limit the deformation in a

body

is

directly

proportional to the load, and the elastic limit
as that point

may

be denned

beyond which the deformation ceases to be

proportional to the load, or the point at which the rate of
stretch begins to increase.

The Modulus

(or coefficient) of Elasticity

is

the relation

between the amount of extension or compression of a body,

and the iorce which reduces that extension or compression. It may be defined as the load per unit of section, divided by
the extension per unit of length, and
is

the quotient obtained

by dividing the

stress per

square inch by the elongation in

one inch caused by this

stress.

Formula:

PL E =
Ae

or e

=

PL

AE

.

(II).

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Example
steel

1 77

Find the modulus of elasticity of a 2" sq. bar 10 ft. long which elongates 0.080" under a load of
3
:

80,000

lbs.

Formula

(II):

PL E =
Ae
lbs.

.

P = L = A = e = £=

80,000
10
2

X 12 = 120 inches. X 2 = 4 sq. in.
X
120

0.080".

80,000

=

4

X

30,000,000 (Ans.).
of cast iron

0.080

Example 4: How much will a bar 20" long be compressed under a load
Formula
(II):
e

3"

sq.

and

of 80,000 lbs.

=

.

AE
sq. in.

P = L = A = E =
e

80,000 lbs.

20
3

in.

X

3

=

9

15,000,000.

(Taken from table
20

III,

page 184.)

=
9

80,000

X

X

=

0.0118" (Ans.).

15,000,000

Example

5:

Find the elongation of a 1"
lbs.

sq. steel

bar

6'

o"

long under a load of 100,000

Formula

(II): e

=
lbs.

PL
.

AE
per sq.
72".
in.

P =
L =
.4

30,000
6
I

X

12

=

= £ =

sq. in.

30,000,000.

(Taken from table
72

III,

page 184.)

30,000
1

X

X

30,000,000

X

0.072" (Ans.).
1

178

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
or Ultimate Stress of
will

The Breaking
stress or force

any material

is

the

which
is

rupture

it.

The ultimate
Formula Example
diameter ?

stress in tension, compression

and shear for

various materials
(III):
6:

given in table
S.

II,

page 183.

P = A X
will

What

be the force in pounds necessary

to rupture a steel test bar in tension

which

is

0.505" in

Formula

(III):
in.

P = A X
per sq.
in.

S.

A = 5 = P =

0.200 sq.

100,000
0.200

lbs.

(Taken from table
lbs. (Ans.).

II,

page

183.)

X

100,000

=

20,000

Example 7: What force in pounds will be necessary punch a 1" hole in a steel plate \" thick?
Formula
(III):
1

to

A = 5 = P =

X

3.1416
lbs.

P = A X S. X i = 0.7854
70,000
will

sq. in.
II,

70,000

(Taken from table

page 183.)

0.7854
8:

X

=

54,978 lbs. (Ans.).

Example

What

be the weight in tons necessary to

crush a brick pier 10" square.

Formula

(III):

P = A X
=
100 sq.

S.

A = 5 = P =

10

X

10
lbs.

in.
II,

2500
100

(Taken from table

page

183.)

X

2500

=

250,000
is

4-

2000

=

125 tons (Ans.).

The Working
easily sustain or

Stress
it is

the stress or load which a

body

will

equal to the ultimate stress divided by

the factor of safety.

Formula (IV)

:

Working Stress =

5 -

stress

The Factor of Safety is the number by which the breaking must be divided to obtain the working stress. The

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

1

79

factor of safety in ordinary practice varies from 5 to 30.

This depends somewhat upon the formula used, workmanship, character of the load etc. (see table
I,

Example

9:

Find the working stress
lbs.

in a

page 183). beam which has
in., if

an ultimate strength of 150,000
of safety used
is 15.

per sq.

the factor

Formula (IV)

:

Working Stress = 150,000
lbs.

5
.

5 =
Working Stress =

/=I5150,000
15

=

10,000 lbs. per sq.

in.

(Ans.).

For tension, compression (where length does not exceed
10 times
its least

diameter) and shear
or

P =
Note.


/

AS

A =

Pf —

.

Formula

(V).

5
is

—When

the length of a bar under compression
its least

longer than 10 times
as a

diameter,

it

must be treated

column and formula No. (VI) must be used. Example 10: Find the total stress in pounds imposed upon a cast iron bar 3" square, in tension, if the load is

steady.

Formula (V)

:

P =

AS
-

A = S —
/

3

X

3

=

9 sq. in.

20,000

lbs.

per sq.

in.

=

ultimate strength of cast iron

under tension.

=

6 for

(Taken from table II, page 183.) cast iron under a steady load. (Taken from
I,

table

page 183.)

P =

9

X

20,000

=

30,000

lbs. (Ans.).

l8o

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
1 1
:

Example

What

will

be the safe load to apply under

tension on a wrought iron bar 2" sq. under a varying stress?

Formula (V):

P =
=
4

AS
/
sq. in.

A = 5 = / =

2

X X
12:

2

50,000
6.

lbs. (Taken from table II, page (Taken from table I, page 183.)

183.)

P =

4

50,000
o

.

=

33-3333
size of

lbs. (Ans.).

Example
7! tons?

Find the

square cast iron bar neces-

sary to use to resist the compressive stress under a load of

Formula (V)

:

A = =

Pf — 5

P = / = S =
A =

7.5
6.

X

2000

15,000 lbs.

(Taken from table I, page 183.) 90,000 lbs. (Taken from table II, page
15,000

183.)

X

6

=

1

sq. in.

Therefore each side

90,000

=
Example
13:

Vi

77

=

1" (Ans.).

What

should be the diameter of a wrought

iron bar to suspend a weight of 50,000 lbs.?

Formula (V)

:

A

Pf =—.

S
I,

P = / =
S =

50,000 lbs.
4.

.(Taken from table
lbs.

50,000
50,000

per sq.

in.

page 183.) (Taken from table

II,

page 183.)

A —

X
14:

4

=

4 sq.

in.

or 2.257" diameter (Ans.).

50,000

Example
safely?

What

should be the

diameter of a steel

journal in a machine to resist a shearing load of 10,000 lbs.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Formula (V):

101

A =

Pf —

5
183.)
II,

P = / = 5 =
A =

10,000 lbs.
15.

70,000
10,000

(Taken from table I, page lbs. (Taken from table

page 183.)
.

X

15

=

.

2.142 sq.

in.

or approximately
1

^

.

70,000

21/32" diameter (Ans.).
i.e.,

To find the breaking strength of a column, member whose height is greater than 10 times
eter the following formula
is

a vertical

its least

diam-

used.

Formula (VI)

:

P =
1

SA

V +g — *

.

G2

Example (15): Find the breaking load of a round wrought iron bar 2" in diameter and 3 ft. long, under compression,
if

both ends are rounded.

Formula (VI):

P =

SA
*

G2
(Taken from table
II,

S — A =
q

50,000 lbs. per sq.
2

in.
in.

page 183.)

X
4

2

X
.

0.7854 sq.

=

3.1416 sq.

in.

=

(Taken from table VI, page
2

186.)

36,000

G2 = L =


16
3

d?

or

2 —

or

4 —
16

.

(Taken from table V, page

185.)

16

X

12

=

36 inches.
3.1416

50,000
1

X
4

+ ~- X —
36,000

=

36 2
4_

99,670.05 lbs. (Ans.).

16

1 82

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
i.e.,

In finding the breaking strength of a beam,
horizontal
position the bending

a bar in a

moments must be taken

into consideration,

and the following formula may be used:

Formula (VII):

M = S X R.
beam

In practice to find the safe working strength of a

the proper factor of safety must be used which transforms

Formula (VII) into

M=-

X

R.

Formula (VIII).
load a 3" square
its free

Example
cantilever 2

16:
ft.

Find the

maximum

wooden

long will support at

end.

Bending moment

= S X R = W-X

L.

(Taken from table IV, page
.-.

184.)

W=

fXL

Formula (IX).
II,

S = 9000
d?

lbs.
*\^

(Taken from table

page 183.)
186.)

R——=—=
6 6

— or 4§.
6

27

(Taken from table VI, page
I,

/ = L =

8.

(Taken from table

page 183.)

2

X

12

=

24 inches.
,. , lbs. (Ans.).
.,

W = 9000 X 4§ = 40,500 = 210.9 8 192
X
24

Example

17:

Find the

maximum
ft.

bending

moment

pro-

duced on a simple beam 10 800 lb. weight.
Formula:

long loaded at the center with a

L W X—

.

(Taken from table IV, page

184.)

W=
Z,

800
10

lbs.

=

X
4

12

=

120 inches.

Maximum

bending moment

= 800X120 =
24,000 inch
lbs. (Ans.).

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
The
Deflection of a

183

Beam

(/)

at the critical point or

maximum

deflection can be

found from table IV according

beam and manner of loading. Example 18: What is the deflection of a rectangular steel beam fixed at both ends, 5 ft. long, 2" wide, 3" deep, supporting a 20,000 pound load in the center?
to the kind of

Formula (X)
page 184.)

:

S =

WL 192 E XI
3

.

(Taken from table

IV,

W=
L = E =
I

20,000
5

lbs.

X

12

=

60".

30,000,000.

(Taken from table

III,

page 184.)
185.)

=

—=
bd 3
12

2

X
12

27

= 4i
60 3

(Taken from table V, page
0.0833" (Ans.).

S =
192

20,000

X

X

30,000,000

X

4!

TABLE

I

Factor of Safety "/'

Material

1

84

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

TABLE
Material

III

Elastic
Coefficient of Elasticity (E)

Limit for Tension

Cast iron

Wrought
Steel

iron

Wood

15000000 25000000 30000000 1500000

6000 25000 50000 3000

TABLE

IV
Bending

Kind

of

Beam and Manner

of

Loading

Moment (M)

Deflection OS)

Cantilever, load at

=9

end
Cantilever,
uni-

WXL

aOOOOQQ,
_Q_

formly loaded

Simple beam, load
at center

QOQQQO
_Q_

Simple beam, loaded uniformly

Beam

fixed at both

ends, center

load

at

.OOOOOO.

Beam

fixed at both uniformly ends, loaded

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
TABLE V
Name and Shape
Solid Circle
(/)

185

(R)

(G2 )

TTlf4

7rt*

3

i!
16

64
tv{S

32
4

Hollow
Circle

64

rfi )
'

ir(rf4

-

di4 )

d2

+
16
d?

rfi«

32<J

Solid

Square
d4

12

6

12

Hollow Square

-

di 4

d4

bd
bd?

dr*

^+
12
bd?

di

:

Solid

Rectangle

d

>•>»*

6

Hollow
Rectangle
d

bd?

-

bidi 3

6d 3

-

ftidi 3

-

ftidi

3

IE'

6d
ftd 2

V;zljbd — bidi)
£.
18

Solid Triangle

36
Trftdj

24
z jrta_

Solid Ellipse

i7»
7r(6d 3

i!
16

64

32
6idi 3)

Hollow
Ellipse

64

w(bd 3

32d

bidi 3 )

63d

i6(6d

- 6i di - bidi)
3 3 6i di

6d 3

12

Mr
X

3

6d 3

-

ftidr3

Vd I2(6d

Beam
Even
Cross

d

t

6d
d?


6?

bidi)

Area
d

Area

X

d

r-TL,

19

9-S

22.

Even
Angle

Area

X

da

Area

X

d

ar

'

10.2

7.2

25

1

86

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

TABLE VI
Material

SPRINGS
7.

I8 7

A

variable.
8.

wrought iron bar is to support in tension a load of 20 tons, Find the diameter of the bar required. What would be the elongation of the bar in problem No. 7 if the
ft.?
is

length was 5
9.

A

square bar firmly held at one end,
at the outer free end.
If

supporting a load of

3000

lbs.

the load
size

is

steady, the bar
it

made

of

structural steel
10.
If

and

is

2%

ft.

long,

what

should
in

be?

an elongation

of 0.015" is

produced
is

a

steel

bar 10" long,

2" square by a
of elasticity?

tensile load of

90 tons, what

the modulus (or coefficient)

Springs
Springs are divided into three general classes:
helical
elliptical,

and

spiral.
is

A

Spiral Spring

one which

is

wound around a

fixed

point or axle, the diameter of each coil gradually increasing.
(Fig. I.)

A Helical Spring is one which and at the same time advancing

is

wound around an

arbor,

tike the

thread of a screw.

Fig.

I.

Spiral Spring

Fig. II

(Fig. II.)

A

good proportion for this kind of spring
5 to 10 times the

is

to

make

the

mean diameter from

diameter of

wire used.

Half Elliptical
Fig. Ill

Full Elliptical

1

88

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Elliptical or

An

Laminated Spring

is

made up
and

of flat bars,

plates or leaves of

uniformly varying length, placed one
bolts
clips.

upon the other and held together by
III.)

(Fig.

