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ACI 325.

9R-91

GUIDE FOR CONSTRUCTION OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND CONCRETE BASES (Reapproved 1997)
REPORTED BY ACI COMMITTEE 316*
W.M. Stingley Chairman B. E. Colley Ralph L. Duncan Howard K. Eggleston S. E. Hicks T. E. Howell C. E. Lovewell John F. McLaughlin Joseph H. Moore Israel Narrow Thomas J. Pasko, Jr. William A. Yrjanson

Members of Committee 325 voting on the 1991 revisions Ralph L. Duncan, Chairman Richard O. Albright William A. Arent Glen E. Bollin Jerry E. Breite Jo Coke Benjamin Colluci Michael I. Darter Task Force Member Task Force Chairman This report covers the construction of concrete pavements and concrete bases without attempting to include inflexible specifications for procedures, materials, or equipment. References are made to specifications, but only as a guide to enable a selection of requirements suitable for a particular location or class of work. The document is slanted to some degree toward use by agencies other than state highway departments, or turnpike and airfield authorities, which usually have large and experienced engineering staffs with knowledge of past performance of pavements in the area. Sections are devoted to specifying, sampling, and testing materials, and to the possible influence of materials on skid resistance, economy, and durability. Maximum aggregate size is mentioned as sometimes relating to pavement durability. Subgrades and subbases are treated only as to final preparation for paving. Recommendations for forms are included as well as recommendations for projects using slipforms. Arrangement of joints is described, and references are given for guidance in using reinforcement. Sections on normal and high-early-strength concrete proportioning rely heavily on reference to ACI 211.1, but point out the special problems connected with pavement concretes and the use of admixtures in pavement concrete. Sections on mixing, placing, finishing, and curing concrete refer to other ACI reports where pertinent, but make recommendations for the special handling necessary in the case of pavements. Concrete bases are treated where procedures vary from those used for pavements, and recommendations and references are given for cold and hot weather concreting. Keywords: admixtures; aggregates; air entrainment; base courses; cements; cold weather construction; compressive strength; concrete construction; concrete durability: concrete finishing (fresh concrete); concrete pavements; curing; curing compounds; curing films and sheets; flexural strength; formwork (construction): high-early-strength cements; hot weather construction; joint sealers; joints (junctions); mix proportioning; mixing; mixing plants; placing; portland cements: quality control; ready-mixed concrete; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; skid resistance; slipform construction; subbases. Howard J. Durham Robert J. Fluhr Nader Ghafoori Wilbur C. Greer, Jr. Amir N. Hanna Morris Skip Huffman Oswin Keifer, Jr. Starr Kohn Ronald J. Larsen Torbjorn J. Larsen Richard A. McComb Sr. B. Frank McCullough Paul E. Mueller Jon I. Mullarky Shiraz D. Tayabji, Secretary Antonio Nanni Thomas J. Pasko, Jr. Ronald L. Peltz Robert W. Piggott Steven A. Ragan John L. Rice Raymond S. Rollings Matthew W. Ross Michel A. Sargious Milton R. Sees Terry W. Sherman Douglas C. Staab Douglas W. Weaver C. Philip Weisz Gerald E. Wixson William A. Yrjanson

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commentaries are intended for guidance in designing, planning, executing, or inspecting construction, and in preparing specifications. Reference to these documents shall not be made in the Project Documents. If items found in these documents are desired to be part of the Project Documents, they should be phrased in mandatory language and incorporated into the Project Documents.

*Committee 316 was merged with Committee 325 in 1974. This report replaces ACI 316R-82 effective July 1, 1991. Numerous editorial and minor revisions were made to the report. Year designations were removed for standards and reports to make the current edition the recommended reference. Additional references were added. Copyright 1991 American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechanical device, printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

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CONTENTS Chapter 1-Introduction Chapter 2-Materials

2.1-Sources 2.2-Chemical admixtures 2.3-Aggregates 2.4-Cement and cementitious materials 2.5-Curing materials 2.6-Expansion joint filler 2.7-Joint sealants 2.8-Nonbituminous inserts 2.9-Reinforcing steel and accessories 2.10-Water

9.2-Spreading 9.3-Consolidation 9.4-Finishing 9.5-Texturing of surface 9.6-Edging 9.7-Ramps and intersections 9.8-Surface requirements
Chapter 10-Curing and protecting concrete

10.1-Curing 10.2-Cold weather curing 10.3-Protection of finished pavement 10.4-Protection against rain

Chapter 3-Sampling and testing of materials for quality assurance

Chapter 11-Concrete bases to be subsequently covered with a surface course

3.1-Sampling 3.2-Test methods 3.3-Flexural strength of concrete as basis of design 3.4-Strength tests of field concrete 3.5-Job control acceptance criteria 3.6-Gradation, specific gravity, and absorption of aggregates 3.7-Air content 3.8-Consistency

11.1-General 11.2-Materials 11.3-Econocrete 11.4-Proportioning 11.5-Transverse weakened-plane joints 11.6-Surface finishing 11.7-Curing for base courses

Chapter 12-Cold and hot weather concreting

Chapter 4-Subgrade or subbase preparation and forms

12.1-Cold weather concreting 12.2-Hot weather concreting


Chapter 13-Miscellaneous

4.1-General 4.2-Fine grading 4.3-Requirements and checking of the finished grade 4.4-Stationary forms

13.1-Thickness tolerances

Chapter 14-References

14.1 -Recommended references 14.2-Cited references

Chapter 5-Installation of joints and reinforcement

5.1-General 5.2-Longitudinal joints 5.3-Isolation or expansion joints 5.4-Weakened plane contraction joints 5.5-Transverse construction joints 5.6-Load transfer devices 5.7-Installation of dowel assemblies 5.8-Joint sealing 5.9-Placing reinforcement

Chapter 6-Concrete properties and proportions of materials

6.1-General statement 6.2-Properties for pavements and bases 6.3-Proportioning

Chapter 7-High-early -strength concrete

7.1-Methods of production
Chapter 8-Mixing concrete

8.1-Batching plants 8.2-Measurement and handling of materials 8.3-Central-mixed concrete 8.4-Ready-mixed concrete 9.1-Placing

Chapter 9-Placing and finishing concrete

Fig. 1a -Step by step paving procedure

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Fig. 1b-A slipform paving operation showing paver components (Courtesy CMI Corp.)

CHAPTER 2-MATERIALS 2.1-Sources

Materials should be furnished only from sources of supply approved before shipments are started, and used only so long as the materials meet the requirements of the specifications. The basis of approval of such sources should be the ability to produce materials of the quality and in the quantity required. Unless local conditions indicate a need for modification, it is recommended that materials meet the standard specifications listed in the following section.
2.2-Chemical admixtures

ACI 212.3R and TRB Special Report 1191 should be consulted when considering the use of admixtures in concrete. Experience records on use of specific admixture with concreting materials commonly used in the area should also be considered. When admixtures are required by the general specifications, or permitted by the engineer, they should conform to the appropriate specifications as follows: ASTM C 260 ASTM C 494 ASTM C 618 ASTM C 989
2.3-Aggregates

Admixtures may be used to modify the properties of concrete so that it will be more suitable for a particular purpose. Their use to obtain desirable characteristics should be based on appropriate evaluation of their effects on specific combinations of materials and on economic considerations. Air-entraining admixtures should be used to improve durability and workability. Water-reducing admixtures may reduce total water content and water-to-cementitious materials ratio, thus increasing compressive strength, flexural strength, and durability, and decreasing permeability, shrinkage, and creep. Some admixtures accelerate the time of setting of concrete, permitting earlier finishing, removal of forms, and opening of lanes to traffic, as well as reduce the time of protection from freezing during cold weather. Others can retard the time of setting of concrete where rapid setting is undesirable. Many retarding admixtures accelerate strength gain once initial set is attained

2.3.1 - Aggregates should conform to the quality requirements of ASTM C 33. For evaluating potential reactivity of an aggregate, methods are provided in the appendix of ASTM C 33. The danger of aggregate-alkali reaction difficulties can be reduced by following the recommendations in ACI 201.2R. The desired gradation limits for the project should be stipulated, along with permissible day-to-day variations within the limits of the specifications. Coarse aggregates should be furnished in at least two separate sizes, with the separation at the 3/ 4 in. (19 mm) sieve when combined material graded from No. 4 (4.75 mm) to 11/ 2 in. (37.5 mm) nominal maximum size (or 2 in. (50 mm) maximum size] is specified and at the 1 in. (25 mm) sieve when combined material graded from No. 4 (4.75 mm) to 2 in. (50 mm) nominal maximum size [or 2 1/2 in. (63 mm) maximum size] is specified. When the nominal maximum