A bbreviations

Used in Formulas
in.,

W=

safe load in lbs.

per sq.

or

maximum
8'

carrying

W=
8
5'

capacity.

load which causes the deflection

(where

W

is

less

than W) in

lbs.

per sq.

in.

f
6

= = =

total deflection in inches. total deflection in inches

under the load

W.

safe strength in lbs. per sq. in. (80,000 lbs. per sq. in.
for ordinary spring steel).

= width of spring in inches. t = thickness of spring in inches. d = diameter of spring wire in inches. D = mean diameter of helical spring in inches. H = free height of helical spring in inches (height
load).

without

h

=

solid height of helical spring in inches (height

when

completely compressed).

L = I = n =

effective

span

= iV

length of spring in inches.
no. of leaves in half elliptical spring, or 5 of total no.

of leaves in full elliptical spring.

R = E =

length of load

arm

in inches. for

modulus

of

elasticity

tension

and compression

=

(30,000,000 for steel).
of
elasticity

G = modulus
steel).
r

for

torsion

=

(12,600,000 for

=

ratio of no. of full length leaves to total no. of leaves.

Spiral Springs:

fd 3

20WIR2
Ed*
for

2flR

\oR

Ed
round spring stock.

SPRINGS
fb?
1

I89
2flR

2 Mi? 2

6R
Example: Find the

Ebt*

Et

for rectangular spring stock.

safe load for spiral spring

2" wide
Also find

\"

thick, 6'-o" long,

when

the load

arm

is

10".

the deflection 8 under the load.

m = fbt W 6XR
*

=
2

80,000

5

=

2flR

=

Et

X 2 X (j = 166.7 lbs. (Ans.). 6 X 10 X 80,000 X 6 X 12 X 10 „ /A = 15.36" (Ans.}. 30,000,000 X i
2
)
t

Helical Springs: (a) round bar stock.

GSd*

Tfd 3

8hD s
8

8D

=

H -h

=
Gd?

5'

=

Gd*

_,.

,

H - h+F - h + ^{d H _Trh£
d

rfh/D

)"

fD

D

(b)

rectangular bar stock.

W
8

fit

-fiT+te

G8bt(t*

+

2
ft

)

3D

94&D»

=-

x//sl> 2

H
Gt^f

Gt^f

+ tf

+

'

b2

94hD 3
Gbt\P

W
62 )
'

+

GiViM-62
14

1

90

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
irDh
t

— fD+ G
,

H — 462

,

0.32

t —

V* 2

D
for a
solid

Example: Find the diameter and length of wire
round
helical

spring,

mean diameter
3

1",

height 1",

for a load of 1000 lbs.

W = Tfd* 8Z>
Z

,

d = \l

*fewD
x/
1

\
:

= \

/8Xi oooXi

=

0.179" (Ans.).

,.

.

\3.14X80000

=

tAZ? ——

X = 3-H

X

1

=

17-49

(Ans.).

d

0.179

Elliptical Springs:

2 W = - /wfo L 3
S

2
.

=
2 Et

for full elliptic.
1

5

=
=

fL?
for full elliptic with

2+rEt
4 Et

more than one

full leaf.

d

for half elliptic.

S

=
2(2

+
:

for half elliptic with
r)

more than one

full

Et

leaf.

Example

tion of a semi-elliptical spring

Find the safe carrying load and maximum deflec2" wide, 0.266" thick, 9 leaves
of

and 42" span, taking the value
•— w = 2 fnbt

/
2

=

40,000

lbs.

per sq.

in.

— x 3^3
2

=

2

-

40,000

X

9

X
42

X

(0.266) 2

=
S

808

lbs. (Ans.).

=

1

/L

2

=

1

4 Et

4

X

40,000

X

(42)*

30,000,000

X

0.266

=

2.409" (Ans.).

Vertical Milling Machine

g

S 5

O
h
>

2

P

PIPES

AND CYLINDERS
EXERCISES

IQI

the deflection of a spiral spring i/'wide, f" thick and 2'-o" long, under the maximum safe load which has a lever arm of 3"?
1.

What What
If

is

2.

is

the

maximum
coil

helical spring
3.

with a mean

carrying capacity of a \" round steel diameter of 1"?
is

the solid height of the above spring

2j",

what

is

the free

height?
4.

5.

Also find the deflection of the above spring under a load of 250 lbs. Find the diameter of wire required Tor a round helical spring

Under the following conditions:

Maximum
Mean
6.
lbs.

load
coil

1
1

100 lbs.

diameter of

\"

Find the total deflection of the above spring under a load of 600
solid height
is

when the
7.

4".
steel wire is to
is

A

helical spring of
lbs.

\"

have a compression of 15"

under a load of 2000
of the coil?
8.

What

the outside diameter and solid height

Also find the total length of the above spring.

9.

A
A

semi-elliptical spring

consists of

7

plates of

|" thickness,

3J" wide, with a 30" span. Find the safe load and the value of / = 80,000 per sq. in. E = 25,000,000.
10.

deflection, taking

semi-elliptical spring has 11 leaves of 9/32" thickness,

2" wide,
in.

with a span of 52".

Find the safe load using /

=

40,000

lbs.

per sq.

E =

30,000,000.

v

Pipes and Cylinders

When
by a steam

a hemispherical vessel, suspended
I

string as in Fig.

under internal
neither
to the

pressure, will

move

right nor to the
total pressure

left, this

proves that the

-

_m- f

rection

F is
flat

on the curved surface in diequal to that upon the flat suris

face in direction E.

The
Area

surface

called the Projected

Fig. I

of the

curved surface.

I9 2

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Abbreviations Used in Formulas for Cylinders

= = p = s = / = P =
d
t

inside diameter of cylinder in inches.

thickness of cylinder wall in inches.
pressure in lbs. per sq. in.

working

stress of cylinder walls in lbs. per sq. in.

length of cylinder in inches.
total pressure in

one direction
is

in lbs. per sq. in.

Total pressure (P)

equal to (pdl).

The

resistance of the boiler to this pressure

on each

side

A

and

B

(Fig. II) is equal to

(stl).

Therefore: pld

pd

= =

2stl.

2St.

Formula

,

I

:

p =

— d
by

2st

or

t

=

pd —
2S

.

The

pressure has also a tendency to rupture the receptacle
pulling
it

circumferentially
Fig. III.)
t

apart

lengthwise.

(See

p

FfG.

II'

Fig. Ill

The
is

area of cylinder head against which the pressure acts

equal to ^ird" and the total load exerted on the shell
is

circumferentially

equal to the total area in sq.
in.
is irdt.

in. of

one

end, times pressure per sq.

The area
resistance

of metal to resist this pressure

The

total

is irdts.

Therefore %ird 2 p

=

irdts.

Formula

2:

p

=

— d

or

t

=


4s

PIPES

AND CYLINDERS

193
is

The
fails

thickness of cylinder obtained by the formula (2)

just half of that of formula (1).

Thus, the cylinder generally
in

along the longitudinal section.

Example: Find the thickness of a cast iron cylinder 4"
diameter to
resist a

400

lb.

pressure, taking ultimate tensile

strength of C.I. as 20,000
safety of 10.
t

lbs.

per sq.

in.,

using a factor of

=

pd
2S

—=
2

400

X4 =
20,000

X

0.4" (Ans.).

,.

>

10

Where
this

boiler flues, tubes, etc. are

under external pressure,
This distorsion

pressure has a tendency to change the shape of the
elliptical cross-section.

round tubes into an

when once begun,

increases rapidly

and

failure occurs

by the,

collapsing of the tube.

Abbreviations Used in Formulas for Pipes and Tubes

p
t

d
/

= = = =
3:

collapsing pressure in lbs. per sq. in.

thickness of tubes in inches.
outside diameter of tube in inches.

length of pipe in inches.

Formula

p
is

t\ = ( 87000- —
I
I

1400. (For lap welded steel

tube when p

greater than 600 lb: per sq. in.) lbs.

Formula

4:

p

=

50000000
than 600

I

-

)

.

(For lap welded steel
in.)

tube when p

is less

lbs.

per sq.

EXERCISES
Find the thickness of steam cylinders 12" in diameter to resist the steam pressure of 120 lbs. per sq. in., using working strength of
1.

2000
2.

lbs.

per sq. in.

Find the maximum steam pressure allowable for a cast iron cylinder 6" in diameter <fc" thick, taking working strength as 2000 lbs.
per sq.
in.

194

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

3. Find the thickness of a cast iron water pipe 6" in diameter, under a pressure of 300 lbs. per sq. in., taking working strength as 1500 lbs.

per sq.
4.

in.

Find the thickness

of

maximum explosion pressure to be 400 lbs. per sq. in. formula»No. 2 —/ = 2000 lbs. per sq. in.) 5. What is the collapsing pressure of a lap welded steel
ing the

a gas engine cylinder 3" in diameter, assum(Use the
tube ^5"

thick and 2" in diameter?

Riveted Joints
be classified according to the method and the number of rows of rivets used. Lap Joints are joints where main plates overlap each other, as in Fig. I (o and b). Butt Joints are joints where edges of main plate butt against each other and the connection is made through cover

Riveted Joints

may

of connecting the plate

plates, as in Fig. II.

(0)

RIVETED JOINTS
\,l}

195

Failure due to shearing stress in the rivet. Failure due to tensile stress of plate.

(2)

(3) Failure due to shearing stress of plate.
(4) (5)

Failure due to bending stress in the plate.
Failure due to bearing or compressive stress in the rivet.

Abbreviations Used in Formulas

— = fc = = d = P =
ft

tensile strength of plate in lbs. per sq. in.

fa
t

shearing strength of rivets in

lbs.

per sq.
lbs.

in. in.

compressive strength of rivets in
thickness of plate in inches.

per sq.

diameter of rivet

in inches.

pitch of rivets in inches.
rivet to another.)

(Distance from center of one

Formula

for single riveted lap joint (Fig. l-a)

Resistance to shearing one rivet

=

*& —/
4

s.

Resistance to tearing between rivets

=

(P-d)

t.f t .

Resistance to compressing rivet or plate

=
f

d.t.fc-

— —
4 4

wd*

= =

d.t.fc.

or

d

1.27

ct

/s
/„

ird*

(P-d)

t.f t .

or

P =

Td —
4

1

f, -'tft

+

d.

Formula
_
.

for double riveted lap joints (Fig. 1-6)
,

Resistance to shearing 2 rivets

=

27Trf 2

/„.

4
Resistance to tearing between 2 rivets

=

(P-d)

t.ft.

Resistance to compressing in front of 2 rivets
2ird
2

=

2d.t.fc

.

/,

=

2d.t.fc .,

d

=

fj
1.27
2

,

4
2ird 2

/.

/.

=

(P-d)

,

t.f t .,

4

ird /, p= — - + d. 2
J
tft

I96

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
efficiency of a rivet joint is equal to the ratio of the

The
solid

section of plate left between the rivets to the sections of
plate;

or the ratio of the clear distance between 2

adjacent rivet holes to the pitch.
Material
Tensile Strength in Lbs.
(/<)

Compressive Strength

in Lbs. (fc )

Wrought
Steel

iron

50,000 56,000

80,000

90,000
(/°)

Shearing Strength in Lbs.

Wrought
Steel

iron

40,000

45.000

EXERCISES
1.

Calculate the diameter and pitch of steel rivets, single riveted

lap joint, for y%" steel plates.
1.

3.

Find the diameter of rivets if the above plates are wrought iron. Find the diameter and pitch of steel rivet for §" wrought iron plate,
joint.

double riveted lap
4.
5.

Find the efficiency of joints of the above problem.

20,000
6.

Determine the required number of lbs., using |" steel plate.
If 2 plates

steel rivets for

a joint to carry
rivets,

4" wide and f" thick are connected by two f"

what

load will the joint safely carry?

Logarithms

Logarithms are used to

facilitate

mathematical calculations

involving multiplication, division, involution

and evolution, which would otherwise require considerable labor and consequent risk of
error.
is

When
(a),

a

number (N)
ax
,

equal to the

(

X) power

or

N=

X

is

called the logarithm of the

of a number number (N),

and (a) is called its Base. It is expressed in the following way: log N = X. Rule 1. The logarithm of the product of two or more numbers is equal to the sum of the logarithms of several Example: log„ (M X N) = log a factors. + log a N. Rule 2. The logarithm of the quotient of two numbers is

— —

M

equal to the remainder found by subtracting the logarithm

LOGARITHMS
of the divisor

197

from the logarithm of the dividend.

Example:

log„

- log a N. M'/N = Ioga Rule 3. The logarithm of the power of a number is the product of the logarithm of the number multiplied by the

M

exponent or index of the power.
log a N.

Example: log„

N =K
k is

Rule

4.

—The

logarithm of the root of a number

the

quotient found by dividing the logarithm of the
the index of the root.

number by

Example:

log„

4n =

ilk log„ N.

A
the.

logarithm consists of two parts, the whole number called
Characteristic
1.2549.

and the decimal the Mantissa.
figure
(1)
is

Example:

Log

The

the characteristic and the

figure (2549) is the mantissa.

When the base (a) of logarithms is 10, logarithms are called Common Logarithms. When the base (a) of logarithms is (e) or 2.7182819+,
logarithms
are
called

Natural,

Hyperbolic

or

Napierian

Logarithms.

The common logarithm

is

used in ordinary calculations,

and the hyperbolic logarithm is used in higher mathematics. In this book we treat only with common logarithms, as
I0 .30io

—2
= _
20
200

or or or

log 2

I0 i.30io
I0 2.30io

log 20
log 200

= = =

0.3010,
1. 3010,

2.3010.
of 2, 20

The above

figures

show that the logarithms

and

200 have the same mantissa, the only difference being the
value of characteristics.
1

The mantissa

of

any number from
Therefore

to 1000 can be

found from the table below.
it
1

we

must

prefix a suitable characteristic to

afterward

since io°

io 1 io 2

io -1
io
-2

= = = = =

1

therefore log

=0,

10

log 10
log 100

100
1/10

= 0.1 1/100 = 0.01

log 1/10 log 1/100

= 1, = 2, = — = —

1,

2.

I98
It is

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
evident that the

common
be
be be be

logarithm of any number

between

and and 100 and 1 and o.i and
1

10

will will

plus a decimal,
1

10

100

plus a decimal,

1000 will be
0.1

2 plus a decimal,

will will

0.01

— —

I

plus a decimal,

2 plus a decimal.

The above figures show that the characteristics of all numbers less than 1 have a negative value, and the characteristics of all the numbers greater than 1 have a positive
value.

The mantissa

is

always made positive.
it is

When
and

the characteristic has a negative value,

customit

ary to write the minus sign over the top, or to add 10 to
to indicate

the subtraction of 10 from the resulting
log 0.2

logarithm.

Thus
:

=

1.3010 or 9.3010
of

10.

Examplei
0.002056.

Find

the

logarithms

2056,

20.56

and
find

First locate the

number 20

in the first

column and

the figure 5 at the top of column, then follow the column

downward and
0.31 18

find the mantissa of log

205 which equals
21

206 which equals 0.3139. The difference between these two mantissas
of log

and

is

and the
This

difference between^ 2060

and 2050
This
is

is

10, also

between 2056
or 13.

and 2050 is 6. must be added

Hence 6/10
to 0.31 18.

of 21 equals

13—

the mantissa of log 2056,

which equals 0.3131.
Therefore log 2056

log '20.56 log

= 3.3131 (Ans.). = 1.3131 (Ans.). .002056 = 3'3i3i (Ans.). = = =

Example

2:

Multiply 20.32 by 0.03849 by 0.0023.
log 20.32
log 0.03849 log 0.0023

1.3079.

2.5853,

3-36I7-

LOGARITHMS

199

From

rule

I

— log
=

(20.32
3- 2 549-

X

0.03849

X

0.0023)

=

1.3079

+

2.5853

+

3'36i7

When
and
as this

characteristic separately

first add the mantissa and then add the two together, eliminates confusion. That is

adding logarithms together,

1+2 +
0.3079

3

= =
is

4.

+

0.5853

+

0.3617

=

1.2549.

4+
mantissa
is

1.2549

3- 2 549-

Next, from the same table
0.2549, that

we

find

the
:

number whose

0.2549

=

log

-799-

Therefore 3.2549

=
= = = = =

log 0.001799

=

0.001799 (Ans.).
(using rule No. 3).

Example

3: Calculate the value (0.023)

log 0.023

2.3617

I log 0.023

t
!

X x

2.3617
(2

-

1

+
=

.3617

1(3

+

1-3617)

=

2

+ 1) + 0.9078

2.9078
log 0.08087

=

0.08087 (Ans.).

EXERCISES
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

Find the logarithm of 0.049 and 0.49. Find the logarithm of 3257 and 0.3257. Find the number of which the logarithm Find the number of which the logarithm Find the number of which the logarithm
Find the number of which the logarithm Multiply 3.891 by 0.00876.
Multiply 2.562 by 0.01035. Multiply 0.0323 X 0.00452 Divide 3320. by 954. Divide 763 by 0.368. Divide 316.6 by 4.21.
Calculate 6190

is
is

3.2833.
1.9727.

is is

3.5123. 0.6395.

6.
7.

8.
9.

X

8890000.

10. 11.

12.
13.

X

3.25

4-

2625.

14. Calculate 15. 16.

6542 * 318 -^ 66.82. Find the square root of 3256. and 359200. Find the cube root of 54.22 and 66.15.

200
17. 18.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Find the square of 8.252 and 786.1. Find the fifth power of 0.2382.

19. Calculate (802s) 2 ' 8 .

20. Calculate

_

,

,

^

-V0.00052 —

V0.006814

Heat
Heat.

— The molecules of

all

matter are always in motion,

the rapidity of this motion determines the intensity of heat.

Heat is the most common form of energy. Temperature is the measure of the intensity
pyrometers.
general use;

of molecular

motion or of the heat, being registered by thermometers or

There are

2

kinds of thermometer scales in

the Fahrenheit (F.) and the Centigrade (C).

The

following formulas are used for converting tempera-

tures given in

anyone
F.°

of the scales to the other scale.

=

(9/5

C° =
The Freezing Point
heit, or

5/9
of

X C.°) + 32. X (F.° - 32).
is

water

32" Fahrenheit, or o°
is

Centigrade, and the Boiling Point of water

21 2° Fahrenlbs.).

ioo° Centigrade, at atmospheric pressure (14.7

Absolute Temperature.
increases 1/273 of its

—The

volume

of

a

perfect

gas

temperature of 1"
every decrease of
of the

volume at 0° C. for every increase of C, and decreases 1/273 of its volume for temperature of 1° C. Thus, the volume

imaginary gas would be reduced to nothing at

273°

492 F.). This point is called the Absolute zero. Absolute temperatures are measured either by the FahrenC. (or
heit or Centigrade scales,

from

this zero point.

The

freezing

point corresponds to 492° F., or 273

F. absolute.

Absolute temperature

= =

460
273

+ F.° + C.°

Specific

Heat

of a

body

is

its

capacity for heat, or the

amount

of heat in thermal units required to raise the tem-

HEAT
perature of
1

20
1

lb. of

the body through

degree

F.,

compared
I

with that required to raise an equal weight of water
If

degree.

a body with a given temperature

is

put in a vessel con-

taining a measured weight of water at a certain temperature,

the final temperature of the mixture can be found

by the

following formula.

Heat
Weight
of

lost

by body
specific

= Heat
heat

gained by water.
fall of
1

body

X

X

temp.

=

weight of

water

X

specific heat of

water or

X

rise of

temp.

Example: Find the

specific heat of
is

lowing data: J lb. of copper into 20 oz. of water at 6o°

copper from the folheated to 212° F. and plunged
the resulting temperature

F., if

was

65. 56

F.

20

X
2

1

X

(65.56

-

60)

=

0.095 (Ans.).

16 — X (212

-

65.56)

Water at
Ice

39. i°

F
F

1.00 1.03

Steel

0.117 0.095
0.241

" 212 " 32

Copper
Charcoal

Steam " 212 Mercury
Cast iron

F F

0.504
0.481 0.033
0.13

Air at constant pressure. .0.238 " " Oxygen ..0.218

Hydrogen
Nitrogen

" "

"

.

.3.409

Wrought

iron

0.113

"

.

.0.244

The

specific heat of various substances are given in the

following table.

A BRITISH THERMAL UNIT
water
1 °

(B.t.u.) is the
1

quantity

of heat required to raise the temperature of F. at or near 60°, at

lb. of

pure maxi-

which time water
(Calorie)

is

at

its

mum density. A FRENCH THERMAL UNIT
of

is

the quantity
1

heat required

to raise the temperature of

kilogram

of pure

water i° C. at 15° C.
1
1

B.t.u.

Calorie

= =

0.252 Calorie. 3.968 B.t.u.

202

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
of

The Mechanical Equivalent
lbs. of

Heat

is
I

the

number
and
is

of

ft.

mechanical energy equivalent to

B.t.u.

equal

to 778.
1

B.t.u.

=

778

ft. lbs.

Latent Heat

is

the quantity of heat units absorbed or

given out, in changing one pound of a substance from one
state to another without changing its temperature.

When

a body passes from the solid to the liquid state,

its

temperature remains stationary at a certain melting point
during the whole operation of melting and in order to make
that operation go on, a quantity of heat must be supplied
to the substance.

This quantity of heat

is

called the Latent

Heat

of Fusion.

When

a body passes from the liquid to the solid state,

its

temperature remains stationary during the whole operation
of freezing, of fusion
is

and a quantity

of heat equal to the latent heat

produced in the body and rejected into the

atmosphere or other surrounding substances.

When

a body passes from the solid or liquid state to the
its

gaseous state,

temperature during the operation remains

stationary at a certain boiling point, depending upon the
pressure of the vapor produced, and in order to

make

the

evaporation go on, a quantity of heat must be supplied to
the substance evaporated, whose

amount

for each unit of

weight of
oration.

the

substance

evaporated

depends upon the

temperature.

This heat
table

is

called the Latent

Heat
of

of

Evap-

The

following

shows the latent heat

various

substances.
Latent Heat of Fusion

HEAT
Example: Find the B.t.u. required to change 100 water at ioo° F. into steam at 212" F.
No.
of heat units required to raise
1

203
lbs.

of

the temp, of water

from 100° to

f
J
1

= =
=

(212-100)
11,200

X

100

B.t.u.

212"

No. of heat units required to evaporate the water from and at 212

966

X
=

100 96,600 B.t.u.

J

Total heat units

=

11,200

+

96,600

=

107,800 B.t.u. (Ans.).

Expansion of gas:
1st

law

—The

volume

of a given portion of gas varies inif

versely as

its

pressure

the temperature

is

constant.

P = pressure of gas. V = volume of gas. TV = P Vi.
x

2d law

— The
is

increase in

volume

of a given portion of gas in

varies

directly

as

the increase

temperature,

if

the

pressure

constant.
co-efficient of cubical expansion.
initial

a = V = Vi = Vi =
t

volume.
after increase.

increase of volume.
total

volume

Fi V,

= = =

rise of

temp, in degrees.

Vat.

Vi

+ V= V+

Vat

=

V(i

+ at).

Isothermal expansion or compression takes place when a
gas
is

expanded or compressed with an addition or transexpanding gas forces a piston forward against a
does work requiring expenditure of heat.
its

mission of sufficient heat to maintain a constant temperature.

When an
resistance,

it

Such
gas

heat being abstracted from the gas, decreases

temperature.

Adiabatic expansion or compression takes place
is

when a

expanded or compressed without the transmission
15

of heat

204
to or

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
from
if
it.

For example, a gas

will follow the adiabatic

curve
of

a gas could be expanded or compressed in a receptacle

an absolute non-conducting material.

For the adiabatic expansion
formula
is

of a perfect gas, the following

used:

PV
where

= P V
1

r
i
.

= r = r = r = P = Pi = V = Vi =
r

1.408 for air.
1.3 for

superheated steam.

10/9 for saturated steam.
1. 41 1

for

carbon monoxide.

initial pressure.

final pressure.
initial

volume.

final

volume.

EXERCISES
1.

Transfer the following Centigrade reading into Fahrenheit:
(a) 23 (b) 7° to -15° Transfer the following Fahrenheit reading into Centigrade: (<0

*.

63
212
F.

(6)

15°

to -4°
into absolute temperatures:

3.

Change the following temperatures
(a)
(6)

-6o°F.
is

4. fall

A

vessel containing 200 lbs. of
is

to 12 C. water melts a piece of ice, and the
the weight of the ice?
ice are
is

of temperature
5.

15° F.

What

Equal weight of hot water and
temperature of hot water?

placed in one vessel and
is

the temperature of water after the ice
initial
6.

melted

45° F.

What

is

the

How many

lbs. of

hot water at 200
lbs.,

F. will be required to
?

warm

up a copper plate weighing 40
7.

from 50° to 150

How many thermal How many

units will be given out in cooling

and

freezing

10

lbs. of
8.

water at ioo° F.?
gallons of gasoline containing a heating power of
lb. will
if

19,000 B.t.u. per

be required in one hour, to develop 10
is

i.h.p.

in a gasoline engine,
gallon.)
9.

the thermal efficiency

17%?

(1

lb.

=0.17

What

horse power can be developed by using 20 gallons of gaso-

line per hour,
if

which contains a heating value of 110,000
is

B.t.u. per gallon,
radi.

the loss of heat by jacket water

50%, by exhaust 17% and by

ation

16% ?

METAL CUTTING
10.

205
steam per
if

A

100 h.p. steam engine consumes 25
lbs. of
is

lbs. of

i.h.p.

per

hour.

How many

coal will be required in one hour,

the feed
is

water temperature
B.t.u. per lb.?
11.