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size of coarse aggregate is 1 in. (25 mm) or less, such separation is not necessary. 2.3.2 - Aggregates should be handled and stored in a manner which minimizes segregation, degradation, contamination, or mixing of different kinds and sizes. A preferred method of stockpiling coarse aggregates to minimize segregation is construction of the stockpile in successive horizontal layers not more than 6 ft (2 m) thick, with each layer completed over the entire stockpile area before the next is started. If operation of hauling equipment on a stockpile is necessary all ramps and runways on the stockpile should be covered by suitable mats or boards, or rubber tired vehicles should be used to minimize degradation. Rejected material, may be reprocessed and returned to the stockpile provided the reprocessed materials meet the applicable specifications. Comparable care should be used in removal of aggregates from stockpiles to prevent segregation. Information about stockpiling in specific situations can be obtained from ACI 304R and ACI 221R. 2.3.3 - Frozen aggregates or aggregates containing frozen lumps should be thawed before use. Washed fine aggregates and fine aggregates produced or manipulated by hydraulic methods should be allowed to drain for at least 12 hrs before use. Stockpiles, or cars and barges equipped with seep holes are considered to offer suitable opportunity for drainage. 2.3.4 - Aggregates should have a reasonably uniform moisture content when delivered to the mixer. Wetting of dry aggregates prior to batching will effect cooling by evaporation and may, if carefully done, minimize moisture variations and reduce excessive absorption of mixing water.
2.4-Cement and cementitious materials

consist of any of the following: 2.4.1.1 - Portland cement (ASTM C 150) 2.4.1.2 - Blended hydraulic cements (ASTM C 595) 2.4.1.3 - Other special types, such as expansive cements (ASTM C 845). 2.4.2 - When hydraulic cements listed in Section 2.4.1.1 are to be batched on the job with another cementing material, the batched ingredient may be one of the following: 2.4.2.1 - Ground granulated, blast furnace, slag (ASTM C 989) 2.4.2.2 - Fly ash (ASTM C 618) 2.4.2.3 - Natural pozzolan (ASTM C 618) 2.4.2.4 - Silica fume
2.5-Curing materials

The cement type or types to be used should be specified and should conform to the requirements of applicable ASTM standards as listed below. All cement used on a given project should be from the same source unless otherwise permitted by the specifications. For further guidance on cementitious materials see ACI 223, ACI 225R, ACI 226.1R, and ACI 226.3R. 2.4.1 - Cementitious materials used may

The specifications should stipulate the type or types of curing material to be used and require conformance to the appropriate specification below. The general requirements of curing practice as recommended by ACI 308 should be followed. 2.5.1 - Burlap should be made from jute or kenaf and, at the time of use, should be in good condition, free from holes, dirt, clay, or any other substance which interferes with its absorptive quality. It should not contain any substance which would have a deleterious effect on the concrete. Additional details are in AASHTO M 182. Burlap that will not absorb water readily when dipped or sprayed and that weighs less than 7 oz/yd2 (240 g/m2) when clean and dry should not be used. Burlap made into mats should be handled with care to avoid marring the finished surface of the concrete. 2.5.2 - Waterproof paper and impermeable sheets should conform to the water retention requirements of ASTM C 171. 2.5.3 - Liquid membrane-forming compounds should conform to the requirements of ASTM C 309. Type 2, white pigmented curing compound is generally preferred for concrete pavements. Type 1, clear or translucent, and Type 3, light gray pigmented, are also used.
2.6-Expansion joint filler

Expansion joint filler should be of the type specified and conform to one of the following specifications, depending on the conditions of its use.

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2.6.1 - ASTM D 1751. 2.6.2 - ASTM D 1752. 2.6.3 - ASTM D 994.


2.7-Joint sealants

The recommendations in ACI 504R should be followed in the selection of joint materials. Among the current specifications for joint sealants are: 2.7.1 - ASTM D 1850. 2.7.2 - ASTM D 1190. 2.7.3 - Federal Specification SS-S-200. 2.7.4 - ASTM D 1854. 2.7.5 - ASTM D 2628 and ASTM D 2835. 2.7.6 - AASHTO M 282. 2.7.7 - ASTM D 3406. Information on other sealants which may be used, such as silicone, may be found in ACI 504R.
2.8-Nonbituminous inserts 2.8.1 - ASTM D 2828. 2.9-Reinforcing steel and accessories

The desired types of reinforcing steel and accessories should be specified in accordance with the following applicable specifications: 2.9.1 Steel wire fabric reinforcement - ASTM A 185, ASTM A 497 or ASTM A 884. 2.9.2 Bar mats - ASTM A 184. Member size and spacing should be shown on the plans. All intersections of longitudinal and transverse bars should be securely wired, clipped, or welded together in the plant of the steel supplier. 2.9.3 Reinforcing bars - Reinforcing bars should conform to the requirements of one of the following standard specifications: 2.9.3.1 - ASTM A 615, Grade 40 or Grade 60. 2.9.3.2 - ASTM A 616, Grade 50 or Grade 60. 2.9.3.3 - ASTM A 617, Grade 40 or Grade 60. 2.9.3.4 - Guidance for the use of fiber reinforced concrete can be found in ACI 544.1R. 2.9.3.5 - ASTM A 775 specifies materials, surface preparation procedures, and coating requirements for protective epoxy coatings. 2.9.4 Surface condition - Reinforcing steel should be free from dirt, oil, paint, grease, or other organic materials that may adversely affect or reduce bond with the concrete. Rust, mill scale, or a combination of both should be considered acceptable provided the minimum dimensions, weight, and physical properties of a

hand wire brushed test specimen are not less than the applicable ASTM specification requirements. 2.9.5 Tie bars - Tie bars should be deformed steel bars conforming to the requirements of the specifications for reinforcing bars except that only grades of steel bars should be used that can be bent and restraightened without damage when this procedure is indicated. Tie bars can have various shapes to conform to the placement method: straight for embedment from the surface, bent to form legs for preplacement on grade, sinuous to develop bond when inserted in freshly slipformed edge. Joint hook bolts may be used as an alternate to tie bars. Such bolts should not be less than 1/ 2 in. (13 mm) in diameter and should be equipped with adequate couplings. 2.9.6 Dowels - Dowels should be plain round bars conforming to the requirements of the specifications for plain round bars, ASTM A 615, A 616, and A 617. Dowel bars should not be burred, roughened, or deformed out of round in such a manner as to hinder slippage in the concrete. When metal expansion caps are used for expansion joints, they should cover the ends of the dowels for not less than 2 in. (50 mm) nor more than 3 in. (75 mm). Caps should be closed at one end, and should provide for adequate expansion. It should be of such rigid design that the closed end will not collapse during construction. Epoxy coatings have also been used on dowels to prevent corrosion. 2.9.7 Chairs - Chairs which are used to support reinforcing steel, dowels, or tie bars on subbases must be of adequate strength and design to resist displacement or deformation before and during concrete placing. 2.9.8 Stakes - Stakes used to support expansion joint fillers should be metal. Their length and stiffness should be adequate to keep the fillers in proper position during the concrete placement.
2.10-Water

Water used in mixing or curing concrete should be clean and free from injurious amounts of oil, salt, acid, vegetable matter, or other substances harmful to the finished product. Water obtained from natural sources should be withdrawn in a manner which excludes silt, mud, grass, or other foreign materials. Water should

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be secured only from previously approved sources or sources approved after testing in accordance with AASHTO T 26. Nonpotable water should be used only if it produces mortar cubes having 7- and 28-day strengths equal to the strength of similar specimens made with distilled water when tested in accordance with ASTM C 109.
CHAPTER 3-SAMPLING AND TESTING OF MATERIALS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE

3.1-Sampling

The type of quality assurance program required to establish that the concrete as produced, and after incorporation in the work, meets the requirements of the specification will depend on the nature and size of the project. On small jobs only a limited amount of sampling and testing can be justified, but on major work it is important to use a quality assurance program based on statistical concepts. The program should require that the contractor, the concrete producer, and suppliers of constituent materials be responsible for product quality control, and that the owner be responsible for acceptance. This requires that the producer, supplier, or contractor sample and test the product to control the process and the materials being used so that they are both within the specified limits, and so that the resulting concrete is of uniform quality. Because it is difficult and costly to replace defective concrete and because suitable tests do not yet exist which can fully define the required properties of concrete after hardening, the owner may wish to elect to sample and test the freshly mixed concrete as produced prior to incorporation in the work, or to sample and test any of the constituent materials. Such tests by the owner for acceptance purposes should not relieve the contractor of his responsibilities for product control. Guidelines for developing quality assurance programs will be found in ACI 121R, ACI 221R, ACI 311.4R, ACI 311.5R and ACI SP-2 (ACI 311.1R). On projects where flexural testing may be unreliable or prohibitively expensive, compressive testing may be used for job control provided adequate correlations are established between flexural and compressive strength for the concrete mixture used on the job (see Section 3.3).

Samples of materials on which the acceptance or rejection of material is based should be carefully taken in accordance with prescribed procedures. Samples for inspection or preliminary tests should be required of the producer. 3.1.1 - It is impossible to overemphasize the importance of proper sampling. No amount of care and accuracy in subsequent testing will provide correct information if the samples are carelessly taken, and not representative of the material sampled. Procedures should be set up for gathering samples in a manner which provides the maximum possible information on the average characteristics, and the nature and extent of variability of materials. 3.1.2 - Methods of sampling materials and the proper size of samples for various tests are often stipulated in the test methods. Sample sizes must be adequate for all tests to be conducted. Procedures for obtaining samples of materials are covered in AASHTO or ASTM standards and are referenced in the appropriate materials specifications of Chapter 2.
3.2-Test methods

Materials should be tested in accordance with methods referred to in the appropriate contract specifications, or other recognized standard procedures. Test methods appropriate for use in contract documents are listed in Chapter 14.
3.3-Flexural strength of concrete as basis of design

Specimens for flexural strength tests to be used as the basis for the laboratory proportioning of concrete mixtures should be molded and cured in accordance with ASTM C 192 and tested in accordance with ASTM C 78. The average flexural strength of concrete as determined by the laboratory test should not be less than 650 psi (4.5 MPa) at 28 days. If known characteristics of the available materials or preliminary tests indicate difficulty in attaining this strength economically, a minimum average flexural strength of 600 psi (4.1 MPa) may be used provided the slab thickness is designed accordingly. For projects where it is desirable to use compressive strength testing as the basis for job

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control, companion compressive cylinders should also be made. These cylinders should be molded and cured in accordance with ASTM C 192 and tested in accordance with ASTM C 39 to establish the correlation between the flexural and compressive strengths.
3.4-Strength tests of field concrete

strength and no one test falls more than 500 psi (3.5 MPa) low in compression or 75 psi (0.5 MPa) low in flexure. The mixture should be reproportioned in the event of compressive or flexural strengths failing to meet this criteria.
3.6-Gradation, specific gravity, and absorption of aggregates

3.4.1 Strength test specimens - Specimens, either compressive or flexural, should be made in the field in accordance with ASTM C 31 in sufficient numbers to assure job control; for example, two sets each day for fast moving projects, one set on projects with low to moderate production rates. Flexural specimens should be tested in accordance with ASTM C 78. Compressive specimens should be tested in accordance with ASTM C 39. More elaborate testing programs can be developed using the methods described in ACI 214. 3.4.2 Accelerated strength tests - ASTM C 684 includes three methods, any one of which may be used to predict the compressive strength of concrete at later ages for acceptance purposes or for process control as the concrete is produced and used. Results are available within 24 to 48 hrs, depending on the method used. Choice of the method should be based on this factor and convenience, since cooperative testing programs and practical experience show the three methods have equal precision. Currently, these methods are being used with 6 x 12 in. (152 x 305 mm) cylinders only, but there is no theoretical reason why they could not be used with flexural beams. The size of beam specimens involved, however, restricts use of the methods for practical purposes to cylinders subsequently tested in compression. 3.4.3 Tests of in-place concrete - In the event of low compressive tests, core testing of in-place concrete should be conducted in accordance with ASTM C 42 evaluated in accordance with ACI 318, Chapter 4. Beams sawed from the pavement should not be used to evaluate inplace concrete strength.
3.5-Job control acceptance criteria

Concrete uniformity is difficult to control unless aggregates are tested with a frequency consistent with the production rate. 3.6.1 Grading - Fine and coarse aggregate grading should be closely monitored using the sieve analysis procedures of ASTM C 136. 3.6.2 Coarse aggregate - The bulk specific gravity in a saturated-surface-dry condition and the absorption of coarse aggregate should be determined in accordance with ASTM C 127. 3.6.3 Fine aggregate - The bulk specific gravity in a saturated-surface-dry condition and the absorption of fine aggregate should be determined in accordance with ASTM C 128.
3.7-Air content

The air content of plastic concrete may be determined in accordance with standard methods of test for air content: (1) gravimetric, ASTM C 138; (2) volumetric, ASTM C 173; or (3) pressure method, ASTM C 231. For concretes made with blast-furnace slag, lightweight aggregate, or other vesicular porous aggregates, the volumetric (rolling) method must be used.
3.8-Consistency

3.8.1 - Consistency is usually determined in Accordance with ASTM C 143. See Fig. 3.8.1.

Whether compressive or flexural strengths are used for acceptance, the acceptance criteria should allow occasional low tests. Low strength results should be evaluated in accordance with ACI 318, Chapter 4, Section 4.7.4.1. The concrete proportion should be considered adequate when the average of any three consecutive tests equals or exceeds the specified

Fig. 3.8.1-Testing devices. (a) airpressure meter, (b) slump cone, (c) rollameter

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CHAPTER 4-SUBGRADE OR SUBBASE PREPARATION AND FORMS 4.1-General

Only that portion of the final fine grading of the underlying base course, subbase course, select materials, or treated base material referred to as subbase construction operation, which is usually considered as incidental to the paving operation, is within the scope of this guide. For more specific information covering other aspects of incidental pavement construction such as clearing and grubbing, removal of structures and obstructions, excavations and embankments, or the construction of special subbases with or without cementing agents, reference should be made to the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Highway Construction 2 or to the various state highway standard specifications for road construction. Essential preparatory work prior to the paving operation includes such items as fine grading, making minor adjustment, to the surface of the subgrade or subbase (or underlying material if required), adding moisture and recompacting any disturbed material, and preparing the final finished surface to conform to the grade and cross section shown on the plans. Accurate trimming is important to the paving contractor from the standpoint of the amount of concrete needed to complete the job. Subbases of adequate stability will benefit pavement smoothness. Where slipform methods are used, it is recommended that a minimum width of subbase should be 2 ft (0.61 m) greater on each side than the width of the driving lanes to accommodate the slipform tracks. Not all concrete pavement is placed on special subbases. Most city streets and many light traffic rural pavements are placed directly on the prepared subgrade. On heavy duty routes or where serious frost problems exist special granular subbases with or without a cementing agent are frequently used. Care should be taken to insure that utility trenches are properly filled and compacted prior to fine grading and paving. Controlled low strength concrete fill may be used for this purpose in lieu of conventional soil backfilling techniques.
4.2-Fine grading

have been properly aligned and set to grade. High areas are trimmed to proper elevation. Low areas should be filled and compacted in compliance with the specified compaction requirements of the underlying material. If the equipment is controlled with an automatic guidance system operating from a wire guideline, the grading equipment can run directly on the unfinished surface. (see Fig. 4.2). This equipment is often used on large projects. Fine grading of cement treated subbases should be completed prior to initial hardening of the base material, which takes 4 to 6 hr. Trimmed cement treated base (CTB) material should be removed from the surface of the subbase or used to fill low spots. After the grade or subbase has been placed and compacted to the required density, the grade on which the pavement is to be constructed should then be brought to the proper profile. If the density of the base is disturbed by the grading operations, it should be corrected by additional compaction before concrete is placed. The grade should be constructed sufficiently in advance of the placing of the concrete that the two operations do not interfere. If any traffic is allowed to use the prepared grade, the grade should be checked and corrected immediately ahead of the placing of the concrete.

Fig. 4.2-Subgrade trimmer operating from stringline for both line and grade (Courtesy Construction Machinery, Inc.)
4.3-Requirements and checking of the finished grade

When forms are to be used in the paving operation, fine grading is usually done with equipment which rides on the forms after they

Prior to placing concrete, the underlying material should be checked for conformity to specified density and cross section. The cross section can be checked by means of an approved template riding on the forms or by use of a

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stringline if forms are not required The underlying material should be wetted down sufficiently in advance of placing concrete to insure that the material is in a moist condition when concrete is placed. The underlying material should be free of foreign matter, waste concrete, and debris.
4.4-Stationary forms

4.4.1 Materials and dimensions - Forms capable of supporting the loads imposed by the construction equipment should be used. A test to evaluate the load capability of straight metal forms has requirements that forms should not deflect more than 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) when tested as a simple beam with a span of 10 ft (3 m) and a load equal to that of the finishing machine or other construction equipment that will operate on them. The two form thicknesses in general use are 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) and 5/ 16 in. (8 mm). If the forms are to support heavy paving equipment they should have a thickness of not less than 5/ 16 in. (8 mm). It is recommended that forms have a depth equal to the specified thickness of the concrete, and a base width that is equal to three-quarters of the depth but not less than 8 in. (200 mm). Forms should be provided with adequate devices for secure setting so that when in place they will withstand, without visible spring or settlement, the impact and vibration of the consolidating and finishing equipment. Flange braces should extend outward on the base not less than two-thirds the height of the form. Built-up forms, made from smaller sizes, are not recommended on projects where the total pavement area is greater than 2000 yd2 (1670 m2). If built-up forms are used, the increase in depth should be not more than 25 percent of the original form depth. When checked for straightness, forms should not vary by more than 1/ 8 in. (3 mm) in 10 ft (3 m) from the true plane surface on the top, and 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) in 10 ft (3 m) along the face of the form. Forms should contain provisions for locking the ends of abutting form sections together tightly. Flexible or curved forms are recommended for use when the curve has a radius of 100 ft (30 m) or less. Fig. 4.4.1 shows a standard paving form. 4.4.2 Form setting - It is essential that the foundation under the forms be compacted and cut to grade so that the forms, when set, are uniformly supported for their entire length and

Fig. 4.4.1-Standard paving forms are at the proper elevation. It is preferable that the grade be established by cutting. Foundations below the established grade should be filled to grade in lifts of 1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm) or less for 18 in. (460 mm) each side of the form and thoroughly compacted according to job specifications. The alignment and grade elevations of the forms should be checked and corrections made by the contractor immediately before placing the concrete. When any form has been disturbed or after any unstable grade has been corrected, the form should be reset and rechecked. Forms should be set sufficiently in advance of concrete placement to permit inspection of the work. After the forms have been set to the correct grade, the subgrade or subbase should be thoroughly tamped, mechanically, or by hand, at both the inside and outside edges of the base of the forms. Forms should be staked into place with not less than three pins for each 10 ft (3 m) section. Form sections should be tightly locked, and free from play or movement in any direction. The forms should not deviate from true line by more than 1 / 4 in. (6 mm) at any point. No excessive settlement or springing of forms under the finishing machine should occur. Forms should be cleaned and oiled prior to the placing of concrete. 4.4.3 Removal of forms - Forms should remain in place at least 8 hr after placing the concrete. If the air temperature is below 50F (10C) at any time during the 8 hr following concrete placement, the forms should be left in place for a sufficient additional time to assure that pavement edges will not be damaged Curing of the exposed concrete pavement edges should begin immediately after removal of the forms.