212° F., and the heating value of coal

14,000

Find the compression pressure of a gasoline engine when the

per sq. in. and the compression ratio is 4 to I, assuming the expansion of gas follows the adiabatic expansion of superheated steam. The compression ratio is the ratio of the total cylinder volume, i.e., compression volume plus piston displacement, to the cominitial pressure is 13 lbs.

pression volume.

Metal Cutting
Steel used for cutting metals are broadly classified into
tool steels

and high speed

steels.

Tool Steels or high carbon
of carbon.

steels contain 0.60 to

1.50%

The percentage
i.e.,

of carbon determines the hard-

ness of the cutting tool,

the heat treatment being equal.
several other ingredients such

High Speed Steels contain
as tungsten,

chromium, manganese, silicon, molybdenum, vanadium and nickel. Of all these ingredients, tungsten and chromium are the most important factors as they give
the steel the property of red hardness;
i.e.,

the tool does

not lose

its

cutting ability under very high speeds or heat.

Cutting Speeds depend upon the following conditions:
1.

Kind
Shape

of steel to be used,

whether

tool steel or high speed

steel.
2.
3.

of tool,

whether narrow or broadnosed.
included angle of nose.

Lip angle of Sharpness of

tool, or
tool.

4.
5.

Position of tool in the tool post.

6. 7.

Depth

of cut

and amount

of feed.
soft,
steel.

Material to be cut, whether

medium

or hard, or

whether brass, cast iron or
8.

Cooling medium, whether used or not, the amount of
cooling and lubricating Heat treatment of steel.
effect produced.

9.

206
io.

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Elasticity of

work or

tool,

which causes chattering.
is

11. 12.

Rigidness with which work

held.

Condition of machine to be used.

The power required to remove a given amount of metal depends upon the shape and sharpness of the cutting tool,
hardness of the work, depth and feed of cut, lubrication of
cutting point,

and

also

upon the kind and condition
to drive the

of

machine.

The Average Horse Power Required
(W) multiplied by
chine to be used.
h.p.
2 constants

machine

can be determined by the product of the amount of chips

(F

+

Z).

(F) varies with

the kind of material to be cut and (Z) with the kind of ma-

= Horse power required to drive the machine. W = Weight of metal removed per hour in lbs. Y = Constant 1.0 for cast iron.
1.3 for

mild

steel.

2.0 for tool steel.
0.7 for bronze.

Z =

Constant 0.035 for lathe.
0.030 for shaper.
0.025 for miller.

0.030 for
h.p.

drill,

= YZW.
1
:

Example

What

horse power will be required to run a

lathe at 50 r.p.m. to turn a cast iron wheel 8" in diameter,

with a 1/32" feed and a 1/8" depth of cut?

Cutting speed

=

ir

XD X N=
=

3.1416

X 8 X 50 X 60 = 75398.4 in. per

hr.

W=
h.p.

75398.4

XdXtX 0.26
X
1/32

75398.4
1

X

1/8

=

70.686

lbs.

=

YZW =

X

0.035

X

70.686

=

2.474 (Ans.).

METAL CUTTING
The Average Cutting Force
found by the following formula: 33000 YZW

207

at the edge of tool can be

28050 YZW

F = 5 =

cutting force. cutting speed in
ft.

per min.

X

- Cutting Ang/e

208

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

F =

feed, taking 1/64" per revolution as a unit.

H=

constant for hardness of material to be cut.

Hard

cast iron or steel 0.6.
cast iron or steel 1.0.

Medium

Soft cast iron or steel 2.0.

5 =

constant for size of tool:

232 for f " sq. tool on cast iron. 215 for \" sq. tool on cast iron.

325 for f" 288 for |"

sq. tool sq. tool

on on

steel.
steel.

Y =

constant:
3 for
8 for

f" \"

sq. tool

sq. tool
sq. tool sq. tool

—2
Z =
constant:

for f " o for \"

on cast iron. on cast iron. on steel.
on
steel.

o for f " sq. tool on cast iron.
0.3 for

\"
\"

sq. tool

0.3 for f " sq. tool
0.5 for
sq. tool

on cast iron. on steel.
on
steel.

With high carbon
of the

tool steel the cutting speed is

one half

above amount.
of

Example: Find the cutting speed
the feed per rev.
is

speed steel tool in a lathe when the depth of cut

a f" square high is 3/16" and

1/64 upon a piece of soft steel.

H=
V =
(

2.0,

Y = -2,
2

S = Z =

325,
0.3,

D =

12,
1,

F=
464

X

325

V12

i2)(a/i

0.3)

2.15

X

0.84
ft.

=

360

per min. (Ans.).

POWER REQUIRED
The Approximate Horse Power
Drill presses

209
to

Electric

Motor Required
Shapers

Drive

Various Types of Machines

Sensitive

drills

up

to f ",

10'

to 14" stroke to 18" to 24"
.
.

1

to 2

h.)

12" to 20"

i to f h.p. " 1
2 "

16'

2 to 3 3 to 5

20'

24" to 28" 30" to 32"
Lathes

30'

.5 to

7!

3

"

Planers

22"
1 h.p.
1

3 h
3 to S
5 ,

6" to 10"
12" to 14" 16" to 20" 22" to 27"

to 2

2 to 3

3 to 5

24" to 27" 30" 36" 42"
'

to7f

10 to 15 15 to 20

30" to 36"

7! to 10

Gear cutters
Universal milling machines

No.
"
"

1

1

to 2 h.p.

if
2

2 to 3

"
" " "

36" 48" 30"
72"

Xo" X 10"
X
12" 14"
Grinders

2 to 3 h.i 3 to S
S to

"

7!

" "

3 to 5
5 to 7!

X

73 to 10

" "

3

4

7| to 10

8" to 16" wheel
12" to 14" wheel 16" to 20" "

5 h.p.

7! 10

"

"

EXERCISES
1.

Find the horse power required to drive a lathe that cuts 100

lbs.

of cast iron chips per hour.
2.

What is the horse power required to drive a milling machine running
on a
cast iron casting with 0.040" feed per rev.,

at 100 r.p.m. working

cut being \"

X

3"?

3. What horse power will be required to run a lathe at 40 r.p.m. to turn a shaft to 2" in diameter, with a yj" feed, and -($" depth of cut?

4.

What

iron, using
5.

is the horse power required to drill a 1" hole in wrought a 0.010" feed, running at 55 r.p.m. What is the pressure exerted upon the ram of a shaper taking a

cut in tool steel f" deep and 10 ft. per min.?
6.

3*5" feed,

cutting at a surface speed of

in

a

lathe,

Find the proper cutting speed for a \" sq. high speed with the following conditions:

steel tool

2IO

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
material

=

C.I. of

medium hardness

depth of cut
7.

= tV"

feed per rev. = -£g" Also find the cutting speed with a |" sq. carbon steel tool:

material

depth of cut
feed per rev.
8.

= hard = I" = ^j"

cast iron

the proper feed for a f '' sq. high speed steel tool, when the depth of cut is on a piece of medium hard steel 8" in diameter,

What

is

jV

running at 120 r.p.m.?

Force, Work, Energy and

Momentum

Force

is

anything that tends to change the state of a body,
rest or in motion.

whether at

means the pull, push body upon another, and there is always a simultaneous, equal and opposite force called the reaction exerted by the second body upon the first. Inertia is the property of a body by virtue of which it
force
rub, attraction or. repulsion of one

A

tends to continue in

its

present state of rest or motion until

acted upon by some force.

The Mass
It is

of a
its

body

'is

the

amount

of matter

it

contains.

equal to

weight divided by the attraction of gravity

at that particular point.

W M=—
g

Tr .
,

where

M= W=
g

mass.
weight.
attraction of gravity.

Momentum

is

a term used to designate the product of

the mass of the body

and

its

velocity at

any

instant.

It

represents the quantity of motion of a body. -yyy
.

Momentum =
The

MV =

where

W = weight of body in M = mass of body.
V=
is

lbs.

£

velocity in

ft.

per sec.

rate of change of

momentum

proportional to the force

applied.

FORCE, WORK, ENERGY AND

MOMENTUM

211

The

rate of change of velocity or Acceleration of a
is

body

caused by a force

proportional to the force applied and
its

inversely proportional to

mass.
force in lbs.

M a = — or F = M X F
^

r

F= a —
a,

acceleration in

ft.

per sec.

per sec.

M = mass.
pushes a truck weighing i| ton with
of truck
is

Example
weight,

i:

If

a

man
it

a force of 50

lbs.

and the resistance

20

lbs.

per ton

how

long will

take to attain the velocity of 8 miles

per hour? Accelerating force

=

50

(20
ft.

X

15)

=

20lbs.

a

=

—=—
M

F

20

X

=

0.21

per sec. per sec.

2000

32.16
8 miles per

hour

=
;

5280 60

X

8

X

= =

11.73

ft.

per sec.

60
,

time

=

velocity

acceleration

—=

11.73
0.21

55.9 sec. (Ans.).

A

Energy

is

a capacity of doing work.

It is of 2

kinds,

Potential and Kinetic.
Potential energy
is

energy possessed by a body by virtue

of its condition or position.

A

weight suspended above the

ground or a body of water held by a
energy.
storage batteries, etc.

dam

possesses potential

Potential energy also exists as chemical energy in

Kinetic energy
of its motion,

is

the energy possessed by a body by virtue
is

and

the

work

it

is

capable of performing

against a retarding resistance before being brought to rest.

A
all

moving body, a

flywheel, a current of air, or a falling body,

possess kinetic energy.

The
it

kinetic energy of a

body

is

equal to the work done upon
initial velocity.

to bring

it

from

rest to its

212
Energy

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
exists in several different forms,
is

but the amount

ol

energy in the universe

and unchangeable. It may be transformed from one form to another, but none can be created or none destroyed. Potential Energy is equal to the product of the force tending to produce motion and the distance through which
fixed

the body

is

able to move.

EP =
Ep = W= H=
Kinetic energy
is

WX

H.

potential energy.

weight of body.
height above ground.
its

obtained by multiplying one-half of
of its velocity in
ft.

mass by the square

per sec.

E K = \MV* =
Ek =
V =
Example
2
:

=
2g
64.32

.

kinetic energy.

M = mass of body. W = weight of body.
velocity of
is

body

in

ft.

per sec.

What

the

potential

energy of
ft.

a

stone

weighing 20

lbs.

placed upon a roof 30

high?
(Ans.).

EP =

WXH=

20

X

30

=

600

ft. lbs.

Example 3: If a ball weighing 3 lbs. is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 100 ft. per sec, what is the kinetic
energy possessed at the start?

EK =
Work is
movement

WV
2g

2

=

3

X

10000

=

466.4

ft.

lbs. (Ans.).

64.32
If

the overcoming of resistance through space.
is

no

produced no work

is

done, thus a jack screw
is

supporting a load does no work unless the screw

turned.

Work

is

equal to the product of the force and the space

FORCE, WORK, ENERGY AND
through which
the
of one
it

MOMENTUM
is

213
lb.

acts.

The Unit

of

Work

the

ft.

or

work done by a
ft.

force of one lb. acting through a distance

W = FS. — force in lbs. F 5 = distance in feet. W = work in ft. lbs.
Example
jectile

4:

Find the work done by the charge, on a prolbs.

weighing 100

which leaves the muzzle of a cannon
ft.

with a velocity of 1000

per second.
is

The work done by

the projectile

equal to the kinetic

energy possessed at the breech of the cannon.
Therefore work done

=

WV
2g

2

100

X

1,000,000

64.32

=
plied

1,554,710.8

ft. lbs.

(Ans.).

The energy of a falling body is equal to the weight multiby the height through which it falls. The Force of a Blow cannot be expressed directly in pounds, but it can be expressed by the average force of blow. The average force of blow is equal to the number of foot pounds divided by the amount of penetration, plus the
weight of falling body.

Average force of blow

WS = F= + W.
d
lbs.

W=
S = d =
Example
lbs. falls

weight of falling body in
height in feet.

distance of penetration in

ft.

\"

.

5: A single acting steam hammer weighing 500 through a distance of 4 ft. and compresses the work What is the average force of blow?

WX5

=

500

X

4

=

2000

ft. lbs.

214

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

F =

2000
h d

W=

2000

11 -x—
4
12

1-

500

=

96,500

lbs. (Ans.).

Power is the rate of doing work and is measured by the amount of the work divided by the time in which it is done. The unit of power is the horse power (h.p.) which is doing work at the rate of 550 ft. lbs. in one sec. or 33000 ft. lbs. in
one minute.

FS P =
t

-.

F = 5 =
t

force in lbs.

distance in

ft.

=

time in seconds.
tons,

Example
which
it

6:

A

motor truck weighing 7
ft.,

attains a

speed of 15 miles per hour from rest in 20 seconds, during
travels 330
lbs.

the average resistance of the truck

being 80

per ton.

Find the average horse power used

to drive the truck.
acceleration

=

velocity

=

15

X

5280

time

20

X

60

X
=

60
1.1 ft.

per sec. per sec.
478.8
lbs.

accelerating force
resistance
total force

= Ma =

7

X

2000

X
lbs.