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CHAPTER 5-INSTALLATION OF JOINTS AND REINFORCEMENT 5.1-General

Joints are placed in concrete pavements to control the location of cracks, and in some instances, provide relief for expansion due to temperature and moisture changes. ACI 504R contains information on joint sealants. 5.1.1 - All longitudinal and transverse joints should conform to the details and positions shown on the plans. 5.1.2 - Plans and specifications should be explicit as to location and type of joints at ramp entrances and intersections, and where normal spacing is altered due to end-of-day or emergency construction joints. 5.1.3 - All transverse joints should be constructed in line for the full width of the pavement. Faces of joints should be normal to the surface of the pavement. 5.1.4 - Special care should be taken to prevent uneven riding surfaces at formed joints. If edging is required or permitted, a 10 ft (3 m) straight edge should be used to assure that displaced concrete has not resulted in high spots. Joint forming insets placed ahead of the screeds may tip; if placed behind they are liable to result in high spots. 5.1.5 - Keyways, when required, should be accurately formed by material of sufficient strength to assure a full keyway and accurate alignment. Keyways may also be extruded to the proper dimensions by a slipform paver.
5.2-Longitudinal joints

5.2.1 Weakened plane joints - Longitudinal weakened plane joints may be formed in the concrete by sawing. Care must be exercised to insure that the depth of the separation is adequate to prevent random cracking, usually about one-third of the slab depth. If sealing cannot be done ahead of traffic, backer rod should be installed before the pavement is opened. 5.2.1.1 Sawing - The timing of the sawing operation should be late enough to avoid raveling of the new concrete, but soon enough so that random cracking does not occur. Where cracking has occurred at the proposed joint location, the sawing of that joint should be omitted. Whatever the sawing method, diamond

blades, wet abrasive, or dry abrasive blades, care should be exercised that sawing is delayed sufficiently to prevent a rough, eroded joint. Longitudinal joints are less prone to random cracking due to late sawing than transverse joints. 5.2.2 Construction joints - Longitudinal keyed construction joints (i.e., joints between lanes placed separately) can be formed with either the slipform methods or standard steel forms and keyway. Consideration can be given to elimination of keyways in this joint where stabilized subbases are used. If permitted by the specifications, tie bars may be bent against the form during casting of the first lane, and then bent out for insertion into the adjacent lane. Current ASTM specifications for reinforcing bars do not guarantee that bars can be bent and restraightened without breakage. Hence, if this method is specified, precautionary steps should be taken to assure adequate performance. One state highway department has alleviated the problem of tie bars which will not tolerate a 90deg bend with subsequent straightening; they use a 60-deg bend initially, and then a straightening 60-deg bend to produce a skewed but adequate tie bar arrangement (see Fig. 5.2.2). Joint hook bolts conforming to the provisions of Section 2.9.5 may be used. Hook bolts and couplings should be provided with approved fasteners for attachment to the pavement forms to maintain them in correct position during concreting and subsequent removal of forms. Slipform pavers should be equipped with a suitable device for the installation of tie bars, or other approved means of holding the lanes in contact should be provided.
5.3-Isolation or expansion joints

Isolation or expansion joints should be placed between all structures and features such as catch basins and manholes projecting through, into, or against the pavement. Unless otherwise indicated on the plans, such joints should be not less than 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) thick and of the premolded type. A need for thicker joints can often be predicted. Expansion joint fillers should be firmly held in place and not dislodged so that concrete cannot enter the expansion space at bottom, sides, or top.

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Fig. 5.2.2 - Method for minimizing breakage of tie bars that are bent into keyways and restraightened 5.3.1 Transverse expansion joints - Transverse expansion joints should be constructed at right angles to the centerline of the pavement, unless otherwise required, and should extend the full width of the pavement. 5.3.1.1 Expansion joints at bridge ends Bridge ends should be protected from excessive pressures due to pavement expansion by the installation of ample width expansion joints in the pavement near ends of bridges. Anchor slabs should not be depended on to prevent all movement. Some state highway agencies construct an asphalt section in lengths up to 50 ft (15 m) to provide positive protection against compressive damage for abutments. (NCHRP Synthesis 159)3 5.3.1.2 Expansion joints where dowels are used - These joints should be formed by securely staking in place approved load transfer devices which consist of welded assemblies of dowels, supporting and spacing devices, and joint filler. The filler may be the premolded type, redwood

board, or other approved material. The filler should extend downward to the bottom of the slab, and unless otherwise prescribed, the top edge should be held about 1/ 2 in. (13 mm) below the finished surface of the pavement. The top edge of the filler should be protected by a metal channel while the concrete is being placed. The joint assemblies should be protected against damage until they are installed in the work. Joint assemblies damaged during transportation, or by careless handling, or while in storage should be replaced or repaired and should not be used until they have been approved by the engineer. 5.3.1.3 Joint filler - The designated joint filler should be punched or drilled to the exact diameter and at the location of the dowels. It should be furnished in lengths equal to the width of one lane. Where more than one length is used in a joint the abutting ends of the filler should be held in alignment. Care should be exercised so that when the filler is cut away during paving, for example, to accommodate the flanges on the wheels of the paving train, plugs of concrete do not develop across the joint. The supporting assembly should furnish positive support of the filler in a position normal to the surface.
5.4-Weakened plane contraction joints

Transverse groove or weakened plane contraction joints should be constructed in the same manner as provided for weakened plane longitudinal joints except that some type of load transfer may need to be provided where expected traffic volume and the magnitude of the loads will be heavy. In this case it is recommended that slip dowels or other load transfer devices be provided. Many heavily traveled pavements without dowels have been successful where high quality bases were employed (cement or asphalt stabilized) but, in general, some type of load transfer is recommended. Dowels should be firmly held in position by welded assemblies for supporting and spacing the dowels. Alternately machine placement can be used. Accurate positioning must be assured for proper functioning of dowels. A positive marking system should be used to assure that sawed or tooled grooves are over the midlengths of the dowels. Grooves

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should be not less than one-fourth the slab depth. Fig. 5.4 shows a detail of a longitudinal joint, a transverse contraction joint, and a dowel bar assembly.

subsequent transverse joints should be measured from the transverse contraction joints last placed. In lane-at-a-time construction, construction joints not located in the adjacent lane should be keyed and tied to prevent the formation of sympathy cracks.
5.6-Load transfer devices

Fig. 5.4 -Detail of longitudinal joint and transverse contraction joint for lane-at-a-time paving, showing dowel bar assembly (with caps making design also useable for expansion joints, providing expansion joint material is used), keyway, hookbolt dowels, preformed compression seal, and optional transverse joint base plate to prevent infiltration where untreated granular bases are used
5.5-Transverse construction joints

Unless other prescribed joints occur at the same points, transverse construction joints should be made at the end of each day or where interruptions occur in the concreting operation. Weather conditions should govern the length of delays which are considered cause for requiring the setting of a joint. A 30-min delay could be considered a reasonable limit during hot, dry, windy weather; up to an hour or more may be tolerated when conditions are less severe. Transverse construction joints should be formed by staking in place a bulkhead of the proper shape containing a keyway and tie bars similar to that described in Section 5.2.2. An equally effective joint can be formed by omitting the keyway and increasing the size of tie bars to dowel bar dimensions. Transverse construction joints should not be formed to make a slab less than 10 ft (3 m) long. If sufficient concrete is not available to place a slab at least 10 ft (3 m) long, the construction joint should be formed at the preceding joint location. The spacing of

5.6.1 Dowels - Dowel bars should have a diameter consistent with slab depth and be placed at the mid-depth of the slab. Proper horizontal and vertical alignment should be assured by either approved dowel assembly devices, or by approved machine placement. Good consolidation of concrete around the dowels is essential to good performance. 5.6.2. Dowel coating - The free or unbonded end of each dowel should be coated with a corrosion inhibitor. When the inhibitor has dried, the free end of each bar should be completely coated with a thin brush coat of a lubricant immediately before it is placed in position. An excessive coating should be avoided. The free ends of the dowel bars for expansion joints should be provided with metal dowel caps. Approved types of epoxy coated dowels can be used in lieu of lubricated dowels. Consideration may also be given to other types of coatings for the purpose of preventing bond, corrosion, or both.
5.7-lnstallation of dowel assemblies

5.7.1 - Dowel assemblies should be put in place on prepared subbase or subgrade. Transverse dowel assemblies should be placed at right angles to the centerline of the pavement except when otherwise detailed on the plans. Doweled joints required or permitted to be set at angles other than normal to the centerline will require careful detailing and installation to assure freedom of movement. Dowels should be securely held in the required position. On widened curves, the longitudinal center joint should be placed so that it will be equidistant from the edges of the slab. Joints should be set to the required line and grade and should be securely held in the required position by stakes, an approved installing device, or other approved method (see section 5.4). Dowels should be installed in a way that prevents concrete pressure from disturbing their alignment.