1.1

=

32.16

= 80 X 7 = 560 lbs. = 478.8 + 560 = 1038.8 =
/

FXS
X
550

h.p.

=

1038.8

X

3 30

20

X

=31.2

,

h.p. (Ans.).

,,

,

550

EXERCISES
1.

A shell weighing
ft.

100 lbs.
is its

is fired

vertically

of 1500
*. its

per sec.
is

What

kinetic energy at the muzzle of the

upward with a velocity gun?

What

the potential energy of the above shell

when

it

reaches

highest point?

FORCE, SHEAR
3.

AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAMS 215
is

A baseball weighing 9 oz.
is

ton Monument, which
the ball
4.

550

ft.

high.

dropped from the top of the WashingWhat is the energy possessed by
is

when

it

strikes the

ground?

A

railroad train weighing 100 tons

moving

at the rate of 30

miles per hour.
5.

What

is

the

momentum?
acceleration of 3.216
ft.

An

elevator has an

upward

per sec.

per sec.

What

pressure will a

man

weighing 150

lbs. exert

upon the
falls
,

floor of the elevator?
6.

A waterfall
What

is

65

ft,

high.

If 12

tons of water flow over the

in 1 minute,
7.

what kw. generator

will the falls run?
if it

horse power would a turbine develop

received
ft.

all
if

the

water flowing at a rate of 3 miles per hour over a dam 25 water flowed 6" deep over a dam which is 20 ft. long?
8.

high,

the

A

motor truck weighing

7 tons is

running at a uniform velocity
if

of is miles per hr.

What
is

is

the horse power required,

the traction

resistance of the road
9.

no lbs.

per ton?
is

A

train traveling at a speed of 30 miles per hour
resisting force within

brought to

rest

by a uniform

a distance of 3000

ft.

Whaf

is

the total resisting force in lbs. per ton?
10.

What

horse power will be required to run a train weighing 200
if

tons at the rate of 20 miles per hour,

the traction resistance

is

10

lbs.

per ton?
11.

A
is

locomotive has a total weight of 40 tons on the driving wheels
coefficient of friction

and the

between the wheels and

rails is

0.15.

What

the

maximum

pull of the train?

12. A motor car weighing 3000 lbs. coasts down a slope of 1 in 30 at the rate of 15 miles per hour. What is the resistance of the load? What is the horse power required to ascend a slope at the same speed?

(Friction being neglected.)
13.

A stone weighing 50 lbs. falls
What
is

through a distance of 20

ft.

and sinks

into the ground 15" deep.

the average force of blow?

14. A drop hammer weighing 500 lbs. falls through a distance of 4 ft. and compresses the work \". What is the force of blow? 15. At what velocity must a body weighing 5 lbs. be moving in order to have stored in it 60 ft. lbs. of energy? 10. A motor truck weighing ij tons is traveling at the rate of 20 miles per hour, pulling a 7 ton trailer. If the traction resistance of the road is 50 lbs. per ton, what is the necessary load on the rear axle, if

the adhesion of the driving wheels
horse power motor
is

is

equal to 5 of

its load.

Also what

required in the truck?

2l6

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Force Diagrams

The

construction of Force Diagrams

somewhat simplify

the calculation of stresses on beams, etc.

According to one of the laws of motion, every action or
force has an equal

or load

is

acting

downward on
is

and opposite reaction; thus when a force a beam the supports have an
loaded in the center the reaction

equal upward reaction.
In a simple

beam which
is

at each support
if

equal to one-half of the load.
is

However,

the force or load

not central or uniformly distributed the

reaction at the supports will vary.

Example: In Fig. I a load of pounds is resolved into two parallel components A and B, a
21

distance of 7 and
spectively,
load.

14
the

feet,

re-

from

point of

Find the magnitude of

force at First

21

to

A and B in pounds. draw a vertical line 1represent 21 lbs. in any

convenient unit of length, as

shown, each unit representing
Fig. I

one pound,

1

Next choose a convenient point P and connect points and 21 with same. Choose a convenient point a on line A-i and draw line

a-b parallel to

\-P

intersecting line F-b.

Draw

line b~c parallel

with

21-P

starting from point

b.

Join a and c with a straight

line.

Then by drawing
load

the line

X—P

parallel with a-c it will

intersect or divide the line 1-2 1 in the

F is

distributed at points of support
1

The distance from
1-21 was laid out,

to

X

same proportion as the A and J3. measured in the same scale that

i.e.,

14 units (14 lbs.) will be the magni-

tude of force at support B.

FORCE DIAGRAMS
Example: Construct a force diagram
Solution: Fig.
II.

217
of a bridge

40 feet

long with a load of 1000 pounds located 10 feet from one end.

Fig. II

Fig. Ill

A

force

diagram for a simple beam which
is

is

not uni-

formly loaded

as follows:
for a simple

Example: Construct a force diagram
12 feet long, loaded as

beam
scale,
,

Solution: First

shown in Fig. III. draw the beam to some convenient

say \" per foot and locate the various loads

F

1
,

F2 F3 F4
,

and F' in their proper position with reference to each other. Next draw a vertical line 0-5 to some convenient scale, making 0-1 represent 40 lbs., 1-2 equal 60 lbs., 2-3 equal 100 lbs., 3-4 equal 80 lbs. and 4-5 equal 20 lbs. As in Fig. I choose a convenient point P and connect points o, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 to P. Then choose a convenient point a on line A-o and construct the polygon a-b-c-d-e-f and g, these various lines being parallel with lines o-P, i-P, 2-P, 3-P, 4-P and 5-P,
respectively.

218
If

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
the lines a-b and e-f are continued until they intersect
this will give the position of the line of the resultant
i.e.,

at

7,

force F;

a point where the total load

is

concentrated

or a point where the

beam would
parallel to

balance.
line

Connecting points a and g with a straight
structing line

and con0-5 in

X-P
or

same

will divide line

proportion to the distribution of the loads at point

A

and B.

Thus o-X

R

the reaction at support

when measured off will equal 160 lbs. or A and X-5 or R' will equal 140 lbs.

or the reaction at support B.

Fig.

IV

The sum
of
all

of all the reactions is

always equal to the sum

the loads.
i.e.,

As shown

in Fig. Ill the
is

sum

of the reac-

tions,

160 and 140

lbs.,

equal to the total load or

40

+

60

+

100

+

80

+

20

lbs.

FORCE DIAGRAMS
Example: Construct a force diagram
which has
its

219
of

a

locomotive
the distance

weight distributed as shown in Fig. IV; also

the resultant reactions at points

A

and

B and

the resultant force will be from A.
Solution: Fig. IV.

Example: Construct a force diagram of a beam loaded as

shown

in Fig. V.

Solution: First draw the

beam

to

some convenient

scale and locate the various

loads and points of support
in

their

proper

position

with respect to one another.
force line 0-3 to

Next draw the vertical some convenient scale making 0-1
lbs.,

equivalent to 1000
equals 3000
lbs. lbs.

1-3

and 2-3
points
0,

equals 1000

Then connect
i,

2

and

3 to

P

Fig.

V

which, as

previously stated, can be located at any convenient position.

Construct the force diagram line a-b and
lines

c parallel

to

o-P and 3-P respectively. Draw a-d and I parallel with line o-P beginning at a, also draw line I-e-c and / parallel with line 3-P intersecting the
line

a-b and

c

at

c.

A
i.e.,

vertical line projected

upward from

their intersections,

from I to

F

will give the line of the resultant force.
e

By drawing

a straight line between points d and

(which

are the points where the lines a-d—I and I—e-c-f intersect the vertical lines of support

A-d and B-e
same,

respectively),

and

drawing

line

X-P

parallel to

will intersect or divide

the line 0-3 at

X

proportional to the reaction at supports

A

and B.
16

220

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
to 1800 lbs. or the
lbs.

reaction at

Thus the distance o-X is equivalent A and Z-3 is equal to 3200

or the reaction

at B.

Shear Diagram

A Vertical Shear Diagram may be readily constructed from a force diagram. For instance at the left hand end of Fig. VII there is
a 40
* Shear
lb.

force

tending to force the
while
at point

JH
Shear**
Fig.

beam downward,
there
is

A

a reaction or upward force of
in opposite

40
VI

lbs.

These two forces acting
directions tend to shear the

beam.
equivalent

In a simple

beam

the shear at opposite ends

is

shear

and the greatest positive hand end and the greatest negative shear is at the right hand end. To construct a vertical shear diagram of a beam, as shown in Fig. VII, the force diagram should be constructed
to the reaction at these points
is

at the left

first

as previously explained.

(See Fig. III.)
line

draw the horizontal Axis as shown in Fig. VII.

From

X

X-X'

called the

Shear

The shear diagram above
that below the shear line
is

the shear line
i.e.,

is

positive and

negative,

tending to produce
it is

shear by rotating in the clock-wise direction (such as

would
called

to the right of the point of support in Fig. VII),

positive

shear;

and tending to produce shear by
is

rotating counterclock-wise (such as would be produced to
the left of the support)
called negative shear.
is

The
a,t

vertical shear at

any point
all

equal to the reaction

the left hand support, less

the magnitude of forces or

loads on the
sideration.

beam

to the left of the force or load in con-

SHEAR DIAGRAM
The amount
of shear

221
2' is

between

A

and

constant and
line

is

equal to the reaction at point

A

or 40

lbs.,

and a

drawn

horizontally from o out as far as the 40

lb.

weight extends

(represented by the line o-a) will be the shear line for the

40

lb.

weight.

At any point between 2' and 4' the shear will be partially counterbalanced by the 40 lb. weight and thus the total shear between points 2' and 4' will be equal to 160 lbs. — 40
A
I'

gbXJoij)

(jio)

f

3'
I'

5'

V T

8'

9'

p'

II'

|Z'

Fig. VII

lbs.

or 120

lbs.;-

and a

line
lb.

between the 40 and 60
will

weight, as
lb.

drawn opposite I and extending shown by the line b-c,
'

be the shear line for the 60

weight.

222

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
4'

At any point between
200
d-e
lb.

and

5'

the shear will be equal to

(40

+ 60

or 100 lbs.) equals 100 lbs.
2

and a

line

drawn opposite
line
I

and underneath
lb.

4'

and

5' will

be the

shear line for the 100

weight, etc.

Then a
i-j-k
will

connecting the remainder of the points f-g-h
shear line and the shaded portion

and

will -be the

be the shear diagram.
portion above the line
line will

The

X-X'

will

be positive and that

below the
but
will

be negative.
taking the

In reality the shear line will not be a broken line as shown
it

be a curved

line,

mean average

as

shown

by the dotted

line S-S'.

Bending

Moment
beam
is

The bending moments
tendency
tion to

of a

the measure of the

produce rotagiven
point,

about a

caused by an external force.
It is

equal to the algebraic
of the

sum

moments

of all

the external forces acting on

one side of the section of a

beam.
Positive (+) bending moments are those which tend
to

produce rotation clockwise
of the

on the section

beam
Shear
Fig. VIII

to the left of a given point

and those that tend to produce motion counter-clockwise are Negative (— ).
It is
will

therefore evident that positive

bending

moments

produce convexity upward and negative bending mosee Fig. VIII.
in

ments convexity downward,
If

the force or load

is

measured

pounds and the distance

BENDING MOMENT
in feet the

223
if

moment
measured

is

expressed in foot pounds, but

the

distance

is

in inches the

moment

is

expressed in

inch pounds.

The latter is most frequently used. Bending moments can be quickly and conveniently determined graphically by means of funicular polygons. In Fig. IV the polygon a-b—c-d—e-f—g-h-i and j is called
the bending moment at beam can be found by multiplying the depth of the bending moment diagram at the point in consideration by the distance P'-P, which is the distance
the Bending

Moment Diagram, and

any point

of the

line 0-4 to P measured at right angles. Thus the distance between points h-d measured to the same scale that 0-4 was originally laid out to, times the distance P' P in inches will be the bending moments in inch

from the

pounds at that particular point. If h-d is equal 10,000 lbs. and P'-P
to 1/120 size, then the bending

is

equal to 3.5" drawn
in inch

moments

pounds

will

be equal to 10,000

X

3.5

X

120 or 4,200,000 inch pounds.

Fig.

IX

224

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
it will

At the other points
of the

be in proportion to the depth

bending

moment

diagram.
force, vertical shear

Example: Construct a

and bending

fr:'

J'

4

|

6

71

8

9

II fj|'

I?

B

Fig.

X

BENDING MOMENT

225

moment diagram of a cantilever beam projecting 10 ft. out from a wall and loaded with a 400 lb. weight 3 ft. from the wall, a 500 lb. weight 6 ft. from the wall and a 100 lb. weight
at the extreme end.

Solution: Fig. IX.

Example: Construct a

force, vertical shear

and a bending

moment diagram
extreme
left

of a

beam

13 feet long, supported at the

and

also at a point 3 feet
lbs. 2 feet
left

from the right hand end,
left

with a load of 600
lbs. 5 feet

from the

end, a load of 1200
lbs. 12 ft

from the

end and a load of 1400

from

the

left

end.