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If joints are constructed in sections, there should be no offsets between adjacent units. Dowel bars should be checked for exact position and alignment as soon as the joint assembly is staked in place on the subgrade or subbase, and the joint should be tested to determine whether it is firmly supported. Any joint not firmly supported should be reset. Wires or bars used to hold assemblies in position for shipment should be cut before concrete is placed if they could cause restraint to early shrinkage of new concrete. 5.8-Joint sealing ACI 504R should be referred to in selecting proper joint shape factors and joint sealants. 5.8.1 - The tops of expansion joints and all edged and sawed joints should be sealed with the specified sealing material before traffic is permitted on the pavement. Joint openings should be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign matter before the sealing material is placed. All contact faces of joints should be cleaned to remove loose material, and should be surface dry when hot-poured sealing material is used. When sawing of green concrete is required or permitted, extra care should be exercised to remove the slurry coating deposited along the sides of saw cuts. 5.8.2 - Sealing material should be installed in the joint openings to conform to the details shown on the plans. The installation should be done in such a manner that the material will not be spilled on the exposed surfaces of the concrete. Any excess material on the surface of the concrete pavement should be removed immediately and the pavement surface cleaned. 5.8.3 - Poured joint sealing materials should not be placed when temperatures are such as to prevent proper installation. The manufacturers recommendations may be useful in preparing specification limits. 5.8.4 - Where preformed joint material, such as neoprene (preformed compression sealants), is used the uncompressed width of such joint material should be properly balanced with the joint opening, which in turn should be of a width consistent with the length of the slab and temperature ranges expected. The installing device should assure that the preformed material is not stretched more than 3 percent during insertion in the joint opening since the result of

such stretching may be a drastic shortening of the useful life of the material. The seal and the installation lubricant should conform to Section 2.7.5. Fig. 5.8.4 shows a machine used to install preformed joint material.

Fig. 5.8.4-Machine used for installation of preformed neoprene contraction joint strip. The material and reel are not pictured. Machine is self-propelled and capable of installation of the strip with little length change. 5.8.5 - Edge seals are sometimes specified and these may be useful in preventing infiltration. Such systems have exhibited varying degrees of success and their use should be based on experience (Fig. 5.8.5).

Fig. 5.8.5-A method sometimes used to prevent entrance of water between pavement and asphalt shoulder. (1 in. = 25.4 mm) 5.8.6 - Some jointing materials are incompatible and should not be used in direct contact with each other without an inert divider. Some bituminous materials, for example, should not be in contact with a joint seal of the two

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component, polysulfide type. They may be separated with a neoprene tape, or other relatively inert material.
5.9-Placing reinforcement

5.9.1 - When steel reinforcement for jointed pavements is used it should consist of welded wire fabric or bar mats in accordance with Sections 2.9.1 and 2.9.2. The surface condition of the steel with respect to foreign matter and rust should conform to the requirements in Section 2.9.4. Width of fabric sheets or bar mats should be such that, when properly placed in the work, the extreme longitudinal members of the sheet or mat will be located not less than 2 in. (50 mm) or more than 6 in. (150 mm) from the edges of the slab. The length of fabric sheets of bar mats should be as shown on the plans and should be such that, when properly placed in the work, the reinforcement will clear all transverse contraction joints by not less than 6 in. (150 mm) as measured from the center of the joint to the ends of the longitudinal members of the sheet or mat. 5.9.2 - When reinforcing bar assemblies arc shown on the plans, the bars should be firmly fastened together at all intersections. Adjacent ends should lap not less than 30 diameters (see Section 5.9.7). 5.9.3 - Where bars are fabricated into mat form by positive welding at all intersections, the laps for longitudinal bars should be a minimum of 30 diameters. If the mat pattern is such that the edge longitudinal bars or the end transverse bars of the mats overlap, the lap should be made so that the bars overlap each other by at least 2 in. (50 mm). 5.9.4 - Steel fabric sheets should be lapped as shown on the plans. Sheets should be securely tied together to prevent displacement, particularly from being pulled by the paving train. 5.9.5 - When reinforced concrete is placed in two lifts (see Fig. 5.9.5) the initial layer should be uniformly struck off at a depth not less than 2 in. (50 mm) below the finished surface nor greater than middepth of slab below the proposed surface of the pavement, and the reinforcement placed thereon. The concrete should be struck off to the entire width of the placement and a sufficient length to permit the

sheet or mat of reinforcement to be laid full length on the concrete in its final position without farther manipulation of the reinforcement. Adjacent mats or sheets should be tied to prevent an opening from occurring between the mats. The balance of the required concrete should be placed after the reinforcement is in place. The first course of struck-off concrete should not be exposed particularly during hot, windy weather. Probably 30 min should be considered a reasonable maximum exposure time. The positioning of the reinforcement during concrete operations should be checked and if necessary, corrected.

Fig. 5.9.5-Mesh installations on two-course pavement, employing forms. Mesh cart towed by spreader 5.9.6 - When concrete is placed in a single course, wire fabric sheets or bar mats may be laid in proper horizontal alignment on the full depth of struck-off concrete and machine vibrated or tamped to proper elevation. Care should be exercised that the installing machines are designed and adjusted so that they will not leave cleavage planes over steel members nor drag the sheets or mats from their proper position. At each transverse joint a check should be made to assure proper clearance between mesh ends and the joint. 5.9.7 - Where continuously reinforced concrete pavement is specified, steel in the quantity, fabrication, and grade shown on the plans should be installed so that the reinforcement will have a minimum cover of 2 in. (50 mm) and the longitudinal members will

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not fall below the middepth of the slab, unless otherwise specified or shown on the plans. When the concrete is placed in a single course, the steel should be placed on supports that will retain the steel in its specified position while the concrete is being deposited, or else mechanical placement as described in Section 5.9.6 should be used (Fig. 5.9.7). When transverse bars are not used, the steel can be placed through tubes in a concrete spreader. Equipment is also available to place steel with transverse bars in single course construction. When the concrete is placed in two courses, the procedure outlined in Section 5.9.5 should be followed. Lap splices for individual bars, prefabricated bar mats, or deformed welded wire fabric mats are usually designated on plans and should be carefully checked in the work. The importance of adequate laps and proper placement cannot be overemphasized. The danger of failure at splices at early ages can be minimized by arranging the splices in a skewed or staggered pattern from one pavement edge to the other. Splice lengths should be shown on the plans or specifications and should not be less than 30 diameters, nor less than 16 in. (400 mm).

5.9.8 Verifying location of reinforcing - A gage should be used to determine the location of the reinforcing in a pavement. Insertion to the depth of the reinforcing location will indicate its positioning in the fresh concrete.
CHAPTER 6-CONCRETE PROPERTIES AND PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS 6.1-General

Concrete pavements, and in most respects concrete bases, are exposed to severe treatment. In addition to the pounding of traffic, many factors are present tending to destroy them. They are subjected to rapid change in extremes of temperature, abrasion, usually salt applications, as well as the certainty of erratic subgrade support at alI ages after the first few hours. For these reasons, and of course for economy, considerable extra care in proportioning is justified (see ACI 211.1). The concrete produced should be required to attain strength compatible with the structural design. It should contain entrained air within the range recommended for the aggregate size and the area in which it is to be used, and most importantly, it should have a water-cement, or water-cementitious material ratio not higher than that recommended for the anticipated exposure. When a blend of cementing materials is used as provided in Section 2.4.2, the watercementitious material ratio should be appropriate for making highly durable concrete with these materials.
6.2-Properties for pavements and bases

Fig. 5.9.7-Bar on chairs, spliced, for single course slipform operation

6.2.1 Water and air content - Water content should be kept as low as practicable to produce dense and durable concrete with the required air void system. Total air content should conform to ACI 201.2R, Table 1.4.3, for exposure conditions anticipated. 6.2.2 Maximum size of coarse aggregateObservations of existing concrete in the area may be helpful if aggregate quality is uncertain. Some reduction in the maximum size of aggregate may improve resistance to D cracking. Guidance for improving resistance to D cracking can be found in ACI 221R. 6.2.3 Chemical admixtures - One or more admixtures may be helpful in most situations, but none should be used without the same

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careful evaluation before the start of work using job materials as should be done for concrete without admixtures. Evaluations are preferably made by means of full scale trial batches. Refer to ACI 212.3R or TRB Special Report 119.1 6.2.4 Skid resistance - It has been found that low water-cement ratios are helpful in maintaining the skid resistant qualities of concrete pavement surfaces. Some aggregates are more susceptible than others to polishing, and local experience in high traffic areas should be observed. The contribution of fine aggregates to skid resistance is discussed in Section 9.5. 6.2.5 Air entrainment - Where freezing and thawing cycles occur, all concrete must contain a satisfactory air void system to improve its durability. In practice this is specified in terms of the volume of entrained air required as related to the nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate used. See the recommendations of ACI 201.2R.
6.3-Proportioning

chemical admixtures (see Section 2.2), certain blends of cementing materials (see Section 2.4.2), or both are used in the work. Specified concrete strengths for design and durability purposes should generally not be less than: Flexural strength with third-point loading - 650 psi (4.5 MPa) at 28 days; Compressive strength-4000 psi (27.6 MPa) at 28 days. Specification for statistical control limits to achieve these strengths should be based on principles stated in ACI 214.
CHAPTER 7-HIGH-EARLY-STRENGTH CONCRETE 7.1-Methods of production

Specifications should establish limits for these basic mixture proportioning factors: either maximum water-cement or water-cementitious material ratio or minimum strength or minimum cement content. In addition, minimum and maximum air content, maximum slump, and maximum size of aggregate should be specified. Preliminary batch weights can be developed from experience, from tables of approximate relationships (see ACI 211.1), or from small trial batches. Regardless of how batch weights are initially determined, they should be finally established from full-size batches at the start of the work. ACI 211.1 contains a step-by-step procedure for determining batch weights and tables of approximate relationships. Where minimum cement content is specified as the criterion of quality of concrete pavement, the committee recommends a minimum of 564 lb/yd 3 of cement per cubic yard (334.6 kg/m3) unless local experience demonstrates that this minimum can be decreased. If one of the alternate permitted mixture proportioning factors, i.e., required strength consistent with specified air content and slump is employed, less cement per cubic yard of concrete might be used, especially if certain