Solution: Fig. X.

The

distances 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 are laid out representing

600, 1200

and 1400

lbs.

respectively to

Points 0-1-2 and 3 are connected to point

any convenient scale. P which has

been arbitrarily selected at a point directly underneath

A-a

and an equal distance between points 0-3.

The

line

line a—b-i,

o-P l-P

is

transferred to the polygon

and represents

represents b-c,
g,

2-P

represents c-d, and

y-P

represents line I-e-d and

which intersects
lines

line c-d at d,

or a continuation of line 12' -d'

The

points a and

e,

{i.e.,

where the

o-6-7 and I-e-d-g

intersect the vertical support lines

A-a'-a and B-e'—e) are

then connected by a straight line a-e.

This

line is transferred to

X-P

and divides the
lbs.

line

0-3

in proportion to the distribution of the weights

on supports

A and
lbs. at

B, which

is

approximately 800

at

A

and 2400
/.

B.

It

should be noted that line a-e intersects line c-d at

This denotes that the
that to the right of /

moment
is

to the left of

/

is

positive

and
fre-

negative.

To make
bending

the bending

moment diagram

clearer

it

is

quently transferred to a parallel base line a'-g' and the positive

moment

is

placed below the line and the negative

226
bending

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
line as

moment is placed above the upper bending moment diagram.
In this case
it is

shown

in the

found that the
than the

moment

is

greater

maximum negative maximum positive

bending bending
or

moment, and the beam should be
withstand
negative.

so designed that it will

the

maximum moment whether

positive

To

construct the shear diagram the shear line x-p-s-v

is

constructed and, as previously stated, the positive shear,
or that to the right,
is

placed above the shear

line.

In this case there are two positive shear diagrams, one
to the right of each support as

while there

is

only one negative shear which

shown above the shear line is shown below

the

line.

Note that the
underneath the
In Fig.
directly

reversal of the shear takes place directly

maximum

bending

moment

in all cases.

X

the two reversals of shear at p and s take place

underneath the
i'-c'

maximum

positive

and negative

and e'h'. Also in Fig. VII point/ or the reversal of the shear takes place beneath the maximum bending moment.

bending moments

Pendulum

A Simple Pendulum is an imaginary one consisting heavy point suspended by a weightless string.

of a

A Compound Pendulum
from a
fixed axis,

is

a material body, suspended
it

about which

oscillates or

swings by the

force of gravity.

compound pendulum is the pendulum were concentrated there, it would make a simple pendulum which would vibrate or oscillate in the same period of time. The angle included between the extreme positions of a

The center

of oscillation of a
if all

point at which,

the matter in the

PENDULUM
line

227

drawn from the point
is

of suspension to the center of

oscillation

called the

Angle of Oscillation.

The Time

of Vibration of a

pendulum depends on

its

length and the acceleration of gravity at the given latitude

and elevation above the sea level. The time of vibration of a pendulum varies directly as the square root of its length and
inversely as the square root of the acceleration of gravity

at the given point.

The time

of vibration of a

pendulum

may

be varied by adding a weight above the point of sus-

pension which counteracts the lower weight and lengthens
the time of vibration.

A

pendulum

of a given length always vibrates in the

same

time period at a given locality, provided the angle of oscillation does not exceed 5 deg.
is

This property of a pendulum

called its Isochronism.
If

a weight suspended by a cord revolves at a uniform

speed along the circumference of a circle in a horizontal

pendulum, and it is held by three forces, the tension in the cord, the centrifugal force, and the force of gravity.
in equilibrium

plane, this weight forms a conical

To
reduce

find the time of vibration of a
it

to

compound pendulum an equivalent simple pendulum and find its
City, a

time of vibration.

At New York
(3.2585
ft.) will

pendulum which

is

39.1017" long

vibrate seconds.

Abbreviations Used in Formulas

WiWi = Weight of balls in lbs. W = Weight of bar in lbs. d = Distance of center of
3

gravity from point of sus-

pension.

L — Length

of simple

pendulum
n"

in inches.

m =
t

Radius of gyration.
in sec. for
oscillations.

= Time

228
to

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

g
v

— Time in sec. for one revolution. = Value of acceleration of gravity. = Velocity in ft. per sec. of center
weight.

of

gravity of

n
Mo

G

P
C L
r

h

= = = = = = = = =

No. of single oscillation No. of
rev. per min.

in "t" seconds.

Center of gravity of whole weight.
Point of suspension.

Center of

oscillation.

Center of gyration.

Length of arm Radius of ball
port in

of conical

pendulum

in feet.

circle in ft.
circle

= L

sin a.

Distance of the ball
ft.

below the point of sup-

Simple Pendulum

n -\L
'

6.25

PENDULUM

229

230

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

«0

= =

60
27r

\g

54.2
-yjh ~>lh

54-2
-\Lo cos

>h
o

a
cos a.

i A

—=
gV
4712

O.8i46<o 2

*,«

=

2 933

, = L

»o

2

EXERCISES
1.

What
What

is

the length of a simple pendulum to beat seconds where
is

the attraction of gravity
2.
is

32.16

ft.

per sec. per sec?

the attraction of gravity at a point where a simple
long, beats seconds?

pendulum 39.1393"

What is the when g = 32.16?
3.
4. If
it

time of vibration of a simple pendulum 3

ft.

long,

would
5.

a simple pendulum is 48" long and g make in 20 seconds?
a

=

32.16,

how many

beats

If

compound pendulum
is

is

composed

of a brass disk

and 6"
6.

in diameter, the rod
if

J"

in diameter

and 66"

long,

\" thick what is the

time of one beat

g

=

32.16?

compound pendulum consists of 2 cast iron balls 3" and 6" in diameter and hangs on a \" steel rod 46.8" long. The small weight
(

A

is

24.3" from the point of support.

What

is

the time of one beat

if

g

=

32.16"?
7.

What
if

is

the difference in the value of
is

"g" between two

points

A

and B,
8.

a pendulum to beat seconds

39.0152" long at

A

and

is

39-1393" long at B1
in diameter and 5' long is pivoted at a point from one end. On the short end is a cast iron ball 4" on the long end is a cast iron ball 7" in diameter. If the rod fast extends through the balls and g = 32.16, what is the time of the pendulum? If the centers of 9. In a conical pendulum the angle a = 45 deg. the balls are 6" from the pivot point, how many revolutions per minute

A round steel bar J"

2/5 of its length in diameter and

is

the
10.

pendulum making?

An

engine governor has arms which are 7" long and

is

turning at

the rate of 80 revolutions per min.; find the time of one revolution; the
radius of the ball circle; the distance of the ball circle below the point
of support;

and the angle at which the arms are standing.

Cam Cutting

CAM DESIGN

23I

Cam A cam .is
into reciprocating motion.

Design

a mechanical device for converting rotary motion

Cams

are

made

in several

forms

but usually consist of an irregular shaped disk or of a groove
cut in a
flat

or curved surface.

classified in two general classes: according and also as to the motion they produce. As regards shape, we have heart cams, disk cams, face or plate cams, and barrel cams. As regards motion, we have uniform acceleration cams, harmonic or crank cams and inter-

Cams may

be

to their shape,

mittent cams.

A

heart

cam

is

the simplest form of cam, and converts

Disk cams may have any shape and generally act directly on the follower, depending on gravity or a spring to effect the return Face or plate cams have an irregular groove of the follower. in which the follower moves, cut on the face or plate. They may produce any form of motion and have a positive return. Barrel cams are cams having a slot cut on the outside of a cylindrical surface and may produce any motion. A Uniform Velocity Cam is one in which the follower is
rotary

motion into uniform reciprocating motion.

made
is

to pass over equal spaces in equal lengths of time, or

impelled from rest to

then brought to rest from

maximum maximum

velocity instantly and
velocity instantly.

Uniform Acceleration Cam or gravity cam is one in is brought from rest to a maximum velocity with a uniform acceleration and then brought to
which the follower
rest

A

again with a uniform retardation.
of the follower
is

Since the move-

ment
is

similar to that of a falling body, this

cam. A Harmonic Cam is one which the follower is brought gradually from rest to maximum velocity and then gradually brought to rest, but
also called a gravity curve
in

the acceleration

is

not uniform.

This

is

also called a crank

232

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
since the action of the follower
is

cam

very similar to that

of a crank.

Intermittent Cam may have any irregular movement. Uniform velocity cams can only be used at low speeds because the abrupt changes from rest to movement and vice versa cause too great a shock to the machine at high

An

speeds.

Harmonic and gravity cams are both used for high speed work for these cams produce a very smooth working movement. The harmonic curve, while easy to design does not give as smooth action as the gravity curve, but either gives
good
results.

Intermittent cams are used wherever the service

demands

such a movement, and generally combine periods of rest and
periods of

movement without

regard to any set rule.

There are three distinct phases to the movement of a follower, advance, retreat and dwell or rest, and any combination of these three which returns the follower to its
starting point, constitutes a cycle.
If

we

consider a

movement

of the follower in

any one

direction as direction
is

an advance, then any movement
a retreat.

in the opposite

When
To

a cam, though rotating, produces no
is

movement

of

the follower, the follower

said to dwell or rest.

lay out a heart shaped, uniform velocity

cam

(Fig. I).

Follower

R

is

to be given a reciprocating motion equal to

X be the center of the cam. With X as draw semi-circle .4-5-1, and extend diameter A—X—i to 7, making 1-7 equal the required throw; divide 1-7 into any number of equal parts as I, 2, 3, etc. and divide the semi-circle by as many radii equally spaced. With X as center and radius X-2, draw an arc intercepting X-B at B, with same center and radius X-$, draw an arc intercepting
distance 1-7: let
center,

X-C

at

C.

Continue

this process

through points

4, 5, 6,

CAM DESIGN
etc.

233

obtaining points D, E, F,

etc.

The
half of

latter are points

on the required curve.
in a like

The other
I)

cam

is

laid

out

manner.

Since a pointed follower (Fig.
friction,

would cause excessive
friction.

a roller

is

sometimes used to reduce the

The curve

of the
I

came must be modified

slightly,

as the

curve in Fig.

would not give the proper travel

to the roller

Fig.

I

Fig. II

follower in Fig.
roller

II.

It is the

path of the center of this
of this

which must be considered, as the position
throw.

center regulates the

The

position

of

this

center

may be determined by X—B, X-C, etc. in Fig. I,

adding to each of the distances
the radius of the roller
II.

R in

Fig. II,

thus obtaining the points B, C, etc. in Fig.

Using these
the

points as centers with radius equal to that of the roller,
describe arcs.
desired curve.

A

curve drawn tangent to these arcs

is

To design a uniform acceleration cam (Fig. Ill) having a throw equal to i-G, and an acceleration of two units per unit of time, draw semi-circle A—S-i, and divide the circumference into 6 equal parts.
17

Project diameter

A-X-i

234
to

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

equal to the desired throw. Divide l-G two equal parts as 1-4 and 4-G, and subdivide these parts into three divisions whose lengths are to each other as 1, 3, 5. With X as a center, draw arcs from 1, 2, 3, etc. to intercept the radii in points A, B, C, etc. which are
into

G making i-G

points in the

cam curve

for a pointed follower.

Since the

follower carries a roller, the radius

A-R

of the roller
etc.

be added to lengths of

drawn from these points

X-B, X-C, X-D, K, L, M, etc. using
is

must and arcs

AR

as radius.

A
If

curve, tangent to these arcs,

the desired

we

divide the half-circle into 8 equal parts,

cam curve. then we must
1, 3,

divide

i-G

into 8 parts also, in the proportion of

5,

7,

7> 5, 3, 1.

With

this
its

cam, a follower starts at R, with velocity
velocity at

at zero, reaches
it

maximum
is

M, and

at P, where

reverses, its velocity

again zero, making a quiet easy

working cam suitable

for high speeds.

//
b*m
&hr
4

i

V
\\fSSM

IsV Mr
Fig. Ill Fig.

IV
be be

To

design a harmonic

given a harmonic

cam (Fig. IV), follower R is to movement which means that R will
to

brought from

rest

maximum

velocity with

a gradual

acceleration and then brought to rest at the reversing point

CAM DESIGN
with

235
differs-

a gradual retardation.

This cam

from the

gravity cam, in that the acceleration and retardation are

not uniform but variable.

Draw

semi-circle

A-S—i and extend diameter

to

I,

making

i-I equal to the desired throw.
of parts,

Divide i-I into any number

whose lengths shall gradually increase and gradually decrease from 5 to I. D vide the semi-circle by as many radii equally spaced. Draw the arcs 2-B, 3-C, 4-D, etc., intercepting the radii at points B, C,
as eight,

from

1

to 5

D,

etc.

A

curve passing through these points will be the

desired curve.

For a

roller follower,

add radius

of roller to in Fig.
it is

X-B, X-C, X-D, etc. and proceed as This cam can be used for high speeds, although
lengths

II.

not as

easy working as a gravity curve cam.
Effect of changing location of

cam

roller

LL"

Fig.

V

Fig.

VI

When

the line of motion of a follower passes through the

center of the cam, and the angle of the
hard, the curve

cam

causes

it

to

work
its

may
is

be modified and the same movement of

the follower obtained by placing the follower so that
line of

movement

parallel to its

former position, but not

passing through the center of the cam.
Fig.

As example,

in

V: Here the cam, rotating

in direction of

arrow (A) moves
of the

the follower in direction of arrow (B).

The angle
is

cam with
work hard,

the follower at beginning of stroke

determined by a tangent to the curve.
this could be

30 deg. as Should the cam

remedied by increasing the diameter

236
of the

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

cam which would reduce the angle

of the cam.

Some-

times this cannot be done owing to the design of the machine,

but the same

location of the roller.

by changing the VI has the same condition as Fig. V, but the cam roller has been moved above the line of center of the cam. The line of motion now passes along line L-M and angle of cam is 20 deg., making an easier working cam. The roller must always be offset in the direction opposite to rotation of the cam and the angle of the cam
result can be accomplished

Fig.

decreases as the offset increases.

However,
good

if

the follower

be offset too much, the thrust at right angles to
will increase the friction until the

line of

motion

effects of the offset

are overcome.

EXERCISES
Note.
1.

— (Draw

all

cams on a 4" diameter base "circle.)

Lay out a

heart-shaped, uniform velocity

follower, that will give
2.

cam for a pointed a reciprocating motion of 2" to the follower.

with a

cam to give the same movement to a follower i\" in diameter. 3. Lay out a harmonic cam to give a reciprocating movement of 2\" to a follower with a roller ij" in diameter.
out a similar
roller
4.

Lay

Draw

a gravity curve

cam

to give a reciprocating

movement

of

\" and an acceleration of 3. 5. Lay out a uniform velocity cam which shall advance f" during a 30 deg. revolution of the cam; dwells for 60 deg., retreats |" during next 30 deg. and dwells until the end of the cycle. Show (by sketch) that this cam will work easier if the roller is offset f ".
ij" to a
roller follower: radius of roller

REVIEW EXERCISES
1.

At what speed

in r.p.m.
ft.

must a 6" grinding wheel run to
is

attain a

surface speed of 6000
2.

per minute? a 20" grinding wheel

At what
if

surface speed in feetper minute

running
3.

the spindle runs at 1150 r.p.m.?
graduations must
I

How many
is

have on
slide of

my

dial to represent
if

0.001" movement of a tool on a cross
pitch screw

a lathe carriage,

an

8

used?

4. Find the number of graduations on a dial to read thousandths, on an elevating screw of a milling machine, with a reduction of 3 to 4 in bevel gearing, if a 6 P screw is used.

REVIEW EXERCISES
5. If the arm ratio of an indicator movement on the long arm represent? is

237

J to 11, what error does a

^"

6.

What

pressure
thick,

is
if

required to punch a hole 2" in diameter in a soft
the shearing resistance of steel
is

steel plate
7.

f"

60,000 lbs.?
if

What weight

will

a f " round

steel rod support,
lbs.

under tension,

the steel has a tensile strength of 100,000
factor of safety of 8
8.
is

per square inch, providing a

used?
ft.

A

longitudinal steel boiler stay 20
flat

long and 1" in diameter

supports a
sq. inch.

area of 10" square, having on

it

Find the greatest

stress in the stay

a pressure of 120 lbs. per due to its own weight and

the steam pressure.
9.

What must

be the diameter of a steel car axle to resist the shearing
lbs.,

stress of
10.

a load of 80,000
if

using factor of safety 15.

How many J" studs must be
the
8.

used to hold a 24" cylinder head of a
pressure
is

steam engine,

maximum steam

125

lbs.

per sq.

in.,

allowing a factor of safety of

made has a

tensile strength of

The material from which the studs are 60,000 lbs. per sq. inch. Use the root

diameter of the studs as the effective area.

APPENDIX
TABLE
I

Decimal Equivalents, Squares and Square Roots of Fractions
Fraction

NATURAL TRIGONOMETRICAL FUNCTIONS
TABLE
D
II

239

Natural Trigonometrical Functions

240

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

TABLE

II

— (Continued)

D

NATURAL TRIGONOMETRICAL FUNCTIONS
TABLE
D
II

241

(.Continued)

242

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

TABLE III Common Logarithms

N

COMMON LOGARITHMS
TABLE III— (.Continued)

243

N

244

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

TABLE V
Weight and
Liquids at 32° F.
Specific Gravity of Liquids

Weight of
1

Weight of
1

Specific

Cu. Ft.
in Lbs.

Gal. (Imp.)
in Lbs.

Water =

Gravity
i.c

Mercury Bromine
Sulphuric acid Nitrous acid

Chloroform

Water

of the Nitric acid Acetic acid

Dead Sea

.

.

Milk
Sea water Pure water
(distilled)

848.7 185.1 1 14.9 96.8 95-5 77-4 76.2 67.4 64-3 64.05
at

136.0 29.7 18.4 15-5 15.3 12.4 12.2 10.8
10.3 10.3

I3.S96 2.966 1.84
1-55 1-53 1.24 1.22 1.08 1.03

1.026
1.0

39°F
Oil, linseed
Oil,

62.425
58.7 57-4 54-3 54-9 53-1 69-3

10.0

whale

Oil, turpentine

Petroleum

Naphtha
Ether, nitric Ether, sulphurous Ether, acetic Ether, hydrochloric Ether, sulphuric Alcohol, proof spirit Alcohol, pure Benzine

,

9-4 9.2 8.7 8.8 8-5
II.

0.94 0.92 0.87 0.88 0.85 1. 11
1.08 0.89 0.87 0.72 0.92 0.79 0.85

67.4 55-6
54-3 44-9 57-4 49-3
53-1

10.8 8.9 8.7
7.2 9.2

79
8.5

TABLE VI
Melting Point of Materials

Mercury
Tin

38

F.

Manganese
Steel

2300°F.
2500 2588

Lead
Zinc

450 621
787 1166
1218 1292

Silicon

Nickel

Antimony Aluminum Radium Barium
Bronze
Silver

Cobalt

2646 2696
2900
3191

Wrought iron Vanadium
Platinum

1562
1675 1762 1945 1981

3200 3272
3362

Titanium

Uranium

Gold Copper
Cast iron

Molybdenum
Tungsten Carbon

4500
5430 6500

2300

TAPERS AND ANGLES
TABLE
VII

245

Strength of Miscellaneous Metals

Material

246

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Brown and Sharp Standard Tapers
No. of Taper,

CUTTING SPEEDS

247

248

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

TABLE X
Weights and Areas
of

Round, Square and Hexagon Steel

Weight Weight

of one cubic inch of one cubic foot

= =

.2836 lbs.

490

lbs.

WEIGHTS AND AREAS
TABLE X— (Continued)

249

250

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

TABLF

X— (Continued)

STANDARD DIMENSIONS OF IRON TUBES
TABLE
Diam.

251

XI

Circumference and Area of Circles (1/16" to 2")

252

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

TABLE XII— (Continued)
The
Sizes of Twist Drills to

Be Used

in Drilling Holes to

Be Reamed

with Pipe Reamer, and Threaded with Pipe Tap, are as Follows:
Size

Tap

TWIST DRILL AND STEEL WIRE GAGES TABLE XIV
Decimal Equivalents of the Number Steel Wire Gage
No.
of

253

Twist Drills and

254

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

TABLE XV
Standard Key Seats
Diameter

MULTIPLICATION TABLES

255

TABLE XVI
Multiplication Tables 25

X

20

/

= =200

256

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

Cylinder Coyer Cylinder



'

'Main Valve Link -Main Valve Couplino/

Main Valve RockerMain Valve Stem Gland.
Valve

Main Valve Stem
Jhrottle Yoke
Throttle Stem

Chamber Coverand Bushing inside of Chamber
MainValve

Gland

^..Throttle Valve
inside

and Spring Chamber

\

Piston Gland Stud Piston Gland

Gland —Steam Pipe Nipple &inback ThrvtHeStem
Exhaust Gland
ThrotNe Lever Cam &CdmbeverinsideafFrame

Bumper Spring Bumper Cap-.
Piston Rod—? Guide Shoe. L.H.

^""-fxhaust Pipe Nipple
"l'-'~'~

—Cam Arm & Main Valve
'

Guide Stud Washer-^.-.
Incline dovetailed in back of

Connection back of Frame -Guide Shoe.R. H.

Ram

Operating Lever

Ram

Guide. LH.

Segment
.Lever Latch

Safety Pin-

Ram Ram Die Key— Ram Die
Anvil Die-


Lag Screw

Anvil Cap

Steam Hammer

Planer

A—Bed.

B—Reversing lever.
C—Feed
friction.

F—Vertical feed G— Tool head.

levers.

D— Belt shifting
E—Hand

H— Cross rail.
/

mechanism.

cross feed lever.

J

—Table or platen. —Reverse dog.

Boring Mill

ANSWERS
ANSWERS TO MATHEMATICS
Notation and Numeration
S-

—Page 3 —Page 8

85.
1,

8.

648, 432.

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division
(a)

880,369.

(6) (6)

4,866. 5,997.

(a) 32,983. (a) (a)
(a)

774.

(6)
(ft)

60,727.

86,081.
35-

342. 3391,259.

(6) (6)
(ft)

(a) 9,990.
(a)

7,056.

2,091.

(a) (a) (a) (a)

22,960.
1,566,585.

(6).

98,000.
8,104,320.
162.

(6) (6) (6)

843.
23.

64,305.
1,009.

(a)

10,770.

(6)

Cancellation and Least
1.

Common

Multiple

— Page 9

120.

2.

280.

3. 24.

45.

(a) (a) (a)

252.
60.
72.

(ft)

48. 81.

(6)

6.
7.

(6)
(ft)

90.

(a) 60.

180.

Common
1.

Fractions

—Page 13
1

26f; 3 1/7; 8|; 6|; 27^; 2 6/83; 25 1/5;
2134/17.

131/763;

1

2/121;

t

1/12.

2. 21/4; 73/9; 20/3;

103/8; 127/9; 55/8; 143/12; 2449/49; 790320/889;

3. 4.

1/6; 9/25; 1/18; 4/15; 5/12; 3/8; 5/8; 40/323;
1

47069/67598; 32/143-

61/63; 1 23/352;

1

5/76; 224/225; 9/16; 1/20; 1/4; 14/15; 1 1/3.

257

258

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

28/4; 36/2; 36/3; 96/12; 50/10; 18/3; 32/8; 42/7; 20/5; 221/13.
6/7; 1/3; 31/32; 61/3; 14 1/4; 181/2; 12430/37; 5i/i44; 14 3/7-

40/64; 32/48; 12/128; 60/64; 65/160; 12/8; 200/24; 39/6.
12/24,
1/16,

8/24,

9/24;

160/180,

135/180,

72/180;
5 2/16,

8 1/8,

3 5/8,

7/8;

5 16/48;

32/36, 9/36, 2 18/36;

3 4/i6,

1/16;

24/64,

5 1/64, 28/64; 9(o) (a)

8 8/32, 2 16/32, 9/32;
(6) (b) (b) (*)
(ft)

8 32/64. 9/64-

8 19/24.

48 13/2482 135/182.

10. ii. 12. 1314-

865 11/24.
88 389/420.
7 3/8.

(a) (a)
(a) (a) (a)

512 37/48.
5/6-

6 17/24.
25 37/394/151/4.

61/64.

(6) (6) (6) (6) (i) (6) (6)

9761 7/8.
2 11/32.

1516. 1718. 19. 20.

(a) (a)
(a)

182 I395i/ l6 384-

14 21/128.
1 1/6.

4670 13/40.
2.

(a)
(a)

1/2.

4 127/158.
5 445/1868.

603/5.
.

21. 8 23/32 ins. 22. 2 43/64 ins. 23- 6 1/4 hrs. 24- 3/8
25.
ft.

JI9-35ft.

26. 10 5/8 27. 4/45-

28. 3 21/22.
29.

145-

30. 9-

Decimal Fractions
I

—Page 18
86,086.3.

(a)
(a)

51,497.50.
126.375.

(6)
(ft)

2 3
4>

46.494-38793-

(a)
(a)

2,749-370946779-375-

(6) 1064.62638.
(ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) (ft)

0.13503-

s
6.

(") (a) (a)

0.539991.
0.611.

0.058483.
273-39713.777-44-

124.74.

(o) 697.5. (a)

0.6889.

0.46875.

(ft)

133-438.

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
10. (a) 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
(o) (a) (a) (a) (a)

259

1.820.

(6) (6)
(6) (6) (&) (6)

10.762.

1,000.

140,005,000.
1.605.

0.0002.

0.0156; 0.125. 0.1094; 0.8889.
1/2; 3/4.

0.7i43i 0-3750.6667; 4-83332 5/8; 4 13/32.