High strength at an early age may be desired to permit placing some key sections of pavement into use at the earliest possible moment, or for other reasons. High-early-strength concrete may be produced by in the following ways. 7.1.1 - Use of high-early-strength portland cement Type III or IIIA, by either method of proportioning in lieu of normal portland cement (Type I or IA, or Type II or IIA). 7.1.2 - Reducing the water-cement ratio by use of additional normal portland cement (Type I or IA or Type II or IIA). 7.1.3 - Use of calcium chloride as an ingredient of the concrete in the following quantities: (1) between 1 and 2 lb (0.45 to 0.91 kg) per 100 lb (45.5 kg) of Type I cement or (2) between 0.8 to 1.6 lb (0.36 to 0.73 kg) per 100 lb (45.5 kg) of Type III cement. Calcium chloride should be added in solution. It is convenient to proportion the solution so that 1 qt (0.95 L) contains one lb (0.45 kg) of calcium chloride for use with Type I cement and that 1 qt (0.95 L) contains 0.8 lb (0.36 kg) calcium chloride for use with Type II cement. It should be recognized that the use of calcium chloride very likely will reduce the natural ability of concrete to inhibit corrosion of embedded metals such as tie bars, mesh, or dowels. 7.1.4 - Use of an appropriate accelerating admixture meeting the requirement of ASTM C 494. 7.1.5 - Currently, fast track paving construction practices are under development which use rapid strength gaining concrete proportions of various material compositions. During 1986 and 1987, several projects were

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successfully completed so that the pavements could be opened to traffic in 12-24 hr. The high-early-strength technology being developed in these systems may lend itself to quick opening pavement sections. The user is referred to the American Concrete Pavement Associations Technical Bulletin on Fast Track Paving4 for additional information.
CHAPTER 8-MIXING CONCRETE 8.1-Batching plants

Batching plants used to supply concrete for paving and concrete bases should be of sizes adequate to supply well-mixed concrete at the production rate specified or anticipated by the contractor. Plants should be in good repair and operate reliably. Guidance for establishing plant requirements and judging the adequacy of a batching plant can be found in Certification of Ready Mixed Concrete Production Facilities (QC-3) 5, Sections 9, 10, and 11 of ASTM C 94, ACI 304R, and ACI 311.5R. Plants should contain separate bins or compartments for each aggregate size specified. Bulk cement and other cementitious materials should be stored in closed bins or silos. If combined bins or double silos are used, storage compartments for cement and other cementitious materials must be separated by double walls. Suitable batching equipment with weigh hoppers, scales, and batching controls should be provided. Cementitious materials should be weighed in separate hoppers and should not be weighed cumulatively with aggregates. Weighing equipment should meet the requirements and accuracies specified in ASTM C 94.
8.2-Measurement and handling of materials

the mixing water for succeeding batches should not be permitted unless the quantity of wash water is accurately measured. 8.2.4 - Chemicaladmixtures, other than fly ash and other cementitious materials, should be used in liquid form and may be batched by weight or by volume. Accuracy of weighing chemical admixtures should be within plus or minus 3 percent of the required weight. Volumetric measurements should be within an accuracy of plus or minus 3 percent of the total amount required. A suitable device for measuring and dispensing the liquid admixture should be provided. If an air-entraining admixture is used together with a chemical admixture, each admixture should be measured and added to the concrete mix separately to avoid all contact with each other until they are in the mix. All other cementitious materials should be measured by weight to an accuracy of plus or minus 3 percent.
8.3-Central-mixed concrete

8.2.1 - Bulkcement is normally used on high production paving projects. Cement should be measured by weight within a maximum allowable error of 1 percent. 8.2.2 - Aggregates should be weighed within a maximum allowable error plus or minus 2 percent. 8.2.3 - Mixing water may be measured by weight or by volume. Measurement of the water should be within a maximum allowable error of plus or minus 1 percent of the total mixing water. The use of wash water as a portion of

8.3.1 Stationary mixers - Stationary mixers at the site should meet the standards of the Concrete Plant Manufacturers Bureau.6 Regardless of mixer size, the required minimum mixing time for an individual mixer should be specified as that which, as shown by tests, will result in satisfactory mixing. The mixing time should not be less than 60 sec. Where mixer performance tests are not made, minimum mixing time should be in accordance with ASTM C 94. Preblending of materials is necessary to obtain a uniform mixture with large batches and short mixing times. Mixing of concrete should continue for the required mixing time after all ingredients, including water (and admixture if added with the water), are in the mixing compartment of the mixer before any part of the batch is released. Transfer time in multiple drum mixers should be counted as part of the mixing time. 8.3.2 Transporting mixed concrete - When nonagitating hauling equipment is used for transporting concrete to the delivery point, discharge should be completed within 45 min after mixing. In case of emergency, the haul time may be increased to that which will not result in undue loss of slump or separation of the mixture (see ASTM C 94). Under conditions contributing to quick stiffening of the

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concrete or when the temperature of the concrete at point of discharge is 85F (3OC) or above, the time between mixing and discharge should not exceed 30 min.
8.4-Ready-mixed concrete

Ready-mixed concrete should be mixed, handled, and transported to the site in accordance with ASTM C 94. Truck mixers should conform to the requirements of the Truck Mixer Manufacturers Bureau of the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. Suitable equipment should be provided for transferring the concrete from the transporting vehicle and distributing it uniformly, without segregation, on the grade.
CHAPTER 9-PLACING AND FINISHING CONCRETE 9.1-Placing

equipment for proper spreading. All should be operated with care in a prescribed and uniform manner to minimize segregation. See Fig. 9.2.1 On smaller projects spreading can be accomplished in a number of ways such as with mixer powered strikeoff, hand tools, or a plank, but in any case the concrete should be spread to the proper depth for consolidation and finishing.

9.1.1 Equipment - Placing equipment should be capable of transporting the mixed concrete from the mixer or hauling equipment and depositing it near its final position on the grade with a minimum of segregation, and without damage to the grade. On large jobs, screw, belt, or hopper type spreaders are available and should be required. These generally operate from the shoulder and carry the concrete the full width of the slab. If transit mixers are used, with only chutes available to deposit the concrete on the grade, lane-at-a-time paving is advisable. When plain pavement is constructed with a slipform paver, concrete may be dumped on the grade in front of the paver from dump trucks. Hauling equipment should not be allowed to operate on the grade in front of the paver if rutting occurs. 9.1.2 Special situations - Where widths vary at ramps and intersections, it will not always be possible to use ideal methods. However, it is equally important to require that concrete not be dumped haphazardly and shoved or vibrated into its final position. Hand shoveling may be necessary to avoid segregation.
9.2-Spreading

Fig. 9.2.1 -Concrete spreader. Dowel basket, hookbolts, lane-at-a-time construction 9.2.2 Two-course construction - When mesh is to be used, and is to be placed by hand, the concrete below the mesh is struck off, the mesh placed and tied, and the top course spread. On large projects two spreaders are sometimes used. More commonly, the concrete is struck off to its full depth and the mesh vibrated or tamped to its proper position. Mechanical mesh depressing machines are also available.
9.3-Consolidation

9.2.1 Equipment - For large jobs, paddle or auger type spreaders, belt spreaders, and hopper and auger type spreaders are available and should be required, unless slipform pavers are used. Slipform paving machines include built-in

9.3.1 Methods - A guide to proper consolidation can be found in ACI 309R. Spading at joints and edges, screeding, mechanical tampers, and vibrators are all effective to some degree but do not automatically assure dense concrete. Vibrators, either internal (spud), or surface types (pan or tube), are capable of producing good results. However, surface vibrators should be used with care to prevent excess mortar from rising to the surface. Surface vibration may not provide adequate consolidation for thick pavements. 9.3.2 Procedure - The entire area of the pavement should be consolidated in a manner as effective as possible. Particular attention should be given to edges, the area along the centerline,

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and at other joints. Mechanical mesh placers may provide some consolidation. Slipform pavers are equipped with gang mounted internal vibrators and are operated within the concrete mass to consolidate the concrete as the paver moves forward. Vibrators should be stopped when the paver is stopped. 9.3.3 Special situations - Extra care is required to assure proper consolidation around dowel bars and supporting baskets, at edges and corners or around drains, and at irregular sections related to ramps or intersections.
9.4-Finishing

9.4.1 Slipform pavers - Slipform pavers are designed to spread, consolidate, screed, and float finish the freshly placed concrete in one pass of the machines to provide a well consolidated and homogenous pavement requiring a minimum of hand finishing to meet surface tolerances. The machines should vibrate the concrete pavement for its full width and depth. Vibration is usually supplied by gang mounted spud type internal vibrators. Slipform pavers should be operated with as nearly a continuous forward movement as possible, and all operations of mixing, delivering, and spreading concrete should be coordinated to provide uniform progress with stopping of a paver held at a minimum. When it is necessary to stop a paver, the vibratory elements should also be stopped. Slipform pavers are capable of taking grade from a subbase or subgrade accurately trimmed with automated equipment, or sensing devices working off a stringline. 9.4.1.1 Edge Slump - Edge slump is of particular concern with slipform pavers, especially for thick pavements. It must be kept to an absolute minimum, within project specifications. This is accomplished by proper concrete proportion use of low slump concrete and proper operation of the paver. If edge slump requiring significant hand work occurs, the paving operation should be stopped and procedures altered. Specifications generally require edge slump to be no more than 1/ 4 in. (6 mm). 9.4.2 Equipment - Requirements for finishing equipment should not be so restrictive as to prohibit new and improved types. If properly used, tube finishers are effective, but see Section 10.5 for procedures needed to assure nonskid

surfaces. 9.4.3 Procedure - Regardless of the type of equipment used, good results are attainable if all machines are coordinated, properly adjusted, and operated by experienced personnel. Slipform pavers should carry a constant, uniform roll of concrete ahead of the strike-off device to submerge the internal vibrators and equalize the depth of concrete placed by the spreader. It is almost impossible for following equipment in the train to completely equalize the depth if a spreader has a tendency to leave too much, too little, or erratic amounts of concrete. 9.4.4 Hand finishing - If a significant amount of hand finishing becomes necessary when paving with any type of full-scale paving equipment, the operation should be stopped and procedures altered to eliminate the need for hand work. No water should be added to the surface for finishing purposes.
9.5-Texturing of surface

The surface of a pavement should include both fine and coarse texture. The fine texture (grittiness) is formed by the sand in the cementmortar layer. The coarse texture is formed by the ridges of mortar left by the method of texturing. A wide variety of skid-resistant texture patterns can be applied to concrete surfaces. Different textures may be desirable at different locations on the same project. The texture method selected should be compatible with the environment, speed, and density of traffic, and topography and geometrics of the pavement. An adequately skid-resistant texture can be built into concrete pavements by using one or more of the following texturing methods: burlap drag, brooming, wire combs, and other types such as rug backing, plastic combs, etc. (see Fig 9.5). Superior skid resistance may be required to provide additional safety in critical areas such as toll plazas, busy intersections, airport runways, or other locations where frequent braking, acceleration, or cornering occurs. This may be accomplished by providing deeper than normal texturing, grooving, or if necessary, by introducing aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, or other wear-resistant particles into the surface of the concrete. ACI 325.6R provides further guidance on texturing pavements.

Fig. 9.5-Different textures used to increase skid resistance: (1) burlap drag (2) wire comb, (3) heavy nylon bristle broom, (4) fine nylon bristle broom, (5) natural bristle broom, (6) grooving tool plus natural bristle broom, and (7) planer. (Courtesy Missouri State Highway Commission)
9.6-Edging

The edges along the formline and at expansion joints should be smoothed with an edging tool. Contraction joints should also be edged unless formed by sawing. Construction joints are also sometimes edged, but with a short radius tool unless they are to be grooved and filled. Profile recording devices are commonly used to determine smoothness of a highway pavement surface. Accumulated measurement of deviation from a plane surface for a chosen length of pavement indicates ride characteristics of the pavement. Measurements should be taken within 24 hr of concrete placement to allow correction early in the pavement curing process.
9.7-Ramps and intersections

high slump concrete or other expedients. Every effort should be made to standardize ramp widths to the maximum extent possible consistent with traffic considerations. Ramp design which permits hauling concrete on the subbase also contributes to reduced construction costs due to the restricted hauling space available on most ramps.
9.8-Surface requirements

Past practice has been to use irregular ramp widths and sections of odd shape which generally precluded the use of highly mechanized equipment. While these paved areas cost about double the same amount of mainline pavement, they seldom are of equal quality and tend to show deterioration earlier than the rest of the project. Extra effort should be expended to place and finish ramp and intersection concrete without resorting to unduly

9.8.1 High-speed roads - High-speed roads are roads carrying traffic with an average speed over 45 mph (72 km/h). Surfaces of these roads are generally required to be within 1/ 8 in. (3 mm) as measured with a 10 ft (3 m) straightedge in the longitudinal direction. Deviations of more than 1 / 8 in. (3 mm), but less than 1/ 2 in. (13 mm) should be corrected by grinding in such a manner as not to result in a polished surface. If more than 1/ 2 in. (13 mm), the pavement should be corrected by grinding if the pavement is within thickness tolerances, evaluated as to its serviceability, or removed and replaced. A greater tolerance, up 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) in 10 ft (3 m), can be permitted for surface deviations measured in the transverse direction. 9.8.2 Ramps, intersections, and low-speed roads - Surface tolerances may be difficult to

325.9R-22

MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

meet for these pavements. Extra effort should be made to use construction techniques which will produce surface tolerances comparable to those on the mainline. However, surface tolerance can be increased to 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) in 10 ft (3 m) in these sections.
CHAPTER 10-CURING AND PROTECTING CONCRETE 10.1-Curing

Immediately after the finishing operations have been completed and the water film has evaporated from the surface or as soon as marring of the concrete will not occur, the entire surface of the newly placed concrete should be covered and curing in accordance with one of the methods in Sections 10.1.1 through 10.1.5. In all cases in which curing requires the use of water, the curing operation should have prior right to all water supply or supplies. ACI 308 should be used as a guide. This recommendation requires 7 days curing at temperatures above 40F (4C) but provides for shorter curing periods if 70 percent or more of specified compressive or flexural strength can be attained earlier. 10.1.1 Membrane curing - Immediately after the water film has disappeared from the surface of the pavement, the surface should be uniformly coated with liquid membrane curing material by a suitable means of an approved mechanical spray machine at the rate of not less than 1 gal. per 150 ft2 of surface (one L per 3 m2), or as recommended by the manufacturer. To insure uniform consistency and dispersion of the pigment in the curing material, it should be agitated in the supply container immediately before transfer to the distributor and kept thoroughly agitated during application. Irregular areas or sections of pavement where the use of a mechanical spraying machine is impracticable may be sprayed with approved hand spraying equipment. The sides of the pavement slab should be coated within 60 min after the removal of forms. Any areas of the coating which are damaged within the specified curing period should be immediately repaired. 10.1.2 Mono-molecular coatings - This type of membrane coating material may be desirable under adverse drying construction conditions to retard surface evaporation. This is not a substitute for curing.

10.1.3 Cotton mats or burlap - The surface and edges of the pavement should be entirely covered with mats. Prior to being place, the mats should be saturated thoroughly with water. The mats should be so placed as to cause them to remain in intimate contact with the surface, but these should not be placed until the surface has hardened sufficiently to prevent marring. They should be maintained fully wetted and in position for the specified curing period. 10.1.4 Waterproof paper - As soon as the pavement has hardened sufficiently to prevent marring of the surface, the pavement should be entirely covered with waterproof paper. The paper units should be lapped 12 in (300 mm). The waterproof paper should be sufficiently wide to overlap and completely cover the sides of the slab after the forms have been removed unless additional strips of paper are furnished for curing the sides. The curing paper should be place and maintained in intimate contact with the surface and sides of the pavement during the curing period. Damaged curing paper which cannot be effectively patched or repaired should be discarded. Curing paper should be placed only on a moist surface. If the surface appears dry it should be wetted by a spray fine enough to prevent damage to the fresh concrete. 10.1.5 White polyethylene sheeting - The surface and sides of the pavement should be entirely covered with white polyethylene sheeting. It should be placed while the surface of the concrete is still moist. If the surface appears dry it should be wetted with a fine spray before the sheeting is placed. Adjacent sheets should be lapped 18 in. (460 mm). The sheeting should be weighted to keep it in contact with the pavement surface and it should be large enough to extend beyond the pavement edge and completely cover the sides of the slab after the forms have been removed. The polyethylene sheeting should remain in place for the duration of the curing period. A minimum polyethylene thickness of 4 mils (1 mm) should be specified. Special insulating sheeting materials are sometimes used for cold weather or fast-track paving. 10.1.6 Curing of saw cuts - Saw cuts in pavement being cured should be protected from rapid drying. This is often accomplished with twisted paper or fiber cords or ropes, or with gummed polyethylene strips, or other approved material.

CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES

325.9R-23

10.2-Cold weather curing

11.2-Materials

Cold weather curing should provide protection from freezing without overlooking the primary goal of retaining moisture for the time necessary to bring cement hydration to an acceptable point. Polyethylene sheets covered with hay or straw serve both purposes. See ACI 306R and ACI 306.1.
10.3-Protection of finished pavement

Recommendations for materials to be included in the work are given in Chapter 2.


11.3-Econocrete

Econocrete may be considered as a concrete base for various surface courses.