16. (o) 3 35/64; 7 3/i6. 17. $7-52518. $3-7519. $0,325.

(6)

25 3/64;

1 3/8.

20. 8.3125 lbs.

Percentage
1.

— Page 19
6. 7.

$24.00
90.
1-5-

100%.
263.

2.

3-

8. 9-

370.37.

4- 7
5.

i59/i63%-

$285.71.
16.8 h.p.

150%.

10.

Weights and Measures
1.

—Page 22
oz.

2520

in.
1 ft.,

22. 6 lbs. 3 oz.

2.

5 yds.j

8 in.
ft.

23.

60 5/12
10
ser.

3.
4. 5.

3 miles,

1

160

24. 1,152,000 gr.
25.

11 miles, 4620

ft.

52

ft.

6

in.

26. 25 dr. 27. 7 lbs., 5 7/12 oz. 28.
ft.

6.
7. 8.

3840 acres. 94 sq. in.
26,666 sq. yds. 6 sq.
11,025 sq.ft.

84

oz.

29. 792 dr.

9.

30. 8 bbls. 31. 21 qts. 32. 2,016 gills.

10.

4,200 sq. rds.

11. 52.92 cu. ft. 12.

221,184 cu. 250,560 cu.
113,280
gr.

in.

33. 1 bu. 34. 4096 pints. 35. 5 gal. 20 gills. 36. 144 qts. 37. 100 pecks.
oz.

13- 2,376 cu. ft.
14. 15.
in.

16.
17.

32,000 oz.

18.

93 tons, 24,000 100 cwts.

38.

2560 pints.

39- 324.000 sec. 40. 6 deg. 40 min. 41. 290,700 sec. 42. 60 min.

19. 102,768 oz.

20. i6| pwt.
21.

104 oz. 80 gr.

260
43. 1,296,000 sec.
44. 5.113I days. 45-

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
47- 648 hrs. 38,800 min.
48. 1,051,920 min.

9

yrs.

49. 104.8

m.m.

46. 2,700 min.

50. 4.7244".

Ratio and Proportion
i.

—Page 25
902.87 days.

533¥2.36 gal.

9- 2 J days,

u.

10. II-

3- $1.33314- $-455-

90 men.

12. S3I9-313. $0,196. 14. 3

24 T.
10 days. 16 days.

6.
7.

3/224 days.

15. 99.5 oz.

8.

I3j days.

Taper Calculations
1.

—Page 27
0.03125" or 1/32".
0.125". 0.350"0.139".

0.052". 0.150".

6.
7. 8.

2.

3. 0.050".
4. 5.

0.130".
0.250".
Interest

9.

10. 0.078".

Page 29
6. $232.81.
7.

1.

$70.83.

2.

$276.45. $603.75.
$571-10.
$1,371.60.

$517.44.

3. 45.

8.

$571.20.

9. $3,540.87.

10. $1,238.99.

Pulley and Gear Diameters
1.

Page 31
257§;
133I; 62j;

256 r.p.m.

7.

1000; 480;

2.

616 r.p.m.
8. 9.

30; 16 1/14; 8j.

3..i66f r.p.m.
45.

729 to
13.78;

1.

32 to 20 to
6
in.

1.

22.96;

38.27;

63.78;

9.

108; 180; 300; 500.
10.

6.

83$ and 22.7 f.p.m.

Square Root, Involution and Evolution
i.

—Page 35.

496. 364-

6. 1, in.
7.

2.

387,420,489.
6.

3. 222. 4S.

8.

157-

9-

823,543.
15,625.

21.5139.

10.

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
Square Root and Triangulation
1.

26l

—Page 36
in. in.

16.155

ft. ft.

8.

5.887 in.

z.

121.037

9.

3.250 3.6o6

3.
4.
5.

224.4

ft-

I0

-

0.53 in.

11. 9.540 cu. in.
ft.

180.278

12. 5.385 ft.
13. 5 ft.

6.
7.

2.862 in.
8.347
in.

14- 77-518 in.

Cube Root

—Page 39
5-

262

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Review Exercises

—Page si
3-543 in.

i.

1,795-20 gal.

9.

2.

1,584 paces.

10. 4,500 lbs. 11. 5.148 gr. 12. 4,021.45 h.p.

3. 7,920 ft.
4.
5.

$16.00.

2I.656J
1.6 h.p.

lbs.

13. 22.88 lbs. 14. 113,588,000 ft. lbs. 15. 4.584 lbs. 16. 1.816 in.

6.
7.

385.9 bu.

8.

io6|

ft.

Formulas and Algebraical Expressions
1.

—Page 57
+ sc-

(a)

ga
a2

2.

(a)
(a) (a)

— 26 + *. 20s — 2b — 2C.

(6)
Cft)

3.
4.
5-

+

10a

+

24.

(6)
(*) 8.

za + 46 8*ys2». * 2 - y2
.

2b.

4*y-

6J.
7.

6.333"
128.57 tons.

6.
7.

9.

-2.
33000 h.p. 5 = V.W. 33000 h.p. P =

10. 13.708 b.h.p.

11.

V =
L =
'

33000 h.p.
!

S.JF.

W

= 33000

h.p.

S.U.

33000 h.p.

12.

L.A.N.

P.A.N.

h.p. A = 33000
'

P.L.N.

N
13-

=

33000 b.p.

=

A +

irc.d.
.
;

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
Progression
1.

263

—Page 63
6.
7.

4.

729.
4.

2.

laso.
8.

s'
4.

8. 2. 9.

29.514.

5- *•

10. 1. 15.

Trigonometry
1.

—Page 71 —

3.8992
11.230

in.;
in.;

4.6631

in.;
in.;

4.0037

in.
in.

2.

14.1138

12.1240

3.
4-

9 deg. 28 min.; 18 deg. 26 min.; 11 deg. 19 min. 7 deg. 17 min. R.; 2 deg. 43 min. L.

5.

4 deg. 33 min.
1.6643 miles.

8.

0.3492

in.

6. 115.47 ft.
7.

9.

0.5773 in.

10. 3.4641 in.

Trigonometry
1.

(

Continued)
13.

—Page 72
48 min.
75 deg.;

0.6946

in.;

5.4941

in.;

14.874 miles.

3.1187
2.

in.
in.;

14. 3 deg. IS-

8.6933 in.; 20.8321

24.0488
3.

in.
1

22 deg.

min.; 25 deg. 41 min.;

16

30 deg.
4.
5-

12 balls. 1.466 in.

17

6.
7. 8.

52.303

ft.

18.

24 deg.
860.24
ft.

o = 5.796 in.; = 1-553 in. B = 76 deg.; a = 0.212 in.; c = 0.878 in. A = 29 deg. 56 min.; B = 60 deg. 4 min.; c = 0.935 in. B = 48 deg.; 6 = 8.918 in.; a = 8.030 in.
&

A -

19.

1.9109"

A-B; 2.0169" A-C;
V;
1.5155"

9.

1.342 in.; 2.684 in.

1.732" C-D; 2.4397" C-E.
20. 0.8505"

10.

1"

X 3" X
ft.

2.732".

W;

11.

60 deg. 42 min.

0.866" X;

2.375" Y;

12. 1,464.1

0.8838" Z.

264

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
Spur Gearing
6 P.
2.

265

—Page 104
=
0.3142".

19.

N =
=

50,

C.P.

T =
=

0.1571",

Add.

0.250". 0.100"0.100".

o.iooo", Ded.

=

0.1000", Clear.
Wg.rl.

=

0.0157",

345-

Wh.d.
f

=

0.2157",

0.2000",

O.D.

=

5.2000".

4.250".
S"20.

N
N

= =

60

6.
78.

Gear
'

\
I

si". 4.200".
21.

P.D. O.D.

= =
52

6.000" 6.200"

f

N = 40
P.D. = 4.000" O.D. = 4.200"

Pinion

\
[

3210. 9.868".
9-

Gear] P.D. =6.500" [ O.D. = 6.750"

f

= 30 f Pinion^ P.D. =3.750" O.D. = 4.000" I

N

15.708"18.850". 13 0.0224". 14. 3.750". 15 0.262". 16. 4.200". 17. 0.0157".
ii
12,

22.

18.

5".

2.309".
2.

57 deg. 31 min.
0.770". 2 deg. 29 min. 2 deg. 29 min.

3-

456. 7-

4.094".
4".

IS-

266

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
Dovetails
1.

267

—Page 117
4.
5.

4.100

in.

1.957 in.

2.

0.2925
8.358

in.

2.167 in-

3.

in.

Screw Threads
i.

—Page 121
9. 0.125", 0.750".

V =

0.108", U.S.S. 0.072", U.S.S.

z.

V =

= =

0.081". 0.054".

10. Triple th'd. 0.125".
11.

3. 4.
5.

0.620". 0.892".
0.468".'

D =
d

1.375",

P = 0.i666"r

=

0.1443",

PD =

1.2307",

RD =
12. O.584"13. 2.8ll".
14. 2.443".

1.0864".

6.
7.

0.031".
0.267".

8.

O.0179", 0.0556".

15. 2° 17'.

268

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Spiral Milling

—Page 130
6

(One answer for each problem)
i. 2.

3.

Driven 72 X64, driver 24X40. Driven 72 X64, driver 48 X24. Driven 24X40, driver 64X100.
10
in. in.

Driven 64 X40, driver 32 100, 38 deg. 9 min.
IS deg. 31 min.

X

7.

4.
5-

8.

12J

9.

10.

Driven 72X64, driver 24X32Driven 56 X64, driver 28 X40. Driven 48X24, driver 24X32.

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
Resolution of Forces
1.

269

—Page 141
707.11 lbs.

49,500,000

ft. lbs.

per min.

2.

600

lbs.,

no direction (#

=

o).

223.61

lbs.,

116 deg. 34 min.
lbs. force in

3.

24 min., B's direction or west
Shore.

with 1000
direction.

N.W.

4.

Tension 2.446 tons, compression
9.534 tons.
70.71
lbs.,

S.3IS-07

lbs.,

131 deg. 11 min.

with smaller force in
135 deg. with

N.W.

5.

A

in

direction.

N.W.
6.

direction.
lbs.,

SO

lbs.

26 deg. 34 min. with vertical, on opposite side of the
22.36

other component.
Falling Bodies
1.

—Page 144
6.

160.8

ft. ft.,

113.42
3. 11

ft.

per sec, 3.53 sec.
ft.

2.

3,618

14,472

ft.

7. 8.

sec, 155.47
ft.,

3.

7.89 sec.

1,608

321.6

ft. ft.

4. 80.2 ft.
5.

per sec.
155-47
ft-

9.

476.92

ft.,
ft.

159.71

38.87

ft.,

10. -188.94

per sec.

270

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Hope Drives

—Page iso

I.

345-

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
Center of Gravity,
I.

27

Moment

of Inertia, etc.

—Page 165

272

INDUSTRIAL MATHEMATICS
Heat— Page
(a)
(*)

204
18.63 lbs.

73 2/5° F.

4.
5.

44 3/5° F.

202 deg. F.
7.6 lbs.

to
(a)
(6)

5°F.
17 2/9

6.

C.

7.

10,340 B.t.u.
1.34 gallons.

9 4/9° C. to 20° C. (a) 672 F. (abs.).
(ft)

8. 9.

14.67 h.p.
172. s lbs.

10.

420 F.
285

(abs.).

11. 78.8 lbs.

(c)

C. (abs.).

Metal Cutting
1.

—Page 209
5-

3-5 h.p.
1. 17 1. 14

1.325-36 lbs.

2.

h.p. h.p.

6.
7.

47

ft.

per min.

3.

30.4

ft.

per min.

4. 0.28 h.p.

Force, Work, Energy and

Momentum Page
9.

214

3,498,134
3,498,134
309.4

ft. lbs.

42.9 lbs. per ton.

ft. lbs.

10.
11.

io6f h.p.
12,000 lbs.

ft. lbs.

276,631.9

lbs.

12. 8 h.p.
13. 14.

165
6.
7. 8.

lbs.

850

lbs.
lbs.

35.28 kilowatts.
127.3 h.p. 30.8 h.p.

48,500

15. 27.78 ft. 16.

per sec.

850

lbs., 14.1 h.p.

Pendulum- -Page 230
x.

39.1 in.

6.
ft.

1. 061

sec.
in.

t.

32.1909
18.04.

per sec. per sec.

7.

0.1026

3. 0.96 sec.
4.
5.

8.

1.023 sec.

9. 2.048 rev.

per min.

1.226 sec.

10.

h =
h

0.75

sec, r
ft.,

=

0.361

ft.,

=

0.458

a

=

38I

.

Review Exercises
1.

—Page 236
6.
7.

3,819.7 rev. per min.

141, 372 lbs.

2.

6,021.4
125.

ft.

per min.

1,380.6 lbs.

3. 45.

8. 9-

31,406.8 lbs.

125-

3305

in-

0.000355 in.

10. 25.

Internal Grinding JMachine

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