11.4-Proportioning

The contractor should protect the pavement and its appurtenances against both public traffic and traffic caused by his own employees and agents. This should include the use of flaggers to direct traffic and the erection and maintenance of warning signs, lights, barricades, and pavement bridges or crossovers. Any damage to the pavement, occurring prior to opening to the public should be repaired or the pavement replaced. (See Section 13.1.2).
10.4-Protection against rain

Proportioning of concrete for bases should be done in accordance with the recommendations of ACI 211.1 and Chapter 6 of this report.
11.5-Transverse weakened-plane joints

Concrete bases may be provided with expansion and/or contraction joints, and should be constructed according to the recommendations provided for constructing similar joints in concrete surface courses.
11.6-Surface finishing

So that the concrete may be properly protected against the effects of rain before the concrete has sufficiently hardened, the contractor should be required to have available at all times materials for the protection of the surface of the unhardened concrete. Such protective materials should consist of burlap or cotton mats, curing paper, or plastic sheeting material. In addition, when the slipform method of paving is used, the contractor should be required to have an acceptable plan for the emergency protection of the surface and edges. When rain appears imminent, all paving operations should stop and all personnel should take the necessary steps for complete protection of the unhardened concrete. Additional information can be found in Reference 7.
CHAPTER 11-CONCRETE BASES TO BE SUBSEQUENTLY COVERED WITH A SURFACE COURSE 11.1-General

No intentional effort should be made to roughen the pavement surface. Final finish should be left as smooth as possible without extraordinary finishing effort in order to keep the coefficient of friction low. The finished surface should not deviate more than 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) between two contact points when tested with a 10-ft (3-m) straightedge parallel to the centerline.
11.7-Curing for base courses

Base courses should be cured as carefully, and in the same manner, as surface courses. Wax base membranes are considered bond breakers, and should not be used on patches that are expected to bond with concrete overlays.
CHAPTER 12-COLD AND HOT WEATHER CONCRETING 12.1-Cold weather concreting

This work consists of constructing a course of portland cement concrete base, with or without reinforcement as specified, on a prepared grade in compliance with these recommended practices. The recommendations of Chapter 9 should be followed unless modified by the following.

Numerous problems are encountered in winter concreting operations which make advanced planning necessary. Materials for protection of the subgrade and underlying base courses, and for curing of the concrete should be on hand at the jobsite prior to the start of concreting operations. Special winter concreting practices are covered in ACI 306R and ACI 306.1.

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MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

12.2-Hot weather concreting

During hot weather concreting, necessary precautions should be taken to place the concrete at the coolest temperature practicable. The concrete temperatures must be controlled to assure proper placing, consolidation, finishing, and curing, and to prevent plastic shrinkage cracking. For useful information for preventing problems that can develop during hot weather concreting, refer to ACI 305R.
CHAPTER 13-MISCELLANEOUS 13.1-Thickness tolerances

All pavements and base courses should be constructed to the thickness shown on the drawings. Careful checking of form elevations, and measurements of the depth to the subgrade or underlying base course by stringline measurements will generally suffice. Should it be considered necessary to determine the thickness of pavement after placement, the pavement thickness should be determined by measurement of cores drilled from the pavement. Cores should be taken at intervals as required by the Engineer. The cores should have a diameter of at least 4 in. (100 mm). Measurement of individual cores should be performed in accordance with ASTM C 174. 13.1.1 Thickness tolerances for pavements and bases - Acceptance of the work should be based, in part, on the result of test cores taken from the finishing work. Consideration should be given to providing for partial payment of the contract unit price per square yard for the work through a price adjustment based on the recommendations contained in the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Highway Construction.2 13.1.2 Opening to traffic and construction traffic limitations - The finished pavement should be protected against damage from the construction operations and traffic until final acceptance. As a construction expedient in paving intermediate lanes or closure lanes of pavements, the operation of equipment on the previously placed lanes may be permitted under the conditions outlined below. Vehicle loads should not exceed design axle load. In no case should hauling equipment or concrete mixer trucks be permitted on newly paved lanes until the pavement has attained a strength sufficient to carry the traffic without

being damaged. The transverse and longitudinal joints should be sealed or otherwise protected before any construction traffic is permitted. Rapid strength gain concrete mixtures may be specified to provide earlier opening of the pavement. Other construction equipment such as subgrade planers and concrete finishing machines may be permitted to ride on the edges of previously constructed pavement slabs when the concrete is at least 72 hr old and has attained a minimum flexural strength of 400 psi (3 MPa). All edges of slabs should be protected from damage. Pavements carrying construction equipment traffic should be kept clean. Spillage of material or concrete should be removed immediately after occurrence. Traffic should be excluded from the pavement by erecting and maintaining barricades and signs until the concrete is at least 14 days old, or for a longer period if necessary to gain adequate strength. No traffic should be permitted on the pavement until the joints have been sealed. Any portion of a pavement damaged by traffic, construction equipment, or other causes prior to final acceptance by the Engineer should be repaired or replaced by and at the expense of the Contractor by procedures and methods as approved.
CHAPTER 14-REFERENCES 14.1 Recommended references

The documents of the various standardsproducing organizations and ACI documents referred to in this document are listed below with their serial designation. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials M 182 Burlap Cloth Made from Jute or Kenaf M 282 Joint Sealants -- Hot Poured -Elastomeric Type for Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Quality of Water to be Used in Concrete

T 26

CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES

325.9R-25 Batch Plant Inspection and Field Testing of Ready-Mixed Concrete Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete Texturing Concrete Pavements Guide to Joint Sealants for Concrete Structures State-of-the-Art Report on Fiber Reinforced Concrete

American Concrete Institute Quality Assurance Systems for 121R Concrete Construction 201.2R 211.1 Guide to Durable Concrete Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete Chemical Admixtures for Concrete Recommended Practice for Evaluation of Strength Test Results of Concrete Guide for Use of Normal Weight Aggregates in Concrete Standard Practice for ShrinkageCompensating Concrete

311.5R 318 325.6R 504R 544.1R

212.3R 214

SP-2(311.1R) ACI Manual of Concrete Inspection ASTM A 184 Specification for Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar Mats for Concrete Reinforcement Specification for Welded Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement Specification for Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement Specification for Rail-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement Specification for Axle-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement Specification for Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel Bars Specification for Epoxy-Coated Steel Wire and Welded Wire Fabric for Reinforcement Methods of Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field

221R 223 225R 226.1R

A 185 Guide to the Selection and Use of Hydraulic Cements Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag as a Cementitious Constituent in Concrete Use of Fly Ash in Concrete Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and Placing Concrete Hot Weather Concreting Cold Weather Concreting Standard Specifications for Cold Weather Concreting Standard Practice for Curing Concrete Guide for Consolidation of Concrete C 31 311.4R Guide for Concrete Inspection A 775/ A 775M A 884 309R A 617 A 497

226.3R 304R

A 615

A 616

305R 306R 306.1 308

325.9R-26

MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

C 33 C 39

Specification for Concrete Aggregates Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens Method of Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete Test Method for Flexural Strength of concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading) Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete

C 192

Test Method of Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method Specification for Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete Specification for Liquid Membrane-Forming Compounds for Curing Concrete Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements Specification for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete Method of Making, Accelerated Curing, and Testing of Concrete Compression Test Specimens Specification for Expansive Hydraulic Cement Specifications for Ground Iron Blast-Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortars Specification for Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for Concrete (Bituminous Type) Specification for Concrete Joint Sealer, Hot-Poured Elastic Type Specification for Preformed Expansion Joint Fillers for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction (Nonextruding and Resilient Bituminous Types)

C 231

C 42

C 260 C 309

C 78

C 494 C 94 C 109 C 595 Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or 50 mm Cube Specimens) Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate C 845 C 136 C 138 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates C 989 Test Method for Unit Weight, Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric of Concrete) D 994 C 143 C 150 C 171 C 173 Test Method for Slump of Portland Cement Concrete Specification for Portland Cement Specification for Sheet Materials for Curing Concrete Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete for Volumetric Method D 1190 D 1751 C 618

C 127

C 684

C 128

CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES

325.9R-27

D 1752

Specification for Preformed Sponge Rubber and Cork Expansion Joint Fillers for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction Specification for Concrete Joint Sealer, Cold Application Type Specification for Jet-FuelResistant Concrete Joint Sealer, Hot-Poured Elastic Type Specification for Preformed Polychloroprene Elastomeric Joint Seals for Concrete Pavements Specification for Nonbituminous Inserts for Contraction Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Airfield Pavement, Sawable Type Specification for Lubricant for Installation on Preformed Compression Seal in Concrete Pavements Specification for Joint Sealants, Hot-Poured, Elastomeric-Type, for Portland Cement Concrete Pavements Specification for Joint Sealant, Hot-Poured, Elastomeric, JetFuel-Resistant Type, for Portland Cement Concrete Pavements

ACI publications are available from the American Concrete Institute, P.O. Box 19150, Detroit, Mich. 48219 ASTM standards may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103. TRB standards may be obtained from the Transportation Research Board, 2101 Constitution Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C. 20418. Federal standards are available through the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402.
14.2 Cited references
1. Admixtures in Concrete: Accelerators, Air Entrainers, Water Reducers, Retarders, Pozzolans, Special Report No. 119, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D. C., 1971, 32 pp. 2. Guide Specification for Highway Construction, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D. C., 1984. 3. Design and Construction of Bridge Approaches, NCHRP Synthesis 159, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D. C. 4. Technical Bulletin on Fast Track Paving, American Concrete Pavement Association, Arlington Heights, Ill. 5. Certification of Ready Mixed Concrete Production Facilities, QC-3, National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, Silver Spring, MD. 6. CPMB 100--Concrete Plant Standards of the CPMB, Eighth Revision, 1986. 7. Concrete Pavements Exposed to Rain During Construction, American Concrete Pavement Association, Arlington Heights, IL

D 1850 D 1854

D 2628

D 2828

D 2835

D 3406

D 3569

Federal standards Sealing Compound, Two SS-S200 Components, Elastomeric Polymer Type, Jet-Fuel-Resistant, Cold Applied, Concrete Paving AASHTO standards can be obtained from the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 341 National Press Building, Washington, D. C. 20004.

This report was submitted to letter ballot of the committee and was approved according to Institute procedures.